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Sample records for ans preferred site

  1. Seismic refraction survey of the ANS preferred site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.K. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Hopkins, R.A. (Marrich, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Doll, W.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Between September 19, 1991 and October 8, 1991 personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Automated Sciences Group, Inc., and Marrich, Inc. performed a seismic refraction survey at the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) preferred site. The purpose of this survey was to provide estimates of top-of-rock topography, based on seismic velocities, and to delineate variations in rock and soil velocities. Forty-four seismic refraction spreads were shot to determine top-of-rock depths at 42 locations. Nine of the seismic spreads were shot with long offsets to provide 216 top-of-rock depths for 4 seismic refraction profiles. The refraction spread locations were based on the grid for the ANS Phase I drilling program. Interpretation of the seismic refraction data supports the assumption that the top-of-rock surface generally follows the local topography. The shallow top-of-rock interface interpreted from the seismic refraction data is also supported by limited drill information at the site. Some zones of anomalous data are present that could be the result of locally variable weathering, a localized variation in shale content, or depth to top-of-rock greater than the site norm.

  2. Teacher Preferences for Alternative School Site Administrative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Public school teachers with high leadership potential who stated that they had no interest in being school principals were surveyed on their attitudes about six alternative school site administrative organizational models. Of the 391 teachers surveyed, 53% identified the Co-Principal model as the preferred school site administrative structure. In…

  3. Beyond Trust: Web Site Design Preferences Across Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Dianne Cyr; Carole Bonanni; John Bowes; Joe Ilsever

    2005-01-01

    The growth of Internet shopping motivates a better understanding of how e-loyalty is built online between businesses and consumers. In this study, Web site design and culture are advanced as important to Web site trust, Web site satisfaction, and e-loyalty in online business relationships. Based on data collected in Canada, the U.S., Germany, and Japan, the research considers (1) examining within culture preferences for design elements of a local vs. a foreign Web site and subsequent particip...

  4. Retroviral DNA integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV show distinct target site preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick S Mitchell

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV. Effects of gene activity on integration targeting were assessed by transcriptional profiling of infected cells. Integration by HIV vectors, analyzed in two primary cell types and several cell lines, strongly favored active genes. An analysis of the effects of tissue-specific transcription showed that it resulted in tissue-specific integration targeting by HIV, though the effect was quantitatively modest. Chromosomal regions rich in expressed genes were favored for HIV integration, but these regions were found to be interleaved with unfavorable regions at CpG islands. MLV vectors showed a strong bias in favor of integration near transcription start sites, as reported previously. ASLV vectors showed only a weak preference for active genes and no preference for transcription start regions. Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection.

  5. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice...... the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  6. Whole genome resequencing reveals natural target site preferences of transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S Linheiro

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that integrate into host genomes using diverse mechanisms with varying degrees of target site specificity. While the target site preferences of some engineered transposable elements are well studied, the natural target preferences of most transposable elements are poorly characterized. Using population genomic resequencing data from 166 strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we identified over 8,000 new insertion sites not present in the reference genome sequence that we used to decode the natural target preferences of 22 families of transposable element in this species. We found that terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon families present clade-specific target site duplications and target site sequence motifs. Additionally, we found that the sequence motifs at transposable element target sites are always palindromes that extend beyond the target site duplication. Our results demonstrate the utility of population genomics data for high-throughput inference of transposable element targeting preferences in the wild and establish general rules for terminal inverted repeat transposon and long terminal repeat retrotransposon target site selection in eukaryotic genomes.

  7. Using Pure Cultures to Define the Site Preference of Nitrous Oxide Produced by Microbial Nitrification and Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, R. L.; Breznak, J. A.; Ostrom, N. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; Gandhi, H.

    2004-12-01

    preference of N2O produced during denitrification we used concentrated cell suspensions of two organisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) that lack N2O reductase. The site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction was similar for P. chlororaphis (0.3 ± 2.7 ‰ ) and P. aureofaciens (- 0.3 ± 1.7 ‰ ). The results indicate that the site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction is 0 ‰ regardless of whether the organism is a denitrifier or nitrifier. Fungal denitrification was investigated using pure cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon tonkinense. The site preference of N2O produced during nitrite reduction was similar for the cultures with an average site preference of 34.7 ± 2.2 ‰ for Fusarium oxysporum and 29.7 ± 1.7 ‰ for Cylindrocarpon tonkinense. The data indicate that fungal denitrification and bacterial denitrification can be distinguished based on site preference. The results from all of the pure culture studies indicate that isotopomers can be used to apportion bacterial nitrification and denitrification and in field studies.

  8. Ontogenetic and sex-based differences in habitat preferences and site fidelity of White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, D; Martin-Smith, K; Gladstone, W

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare habitat preferences for male and female adult and juvenile White's seahorse Hippocampus whitei and assess their movements and site fidelity over 4 years. Data were collected from three sites along 1.5 km of estuarine shoreline in Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia, from 2006 to 2009 using H. whitei that had been tagged with visible implant fluorescent elastomer. Relative availability of 12 habitats and habitat preferences of H. whitei was determined, based on the habitat that H. whitei used as a holdfast. Hippocampus whitei occurred in nine different habitats; adults preferred sponge and soft coral Dendronephthya australis habitats with no difference between male and female habitat preferences whilst juveniles preferred gorgonian Euplexaura sp. habitat. There was a significant preference by adults for D. australis colonies with height >40 cm and avoidance of colonies <20 cm. Neither adults nor juveniles used sand or the seagrasses Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni and Halophila ovalis. Hippocampus whitei showed cryptic behaviour with c. 50% of adult sightings cryptic and c. 75% for juveniles with crypsis occurring predominantly in Sargassum sp. for adults and Euplexaura sp. habitat for juveniles. Within sites, females moved significantly longer distances (maximum of 70 m) than males (maximum of 38 m) over 20 months. Strong site fidelity was displayed by H. whitei with males persisting at the same site for up to 56 months and females for 49 months and no H. whitei moved between sites. The longest period that an H. whitei was recorded on the same holdfast was 17 months for a male and 10 months for a female. As this species displays strong site fidelity, specific habitat preferences and has a limited distribution, future management needs to minimize the risk of habitat disturbance as loss of key habitats could have a negative effect on species abundance and distribution. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the

  9. Preferred sensor sites for surface EMG signal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, Farah; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J

    2012-01-01

    Technologies for decomposing the electromyographic (EMG) signal into its constituent motor unit action potential trains have become more practical by the advent of a non-invasive methodology using surface EMG (sEMG) sensors placed on the skin above the muscle of interest (De Luca et al 2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96 1646–57 and Nawab et al 2010 Clin. Neurophysiol. 121 1602–15). This advancement has widespread appeal among researchers and clinicians because of the ease of use, reduced risk of infection, and the greater number of motor unit action potential trains obtained compared to needle sensor techniques. In this study we investigated the influence of the sensor site on the number of identified motor unit action potential trains in six lower limb muscles and one upper limb muscle with the intent of locating preferred sensor sites that provided the greatest number of decomposed motor unit action potential trains, or motor unit yield. Sensor sites rendered varying motor unit yields throughout the surface of a muscle. The preferred sites were located between the center and the tendinous areas of the muscle. The motor unit yield was positively correlated with the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected sEMG. The signal-to-noise ratio was inversely related to the thickness of the tissue between the sensor and the muscle fibers. A signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was found to be the minimum required to obtain a reliable motor unit yield. (paper)

  10. Preference to use aggregators rather than individual deal sites: Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    Deal sites are widely used for some time and there is a growing body of knowledge on them. There exists literature on infomediaries. But there is a gap when it comes to infomediaties focused on deal sites, i.e. aggregators of deal site offers. The research focused on impact of Big Five Inventory...... personality traits on whether respondents prefer visiting individual deal sites, or aggregators, or they do not have any preference and visit both. Gender was used as a control variable. With regards, to the results, conscientiousness agreeableness, and openness to experi-ence influence the preference. Higher...... the values of all three variables, more likely it is that a person prefers aggregators....

  11. Diel activity and preferred landing sites in Culicoides biting midges attacking Fjord horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, in the central part of The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) attack rates, biting rates, and preferred landing sites were determined for a pair of Fjord horses maintained permanently at pasture in an area devoid of cattle. Eleven body regions of the

  12. An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the metal site preference in Al1−xGaxFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, James D.S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoelectric materials have potential for being introduced into next generation technologies, especially memory devices. The AFeO 3 (Pna2 1 ; A=Al, Ga) system has received attention to better understand the origins of magnetoelectric coupling. The magnetoelectric properties this system exhibits depend on the amount of anti-site disorder present, which is affected by the composition and the method of synthesis. In this study, Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 was synthesized by the ceramic method and studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Al L 2,3 -, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number changes with composition. Examination of XANES spectra from Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 indicate that with increasing Ga content, Al increasingly occupies octahedral sites while Ga displays a preference for occupying the tetrahedral site. The Fe K-edge spectra indicate that more Fe is present in the tetrahedral site in AlFeO 3 than in GaFeO 3 , implying more anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO 3 . - Graphical abstract: Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 has been investigated by XANES. Through examination of Al L 2,3 -, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra, it was found that more anti-site disorder of the Fe atoms is present in AlFeO 3 compared to in GaFeO 3 . Highlights: ► Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. ► Ga prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site in Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 . ► Fe prefers to occupy the octahedral sites in Al 1−x Ga x FeO 3 as x increases. ► More anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO 3 compared to in GaFeO 3.

  13. Phenetic distances in the Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species and oviposition-site preference for food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Boerema, A.

    1981-01-01

    Oviposition-site preferences (O.S.P.) have been investigated in females of six sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. O.S.P. were determined for standard food components and yeast genotypes. Females of all species showed a strong preference for complete medium and avoidance of pure

  14. An empirical investigation of German tourist anglers’ preferences for angling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    The quality of angling sites is important for attracting tourists who enjoy recreational angling. In this paper, we conduct an empirical analysis investigating which attributes of angling sites are particularly important for attracting tourist anglers from abroad. We conduct an online survey of 968...... at the site. To attract tourist anglers an angling site manager may use this information to target marketing efforts towards segments of tourist that prefer the type and quality of angling characteristics of the angling site in the managers possession. Additionally, he may seek to adjust and improve...

  15. A deeper look into transcription regulatory code by preferred pair distance templates for transcription factor binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2011-08-18

    Motivation: Modern experimental methods provide substantial information on protein-DNA recognition. Studying arrangements of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) of interacting transcription factors (TFs) advances understanding of the transcription regulatory code. Results: We constructed binding motifs for TFs forming a complex with HIF-1α at the erythropoietin 3\\'-enhancer. Corresponding TFBSs were predicted in the segments around transcription start sites (TSSs) of all human genes. Using the genome-wide set of regulatory regions, we observed several strongly preferred distances between hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and binding sites of a particular cofactor protein. The set of preferred distances was called as a preferred pair distance template (PPDT). PPDT dramatically depended on the TF and orientation of its binding sites relative to HRE. PPDT evaluated from the genome-wide set of regulatory sequences was used to detect significant PPDT-consistent binding site pairs in regulatory regions of hypoxia-responsive genes. We believe PPDT can help to reveal the layout of eukaryotic regulatory segments. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Repair of oxidative DNA base damage in the host genome influences the HIV integration site sequence preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey R Bennett

    Full Text Available Host base excision repair (BER proteins that repair oxidative damage enhance HIV infection. These proteins include the oxidative DNA damage glycosylases 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1 and mutY homolog (MYH as well as DNA polymerase beta (Polβ. While deletion of oxidative BER genes leads to decreased HIV infection and integration efficiency, the mechanism remains unknown. One hypothesis is that BER proteins repair the DNA gapped integration intermediate. An alternative hypothesis considers that the most common oxidative DNA base damages occur on guanines. The subtle consensus sequence preference at HIV integration sites includes multiple G:C base pairs surrounding the points of joining. These observations suggest a role for oxidative BER during integration targeting at the nucleotide level. We examined the hypothesis that BER repairs a gapped integration intermediate by measuring HIV infection efficiency in Polβ null cell lines complemented with active site point mutants of Polβ. A DNA synthesis defective mutant, but not a 5'dRP lyase mutant, rescued HIV infection efficiency to wild type levels; this suggested Polβ DNA synthesis activity is not necessary while 5'dRP lyase activity is required for efficient HIV infection. An alternate hypothesis that BER events in the host genome influence HIV integration site selection was examined by sequencing integration sites in OGG1 and MYH null cells. In the absence of these 8-oxo-guanine specific glycosylases the chromatin elements of HIV integration site selection remain the same as in wild type cells. However, the HIV integration site sequence preference at G:C base pairs is altered at several positions in OGG1 and MYH null cells. Inefficient HIV infection in the absence of oxidative BER proteins does not appear related to repair of the gapped integration intermediate; instead oxidative damage repair may participate in HIV integration site preference at the sequence level.

  17. A game-theoretical model for selecting a site of non-preferred waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a game-theoretic model (GTM) as a tool of conflict analysis is proposed for multiplayer multicriteria decision-making problems in a conflict situation. The developed GTM is used for obtaining the most possible resolutions in the conflict among multiple decision makers. The GTM is based on directed graph structure and solution concepts. To demonstrate the performance of the GTM, using a numerical example, the GTM is applied to an environmental conflict problem, especially a non-preferred waste disposal siting conflict available in the literature. It is found that with GTM the states in equilibrium can be recognized. The conflict under consideration is to select a site of non-preferred waste facilities. The government is to choose a site of installation for users of a toxic waste disposal facility. A certain time-point of interest is a period of time to select one of candidate sites that completely meet regular criteria of governmental body in charge of permitting a facility site. The facility siting conflict among multiple players (i.e., decision-makers, DMs) of concern is viewed as a multiple player-multiple criteria (MPMC) domain. For instance, three possible sites (i.e., site A, site B, and site C) to be selected by multiple players are characterized by the building cost, accessibility, and proximity to the residential area. Concerning the site A, the installation of a facility is not expensive, the accessible to a facility is easy, and the site A is located very near a residential area. Concerning site B, the facility is expensive to build, the facility is easily accessible, and the site is located near the residential area. Concerning site C, the installation cost is expensive, the accessibility is difficult, and the location of site is far from the residential area. In simple models, three main groups of players could be considered to be the government, users, and local residents. The government is to play a role as one of proponents or

  18. An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the metal site preference in Al1-xGaxFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James D. S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoelectric materials have potential for being introduced into next generation technologies, especially memory devices. The AFeO3 (Pna21; A=Al, Ga) system has received attention to better understand the origins of magnetoelectric coupling. The magnetoelectric properties this system exhibits depend on the amount of anti-site disorder present, which is affected by the composition and the method of synthesis. In this study, Al1-xGaxFeO3 was synthesized by the ceramic method and studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Al L2,3-, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number changes with composition. Examination of XANES spectra from Al1-xGaxFeO3 indicate that with increasing Ga content, Al increasingly occupies octahedral sites while Ga displays a preference for occupying the tetrahedral site. The Fe K-edge spectra indicate that more Fe is present in the tetrahedral site in AlFeO3 than in GaFeO3, implying more anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO3.

  19. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-01-01

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O under vacuum at 0 and 25 0 C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed

  20. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-04-02

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O under vacuum at 0 and 25/sup 0/C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed.

  1. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  2. p15PAF is an intrinsically disordered protein with nonrandom structural preferences at sites of interaction with other proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Sibille, Nathalie; Lelli, Moreno; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Blanco, Francisco J

    2014-02-18

    We present to our knowledge the first structural characterization of the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-associated factor p15(PAF), showing that it is monomeric and intrinsically disordered in solution but has nonrandom conformational preferences at sites of protein-protein interactions. p15(PAF) is a 12 kDa nuclear protein that acts as a regulator of DNA repair during DNA replication. The p15(PAF) gene is overexpressed in several types of human cancer. The nearly complete NMR backbone assignment of p15(PAF) allowed us to measure 86 N-H(N) residual dipolar couplings. Our residual dipolar coupling analysis reveals nonrandom conformational preferences in distinct regions, including the proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-interacting protein motif (PIP-box) and the KEN-box (recognized by the ubiquitin ligase that targets p15(PAF) for degradation). In accordance with these findings, analysis of the (15)N R2 relaxation rates shows a relatively reduced mobility for the residues in these regions. The agreement between the experimental small angle x-ray scattering curve of p15(PAF) and that computed from a statistical coil ensemble corrected for the presence of local secondary structural elements further validates our structural model for p15(PAF). The coincidence of these transiently structured regions with protein-protein interaction and posttranslational modification sites suggests a possible role for these structures as molecular recognition elements for p15(PAF). Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental Students’ Preference with regard to Tactile or Visual Determination of Injection Site for an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Children: A Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Instruction of local anesthesia injection in an important part of dental education curricula. This study was performed to compare dental students’ preference with regard to tactile or visual determination of injection site for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB in children.Materials and Methods: This crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted on dental students of Zahedan Dental School who took the first practical course of pediatric dentistry in the first academic semester of 2013-14 (n=42. They were randomly divided into two groups. During the first phase, group I was instructed to find the needle insertion point for an IANB via tactile method and group II was instructed to do it visually. In the second phase, the groups received instructions for the alternate technique. Both instructions were done using live demonstrations by the same instructor and immediately after instruction the learners practiced an IANB using the taught method. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was then filled out by the students. The preference score was determined by calculating the mean of item scores. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Singed Rank tests in SPSS 19 at P=0.05 level of significance.Results: Thirty-eight students completed the study. By using the visual method to perform an IANB, students gained a significantly higher mean preference score (P=0.020. There was a significant difference in the preference of male students (P=0.008.Conclusions: Instruction of IANB by visual identification of needle insertion point is more desirable by students. 

  4. Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Aribi, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD 25 (0.28μg) and LD 50 (0.67μg) and evaluated on fitness (development duration, fecundity, adult survival) and oviposition site preference with and without choice. Results showed that azadirachtin increased significantly at the two tested doses the duration of larval and pupal development. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment reduced significantly adult's survival of both sex as compared to control. In addition, azadirachtin affected fecundity of flies by a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid. Finally results showed that females present clear preference for oviposition in control medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. The results provide some evidence that larval exposure to azadirachtin altered adult oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits of D. melanogaster. Theses finding may reinforce behavioural avoidance of azadirachtin and contribute as repellent strategies in integrated pest management programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Siting of an MRS facility: identification of a geographic region that reduces transportation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Braitman, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    The study reported here was undertaken as part of the site screening and evaluation activities for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary purpose was to determine: the location and shape of a preferred geographic region within which locating an MRS facility would minimize total shipment miles for spent fuel transported through the MRS facility to a repository, and the sensitivity of the location and shape of this region and the reduction in total shipment miles to possible variations in waste management system logistics. As a result of this analysis, a geographic region has been identified which is preferred for siting an MRS facility. This region will be referred to as the preferred region in this study. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will limit total shipment miles (i.e., the total miles traveled for all shipments of spent fuel) to and from the MRS facility to within 20% of the lowest achievable. The region is preferred for a mixed truck/rail system of transport from reactors to the MRS facility. It is assumed that rail will be used to ship spent fuel from the MRS facility to a geologic repository for disposal. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will reduce total shipment miles for all currently considered system logistics options which include an MRS facility in the system. These options include: any first repository location, the possible range of spent fuel consolidation at the MRS, use of multi-cask or single-cask train shipments, use of current or future spent fuel transport casks, servicing only the first or both the first and second repositories, and shipment of fuel from western reactors either through the MRS facility or to a western facility (a second, smaller MRS facility or the first repository)

  6. The distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in precipitates within a Zr alloy: A combined first-principles and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, B.F., E-mail: bfluan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, J.M.; Qiu, R.S.; Tao, B.R.; He, W.J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Q., E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-EDS) technique and first-principles calculation are jointly utilized to investigate the distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in the precipitates within Zr-1.0Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Mo-0.4Bi alloy. Based on selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results, the precipitates within the studied alloy are confirmed to be ZrCr{sub 2}-based Laves phase with FCC (C15) type structure. The STEM-EDS elemental mapping is acquired to clarify the distribution trends of alloying elements in precipitates, i.e. Fe>Mo>Bi. To better verify this distribution behavior, substitutional formation energies and equilibrium concentrations of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are calculated by first-principles. The calculated results show a good consistence with the STEM-EDS results. In addition, the site preferences of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are predicted by the calculation of transfer energies. Finally, the reasons accounting for different distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are discussed in terms of density of states, which attributed to the pseudogap effect and hybridizations between atoms. - Highlights: • Clarified the distribution trends of Fe>Mo>Bi in precipitates by STEM-EDS. • Verified the experimental results by first-principles calculation. • Predicted the site preferences of alloying elements by first-principles calculation. • Hybridization and pseudogap lead to the strong distribution and site preferences.

  7. High, low, or familiar? Nest site preferences of experienced laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, E T; Schrader, L

    2018-05-22

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate which nest heights are preferred by laying hens in the absence of familiar nest locations and whether preferred nest heights are more attractive than a familiar location. In two experiments, a total of 108 hens of four different layer breeds, which were at least 50 weeks of age, were studied. 2. In the first experiment, hens were given individual free choice between nests for 1-week at four different heights (0 cm, 39 cm, 78 cm, and 117 cm above ground). Hens of the four breeds differed in their nest height preferences (P = 0.0013). However, hens of three breeds preferred ground level nests (P < 0.007) and the fourth line showed an equal preference for the ground level and level three, the latter level corresponding to the height of the nests in their home compartments. 4. In the second experiment, hens from the four breeds were given a choice between ground level nests and nests at a familiar location, i.e. at the same location as in their home compartment. Hens of all strains preferred the familiar nest location (P = 0.002) and preferences did not differ between strains (P = 0.77). 5. Laying hens seem to prefer nests at ground level in the absence of a familiar nest. However, if possible, experienced 50 week old hens continue to use a familiar nest location instead of a ground nest location. The results are discussed with respect to a potential primary preference that may be modifiable by experience and with respect to possible relevance in commercial housing.

  8. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  9. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Moath; Kessel, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value

  10. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  11. Site preference and phase stability of Ti doping Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Chen, Baishu; Meng, Xianglong; Cai, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Site preference and phase stability of NiMnGaTi are studied by first-principles. •The Ti atoms prefer to occupy the Ga sites in the Ni 2 MnGa austenitic phase. •The phase stability becomes worse when Ga is replaced by Ti. •The phase stability is discussed based on the densities of states. -- Abstract: The effects of Ti content on martensitic transformation and phase stability of Ni 50 Mn 25 Ga 25−x Ti x shape memory alloys were investigated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The formation energy results indicate that the added Ti preferentially occupies the Ga sites in Ni 2 MnGa alloy due to the lowest formation energy. The total energy difference between austenite and martensite increases with Ti alloying, being relevant to the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The phase stability of Ni 50 Mn 25 Ga 25−x Ti x austenite decreases with increasing Ti content, which results from the reduced Ni 3d–Mn 3d hybridization when Ga is replaced by Ti

  12. Understanding cation ordering and oxygen vacancy site preference in Ba3CaNb2O9 from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hepeng; Virkar, Anil; Liu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the physical mechanism underlying the formation of the B-site cation ordering and the oxygen vacancy site selection in Ba3CaNb2O9 using density functional theory calculations. We found that either cation site exchange or oxygen vacancy formation induces negligible lattice strain. This implies that the ionic radius plays an insignificant role in governing these two processes. Furthermore, the electrostatic interactions are found dominant in the ordering of mixed valence species on one or more sites, the ionic bond strength is identified as the dominant force in governing both the 1:2 B-site cation ordering along the direction and the oxygen vacancy site preference in Ba3CaNb2O9. Specifically, the cation ordering can be rationalized by the increased mixing bonding energy of the Ca-O-Nb bonds over the Ca-O-Ca and Nb-O-Nb bonds, i.e., 1/2(Ca-O-Ca + Nb-O-Nb) Grant Number DE-SC0001061 as a flow through from the University of South Carolina.

  13. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  14. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  15. An Intra-Group Perspective on Leader Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Laustsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that followers’ preferences for dominant leadership vary according to two types of exploitation risks from other individuals within the group. Previous work demonstrates that contexts of inter-group war and peace make followers prefer dominant- and non-dominant-looking leaders......, respectively. We add an intra-group perspective to this literature. Four original studies demonstrate that contexts with high risks of free-riding and criminal behavior from other group members (i.e., horizontal exploitation) increase preferences for dominant-looking leaders, whereas contexts with high risks...... of unresponsive, self-interested behavior from leaders themselves (i.e., vertical exploitation) decrease preferences for dominant-looking leaders. Moreover, within this framework of intra-group exploitation risks we show that followers prefer leaders from another vis-à-vis their own ethnic coalition to look less...

  16. Infants prefer female body phenotypes; infant girls prefer they have an hourglass shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 144 infants (3 to 18 months of age during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio. When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type, a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance

  17. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  18. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  19. Regulation of Cellular Dynamics and Chromosomal Binding Site Preference of Linker Histones H1.0 and H1.X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Abe, Mayumi; Hisaoka, Miharu; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-11-01

    Linker histones play important roles in the genomic organization of mammalian cells. Of the linker histone variants, H1.X shows the most dynamic behavior in the nucleus. Recent research has suggested that the linker histone variants H1.X and H1.0 have different chromosomal binding site preferences. However, it remains unclear how the dynamics and binding site preferences of linker histones are determined. Here, we biochemically demonstrated that the DNA/nucleosome and histone chaperone binding activities of H1.X are significantly lower than those of other linker histones. This explains why H1.X moves more rapidly than other linker histones in vivo Domain swapping between H1.0 and H1.X suggests that the globular domain (GD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of H1.X independently contribute to the dynamic behavior of H1.X. Our results also suggest that the N-terminal domain (NTD), GD, and CTD cooperatively determine the preferential binding sites, and the contribution of each domain for this determination is different depending on the target genes. We also found that linker histones accumulate in the nucleoli when the nucleosome binding activities of the GDs are weak. Our results contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of dynamic behaviors, binding site selection, and localization of linker histones. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  1. Preferences for infant delivery site among pregnant women and new mothers in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Sharon G; Blanchard, Andrea K; Gurav, Kaveri; Roy, Anuradha; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2015-02-27

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India aims to increase the uptake of safe and institutional delivery among rural communities to improve maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) outcomes. Previous studies in India have found that while there have been increasing numbers of institutional deliveries there are still considerable barriers to utilization and quality of services, particularly in rural areas, that may mitigate improvements achieved by MNCH interventions. This paper aims to explore the factors influencing preference for home, public or private hospital delivery among rural pregnant and new mothers in three northern districts of Karnataka state, South India. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers (infants born within past 3 months), their husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted in the local language (Kannada) and then translated to English for analysis. The interviews of pregnant women and new mothers were used for analysis to ultimately develop broader themes around definitions of quality care from the perspective of service users, and the influence this had on their delivery site preferences. Geographical and financial access were important barriers to accessing institutional delivery services in all districts, and among those both above and below the poverty line. Access issues of greatest concern were high costs at private institutions, continuing fees at public hospitals and the inconsistent receipt of government incentives. However, views on quality of care that shaped delivery site preferences were deeply rooted in socio-cultural expectations for comfortable, respectful and safe care that must ultimately be addressed to change negative perceptions about institutional, and particularly public hospital, care at delivery. In the literature, quality of care beyond access has largely been overlooked in favour of support for incentives on the demand side, and more trained

  2. Selection of a preferred initial access for the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Cikanek, E.M.; Elkins, N.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An issue of interest to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) has been selection of the preferred location for initial access to the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the event that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) elected to proceed with a phased approach to facility development. A task force to conduct an assessment and prepare a recommendation of the preferred initial location (north or south) for starting underground in situ tests at Yucca Mountain was initiated by YMPO to address this issue. The task force addressed geotechnical issues associated with the presence of disqualifying conditions at the site, the inability of the site to meet qualifying conditions, and the potential for unexpected geologic conditions at the site. The task force compared the north and south ramp accesses of the ESF to determine whether either access would be more likely to provide relevant information about potential site unsuitability. The task force did not address issues such as design time or construction costs. Within the aforementioned context, a balanced evaluation of currently available geotechnical information and issues failed to provide a clear mandate for either ramp as the preferred initial ESF access. Neither access was clearly superior in providing geotechnical information to resolve site suitability issues. The task force therefore recommended that other appropriate programmatic factors, such as schedule, be used as a basis in determining the choice of a preferred, initial ESF access in the event of phased construction

  3. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station—protected predicted contour, computed in accordance with § 74.707(a); (5) Cable television system franchise area, nor will the diversity preference be available to applicants whose proposed transmitter site is located within the franchise area of a cable system in which its owners, in the aggregate, have an...

  4. Geoscientific evaluation factors and criteria for siting and site evaluation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C.; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan

    1999-03-01

    The purposes of the present report are to: present the work that has been done to identify the parameters that need to be determined in a geoscientific site investigation and that serve as the basis for the work with geoscientific evaluation factors; give a progress report from the project that was initiated in 1997 named Siting Factors and Criteria for Site Evaluation, with an emphasis on definitions, outline and structure for the execution of the work; present geoscientific requirements on function both general and in detail in the form of an example for the discipline rock mechanics; present geoscientific evaluation factors associated with different stages in the siting work in the form of an example for the discipline hydrogeochemical composition; present plans for further work as regards criteria for site evaluation in different siting stages. The project is under way, and this is to be regarded as a progress report since e.g. criteria for site evaluation will be presented at a later date. The long-term performance and safety of the deep repository must always be evaluated by means of an integrated safety assessment. The work with factors and criteria can never take the place of such an assessment, but can provide guidance regarding its outcome. Requirements and preferences regarding the function of the rock in the deep repository have been clarified in this progress report. What is new here is the structuring that has been carried out, with a classification into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been given to the terms requirement, preference and function. Based on fundamental safety and construction functions, requirements on function have been specified for the disciplines geology, thermal properties, hydro-geology, rock mechanics, chemistry and transport properties. Furthermore, function analyses have been identified by means of which it is possible to concretize requirements on function and which geoscientific parameters are

  5. Geoscientific evaluation factors and criteria for siting and site evaluation. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-konsult AB (Sweden); Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The purposes of the present report are to: present the work that has been done to identify the parameters that need to be determined in a geoscientific site investigation and that serve as the basis for the work with geoscientific evaluation factors; give a progress report from the project that was initiated in 1997 named Siting Factors and Criteria for Site Evaluation, with an emphasis on definitions, outline and structure for the execution of the work; present geoscientific requirements on function both general and in detail in the form of an example for the discipline rock mechanics; present geoscientific evaluation factors associated with different stages in the siting work in the form of an example for the discipline hydrogeochemical composition; present plans for further work as regards criteria for site evaluation in different siting stages. The project is under way, and this is to be regarded as a progress report since e.g. criteria for site evaluation will be presented at a later date. The long-term performance and safety of the deep repository must always be evaluated by means of an integrated safety assessment. The work with factors and criteria can never take the place of such an assessment, but can provide guidance regarding its outcome. Requirements and preferences regarding the function of the rock in the deep repository have been clarified in this progress report. What is new here is the structuring that has been carried out, with a classification into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been given to the terms requirement, preference and function. Based on fundamental safety and construction functions, requirements on function have been specified for the disciplines geology, thermal properties, hydro-geology, rock mechanics, chemistry and transport properties. Furthermore, function analyses have been identified by means of which it is possible to concretize requirements on function and which geoscientific parameters are

  6. 48 CFR 552.270-2 - Historic Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the competition, the Government will give a 2.5 percent price preference to suitable non-historic... Government will give a 2.5 percent price preference to suitable non-historic developed or undeveloped sites... tradeoffs among price and non-price factors, the Government will give a price evaluation preference, based...

  7. An experimental methodology for a fuzzy set preference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    A flexible fuzzy set preference model first requires approximate methodologies for implementation. Fuzzy sets must be defined for each individual consumer using computer software, requiring a minimum of time and expertise on the part of the consumer. The amount of information needed in defining sets must also be established. The model itself must adapt fully to the subject's choice of attributes (vague or precise), attribute levels, and importance weights. The resulting individual-level model should be fully adapted to each consumer. The methodologies needed to develop this model will be equally useful in a new generation of intelligent systems which interact with ordinary consumers, controlling electronic devices through fuzzy expert systems or making recommendations based on a variety of inputs. The power of personal computers and their acceptance by consumers has yet to be fully utilized to create interactive knowledge systems that fully adapt their function to the user. Understanding individual consumer preferences is critical to the design of new products and the estimation of demand (market share) for existing products, which in turn is an input to management systems concerned with production and distribution. The question of what to make, for whom to make it and how much to make requires an understanding of the customer's preferences and the trade-offs that exist between alternatives. Conjoint analysis is a widely used methodology which de-composes an overall preference for an object into a combination of preferences for its constituent parts (attributes such as taste and price), which are combined using an appropriate combination function. Preferences are often expressed using linguistic terms which cannot be represented in conjoint models. Current models are also not implemented an individual level, making it difficult to reach meaningful conclusions about the cause of an individual's behavior from an aggregate model. The combination of complex aggregate

  8. Interdisciplinary treatment of an adult patient with old extraction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Tülin Ugur; Germec, Derya; Er, Nuray; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2006-11-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 31-year-old female patient showing a protrusive profile, maxillary constriction, mandibular crowding, a Class III canine relationship complicated with multiple missing teeth, old atrophic extraction sites, and periodontal defects. The lower dental arch irregularity was eliminated by air-rotor stripping (ARS). The upper extraction site was opened for prosthetic rehabilitation, whereas closure of the lower extraction space was preferred. The narrow alveolar crest of the atrophic bone was augmented with the use of autogenous bone, beta-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb), and autogenous platelet-rich plasma. A functional and esthetic occlusion in an improved facial profile was established at the end of orthodontic treatment combined with ARS technique, surgery, and prosthodontics.

  9. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  10. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... in the estimation of welfare economic values for parking and picnic facilities in the analyzed model. The results underline the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity of preferences carrying out economic valuation of spatial-delineated environmental goods and that the spatial variation in willingness...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...

  11. Assessment of candidate sites for disposal of treated effluents at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    A rigidly defined evaluation process was used to recommend a preferred location to dispose of treated effluents from facilities in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. First, siting constraints were defined based on functional design considerations and siting guidelines. Then, criteria for selecting a preferred site from among several candidates were identified and their relative importance defined. Finally, the weighted criteria were applied and a site was selected for detailed characterization by subsurface investigations

  12. Site preference of Mg acceptors and improvement of p-type doping efficiency in nitride alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Sang; Chang, K J

    2013-06-19

    We perform first-principles density functional calculations to investigate the effect of Al and In on the formation energy and acceptor level of Mg in group-III nitride alloys. Our calculations reveal a tendency for the Mg dopants to prefer to occupy the lattice sites surrounded with Al atoms, whereas hole carriers are generated in In- or Ga-rich sites. The separation of the Mg dopants and hole carriers is energetically more favourable than a random distribution of dopants, being attributed to the local bonding effect of weak In and strong Al potentials in alloys. As a consequence, the Mg acceptor level, which represents the activation energy of Mg, tends to decrease with increasing numbers of Al next-nearest neighbours, whereas it increases as the number of In next-nearest neighbours increases. Based on the results, we suggest that the incorporation of higher Al and lower In compositions will improve the p-type doping efficiency in quaternary alloys, in comparison with GaN or AlGaN ternary alloys with similar band gaps.

  13. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  14. Review of site recommendation process in Draft Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, H.; Longo, T.; Burton, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    In December 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) published Draft Environmental Assessments (EAs) on nine potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites. Five sites in the states of Mississippi, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and Washington were proposed in the Draft EAs for nomination under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as suitable for further detailed study (site characterization). The Nevada, Texas, and Washington sites were further proposed for recommendation to the President as preferred for site characterization. This paper reviews the process that DOE used in selecting the three sites proposed for site characterization. The process is consistent with DOE's implementation guidelines for selecting repository sites, and proceeds in three steps. First, the sites are ranked in order of preference for each of twenty technical guidelines based on information in the Draft EAs. The second step combines the individual guideline rankings into postclosure and preclosure guideline group rankings, and, finally, into an overall ranking. In the third step, the sensitivity of the choice of the three preferred sites is examined for a range of guideline weightings

  15. Preference effects on friendship choice: Evidence from an online field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyu; Xie, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Observed friendship choices are constrained by social structures and thus problematic indicators for underlying personal preferences. In this paper, we report on a study demonstrating the causal effects of preference in friendship choice based on an online field experiment. Specifically, we tested two important forces that govern friendship choices: preference for shared group identity (operationalized as the desire to befriend others sharing the same place-of-origin identity) and preference for high status (operationalized as the desire to befriend others from high-status institutions). Using an online field experiment in one of the largest social network service websites in China, we investigated the causal preference effects of these two forces free from structural constraints. The results of our study confirm the preference effects on friendship choice in both of the two dimensions we tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. First principles study of structural stability and site preference in Co3 (W,X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sri Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery [1] of γ′ precipitate (L12 – Co3(Al, W in the Co-Al-W ternary system, there has been an increased interest in Co-based superalloys. Since these alloys have two phase microstructures (γ + γ′ similar to Ni-based superalloys [2], they are viable candidates in high temperature applications, particularly in land-based turbines. The role of alloying on stability of the γ′ phase has been an active area of research. In this study, electronic structure calculations were done to probe the effect of alloying in Co3W with L12 structure. Compositions of type Co3(W,X, (where X/Y = Mn, Fe, Ni, Pt, Cr , Al, Si, V, W, Ta, Ti, Nb, Hf, Zr and Mo were studied. Effect of alloying on equilibrium lattice parameters and ground state energies was used to calculate Vegard's coefficients and site preference related data. The effect of alloying on the stability of the L12 structure vis a vis other geometrically close packed ordered structures was also studied for a range of Co3X compounds. Results suggest that the penchant of element for the W sublattice can be predicted by comparing heats of formation of Co3X in different structures.

  17. Siting factors for the Swedish deep repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C.; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan

    1998-01-01

    A project entitled Siting factors and criteria for site evaluation was initiated at the SKB in 1997. The project comprises an important part of the work of siting and site selection that is being pursued within SKB. The purpose of the project is to create a logical structure for the continued siting work, and its results should also be able to be used to assist in evaluating sites. The project will thereby also provide a means - in accordance with the Government's decision regarding Research Programme 95 - to obtain more detailed and quantified siting factors and criteria than those previously presented in the supplement to Research Programme 92. The overall goals of the project are to identify and quantify requirements and preferences regarding the properties of the rock and the soil from the perspectives of long-term safety, performance and planning and design of the rock works, and to identify siting factors and criteria. The latter should be able to be used to determine whether requirements and preferences are satisfied, both when screening sites for site investigation and after completed site investigation. Presented requirements, preferences, factors and criteria must be acceptable to national and municipal authorities or others with influence over the siting work. To start with, requirements and preferences regarding the performance of the rock in a deep repository have been clarified. These requirements and preferences are based on many years of experience of safety assessments and construction analyses within SKB. What is new here is the structuring that has been done, where a classification is made into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been developed for the concepts requirements, preferences and performance. This is a prerequisite for a consistent and hopefully comprehensive set of requirements from a functional perspective. Work has continued on siting factors with reference to a coming site investigation programme. A

  18. A study of brand preference: An experiential view

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Reham Shawky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University Consumer brand preference is an essential step to understand consumer choice behaviour, and has therefore always received great attention from marketers. Brand preferences reveal the type of attributes a brand possesses, to strengthen its position and increase its market share. Moreover, it forms a critical input in developing a company’s successful brand strategy, and gives insight for pr...

  19. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Deriving preference order of post-mining land-uses through MLSA framework: application of an outranking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmohammadi, Hossein; Osanloo, Morteza; Aghajani Bazzazi, Abbas

    2009-08-01

    This study intends to take advantage of a previously developed framework for mined land suitability analysis (MLSA) consisted of economical, social, technical and mine site factors to achieve a partial and also a complete pre-order of feasible post-mining land-uses. Analysis by an outranking multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) technique, called PROMETHEE (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), was taken into consideration because of its clear advantages on the field of MLSA as compared with MADM ranking techniques. Application of the proposed approach on a mined land can be completed through some successive steps. First, performance of the MLSA attributes is scored locally by each individual decision maker (DM). Then the assigned performance scores are normalized and the deviation amplitudes of non-dominated alternatives are calculated. Weights of the attributes are calculated by another MADM technique namely, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in a separate procedure. Using the Gaussian preference function beside the weights, the preference indexes of the land-use alternatives are obtained. Calculation of the outgoing and entering flows of the alternatives and one by one comparison of these values will lead to partial pre-order of them and calculation of the net flows, will lead to a ranked preference for each land-use. At the final step, utilizing the PROMETHEE group decision support system which incorporates judgments of all the DMs, a consensual ranking can be derived. In this paper, preference order of post-mining land-uses for a hypothetical mined land has been derived according to judgments of one DM to reveal applicability of the proposed approach.

  1. The Effect of Length in Employment Sites’ Web Form Design on User Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Web form has become a critical component for many Web applications and services. Previous research has investigated into the general design of web form layout without examining the impact of variations in format, length and structure on user experience. This study explores users’ preference and performance over Web forms of different lengths deployed on an employment site. Three types of design of Web forms were developed as the experiment instruments for 48 participants to test and evaluate. Results show that participants’ preferences and satisfaction varied by the length of Web forms. Participants’ preferences were also affected by their previous Internet experiences with job websites. In the end, recommendations for design principles for Web forms used for job sites were presented. [Article content in Chinese

  2. What's that smell? An ecological approach to understanding preferences for familiar odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Goldberger, Carolyn S; Palmer, Stephen E; Levitan, Carmel A

    2015-01-01

    How do odor preferences arise? Following Palmer and Schloss's (2010, PNAS, 107, 8877-8882) ecological valence theory of color preferences, we propose that preference for an odor is determined by preferences for all objects and/or entities associated with that odor. The present results showed that preferences for familiar odors were strongly predicted by average preferences for all things associated with the odors (eg people liked the apple odor which was associated with mostly positive things, such as apples, soap, and candy, but disliked the fish odor, which was associated with mostly negative things, such as dead fish, trash, and vomit). The odor WAVEs (weighted affective valence estimates) performed significantly better than one based on preference for only the namesake object (eg predicting preference for the apple odor based on preference for apples). These results suggest that preferences for familiar odors are based on a summary statistic, coding the valence of previous odor-related experiences. We discuss how this account of odor preferences is consistent with the idea that odor preferences exist to guide organisms to approach beneficial objects and situations and avoid harmful ones.

  3. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Everitt, R.A.; Gascoyne, M.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Martin, C.D.; Soonawala, N.M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1994-06-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  4. Preceptor Perceptions of Virtual Quality Assurance Experiential Site Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Cheryl L; Schott, Kathryn A; Arnold, Austin D

    2018-05-01

    Objective. To determine preceptor perceptions of the value of experiential quality assurance site visits between virtual and onsite visits, and to gauge preceptor opinions of the optimal method of site visits based on the type of visit received. Methods. Site visits (12 virtual and 17 onsite) were conducted with 29 APPE sites located at least 200 miles from campus. Participating preceptors were invited to complete an online post-visit survey adapted from a previously validated and published survey tool measuring preceptor perceptions of the value of traditional onsite visits. Results. Likert-type score averages for survey questions ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 in the virtual group and from 4.3 to 4.7 in the onsite group. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. Preceptors were more inclined to prefer the type of visit they received. Preceptors receiving onsite visits were also more likely to indicate no visit type preference. Conclusion. Preceptors perceived value from both onsite and virtual site visits. Preceptors who experienced virtual site visits highly preferred that methodology. This study suggests that virtual site visits may be a viable alternative for providing experiential quality assurance site visits from a preceptor's perspective.

  5. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  6. Site selection of radioactive waste repository in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saler, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository site-selection procedure in Croatia is divided into two stages: the first, related to the exclusionary screening of the national territory and comparison of potential areas in order to identify preferred sites, acceptable for inclusion into the Regional Plan; and the second, comprising all necessary field investigations as well as additional site-characterization tasks planned to be worked out at a preferred sites. Several potential areas, representing an intermediate goal of the first stage, are defined till now. (author) [hr

  7. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Koyyada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD.

  8. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyada, Rajeswari; Latchooman, Nilesh; Jonaitis, Julius; Ayoub, Samir S.; Corcoran, Olivia; Casalotti, Stefano O.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD. PMID:29593550

  9. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Tomás A; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  10. Using a choice experiment and birder preferences to guide bird-conservation funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Rochelle; Smart, James C R; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2017-08-01

    Conservation of biodiversity, including birds, continues to challenge natural-area managers. Stated-preference methods (e.g., choice experiment [CE]) are increasingly used to provide data for valuation of natural ecosystems. We used a CE to calculate birders' willingness to pay for different levels of bioecological attributes (threatened species, endemic species, and diversity) of birding sites with hypothetical entry fees. The CE was delivered at popular birding and avitourism sites in Australia and the United Kingdom. Latent-class modeling results revealed heterogeneous preferences among birders and correspondingly variable willingness to pay. Four clear groups were apparent: quantity-driven birders, special-birds seekers, confused respondents, and price-is-no-object birders. Quantity-driven birders were attracted to sites that deliver high levels of diversity and endemic species for which they were willing to pay $135 and $66 to visit, respectively, above what they were willing to pay to visit a site with low levels of diversity and few endemic and threatened species . Special-bird seekers valued threatened species and high levels of endemic species most (willingness to pay $45 and $46, respectively). Confused respondents' preferences were difficult to determine, but they were the most sensitive to the hypothetical entry fees, unlike the price-is-no-object birders, who were not at all sensitive to cost. Our findings demonstrate that birders are amenable to paying for their preferred birding experience. These payments could provide an alternative source of funding in some avitourism sites on both public and private land. Such alternative revenue streams should be explored and given full consideration in increasingly competitive conservation-financing environments. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: Pattern consistency and implications for seed removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, T.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (plants at some locations than species exhibiting constancy in their patterns of preference. Only two frugivores, Euphonia musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  12. Cationic Site-Preference in the Yb14-xCaxAlSb11 (4.81 ≤ x ≤ 10.57 Series: Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnu Nam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four quaternary Zintl phases with mixed-cations in the Yb14-xCaxAlSb11 (4.81 ≤ x ≤ 10.57 series have been synthesized by using the arc-melting and the Sn metal-flux reaction methods, and the isotypic crystal structures of the title compounds have been characterized by both powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (PXRD and SXRD analyses. The overall crystal structure adopting the Ca14AlSb11-type can be described as a pack of four different types of the spiral-shaped one-dimensional octahedra chains with various turning radii, each of which is formed by the distorted ((Yb/CaSb6 octahedra. Four symmetrically-independent cationic sites contain mixed occupations of Yb2+ and Ca2+ with different mixing ratios and display a particular site preference by two cationic elements. Two hypothetical structural models of Yb4Ca10AlSb11 with different cationic arrangements were designed and exploited to study the details of site and bond energies. QVAL values provided the rationale for the observed site preference based on the electronegativity of each atom. Density of states (DOS curves indicated a semiconducting property of the title compounds, and crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP plots explained individual chemical bonding between components. Thermal conductivity measurement was performed for Yb8.42(4Ca5.58AlSb11, and the result was compared to compounds without mixed cations.

  13. Site preference of metal atoms in Gd_5_-_xM_xTt_4 (M = Zr, Hf; Tt = Si, Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jinlei; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium and hafnium were incorporated into the Gd_5Ge_4 and Gd_5Si_4 parent compounds in order to study the metal-site occupation in the M_5X_4 magnetocaloric phases (M = metals; X = p elements) family. The Gd_5_-_xZr_xGe_4 phases adopt the orthorhombic Sm_5Ge_4-type (space group Pnma) structure for x ≤ 1.49 and the tetragonal Zr_5Si_4-type (P4_12_12) structure for x ≥ 1.77. The Gd_5_-_xHf_xSi_4 compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic Gd_5Si_4-type (Pnma) structure for x ≤ 0.41 and the Zr_5Si_4-type structure for x ≥ 0.7. In both systems, single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the Zr/Hf atoms preferentially occupy the slab-surface M2 and slab-center M3 sites, both of which have a significantly larger Zr/Hf population than the slab-surface M1 site. The metal-site preference, i.e. the coloring problem on the three metal sites, is discussed considering geometric and electronic effects of the local coordination environments. The analysis of the metal-site occupation in Gd_5_-_xZr_xGe_4 and Gd_5_-_xHf_xSi_4 as well as other metal-substituted M_5X_4 systems suggests that both geometric and electronic effects can be used to explain the metal-site occupation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. An ordinal approach to computing with words and the preference-aversion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Computing with words (CWW) explores the brain’s ability to handle and evaluate perceptions through language, i.e., by means of the linguistic representation of information and knowledge. On the other hand, standard preference structures examine decision problems through the decomposition of the p......Computing with words (CWW) explores the brain’s ability to handle and evaluate perceptions through language, i.e., by means of the linguistic representation of information and knowledge. On the other hand, standard preference structures examine decision problems through the decomposition...... of the preference predicate into the simpler situations of strict preference, indifference and incomparability. Hence, following the distinctive cognitive/neurological features for perceiving positive and negative stimuli in separate regions of the brain, we consider two separate and opposite poles of preference...... and aversion, and obtain an extended preference structure named the Preference–aversion (P–A) structure. In this way, examining the meaning of words under an ordinal scale and using CWW’s methodology, we are able to formulate the P–A model under a simple and purely linguistic approach to decision making...

  15. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  16. Doping Li-rich cathode material Li2MnO3 : Interplay between lattice site preference, electronic structure, and delithiation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khang

    2017-12-01

    We report a detailed first-principles study of doping in Li2MnO3 , in both the dilute doping limit and heavy doping, using hybrid density-functional calculations. We find that Al, Fe, Mo, and Ru impurities are energetically most favorable when incorporated into Li2MnO3 at the Mn site, whereas Mg is most favorable when doped at the Li sites. Nickel, on the other hand, can be incorporated at the Li site and/or the Mn site, and the distribution of Ni over the lattice sites can be tuned by tuning the material preparation conditions. There is a strong interplay among the lattice site preference and charge and spin states of the dopant, the electronic structure of the doped material, and the delithiation mechanism. The calculated electronic structure and voltage profile indicate that in Ni-, Mo-, or Ru-doped Li2MnO3 , oxidation occurs on the electrochemically active transition-metal ion(s) before it does on oxygen during the delithiation process. The role of the dopants is to provide charge compensation and bulk electronic conduction mechanisms in the initial stages of delithiation, hence enabling the oxidation of the lattice oxygen in the later stages. This work thus illustrates how the oxygen-oxidation mechanism can be used in combination with the conventional mechanism involving transition-metal cations in design of high-capacity battery cathode materials.

  17. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5-2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world.

  18. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  19. Methodology for selecting low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with application to the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed to select an environmentally acceptable site for low-level radioactive waste disposal for a predetermined region of interest using prescribed site suitability requirements. The methodology provides a defensible means for identifying candidate areas within the region, candidate sites within the areas, and an environmentally preferred site from the candidate sites. This is accomplished in site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The methodology was applied to the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. 6 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  20. Parental preference or child well-being: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen N

    2010-02-01

    An ethical dilemma that is not uncommon to encounter when caring for children occurs when parental preference does not appear to be in the child's best interest. Challenges facing the health care team are further amplified when the family's cultural background does not match that of the team. A case study will be used to illustrate the challenges of a pediatric palliative care ethical dilemma further complicated by cultural diversity. Review of the child's medical condition, patient/parent preferences, quality of life, and contextual features will be followed by an analysis and recommendations for resolution of this challenging situation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. At-Risk Learner Preference in Engineering/Technical Graphics: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated learner preferences of secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) Engineering/Technical Graphics students using the VARK Questionnaire. The VARK Questionnaire is an instrument that assists in determining students' dominant preferred learning styles, whether visual, aural, reading, or kinesthetic. This study…

  2. Decision-making in honeybee swarms based on quality and distance information of candidate nest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Termsaithong, Teerasit; Sae-Tang, Anuwat; Duangphakdee, Orawan

    2015-01-07

    In the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms, an individual bee performs a waggle dance to communicate information about direction, quality, and distance of a discovered site to other bees at the swarm. Initially, different groups of bees dance to represent different potential sites, but eventually the swarm usually reaches an agreement for only one site. Here, we model the nest-site selection process in honeybee swarms of Apis mellifera and show how the swarms make adaptive decisions based on a trade-off between the quality and distance to candidate nest sites. We use bifurcation analysis and stochastic simulations to reveal that the swarm's site distance preference is moderate>near>far when the swarms choose between low quality sites. However, the distance preference becomes near>moderate>far when the swarms choose between high quality sites. Our simulations also indicate that swarms with large population size prefer nearer sites and, in addition, are more adaptive at making decisions based on available information compared to swarms with smaller population size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SITE: a methodology for assessment of energy facility siting patterns. Regional studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1975-08-01

    The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of clustered facilities in energy centers is also possible within the SITE analysis framework. An application of the SITE methodology to Northern Illinois is presented. Also included is a description of the ongoing extension of SITE for the accumulative evaluation of alternative regional energy siting patterns and fuel cycle options. An appendix provides documentation and user information for the SITE computer program

  4. The effect of synthetic method and annealing temperature on metal site preference in Al(1-x)Ga(x)FeO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James D S; Grosvenor, Andrew P

    2013-08-05

    Magnetoelectric materials couple both magnetic and electronic properties, making them attractive for use in multifunctional devices. The magnetoelectric AFeO3 compounds (Pna2(1); A = Al, Ga) have received attention as the properties of the system depend on composition as well as the synthetic method used. Al(1-x)Ga(x)FeO3. (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by the sol-gel and coprecipitation methods and studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Al L(2,3-), Ga K-, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number (CN) changes with the synthetic method. Al and Fe were found to prefer octahedral sites, while Ga prefers the tetrahedral site. It was found that composition played a larger role in determining site occupancies than synthetic method. Samples made by the sol-gel or ceramic methods (reported previously; Walker, J. D. S.; Grosvenor, A. P. J. Solid State Chem. 2013, 197, 147-153) showed smaller spectral changes than samples made via the coprecipitation method. This is attributed to greater ion mobility in samples synthesized via coprecipitation as the reactants do not have a long-range polymeric or oxide network during synthesis like samples synthesized via the sol-gel or ceramic method. Increasing annealing temperature increases the average coordination number of Al, and to a lesser extent Ga, while the average coordination number of Fe decreases. This study indicates that greater disorder is observed when the Al(1-x)Ga(x)FeO3. compounds have high Al content, and when annealed at higher temperatures.

  5. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in borax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhananga, T.M.; Matsuo, S.

    1985-01-01

    The total hydrogen involved in borax synthesized at 25 0 C in aqueous solution is enriched in deuterium by 5.3% compared with the mother liquor. There is no change in the value of the D/H fractionation factor between the hydrogen in borax and those in the mother liquor with changes in the degree of supersaturation. The fractionation factor changes slightly with a change in the crystallization temperature of borax in the range from 5 to 25 0 C. The D/H ratio in the different sites of borax was estimated by a fractional dehydration technique. The results show that hydrogen atoms of the polyanionic group [B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 ] are much more enriched in deuterium than those of the cationic group [Na 2 x 8H 2 O]. The delta D values, referred to the mother liquor from which the borax was crystallized, for the cationic group (site A) and the polyanionic group (site B) are -35 +/- 3 and 167 +/- 13%, respectively based on the fractional dehydration results obtained at -21 0 C. At -21 0 C, isotopic exchange between different sites during dehydration is assumed not to occur. The mechanism for dehydration of borax is discussed. 48 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  6. Preferences for variation in forest characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Taye, Fitalew Agimass; Lundhede, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . This study aims at evaluating the effects of variation both within and between stands on recreational values. A choice experiment (CE) was applied to elicit people's preferences for forest types on their next recreational visit. Each alternative is presented with drawings of three forest stands which differ...... with respect to tree species, height (age) and distance to the site, the latter representing the cost factor – willingness-to-travel. Respondents also compose their ideal recreational forest by selecting three types of stands from the catalogue of drawings. We find that mixed tree species are preferred...

  7. Sexual differences in food preferences in the white stork: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Dylewski, Łukasz; Skórka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Sex differences in the foraging ecology of monomorphic species are poorly understood, due to problems with gender identification in field studies. In the current study, we used experimental conditions to investigate the food preferences of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, an opportunistic species in terms of food, but characterised by a low level of sexual dimorphism. During a 10-day experiment, 29 individuals (20 females and 9 males) were studied by means of a `cafeteria test' in which the storks' diet consisted of mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, insects and earthworms. The storks preferred food characterised by high calorific and protein values such as mammals, birds and fish. Sexes differed strongly in their preferences; males preferred mammals, whereas females preferred birds. Moreover, females consumed insects and earthworms less often than males. Interestingly, males spent significantly less time foraging than females. We have demonstrated that the white stork exhibits clear sexual differences in food preferences which are mostly attributable to differences in parental duties, physiology and anatomy.

  8. Student Preferences for Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Student preferences among instructional methods are largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. The algorithmic rigor of courses and the societal culture can influence these preferences. This study explored students' preferences of instructional methods for learning in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differ in algorithmic…

  9. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  10. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+)). All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pK(a1) values between 2.8 and 4.5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata.

  11. The esthetic preference of Chinese typefaces--an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Qin, Ruilin; Zhang, Junsong; Wu, Junjie; Zhou, Changle

    2015-02-19

    Emotional stimuli such as pictures, logos, geometric shapes, etc can evoke human esthetic preference from previous neuroesthetic studies. Chinese characters can be considered as emotional stimuli as they have an important property: typeface. Intuitively, the emotional meaning of Chinese characters can cause esthetic preference. However, whether a typeface can cause esthetic preference or not from an empirical perspective is still unknown. To address this issue, participants׳ event-related potential (ERP) waves are recorded while they are presented a series of Chinese characters in different typefaces. Participants are asked to distinguish specific target from the others. Afterwards, from the Chinese characters presented in this task, participants are asked individually to select the characters they like the most and dislike the most. By recording the ERP responses (a response of implicit preference to Chinese characters themselves) during the experiment to different typefaces of Chinese characters, we find a significant difference between disliked and all characters in the frontal-central area in the 200-300 ms window after the stimulus׳ onset. In the 400-600 ms window, after the stimulus׳ onset, a significant bias for disliked characters emerges in frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas. Our results suggest that people could make a rapid, implicit esthetic preference for the typefaces of Chinese characters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. An Information Theory Account of Preference Prediction Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollmann, Monique; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about other people's preferences is essential for successful social interactions, but what exactly are the driving factors that determine how well we can predict the likes and dislikes of people around us? To investigate the accuracy of couples’ preference predictions we outline and

  13. Effects of Heterogeneity in Residential Preferences on an Agent-Based Model of Urban Sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Brown

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of agent-based models (ABMs to represent heterogeneity in the characteristics and behaviors of actors enables analyses about the implications of this heterogeneity for system behavior. The importance of heterogeneity in the specification of ABMs, however, creates new demands for empirical support. An earlier analysis of a survey of residential preferences within southeastern Michigan revealed seven groups of residents with similar preferences on similar characteristics of location. In this paper, we present an ABM that represents the process of residential development within an urban system and run it for a hypothetical pattern of environmental variation. Residential locations are selected by residential agents, who evaluate locations on the basis of preference for nearness to urban services, including jobs, aesthetic quality of the landscape, and their similarity to their neighbors. We populate our ABM with a population of residential preferences drawn from the survey results in five different ways: (1 preferences drawn at random; (2 equal preferences based on the mean from the entire survey sample; (3 preferences drawn from a single distribution, whose mean and standard deviation are derived from the survey sample; (4 equal preferences within each of seven groups, based on the group means; and (5 preferences drawn from distributions for each of seven groups, defined by group means and standard deviations. Model sensitivity analysis, based on multiple runs of our model under each case, revealed that adding heterogeneity to agents has a significant effect on model outcomes, measured by aggregate patterns of development sprawl and clustering.

  14. Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is it cosmetically preferable? Taha Alkhatrawi, Radi Elsherbini and Djamal Ouslimane. Purpose In an attempt to minimize the scars and improve the cosmetic outcome in children, the umbilical site has been chosen for colostomy formation in patients with.

  15. DNA polymerase preference determines PCR priming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Byrne-Steele, Miranda; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Stanley; Clemmons, Scott; Zahorchak, Robert J; Han, Jian

    2014-01-30

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important developments in modern biotechnology. However, PCR is known to introduce biases, especially during multiplex reactions. Recent studies have implicated the DNA polymerase as the primary source of bias, particularly initiation of polymerization on the template strand. In our study, amplification from a synthetic library containing a 12 nucleotide random portion was used to provide an in-depth characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias. The synthetic library was amplified with three commercially available DNA polymerases using an anchored primer with a random 3' hexamer end. After normalization, the next generation sequencing (NGS) results of the amplified libraries were directly compared to the unamplified synthetic library. Here, high throughput sequencing was used to systematically demonstrate and characterize DNA polymerase priming bias. We demonstrate that certain sequence motifs are preferred over others as primers where the six nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the primer, as well as the sequences four base pairs downstream of the priming site, may influence priming efficiencies. DNA polymerases in the same family from two different commercial vendors prefer similar motifs, while another commercially available enzyme from a different DNA polymerase family prefers different motifs. Furthermore, the preferred priming motifs are GC-rich. The DNA polymerase preference for certain sequence motifs was verified by amplification from single-primer templates. We incorporated the observed DNA polymerase preference into a primer-design program that guides the placement of the primer to an optimal location on the template. DNA polymerase priming bias was characterized using a synthetic library amplification system and NGS. The characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias was then utilized to guide the primer-design process and demonstrate varying amplification efficiencies among three commercially

  16. Identifying functional transcription factor binding sites in yeast by considering their positional preference in the promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jou Lai

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site (TFBS identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC, to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS. This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.

  17. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  18. Fertility decline and gender preference--an experience of Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakumar, R; Devi, K S

    1989-12-01

    Using data from 1980 Fertility Survey from Kerala, India, researchers analyzed responses from 2242 women to ascertain if gender preference existed. Acceptance of contraception differed among the 3 districts from 70.33% in Ernakulam, 68.05% in Alleppey, and 24.45% in Palghat. The acceptance rate was higher among women who had only 1 son than among those who had only 1 daughter. Further, the rate for women in Palghat with only 1 son (13.12) was almost 2 times higher than that of those with only 1 daughter (6.9). The extent of son preference was lowest in Alleppey. Generally, couples who had the preferred number of sons were more likely to choose sterilization as their method of birth control while those who continued to have daughters without the desired number of sons chose nonterminal methods. The differences between the averages of sons and daughters in terms of total family size are not very wide, however, therefore the degree of son preference has not greatly changed either family size or its composition, especially in Alleppey and Ernakulam. Even though son preference is generally strong among Hindus, the Hindus in both Alleppey and Ernakulam do not demonstrate a strong preference for sons index. On the other hand, the Hindus in Palghat are quite conservative and do demonstrate a high son preference index. Mothers who have attended a formal school for at least 5 years show little discrimination against a daughter. Ernakulam has reached the stage in the transition from a noncontracepting society to a contracepting society when the number of children of the same sex outnumber the other, couples decide to have no more children to maintain small size norms. In Alleppey, the deisre for small size families was the primary consideration for contraceptive use and son preference was secondary.

  19. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  20. Telecommuting and Learning Style Preference: An Examination of Learning Transfer in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Telecommuting learning style preferences were examined in an effort to determine the impact of learning transfer and if employees could benefit from blended training methodologies (i.e., online, face-to-face). Learning style preferences were examined in an effort to promote learning transfer and retention in the workplace. Employees in higher…

  1. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  2. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Till

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  3. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  4. An Investigation of Patient Preferences for Music Played Before Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Veena; Wingfield, Peter; Adams, David; Rabinowitz, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Patients often feel anxious before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which can lead to avoidance of treatments. Music is a noninvasive safe option to reduce anxiety in the preoperative setting. Therefore, we examined patients' preferences of listening to music while receiving ECT by providing music-by way of headphones or speakers-to participants before treatment. Patients receiving ECT were recruited for this study. Patients served as their own controls in 3 separate music intervention sessions: 1) randomization to music via headphones or speakers, 2) no music, 3) the remaining music intervention. Patients completed a questionnaire related to satisfaction and preferences of music being played before ECT. Patients received a final questionnaire at the end of the study asking which intervention they preferred. Thirty patients completed the study. Ninety percent enjoyed listening to music through speakers. Eighty percent liked listening to music through headphones. Seventeen percent preferred not having any music. The difference in preference between speakers and headphones was not significant (P = 0.563; McNemar-Bowker test). There was no association between preference at the end of the study and the initial assignment of speakers or headphones (P = 0.542 and P = 0.752, respectively; Pearson χ tests). No adverse events were reported. Music is a low-cost intervention with virtually no side effects that could be offered as an adjunctive therapy for patients receiving ECT. A significant proportion of patients liked hearing music before treatment.

  5. Communication about colorectal cancer screening in Britain: public preferences for an expert recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J; Macedo, A; von Wagner, C; Simon, A E; Jones, C; Hammersley, V; Weller, D; Wardle, J; Campbell, C

    2012-12-04

    Informed decision-making approaches to cancer screening emphasise the importance of decisions being determined by individuals' own values and preferences. However, advice from a trusted source may also contribute to autonomous decision-making. This study examined preferences regarding a recommendation from the NHS and information provision in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In face-to-face interviews, a population-based sample of adults across Britain (n=1964; age 50-80 years) indicated their preference between: (1) a strong recommendation to participate in CRC screening, (2) a recommendation alongside advice to make an individual decision, and (3) no recommendation but advice to make an individual decision. Other measures included trust in the NHS and preferences for information on benefits and risks. Most respondents (84%) preferred a recommendation (47% strong recommendation, 37% recommendation plus individual decision-making advice), but the majority also wanted full information on risks (77%) and benefits (78%). Men were more in favour of a recommendation than women (86% vs 81%). Trust in the NHS was high overall, but the minority who expressed low trust were less likely to want a recommendation. Most British adults want full information on risks and benefits of screening but they also want a recommendation from an authoritative source. An 'expert' view may be an important part of autonomous health decision-making.

  6. Child gender preferences in an urban and rural community in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Son preference exists in the rural and urban community in Enugu State however a balanced preference is also common especially in the urban area. Recommendation: Family education especially on gender equality and sensitivity was recommended. Keywords: Son preference, balanced preference, Urban, ...

  7. New Reactor Siting in Finland, Hanhikivi Site in Pyhaejoki - STUK preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    STUK has performed a preliminary assessment of the Decision-in-Principle on the Fennovoima application. A variety of factors must be considered in the selection of a site, including effects of the site on the plant design and the effects of the plant on the site environment. These include external hazards, both natural and human-induced. Since this is a new site, an extensive siting process is followed, that can include an EIA. A site survey is performed to identify candidate sites, after investigating a large region and rejecting unsuitable sites. The remaining sites are then screened and compared on the basis of safety and other considerations to select one or more preferred sites. Natural hazards include geology, seismology, hydrology and meteorology. Offshore ice will be a particular hazard for this plant, since the site is on average only 1.5 m above sea level. The design basis earthquake corresponds to a return frequency of 100,000 years, with 50 % confidence. The existing sites in southern Finland used a design peak ground acceleration of 0.1 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 10 Hz. The candidate sites in northern Finland will require a peak ground acceleration of 0.2 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 25 Hz

  8. Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet-Delivered Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programme. ... Information sources of information include family members, teachers and peers. Ugandan youth perceive the concept of receiving Internet-based sexuality information as a way to obtain private ...

  9. Pine seed predation by mice: an experimental assessment of preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Peredo, R.; BolIvar Cime, B.S.

    2016-07-01

    Seed traits are considered an essential factor influencing rodents’ foraging preferences. We evaluated the mouse’s preferences for seeds of four pine species, Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. montezumae, that differ in length, width, nutritional content, and concentrated tannins. In ‘cafeteria experiments’ in the laboratory, we tested six of the nine mice species commonly found in the temperate forest of Southern Mexico. Longer and wider seeds were those of P. teocote and P. montezumae. P. teocote seeds had the highest protein content, P. patula were highest in lipids, and P. montezumae seeds were highest in carbohydrates. In concentrated tannins, gallic acid content was highest in P. patula seeds and tannic acid content was highest in P. teocote seeds. Mice preferred small pine seeds with a high lipid and gallic acid content, a low tannic acid content, and an intermediate protein and carbohydrate content. The foraging behavior of rodents, their energy optimization, and the likely effects on seed fate and plant composition would thus be mediated by combinations of seed traits rather than by single seed traits such as size or tannin contents. (Author)

  10. Site characterization quality assurance for the California LLRW Disposal Site Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.P.; Ench, J.E.; Serlin, C.L.; Bennett, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In December of 1985 US Ecology was chosen as the license designee for the State of California's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1987, three candidate sites were selected for characterization studies in preparation for identifying the preferred site. The geotechnical characterization activities along with studies of the ecological and archaeological attributes, as well as assessments of the socio-economic impacts and cultural resources all provide input towards selection of the proposed site. These technical studies in conjunction with comments from local citizen committees and other interested parties are used as a basis for determining the proposed site for which full site characterization as required by California licensing requirements are undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program for Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the site characterization activities on the California LLRW Disposal Site Project. The focus is on three major perspectives: The composite QA Program and two of the primary characterization activities, the geotechnical and the meteorological investigations

  11. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  13. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  14. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  15. Quantifying preferences for the natural world using monetary and nonmonetary assessments of value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tinch, Dugald; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Given that funds for biodiversity conservation are limited, there is a need to understand people's preferences for its different components. To date, such preferences have largely been measured in monetary terms. However, how people value biodiversity may differ from economic theory, and there is...... in an assessment of environmental preferences, although which approach is preferable depends on why one wishes to measure values for the natural world......., but showed strong associations with self-reported well-being. Both approaches are likely to reflect a combination of the environmental properties of a site and unobserved individual preference heterogeneity for the natural world. Our results suggest that either metric will deliver mutually consistent results...... axes derived from environmental psychology theories (reflection, attachment, continuity with past). The 2 metrics were broadly congruent. Participants with above-median self-reported well-being scores were willing to pay significantly higher amounts for enhancing species richness than those with below...

  16. Investigating the use of an adjustment task to set preferred illuminances in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Christoffersen, Jens; Fotios, Steve

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine user preferences for light level using the method of adjustment. The study sought preferred illuminances under lighting from fluorescent lamps of different correlated colour temperature. It was hypothesised that the preferred illuminance would be influenced...

  17. Choosing your network: social preferences in an online health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Damon; van de Rijt, Arnout

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of online health communities offer individuals the opportunity to receive information, advice, and support from peers. Recent studies have demonstrated that these new online contacts can be important informational resources, and can even exert significant influence on individuals' behavior in various contexts. However little is known about how people select their health contacts in these virtual domains. This is because selection preferences in peer networks are notoriously difficult to detect. In existing networks, unobserved pressures on tie formation--such as common organizational memberships, introductions to friends of friends, or limitations on accessibility--may mistakenly be interpreted as individual preferences for interacting/not interacting with others. We address these issues by adopting a social media approach to studying network formation. We study social selection using an in vivo study within an online exercise program, in which anonymous participants have equal opportunities for initiating relationships with other program members. This design allows us to identify individuals' preferences for health contacts, and to evaluate what these preferences imply for members' access to new kinds of health information, and for the kinds of social influences to which they are exposed. The study was conducted within a goal-oriented fitness competition, in which participation was greatest among a small core of active individuals. Our results show that the active participants displayed indifference to the fitness and exercise profiles of others, disregarding information about others' fitness levels, exercise preferences, and workout experiences, instead selecting partners almost entirely on the basis of similarities on gender, age, and BMI. Interestingly, the findings suggest that rather than expanding and diversifying their sources of health information, participants' choices limited the value of their online resources by selecting contacts

  18. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. ©Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 30.06.2017.

  19. On the stability of preferences and attitudes before and after experiencing an electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2013-01-01

    -wave stated preference experiment where data was collected before and after the respondents experienced an electric vehicle for three months. We estimate a hybrid choice model using jointly the stated choices before and after the test period. The results show that individual preferences change significantly......In this study, we investigate the extent to which experience affects individual preferences for specific electric vehicle characteristics, individual attitudes toward the environment, and the impact of the attitudes on the choice between an electric and a conventional vehicle. We use a two...... after a real experience with an electric vehicle in the household. In particular, there are major changes in the preference for driving range, top speed, fuel cost, battery life and charging in city centres and train stations. In line with other studies, we find that environmental concern has a positive...

  20. An Examination of Georgia Young Farmer Program Participants’ Learning Style Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry S. Bailey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to describe Georgia Young Farmer Program participants’ learning style preferences. Using survey research methods, a questionnaire was designed to collect data related to the purpose of the study. The population for this study included active members in the program. Study findings showed that participants had a preference for kinesthetic learning over visual and auditory learning. While participants indicated a preference for kinesthetic learning, all three learning styles were deemed effective. Preferences for learning styles and perception of effectiveness did not differ by personal characteristics. Recommendations include taking learning style preferences into account when designing and delivering programming, training for teachers, and continuing to assess learners’ preferences.

  1. An Experimental Study of Gender and Cultural Differences in Hue Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Saud Al-Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on colour preference. Inspection of previous studies of colour preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colours that are shown – the chromatic co-ordinates of colours are either not noted or the illuminant that colours are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about colour preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colours that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating colour preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarise colour preference using subjective terms for hue (Ling et al., 2007; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007. This approach aims to quantitatively summarise hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or ‘cardinal axes’ underlying colour vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling’s (2007 approach to investigating colour preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants?. Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted towards purple/blue-green.

  2. Quantitative Autoradiography on [(35)S]TBPS Binding Sites of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid(A) Receptors in Discrete Brain Regions of High- Alcohol-Drinking and Low-Alcohol- Drinking Rats Selectively Bred forHigh- and Low-Alcohol Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, B.H.; Kunkler, P.E.; Lumeng, L.

    1997-01-01

    It has been documented that ethanol can potentiate brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic function, and there is a close link between the GABA(A) receptor complex and effects of ethanol, including reinforcement of alcohol which is a fundamental element of alcohol preference. However, it is unknown in what discrete brain regions GABA(A) receptors might be associated with alcohol preference. In the present study, [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([(35)S]TBPS) was used to localize GABA(A) receptors in high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats and low-alcohol-drinking (LAD) rats which were selectively bred for high and low alcohol preference, respectively. Initial qualitative observations indicated that [(35)S]TBPS binding sites were abundant in many brain areas including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala of HAD and LAD rats. Furthermore, the quantitative autoradiographic analysis revealed fewer [(35)S]TBPS binding sites of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdaloid complex, central medial thalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic nucleus and anterior hypothalamic nucleus of HAD rats than LAD rats. Collectively, this study has indicated that HAD rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference possess lower [(35)S]TBPS binding in the brain. Since lower TBPS binding has been proposed to reflect enhanced GABAergic function, as evidenced in rats with seizure or under alcohol withdrawal, the results from the present study suggest that HAD rats might have an enhanced GABAergic function. It is thus likely that enhanced GABAergic function in the brain might be related to high alcohol preference which is characteristic in HAD rats. In addition, the present result showing no difference of [(35)S]TBPS binding in the nucleus accumbens is also in agreement with a notion that [(35)S]TBPS binding may represent only a small spectrum of the GABA(A) receptor complex which is constituted of a sophisticated subunit combination whose functional compositions are still unknown. In

  3. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  4. Integrating Stakeholder Preferences and GIS-Based Multicriteria Analysis to Identify Forest Landscape Restoration Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Uribe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of spatial nature, it may be explored effectively through Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment. The proposed approach is based on the definition and weighting of multiple criteria for evaluating land suitability. An MCDA-based methodology was used to identify priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Upper Mixtec region, Oaxaca (Mexico, one of the most degraded areas of Latin America. Socioeconomic and environmental criteria were selected and evaluated. The opinions of four different stakeholder groups were considered: general public, academic, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and governmental officers. The preferences of these groups were spatially modeled to identify their priorities. The final result was a map that identifies the most preferable sites for restoration, where resources and efforts should be concentrated. MCDA proved to be a very useful tool in collective planning, when alternative sites have to be identified and prioritized to guide the restoration work.

  5. Carbon reduction scenarios for 2050: An explorative analysis of public preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Patricia; Chatterton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of public preferences for a low carbon future UK and compares them with three future scenarios proposed by the UK government based on data from 10,983 self-selected participants who engaged in the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change ‘My2050’ online simulation. Participants expressed a stronger preference for demand-side options than for supply-side ones. They also chose fuel switching (to electricity) and technical energy efficiency measures above more behaviour focused options. Renewable energy options (wind, solar, marine and hydro) were preferred to other low carbon supply options (nuclear power, carbon capture and storage), with offshore wind power more popular than onshore. Nuclear power was the least popular generation option. Acceptability of the government′s three proposed scenarios was tested by comparing these scenarios with the research findings. Greatest support was suggested for the two scenarios emphasising business greenness, home energy efficiency, electrification of home heating and travel behaviour. The lowest level of support was demonstrated for the scenario based on significant growth in nuclear power with minimal increases in energy efficiency. Despite issues regarding the representivity of the sampled respondents, the work demonstrates the possibility of using outputs from the tool to assess publically preferred pathways. - Highlights: • Examination of >10,000 initial responses to UK government ‘My 2050’ simulation. • A number of patterns were identified in the responses. • Participants preferred renewable energy options to other low carbon supply options. • The alignment of public preferences with government scenarios was assessed. • The value of scenario simulations for public engagement was demonstrated with caveats

  6. Investigating the Use of an Adjustment Task to Set Preferred Colour of Ambient Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Fotios, Steve A.; Christoffersen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the method of adjustment when determining user preferences for the colour appearance of ambient lighting. A booth was lit using luminaires containing an array of white and coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs), allowing continuous variation of correlated...... different CCT stimulus ranges within the available range. All three ranges led to significantly different results for preferred CCT: 3288, 3490 and 3671 K. The experimental results confirmed that stimulus range, anchor and adaptation time have significant effect on the preferred CCT determined using...

  7. Marketing the HIV test to MSM: ethnic differences in preferred venues and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill T; Petroll, Andrew E

    2013-05-01

    Lack of awareness of HIV status is associated with an increased likelihood of HIV transmission. We surveyed 633 men who have sex with men (MSM) from diverse ethnic groups recruited from a variety of community venues in a U.S. Midwestern city with rising HIV infection rates. Our first aim was to describe patterns of sexual risk, annual HIV testing frequency, and venues where information about HIV and HIV testing could be disseminated to inner-city MSM. Our second aim was to identify preferred sources to receive information about HIV testing and determine whether these preferences differed by ethnic background. Results indicated that despite similar proportions of high-sexual risk behaviors, compared with African American and Latino MSM, smaller proportions of non-Hispanic White MSM had received an HIV test in the last 12 months. Despite ethnic differences in health care access, a physician's office was the most common HIV testing site. Overall, a majority conveyed a preference to see advertisements in mainstream media outlets. However, when preferences were stratified by ethnicity, African American MSM were the least likely to prefer receiving information from mainstream media and conveyed a stronger preference to receive information from authority figures than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic MSM.

  8. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  9. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  10. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  11. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  12. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  13. Preference learning for cognitive modeling: a case study on entertainment preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning from preferences, which provide means for expressing a subject's desires, constitutes an important topic in machine learning research. This paper presents a comparative study of four alternative instance preference learning algorithms (both linear and nonlinear). The case study...... investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling). Two of the approaches are derived from the literature--the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning...... with Gaussian processes--while the remaining two are custom-designed approaches for the problem under investigation: meta-LMA and neuroevolution. Preference learning techniques are combined with feature set selection methods permitting the construction of effective preference models, given suitable individual...

  14. Irrational decision-making in an amoeboid organism: transitivity and context-dependent preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-22

    Most models of animal foraging and consumer choice assume that individuals make choices based on the absolute value of items and are therefore 'economically rational'. However, frequent violations of rationality by animals, including humans, suggest that animals use comparative valuation rules. Are comparative valuation strategies a consequence of the way brains process information, or are they an intrinsic feature of biological decision-making? Here, we examine the principles of rationality in an organism with radically different information-processing mechanisms: the brainless, unicellular, slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We offered P. polycephalum amoebas a choice between food options that varied in food quality and light exposure (P. polycephalum is photophobic). The use of an absolute valuation rule will lead to two properties: transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Transitivity is satisfied if preferences have a consistent, linear ordering, while IIA states that a decision maker's preference for an item should not change if the choice set is expanded. A violation of either of these principles suggests the use of comparative rather than absolute valuation rules. Physarum polycephalum satisfied transitivity by having linear preference rankings. However, P. polycephalum's preference for a focal alternative increased when a third, inferior quality option was added to the choice set, thus violating IIA and suggesting the use of a comparative valuation process. The discovery of comparative valuation rules in a unicellular organism suggests that comparative valuation rules are ubiquitous, if not universal, among biological decision makers.

  15. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  16. Recreational rates and future land-use preferences for four Department of Energy sites: consistency despite demographic and geographical differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The management of ecosystems has been improved by both a public understanding of ecosystem structure and function and by managers' understanding of public perceptions and attitudes. This is especially true for contaminated lands where there are a variety of remediation, restoration, and future land-use decisions to be made. This paper synthesizes several surveys from four US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the states of South Carolina, Idaho, Nevada, and New York. Although ethnic composition varied among the sites, age and gender did not. The percentage of the study population engaged in hunting ranged from 30% to 41% and that in fishing ranged from 55% to 74%. Average hunting rates ranged from 9 (New York) to 15 (South Carolina) days/year; average fishing rates ranged from 12 (New Mexico) to 38 (New York) days a year. Despite the demographic and recreational rate differences, there was remarkable agreement about future land uses. Maintaining these DOE sites as National Environmental Research Parks and using them for nonconsumptive recreation rated the highest. The lowest rated future land uses were current and additional nuclear waste storage and the building of homes and factories. People who participated in a recreational activity rated those future land uses higher than nonusers. While these data on recreational rates can be used to assess the potential risk to people using contaminated sites and to aid in setting clean-up standards based on potential risk, the information on land-use preferences can be used by managers to determine future use and to plan for such use. This information is particularly relevant to the Department of Energy's 'Risk-based End State Vision'

  17. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  18. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  19. The kissing-loop motif is a preferred site of 5' leader recombination during replication of SL3-3 murine leukemia viruses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Mikkelsen, J G; Schmidt, J

    1999-01-01

    , and the upstream part of the 5' untranslated region, enabled us to map recombination sites, guided by distinct scattered nucleotide differences. In 30 of 44 analyzed sequences, recombination was mapped to a 33-nucleotide similarity window coinciding with the kissing-loop stem-loop motif implicated in dimerization...... of the diploid genome. Interestingly, the recombination pattern preference found in replication-competent viruses from T-cell tumors is very similar to the pattern previously reported for retroviral vectors in cell culture experiments. The data therefore sustain the hypothesis that the kissing loop, presumably...

  20. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site.

  1. Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsbee, Lindell e [Civil Engineering, Univ. of KY; Kipp, James A [Univ. of KY, Kentucky water research Institute

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on assessing community preferences for the future use of the PGDP site, given the site's pending closure by US DOE. The project approach fostered interaction and engagement with the public based on lessons learned at other complex DOE environmental cleanup sites and upon the integration of a number of principles and approaches to public engagement from the Project Team's local, state, regional and international public engagement experience. The results of the study provide the community with a record of the diversity of values and preferences related to the environmental cleanup and future use of the site.

  2. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  3. Creating Classrooms of Preference: An Exercise in Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a process used in organizational creation and change and then outlines steps for an in-class exercise titled "The Preferred Classroom," to be used to design and organize a college classroom for the term. The exercise also prepares business students for future exposure to AI. A brief literature…

  4. How avian nest site selection responds to predation risk: Testing an 'adaptive peak hypothesis'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; John T. Rotenberry

    2012-01-01

    1. Nest predation limits avian fitness, so birds should favour nest sites that minimize predation risk. Nevertheless, preferred nest microhabitat features are often uncorrelated with apparent variation in predation rates. 2. This lack of congruence between theory-based expectation and empirical data may arise when birds already occupy ‘adaptive peaks’. If birds nest...

  5. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  6. Happy faces are preferred regardless of familiarity--sad faces are preferred only when familiar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-I; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Familiarity leads to preference (e.g., the mere exposure effect), yet it remains unknown whether it is objective familiarity, that is, repetitive exposure, or subjective familiarity that contributes to preference. In addition, it is unexplored whether and how different emotions influence familiarity-related preference. The authors investigated whether happy or sad faces are preferred or perceived as more familiar and whether this subjective familiarity judgment correlates with preference for different emotional faces. An emotional face--happy or sad--was paired with a neutral face, and participants rated the relative preference and familiarity of each of the paired faces. For preference judgment, happy faces were preferred and sad faces were less preferred, compared with neutral faces. For familiarity judgment, happy faces did not show any bias, but sad faces were perceived as less familiar than neutral faces. Item-by-item correlational analyses show preference for sad faces--but not happy faces--positively correlate with familiarity. These results suggest a direct link between positive emotion and preference, and argue at least partly against a common cause for familiarity and preference. Instead, facial expression of different emotional valence modulates the link between familiarity and preference.

  7. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  8. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  9. Preferential site occupancy of alloying elements in TiAl-based phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, David, E-mail: david.holec@unileoben.ac.at; Reddy, Rajeev K.; Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-05-28

    First principles calculations are used to study the preferential occupation of ternary alloying additions into the binary Ti-Al phases, namely, γ-TiAl, α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al, β{sub o}-TiAl, and B19-TiAl. While the early transition metals (TMs, group IVB, VB, and VIB elements) prefer to substitute for Ti atoms in the γ-, α{sub 2}-, and B19-phases, they preferentially occupy Al sites in the β{sub o}-TiAl. Si is, in this context, an anomaly, as it prefers to sit on the Al sublattice for all four phases. B and C are shown to prefer octahedral Ti-rich interstitial positions instead of substitutional incorporation. The site preference energy is linked with the alloying-induced changes of energy of formation, hence alloying-related (de)stabilisation of the phases. We further show that the phase-stabilisation effect of early TMs on β{sub o}-phase has a different origin depending on their valency. Finally, an extensive comparison of our predictions with available theoretical and experimental data (which is, however, limited mostly to the γ-phase) shows a consistent picture.

  10. Host preferences and feeding patterns of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in three sites of Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Maoqing

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann is a major vector of malaria and is among the dominant species in Shandong province of China. Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes is crucial for elimination of malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis mosquitoes in Shandong province. This study was carried out to compare the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis in malaria-endemic areas of Shandong province China. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three malaria-endemic areas (Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian), during the peak months of mosquito population (August and September) from 2014 to 2015. Indoor-resting mosquitoes and outdoor-resting blood-fed females were sampled in the morning hours (0600 to 0900 hrs) from 10 randomly selected houses using pyrethrum spray catch method, and sweeping with an insect net. ELISA was used for the identification of blood meal. The blood meal of each mosquito was tested against antisera specific to human, pig, dog, cow, goat, horse (mule) and fowl. At all indoor study locations of Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian, 59.4, 68.1 and 98.8% blood-engorged female An. sinensis collected from cattle sheds fed almost exclusively on bovines, respectively. For outdoor locations, at Jimo site, 27.27 and 49.55% An. sinensis fed on cattle and pigs; at Yinan, 30.42% fed on cattle and 36.88% fed both on cattle and goats, while no pig antibodies were detected. At Shanxian, percent of An. sinensis that fed on cattle, pigs and cattle-goat was 20.72, 27.62 and 21.78%, respectively. The analysis of An. sinensis blood meals in all the three studied areas from human houses, cattle sheds, pig sheds and mixed dwellings revealed that An. sinensis prefers cattle hosts, and can feed on other available animal hosts if the cattle hosts are absent, and the mosquitoes readily feed on humans when domestic animals (cattle and pigs) are not nearby for feeding. The analysis of blood meal revealed that An

  11. An approach to siting nuclear power plants: the relevance of earthquakes, faults and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.; Brogan, G.E.; Cluff, L.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Mao, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    The regional approach to nuclear power plant siting described in this paper identifies candidate sites within the region and ranks these sites by using decision-analysis concepts. The approach uses exclusionary criteria to eliminate areas from consideration and to identify those areas which are most likely to contain candidate sites. These areas are then examined in greater detail to identify candidate sites, and the number of sites under consideration is reduced to a reasonably manageable number, approximately 15. These sites are then ranked using concepts of decision analysis. The exclusionary criteria applied relate primarily to regulatory-agency safety requirements and essential functional requirements. Examples of such criteria include proximity to population centres, presence of active faults, and the availability of cooling water. In many areas of the world, the presence of active faults and potential negative effects of earthquakes are dominant exclusionary criteria. To apply the 'active fault' criterion the region must be studied to locate and assess the activity of all potentially active faults. This requires complementary geologic (including geomorphic), historical, seismological, geodetic and geophysical investigations of the entire region. Site response studies or empirical attenuation correlations can be used to determine the relevant parameters of anticipated shaking from postulated earthquakes, and analytical testing and evaluation can be used to assess the potential extent of ground failure during an earthquake. After candidate sites are identified, an approach based on decision analysis is used to rank them. This approach uses the preferences and judgements of consumers, utility companies, the government, and other groups concerned with siting and licensing issues in the ranking process. Both subjective and objective factors are processed in a logical manner, as are the monetary and non-monetary factors and achievement of competing environmental

  12. Remediation management of complex sites using an adaptive site management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, John; Spreng, Carl; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula

    2017-12-15

    Complex sites require a disproportionate amount of resources for environmental remediation and long timeframes to achieve remediation objectives, due to their complex geologic conditions, hydrogeologic conditions, geochemical conditions, contaminant-related conditions, large scale of contamination, and/or non-technical challenges. A recent team of state and federal environmental regulators, federal agency representatives, industry experts, community stakeholders, and academia worked together as an Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) team to compile resources and create new guidance on the remediation management of complex sites. This article summarizes the ITRC team's recommended process for addressing complex sites through an adaptive site management approach. The team provided guidance for site managers and other stakeholders to evaluate site complexities and determine site remediation potential, i.e., whether an adaptive site management approach is warranted. Adaptive site management was described as a comprehensive, flexible approach to iteratively evaluate and adjust the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key aspects of adaptive site management were described, including tools for revising and updating the conceptual site model (CSM), the importance of setting interim objectives to define short-term milestones on the journey to achieving site objectives, establishing a performance model and metrics to evaluate progress towards meeting interim objectives, and comparing actual with predicted progress during scheduled periodic evaluations, and establishing decision criteria for when and how to adapt/modify/revise the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key findings will be published in an ITRC Technical and Regulatory guidance document in 2017 and free training webinars will be conducted. More information is available at www.itrc-web.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  14. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  15. An empirical study of the reward preferences of South African employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J. Snelgar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Adapting traditional reward systems to focus on employee preferences has become a necessity as companies strive to attract, motivate and retain a skilled and high performing workforce. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to identify certain categories of rewards that employees consider to be most important, including base pay, contingency pay, benefits, performance and career management, quality work environment, and work–home integration. The impact of these reward categories on an organisation’s ability to attract, motivate and retain employees was explored, together with the influence of demographic variables on reward preferences. Motivation for the study: There is much debate over whether reward packages should be tailor-made to suit individual employees. It has been argued that a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach with regard to rewards is no longer effective. Research design, approach and method: A structured questionnaire, based on the total rewards model, was used to achieve the objectives of the study. A sample of 250 employees from 11 medium-sized to large-sized organisations participated in the study. Main findings: The results showed that base pay is deemed to be the most preferred reward component amongst respondents; however, they are most dissatisfied with the level at which this reward is provided by their current employers. Base pay is also the most important reward when attracting and retaining employees. Differences between reward preferences and demographic variables, including age, gender and job level, were found. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward systems according to the preferences of their employees by focusing on base pay and contingency or variable pay. These rewards will also serve to retain them; although, to motivate employees, non-cash awards and recognition should be emphasised. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to literature on reward

  16. Engineering Cofactor Preference of Ketone Reducing Biocatalysts: A Mutagenesis Study on a γ-Diketone Reductase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Serving as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Katzberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the γ-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S-hexanediol and the γ-hydroxyketone (5S-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%. This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants.

  17. An evaluation of preference for video and in vivo modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen B; Leblanc, Linda A; Dillon, Courtney M; Bates, Stephanie L

    2010-01-01

    We assessed preference for video or in vivo modeling using a concurrent-chains arrangement with 3 children with autism. The two modeling conditions produced similar acquisition rates and no differential selection (i.e., preference) for all 3 participants.

  18. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H

    2016-06-01

    Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m -2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m -2 . The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant ( P -value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.

  19. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  20. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  1. Vitrification technology for Hanford Site tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Calmus, R.B.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has an inventory of 217,000 m 3 of nuclear waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have agreed that most of the Hanford Site tank waste will be immobilized by vitrification before final disposal. This will be accomplished by separating the tank waste into high- and low-level fractions. Capabilities for high-capacity vitrification are being assessed and developed for each waste fraction. This paper provides an overview of the program for selecting preferred high-level waste melter and feed processing technologies for use in Hanford Site tank waste processing

  2. An empirical study of tourist preferences using conjoint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and hospitality have become key global economic activities as expectations with regard to our use of leisure time have evolved, attributing greater meaning to our free time. While the growth in tourism has been impressive, India's share in total global tourism arrivals and earnings is quite insignificant. It is an accepted fact that India has tremendous potential for development of tourism. This anomaly and the various underlying factors responsible for it are the focus of our study. The objective being determination of customer preferences for multi attribute hybrid services like tourism, so as to enable the state tourism board to deliver a desired combination of intrinsic attributes, helping it to create a sustainable competitive advantage, leading to greater customer satisfaction and positive word of mouth. Conjoint analysis has been used for this purpose, which estimates the structure of a consumer’s preferences, given his/her overall evaluations of a set of alternatives that are pre-specified in terms of levels of different attributes.

  3. Functionalization of silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes at the doping site: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chen; Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong; Li Feng; Huang Boda; Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Bingyun

    2006-01-01

    We performed ab initio calculations on the cytosine-functionalized silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The results show that silicon substitutional doping to SWNT can dramatically change the atomic and electronic structures of the SWNT. And more importantly, it may provide an efficient pathway for further sidewall functionalization to synthesize more complicated SWNT based complex materials, for example, our previously proposed base-functionalized SWNTs, because the doping silicon atom can improve the reaction activity of the tube at the doping site due to its preference to form sp3 hybridization bonding

  4. Site preference and elastic properties of ternary alloying additions in B2 YAg alloys by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yurong, E-mail: winwyr@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiantang 411201 (China); Hu Wangyu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu Longshan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2012-09-15

    First-principles calculations were preformed to study the site preference behavior and elastic properties of 3d (Ti-Cu) transition-metal elements in B2 ductility YAg alloy. In YAg, Ti is found to occupy the Y sublattice whereas V, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni and Cu tend to substitute for Ag sublattice. Due to the addition of 3d transition metals, the lattice parameters of YAg is decreased in the order: V

  5. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  6. Recreation visitor preferences for and perceptions of outdoor recreation setting attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1994, a comprehensive national survey was conducted by the USDA Forest Service (FS), Southern Research Station, to measure visitor preferences for, and perceptions of, setting attributes at a variety of outdoor recreation sites. Over 11,000 visitors at 31 outdoor recreation sites across the country were interviewed in this study. The study was entitled...

  7. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the "nest-site quality" hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success. These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  8. Can wood quality justify local preferences for firewood in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Medeiros, Patricia Muniz de; Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos de; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino de [Laboratorio de Etnobotanica Aplicada, Departamento de Biologia, Area de Botanica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmaos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Feliciano, Ana Licia Patriota [Departamento de Ciencia Florestal, Area de Silvicultura, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmaos, CEP: 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    Studies have been undertaken in many parts of the world to evaluate the qualities of fuelwood, but rarely is this information associated with an examination of the preferences of the local populations. As such, the present study sought to address the question of whether local preferences for fuelwoods can be explained by the physical characteristics of the wood itself. To that end, the residents of 102 domiciles in a rural community in NE Brazil were interviewed and a list was compiled of all the plants used and preferred for domestic use. These woods were subsequently analyzed to determine their density, water content, and Fuel Value Index (FVI). Although a total of 67 species were identified by the residents, only 14 were described as being preferred - due to their great number of desirable attributes for cooking. The density, humidity, and FVI of 38 species used and/or preferred were determined. A significant relationship (p<0.05) was noted between plants with the highest FVIs and the most preferred fuelwood plants in the region, indicating that local preference could be explained by the physical properties that were examined. (author)

  9. Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Sen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy Abstract Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incremental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies.

  10. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site's preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised

  11. Internal versus external preference analysis : an exploratory study on end-user evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Internal and external preference analysis emphasise fundamentally different perspectives on the same data. We extend the literature on comparisons between internal and external preference analysis by incorporating the perspective of the end user of the preference analysis results. From a conceptual

  12. Risk communication formats for low probability events: an exploratory study of patient preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadarola Stephen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear communication about the possible outcomes of proposed medical interventions is an integral part of medical care. Despite its importance, there have been few studies comparing different formats for presenting probabilistic information to patients, especially when small probabilities are involved. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of several new small-risk graphic communication formats. Methods Information about the likelihoods of cancer and cancer prevention associated with two hypothetical cancer screening programs were used to create an augmented bar chart, an augmented grouped icon display, a flow chart, and three paired combinations of these formats. In the study scenario, the baseline risk of cancer was 53 per 1,000 (5.3%. The risk associated with cancer screening option A was 38 per 1,000 (3.8% and the risk associated with screening option B was 29 per 1,000 (2.9%. Both the augmented bar chart and the augmented grouped icon display contained magnified views of the differences in cancer risk and cancer prevention associated with the screening programs. A convenience sample of 29 subjects (mean age 56.4 years; 76% men used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to indicate their relative preferences for the six formats using 15 sequential paired comparisons. Results The most preferred format was the combined augmented bar chart + flow diagram (mean preference score 0.43 followed by the combined augmented icon + augmented bar chart format (mean preference score 0.22. The overall differences among the six formats were statistically significant: Kruskal-Wallis Chi Square = 141.4, p Conclusion These findings suggest that patients may prefer combined, rather than single, graphic risk presentation formats and that augmented bar charts and icon displays may be useful for conveying comparative information about small risks to clinical decision makers. Further research to confirm and extend these

  13. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-02-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.

  14. Selection of candidate sites for a LLRW disposal facility in Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, Ronald E.; Holeman, George R.; Hileman, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Connecticut, one of the two members of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact, has been directed by the Compact Commission to site a facility to manage the low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in Connecticut. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS) has been given the responsibility to identify a site in the state for a LLRW disposal facility. The CHWMS has decided to plan for a site with an operating life of 50 years. A site of at least 160 acres will be needed to accommodate (he expected volume of LLRW and meet state and federal site requirements. A Site Selection Plan establishing the process and criteria to be used in siting a facility was adopted by the CHWMS in November 1990. The Plan calls for a stepwise screening of the state using published data to identify three candidate sites. A preferred site will be selected from among the candidate sites using onsite testing. The site selection criteria, which closely follow state and federal statutory and regulatory requirements, are divided into three types: exclusionary, avoidance and preference. Battelle Memorial Institute was selected as the contractor to assist the CHWMS in site screening. With guidance from the CHWMS, Battelle undertook screening of the state by applying the exclusionary, avoidance and preference criteria in three steps to identify from eight to twelve potential sites. The CHWMS Board of Directors bad decided that it wanted to be closely involved in the selection of the three candidate sites and to do so in a way that precluded the political and parochial pressures that are inevitably associated with a siting process. To meet these two goals a geographically neutral approach was devised for candidate site selection. In June, 1991 the CHWMS, with assistance from Battelle, conducted a three day workshop, open to the public, in which eight sites were presented to the Board. Data on the sites were presented in a way that did not disclose

  15. Utylitaryzm preferencji poprzez zmianę preferencji? (Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodek Rabinowicz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a translation of my "Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", in which I revisit Richard Hare’s classical and much discussed argument for preference utilitarianism (Moral Thinking, 1981, which relies on the conception of moral deliberation as a process of thought experimentation, with concomitant preference change. The paper focuses on an apparent gap in Hare’s reasoning, the so-called No-Conflict Problem. A solution to this difficulty which was proposed in (Rabinowicz and Strömberg, 1996 is re-examined and shown to lead to a number of difficulties, not least in connection with the choice of an appropriate measure of distance between preference states. The paper therefore also considers an alternative idea, due to Daniel Elstein. This new proposal may well turn out to be the best way of filling the gap in Hare’s argument. The paper also examines whether the gap is there to begin with: The problem should perhaps be dissolved rather than solved. This suggestion goes back to an idea of Zeno Vendler (1988. Unfortunately, it turns out that Vendler’s move does not save Hare from criticism: It does dissolve the No-Conflict Problem, but at the same time gives rise to another, potentially more serious difficulty.

  16. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  17. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  18. Migration and habitat preferences of Swainson's Hawks at an autumn stopover site in northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Carroll D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most raptors, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates long distances between breeding and wintering ranges, which elevates the importance of stopover sites for foraging. We conducted three years of fall surveys in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Migrant Swainson's Hawks moved through the area mostly between July and mid-October, peaking in September. Subadults tended to migrate earlier than adults, and light morphs before dark morphs. Favored foraging habitats included silage corn, green beans, and alfalfa, but the hawks foraged primarily where ongoing agricultural activities disturbed prey and made them more available.

  19. Stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow: An example from the Copper Ridge Dolomite in East Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Ketelle, D.

    1987-01-01

    The Copper Ridge Dolomite of the Upper Cambrian Knox Group underlies a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) for a below ground waste disposal facility. The Copper Ridge was studied for DOE to understand the influence of lithology on deep groundwater flow. Three facies types are distinguished which comprise laterally continuous, 1 to 4 m thick rock units interpreted to represent upward-shallowing depositional cycles having an apparently significant effect on groundwater flow at depth. Rock core observations indicate one of the recurring facies types is characterized by thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained dolostone with planar cryptalgal laminae and thin shaley partings. Distinctive fracturing in this facies type, that may have resulted from regional structural deformation, it considered to be responsible for weathering at depth and the development of stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow. In addition, geophysical data suggest that one occurrence of this weathered facies type coincides with an apparent geochemical interface at depth. Geophysical data also indicate the presence of several fluid invasion horizons, traceable outside the study area, which coincide with the unweathered occurrence of this fine-grained facies type. The subcropping of recurrent zones of preferred groundwater flow at the weathered/unweathered interface may define linear traces of enhanced aquifer recharge paralleling geologic strike. Vertical projection of these zones from the weathered/unweathered rock interface to the ground surface may describe areas of enhanced infiltration. Tests to determine the role of stratigraphic controls on groundwater flow are key components of future investigations on West Chestnut Ridge. 14 refs., 13 figs

  20. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Shengxiang; Eimontaite, Iveta; Zhang, Dangli; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American). Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual "Asia Disease Problem" task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger) and risky decisions.

  1. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxiang She

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American. Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual “Asia Disease Problem” task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger and risky decisions.

  2. Family presence preference when patients are receiving resuscitation in an accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Maria S Y; Pang, Samantha M C

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to illuminate the experience of family members whose relatives survived the resuscitation in an accident and emergency department, and their preferences with regard to being present. Family presence during resuscitation can offer benefits to both patient and family members, and large healthcare organizations support and recommend offering the option for their presence. However, many staff believe that this is too distressing or traumatic for families and that they would interfere with the resuscitation process. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used to collect data in 2007-2008 with 18 family members of patients who survived life-sustaining interventions in an accident and emergency department in Hong Kong. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis and verified with the participants in second interviews. None of the family members was present in resuscitation room during the life-sustaining interventions, and five entered the room after the patients' condition was stable. The majority indicated a strong preference to be present if given the option. Three interrelated themes emerged: (i) emotional connectedness, (ii) knowing the patient, and (iii) perceived (in)appropriateness, with 10 subthemes representing affective, rational and contextual determinants of family presence preferences. The interplay of these determinants and how they contributed to strong or weak preference for family presence was analysed. Variations among the contributing determinants to each family member's preference to be present were revealed. Appropriate nursing interventions, policy and guidelines should be developed to meet individualized needs during such critical and life-threatening moments in accident and emergency departments. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  4. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  5. Which preferences associate with school performance?-Lessons from an exploratory study with university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Daniel; Kiss, Hubert Janos

    2018-01-01

    Success in life is determined to a large extent by school performance so it is important to understand the effect of the factors that influence it. In this exploratory study, in addition to cognitive abilities, we attempt to link measures of preferences with outcomes of school performance. We measured in an incentivized way risk, time, social and competitive preferences and cognitive abilities of university students to look for associations between these measures and two important academic outcome measures: exam results and GPA. We find consistently that cognitive abilities (proxied by the Cognitive Reflection Test) are very well correlated with school performance. Regarding non-cognitive skills, we report suggestive evidence for many of our measured preferences. We used two alternative measures of time preference: patience and present bias. Present bias explains exam grades better, while patience explains GPA relatively better. Both measures of time preferences have a non-linear relation to school performance. Competitiveness matters, as students, who opt for a more competitive payment scheme in our experimental task have a higher average GPA. We observe also that risk-averse students perform a little better than more risk-tolerant students. That makes sense in case of multiple choice exams, because more risk-tolerant students may want to try to pass the exam less prepared, as the possibility of passing an exam just by chance is not zero. Finally, we have also detected that cooperative preferences-the amount of money offered in a public good game-associates strongly with GPA in a non-linear way. Students who offered around half of their possible amounts had significantly higher GPAs than those, who offered none or all their money.

  6. Treatment of bone metastases with palliative radiotherapy: Patients' treatment preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hillary; Franssen, Edmee; Chow, Edward; Boer, Gerrit de; Danjoux, Cyril; Hayter, Charles; Barnes, Elizabeth; Andersson, Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the proportion of patients undergoing palliative radiotherapy (RT) for bone pain who would like to participate in the decision-making process, and to determine their choice of palliative RT regimen (2000 cGy in five fractions vs. 800 cGy in one fraction) for painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were approached and all patients agreeing to participate provided written informed consent. Patients' decisional preferences were studied using a five-statement preference instrument. A decision board was used to help patients decide their preferred palliative RT regimen. Factors influencing patients' choices were studied using a visual analog scale. Results: A total of 101 patients were enrolled in the study (55 women and 46 men). The preferences for decision-making were as follows: 30 active, 47 collaborative, and 24 passive. Most (55 [76%] of 72) patients favored one fraction of palliative RT (95% confidence interval, 65-86%). Patients were more likely to select the 800 cGy in one fraction because of the convenience of the treatment plan (odds ratio, 1.024; 95% confidence interval, 1.004-1044) but were less likely to choose it because of the chance of bone fracture (odds ratio, 0.973; 95% confidence interval, 0.947-1.000) compared with 2000 cGy in five fractions. Conclusion: Most participating patients preferred to decide either by themselves or with the radiation oncologists which treatment option they preferred. An 800-cGy-in-one-fraction regimen was favored, independent of the treated site. The convenience of the treatment plan and the likelihood of bone fracture were the most important factors influencing patients' choice

  7. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  8. Gender difference in color preference across cultures: \\ud An archetypal pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnardel, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors6,10,12. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of Design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. A 35-item International Personality...

  9. Screening and identification of sites for a proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE), has identified the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hartsville Nuclear Plant site as preferred and alternative sites, respectively, for development of site-specific designs as part of the proposal for construction of an integrated Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The proposal, developed pursuant to Section 141 (b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, will be submitted to Congress in January 1986. The Director expects to propose to Congress that an MRS be constructed at the perferred site. His judgment could change based on information to be developed between now and January 1986. The decision to construct an MRS facility and final site selection are reserved by Congress for itself. The Director's judgment is based on the results of a rigorous site screening and evaluation process described in this report. The three sites were selected from among eleven sites evaluated in detail. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, was identified as the preferred site. It has several particularly desirable features including: (1) federal ownership and control by the Department of Energy; (2) particularly good transportation access (five miles to the nearest interstate highway and direct rail access); (3) site characteristics and current data base judged by the NRC in 1983 as sufficient for granting a limited work authorization for the now cancelled breeder reactor; and (4) a technical community in the vicinity of site which can provide experienced nuclear facility support functions. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Understanding Patients' Preferences for Referrals to Specialists for an Asymptomatic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlea, Robert; Lenert, Leslie

    2015-01-14

    A specialty referral is a common but complex decision that often requires a primary care provider to balance his or her own interests with those of the patient. To examine the factors that influence a patient's choice of a specialist for consultation for an asymptomatic condition and better understand the tradeoffs that patients are and are not willing to make in this decision. Stratified cross-sectional convenience sample of subjects selected to parallel US population demographics. Members of an Internet survey panel who reported seeing a physician in the past year whose responses met objective quality metrics for attention. Respondents completed an adaptive conjoint analysis survey comparing specialists regarding eight attributes. The reliability of assessments and the predictive validity of models were measured using holdout samples. The relative importance (RI) of different attributes was computed using paired t tests. The implications of utility values were studied using market simulation methods. Five hundred and thirty subjects completed the survey and had responses that met quality criteria. The reliability of responses was high (86% agreement), and models were predictive of patients' preferences (82.6% agreement with holdout choices). The most important attribute for patients was out-of-pocket cost (RI of 19.5%, P communication" with the primary care provider was the most important attribute (RI of 13.1% P importance was whether the specialist practiced shared decision making (RI of 12.2% P well with their primary care provider and practiced shared decision making. Most patients prefer to wait for a doctor who practices shared decision making: Only one-third (32.3%) of patients preferred a paternalistic doctor who was available in 2 weeks over a doctor who practiced decision making but was available in 4 weeks. In the setting of a referral for an asymptomatic but serious condition, out-of-pocket costs are important to patients; however, they also value

  11. Plasticity of orientation preference maps in the visual cortex of adult cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, Ben; Leonhardt, Ralph; Cords, Sven M.; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the high degree of experience-dependent plasticity usually exhibited by cortical representational maps, a number of experiments performed in visual cortex suggest that the basic layout of orientation preference maps is only barely susceptible to activity-dependent modifications. In fact, most of what we know about activity-dependent plasticity in adults comes from experiments in somatosensory, auditory, or motor cortex. Applying a stimulation protocol that has been proven highly effective in other cortical areas, we demonstrate here that enforced synchronous cortical activity induces major changes of orientation preference maps (OPMs) in adult cats. Combining optical imaging of intrinsic signals and electrophysiological single-cell recordings, we show that a few hours of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) lead to an enlargement of the cortical representational zone at the ICMS site and an extensive restructuring of the entire OPM layout up to several millimeters away, paralleled by dramatic changes of pinwheel numbers and locations. At the single-cell level, we found that the preferred orientation was shifted toward the orientation of the ICMS site over a region of up to 4 mm. Our results show that manipulating the synchronicity of cortical activity locally without invoking training, attention, or reinforcement, OPMs undergo large-scale reorganization reminiscent of plastic changes observed for nonvisual cortical maps. However, changes were much more widespread and enduring. Such large-scale restructuring of the visual cortical networks indicates a substantial capability for activity-dependent plasticity of adult visual cortex and may provide the basis for cognitive learning processes. PMID:11959906

  12. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  13. Inter-ethnic differences in youth tobacco language and cigarette brand preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, J; McCormick, L K; Allen, P; Grieser, M; Crawford, M; Davis, S

    1999-11-01

    To describe and understand variations in cigarette brand preferences between adolescents from varying ethnic and gender groups around the US. A qualitative study where adolescents, both smokers and nonsmokers, were interviewed individually in depth. Schools and recreation centers in four sites: urban Maryland (Baltimore), urban Texas (Houston), rural Alabama and rural New Mexico. 121 adolescent volunteers 13-19 years of age, representing African American, white, American Indian and Hispanic ethnic groups, from both genders. Considerable geographic and ethnic variation exists in terminology used by youth to refer to cigarettes and to their use. Clear patterns in brand preference by ethnic group were found that follow patterns of targeted marketing by ethnicity. White teens preferred Marlboro brand cigarettes, while African-American teens who smoke preferred Newports. Hispanic and American Indian teens were more likely to smoke Marlboro or Camel cigarettes. Hispanic teens were most likely to mention low price as a reason for choosing a particular brand or to state that the brand does not matter. Tobacco advertisements targeting ethnic groups and the use of promotional items to encourage teen smoking were also recognized as factors influencing brand preferences. These findings have implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at curbing teen smoking. When working with teens who already smoke, using youth language to target messages at perceived characteristics of commonly used brands may be more effective and meaningful than talking about cigarette use in general. Another implication of this work is to shed light on what impact an advertising ban would have on teen brand preferences, brand loyalty, and prevalence of smoking.

  14. Preferences for benefit packages for community-based health insurance: an exploratory study in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnenna Tasie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important that community-based health insurance (CBHI schemes are designed in such a way as to ensure the relevance of the benefit packages to potential clients. Hence, this paper provides an understanding of the preferred benefit packages by different economic status groups as well as urban and rural dwellers for CBHI in Southeast Nigeria. Methods The study took place in rural, urban and semi-urban communities of south-east Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 3070 randomly picked household heads. Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data. Data was examined for links between preferences for benefit packages with SES and geographic residence of the respondents. Results Respondents in the rural areas and in the lower SES preferred a comprehensive benefit package which includes all inpatient, outpatient and emergencies services, while those in urban areas as well as those in the higher SES group showed a preference for benefit packages which will cover only basic disease control interventions. Conclusion Equity concerns in preferences for services to be offered by the CBHI scheme should be addressed for CBHI to succeed in different contexts.

  15. Preferences for benefit packages for community-based health insurance: an exploratory study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Onoka, Chima; Uguru, Nkoli; Nnenna, Tasie; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Eze, Soludo; Kirigia, Joses; Petu, Amos

    2010-06-12

    It is important that community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes are designed in such a way as to ensure the relevance of the benefit packages to potential clients. Hence, this paper provides an understanding of the preferred benefit packages by different economic status groups as well as urban and rural dwellers for CBHI in Southeast Nigeria. The study took place in rural, urban and semi-urban communities of south-east Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 3070 randomly picked household heads. Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data. Data was examined for links between preferences for benefit packages with SES and geographic residence of the respondents. Respondents in the rural areas and in the lower SES preferred a comprehensive benefit package which includes all inpatient, outpatient and emergencies services, while those in urban areas as well as those in the higher SES group showed a preference for benefit packages which will cover only basic disease control interventions. Equity concerns in preferences for services to be offered by the CBHI scheme should be addressed for CBHI to succeed in different contexts.

  16. Habitat and nest site preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jannie K.; Sell, Henrik; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2015-01-01

    as well as distance to nearest road/path, as an indicator of human disturbance. Scrub used as nesting sites were characterized by thorny shrub species such as Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. RSPF showed that shrike presence was positively correlated with vegetation heterogeneity and high topographic...... with their need for low vegetation for hunting and higher vegetation for hunting perches and nest sites, with thorny shrubs especially important for the latter....

  17. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  18. Validation of an automatic system (DoubleCage) for detecting the location of animals during preference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P P; Nagelschmidt, N; Kirchner, J; Stelzer, H D; Hackbarth, H

    2012-01-01

    Preference tests have often been performed for collecting information about animals' acceptance of environmental refinement objects. In numerous published studies animals were individually tested during preference experiments, as it is difficult to observe group-housed animals with an automatic system. Thus, videotaping is still the most favoured method for observing preferences of socially-housed animals. To reduce the observation workload and to be able to carry out preference testing of socially-housed animals, an automatic recording system (DoubleCage) was developed for determining the location of group-housed animals in a preference test set-up. This system is able to distinguish the transition of individual animals between two cages and to record up to 16 animals at the same time (four animals per cage). The present study evaluated the reliability of the DoubleCage system. The data recorded by the DoubleCage program and the data obtained by human observation were compared. The measurements of the DoubleCage system and manual observation of the videotapes are comparable and significantly correlated (P animals and a considerable reduction of animal observation time.

  19. Technical use stated preference: a study in residential sector for college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Sonaglio Albano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic and competitive market for a product or service to be chosen, it is very important to understand the needs of consumers. Some market research techniques are recommended to investigate consumer preferences. This paper reports on research of declared preference, with specific application to the process of choosing the location of housing for university students. Data collection was performed with students from a federal university, through a questionnaire composed of structured cards, where students would indicate their preferences. The composition of the sample was random, according to the students’ availability. The results reveal the preferences of this consumer segment, making possible a better understanding of the factors that are prevalent when choosing the site for housing. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate the methodological procedures developed for the use of the declared preference technique and their respective results.

  20. Evaluation of a morphing based method to estimate muscle attachment sites of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, P.; van der Krogt, Marjolein; Carbone, Vincenzo; Fluit, René; Vigneron, L.M.; van Deun, J.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To generate subject-specific musculoskeletal models for clinical use, the location of muscle attachment sites needs to be estimated with accurate, fast and preferably automated tools. For this purpose, an automatic method was used to estimate the muscle attachment sites of the lower extremity, based

  1. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  2. A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria SWOT Analysis: An Application to Nuclear Power Plant Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ekmekcioglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis is a commonly used and an important technique for analyzing internal and external environments in order to provide a systematic approach and support for a decision making. SWOT is criticized mostly for considering only qualitative examination of environmental factors, no priority for various factors and strategies, and no vagueness of the factors under fuzziness. In this paper, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution integrated with fuzzy AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process is used to develop fuzzy multi-criteria SWOT analysis in order to overcome these shortcomings. Nuclear power plant site selection, which is a strategic and important issue for Turkeyrs energy policy making, is considered as an application case study that demonstrated the applicability of the developed fuzzy SWOT model.

  3. The influence of home-site factors on residents' willingness to pay: An application for power generation from scrubland in Galicia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, Mario; Farizo, Begona A.; Campos, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to measure how much home-site factors can help to explain the individual WTP for an environmental improvement in power generation in Galicia, Spain. The results show that home-site variables such as a dispersed population, local community income, population growth and coastal/inland emplacements have significant effects on the residents' WTP. Individual and home-site models are compared using goodness-of-fit measures, and implications for forestry resources management and energy planning are discussed. The results favor to take into account the home-site variables into the WTP function. Moreover, a different structure of preferences for coastal and inland inhabitants is identified. A cross-validity analysis shows that some home-site coefficients are common to both sub-samples, but the scale parameters are not homogenous. This analysis could be useful to inform and support the public energy policy when designing incentives that promote the electric use of biomass.

  4. Assessing Women's Preferences and Preference Modeling for Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Clement S; Cantor, Scott B; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K

    2014-03-01

    Women considering breast reconstruction must make challenging trade-offs amongst issues that often conflict. It may be useful to quantify possible outcomes using a single summary measure to aid a breast cancer patient in choosing a form of breast reconstruction. In this study, we used multiattribute utility theory to combine multiple objectives to yield a summary value using nine different preference models. We elicited the preferences of 36 women, aged 32 or older with no history of breast cancer, for the patient-reported outcome measures of breast satisfaction, psychosocial well-being, chest well-being, abdominal well-being, and sexual wellbeing as measured by the BREAST-Q in addition to time lost to reconstruction and out-of-pocket cost. Participants ranked hypothetical breast reconstruction outcomes. We examined each multiattribute utility preference model and assessed how often each model agreed with participants' rankings. The median amount of time required to assess preferences was 34 minutes. Agreement among the nine preference models with the participants ranged from 75.9% to 78.9%. None of the preference models performed significantly worse than the best performing risk averse multiplicative model. We hypothesize an average theoretical agreement of 94.6% for this model if participant error is included. There was a statistically significant positive correlation with more unequal distribution of weight given to the seven attributes. We recommend the risk averse multiplicative model for modeling the preferences of patients considering different forms of breast reconstruction because it agreed most often with the participants in this study.

  5. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  6. Preferences of AP position of the straight Caucasian facial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Steven; Jiménez Bellinga, Raúl; Mommaerts, Maurice Y; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2013-12-01

    Several investigators have compared the perception of profile attractiveness between professional and non-professional people, different groups of clinicians, and different ethnic groups. Our aim was to study preferences for facial protrusion in the lateral view for a straight Class I profile and to study the influence of gender, age, sex preference, and profession. Portrait images of one male and one female model with a Class I occlusal relationship were warped into nine different antero-posterior positions. An internet site was established to reach as many people as possible, and a request was sent by email to participate in a scientific experiment. Finally, 1707 Caucasion assessors could be grouped. The preferred male profile is the straight full ante profile. For a feminine facial profile, the straight average and the straight 2/3 ante profiles were perceived as the most attractive. Surgeons tended to give significantly higher scores to attractive (ante) profiles, which correlated strongly with scores of the orthodontists. Whenever possible with combined orthodontic/surgery treatment, straight ante profiles should be aimed for. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An approach to decision-making with triangular fuzzy reciprocal preference relations and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyong

    2018-02-01

    Triangular fuzzy reciprocal preference relations (TFRPRs) are powerful tools to denoting decision-makers' fuzzy judgments, which permit the decision-makers to apply triangular fuzzy ratio rather than real numbers to express their judgements. Consistency analysis is one of the most crucial issues in preference relations that can guarantee the reasonable ranking order. However, all previous consistency concepts cannot well address this type of preference relations. Based on the operational laws on triangular fuzzy numbers, this paper introduces an additive consistency concept for TFRPRs by using quasi TFRPRs, which can be seen as a natural extension of the crisp case. Using this consistency concept, models to judging the additive consistency of TFRPRs and to estimating missing values in complete TFRPRs are constructed. Then, an algorithm to decision-making with TFRPRs is developed. Finally, two numerical examples are offered to illustrate the application of the proposed procedure, and comparison analysis is performed.

  8. Active site mutations change the cleavage specificity of neprilysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Sexton

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe(563 and Ser(546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine(5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β(1-40. For example, NEP(F563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine(5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEP(S546E was less discriminating than neprilysin. Mutants NEP(F563L and NEP(S546E exhibit different cleavage site preferences than neprilysin with insulin B chain and amyloid ß(1-40 as substrates. These data indicate that it is possible to alter the cleavage site specificity of neprilysin opening the way for the development of substrate specific or substrate exclusive forms of the enzyme with enhanced therapeutic potential.

  9. Fruit color preference by birds and applications to ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gagetti

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6% were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.

  10. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J; Sherfy, Mark H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2)) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  11. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.

  12. The filter of choice: filtration method preference among injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijzer Lenneke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use syringe filters (IDUSF are designed to prevent several complications related to the injection of drugs. Due to their small pore size, their use can reduce the solution's insoluble particle content and thus diminish the prevalence of phlebitis, talcosis.... Their low drug retention discourages from filter reuse and sharing and can thus prevent viral and microbial infections. In France, drug users have access to sterile cotton filters for 15 years and to an IDUSF (the Sterifilt® for 5 years. This study was set up to explore the factors influencing filter preference amongst injecting drug users. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through 241 questionnaires and the participation of 23 people in focus groups. Results Factors found to significantly influence filter preference were duration and frequency of injecting drug use, the type of drugs injected and subculture. Furthermore, IDU's rationale for the preference of one type of filter over others was explored. It was found that filter preference depends on perceived health benefits (reduced harms, prevention of vein damage, protection of injection sites, drug retention (low retention: better high, protective mechanism against the reuse of filters; high retention: filter reuse as a protective mechanism against withdrawal, technical and practical issues (filter clogging, ease of use, time needed to prepare an injection and believes (the conviction that a clear solution contains less active compound. Conclusion It was concluded that the factors influencing filter preference are in favour of change; a shift towards the use of more efficient filters can be made through increased availability, information and demonstrations.

  13. Do patients prefer optimistic or cautious psychiatrists? An experimental study with new and long-term patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Ramjaun, Gonca; Strappelli, Nadia; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Greenberg, Lauren

    2017-01-17

    Patients seeking treatment may be assumed to prefer a psychiatrist who suggests a new treatment with confidence and optimism. Yet, this might not apply uniformly to all patients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that new patients prefer psychiatrists who present treatments optimistically, whilst patients with longer-term experience of mental health care may rather prefer more cautious psychiatrists. In an experimental study, we produced video-clips of four psychiatrists, each suggesting a pharmacological and a psychological treatment once with optimism and once with caution. 100 'new' patients with less than 3 months experience of mental health care and 100 'long-term' patients with more than one year of experience were shown a random selection of one video-clip from each psychiatrist, always including an optimistic and a cautious suggestion of each treatment. Patients rated their preferences for psychiatrists on Likert type scales. Differences in subgroups with different age (18-40 vs. 41-65 years), gender, school leaving age (≤16 vs. >16 years), and diagnosis (ICD 10 F2 vs. others) were explored. New patients preferred more optimistic treatment suggestions, whilst there was no preference among long-term patients. The interaction effect between preference for treatment presentations and experience of patients was significant (interaction p-value = 0.003). Findings in subgroups were similar. In line with the hypothesis, psychiatrists should suggest treatments with optimism to patients with little experience of mental health care. However, this rule does not apply to longer-term patients, who may have experienced treatment failures in the past.

  14. Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.

  15. How Preferences for Public Participation are Linked to Perceptions of the Context, Preferences for Outcomes, and Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuler, Seth; Webler, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Practitioners and stakeholders involved in environmental and risk assessment and decision-making efforts have access to a growing list of policies and guidance for implementing good process. The advice is often general. There is little understanding of how situation specific features are relevant in new circumstances. In a series of ten case studies we investigated how people’s (a) perceptions of the context, (b) preferences for outcomes, and (c) affiliations, experiences and motivations are related to their preferences for process features in a particular situation. The cases are in three policy areas: watershed management, forestry management, and clean-up and public health management of radioactively contaminated sites. We conclude this paper with a discussion of how the results can inform process design. Process design should be based on a diagnostic approach that specifically assesses relevant situational characteristics.

  16. Is There an Own-Race Preference in Attractiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  17. Target site preference of subgroup C Rous sarcoma virus integration into the chicken DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinišová, Markéta; Pavlíček, Adam; Divina, Petr; Geryk, Josef; Plachý, Jiří; Hejnar, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2008), s. 6-12 ISSN 1875-693X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : retroviral integration * integration preference * RSV Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using [3H]paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand

  19. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus using reservoir shoreline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Anteau

    Full Text Available Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers. We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2 that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median, but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  20. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer; Almen, Karl-Erik; Ericsson, Lars O.

    2000-04-01

    This report gives an account of what requirements are made on the rock, what conditions in the rock are advantageous and how the fulfilment of requirements and preferences is to be judged prior to the selection of sites for a site investigation and during a site investigation. The conclusions and results of the report are based on the knowledge and experience acquired by SKB over many years of research and development. The results, and particularly the stipulated criteria, apply to a repository for spent fuel of the KBS-3 type, i.e. a repository where the fuel is contained in copper canisters embedded in bentonite clay at a depth of 400 - 700 m in the Swedish crystalline basement. The report analyzes how the rock's different geological conditions, mechanical, thermal, hydrogeological, chemical and transport properties influence the functions of the deep repository, and whether it is possible to determine requirements and preferences regarding the influence of these properties. Where possible, these requirements or preferences have then been translated into requirements or preferences regarding the individual properties. Criteria are formulated that are based on the quantities that can be measured or estimated at the relevant stage of the investigation. The following requirements are made on the rock: The rock in the repository's deposition zone may not have any ore potential. Regional plastic shear zones shall be avoided if it cannot be demonstrated that the properties of the zone do not deviate from those of the rest of the rock. There may, however, be so-called 'tectonic lenses' near regional plastic shear zones where the bedrock is homogeneous and relatively unaffected. Deposition tunnels and deposition holes for canisters may not pass through or be positioned too close to major regional and major local fracture zones. Deposition holes may not intersect identified local minor fracture zones. The rock's strength, fracture geometry and initial stresses may not be

  1. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  2. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  3. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  4. An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs, and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs, are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP.

  5. An economic analysis of the value of trade preferences on tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An economic analysis of the value of trade preferences on tobacco, tea and suguar sectors to Malawi. J H Mangisoni. Abstract. No Abstracts Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development Vol. 21 (1) 2005: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Patients' Preferences for Generic and Branded Over-the-Counter Medicines: An Adaptive Conjoint Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Merja; Linden, Kari; Kääriä, Kimmo

    2009-12-01

    : Despite increased use of generic medicines, little is known about either the attitudes of patients towards them or the decision-making process surrounding them. Young adults use over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics relatively often. : To assess the preferences of patients for generic and branded OTC pain medicines, to identify clusters with different preference structures, and to estimate the price elasticity of a generic alternative among university students. : Finnish university students (n = 256; students in courses at the Helsinki School of Economics) responded to an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) questionnaire on the choice between branded and generic OTC ibuprofen products. Product attributes of price, brand, onset time of effect, place of purchase and source of information were included in the questionnaire on the basis of the literature, a focus group and a previous pilot study. Several socioeconomic and health behavior descriptors were employed. Individual-level utility functions were estimated, preference clusters were identified, and the price elasticity of the generic medicine was assessed. : Five clusters with characteristic individual-level preferences and price elasticity but few differences in socioeconomic background were detected. Approximately half of the respondents were strongly price sensitive while the others had other preferences such as brand or an opportunity to buy the medicine at a pharmacy or to have a physician or a pharmacist as an information source. : The study provided new information on the concomitant effects of brand, price and other essential product attributes on the choice by patients between branded and generic medicines.

  7. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  8. Impact of Consumer Preferences on Food Chain Choice: An empirical study of consumers in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Kita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the use of multiple criteria evaluation methods as a tool for the rating and selection of retail chains from the customers and suppliers perspective. We provide an assessment on the attractiveness of active retail chains on the Slovak market through multiple criteria methods used for the analysis of customer preferences. An analysis was conducted on a sample of consumers in Bratislava involving 11 389 respondents interviewed. The multi-attribute decision-making methods PROMETHEE II and V were used to assess the variants. In the first part of analysis the collected data uncover customers’ preferences in the selection of retail chains. Findings suggest a ranking of evaluated retail chains and thus of customer preferences. Based on the obtained evaluation, in the second part of analysis, a set of retail chains was chosen under constraints concerning the effectiveness of advertising, market share of sales and the maximum number of chosen retail chains and a binary linear programming model was formulated as an outcome. Proposed procedure aims to assist the decision maker in selecting which retail chain to choose for distribution of supplier’s products, and thus maximize benefits, which will result from consumer preferences and service satisfaction level in retail chain.

  9. Accommodating student learning styles and preferences in an online occupational therapy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nancy Wolcott; Jacobs, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy's online education must be research-based and inclusive. One way to provide a more inclusive online learning experience is to attend to individual learning styles and preferences. This study uses the best available evidence on learning styles and online education to develop, implement, and study occupational therapy students' experiences with an online learning module and related assignment. Eight students consented to take an online survey after completing a learning module and related assignment in an online post-professional graduate course in occupational therapy. The survey explored their learning experience and its applicability to clinical work. Data gathered from multiple-choice, Likert-scale, and open-ended questions were descriptively analyzed. Results from this study suggest that students find the study of learning styles and preferences enjoyable and applicable to their clinical work, but are often motivated by factors such as time and technology when selecting the format of a course assignment.

  10. Visitor Preferences for Visual Changes in Bark Beetle-Impacted Forest Recreation Settings in the United States and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberger, Arne; Ebenberger, Martin; Schneider, Ingrid E.; Cottrell, Stuart; Schlueter, Alexander C.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Venette, Robert C.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Gobster, Paul H.

    2018-02-01

    Extensive outbreaks of tree-killing insects are increasing across forests in Europe and North America due to climate change and other factors. Yet, little recent research examines visitor response to visual changes in conifer forest recreation settings resulting from forest insect infestations, how visitors weigh trade-offs between physical and social forest environment factors, or how visitor preferences might differ by nationality. This study explored forest visitor preferences with a discrete choice experiment that photographically simulated conifer forest stands with varying levels of bark beetle outbreaks, forest and visitor management practices, and visitor use levels and compositions. On-site surveys were conducted with visitors to State Forest State Park in Colorado ( n = 200), Lake Bemidji State Park in Minnesota ( n = 228), and Harz National Park in Germany ( n = 208). Results revealed that the condition of the immediate forest surrounding was the most important variable influencing visitors' landscape preferences. Visitors preferred healthy mature forest stands and disliked forests with substantial dead wood. The number of visitors was the most important social factor influencing visitor landscape preferences. Differences in the influence of physical and social factors on visual preferences existed between study sites. Findings suggest that both visual forest conditions and visitor use management are important concerns in addressing landscape preferences for beetle-impacted forest recreation areas.

  11. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p tactile (p learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  12. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  13. The Mitigation of Radio Noise from External Sources at Receiving Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    53 3.1.7 Underground Distribution Lines...available newer models were preferred for laboratory measurements of time- stable signals and noise. 9 An ELF Engineering Model 7200B 3-Axis... communications terminal was located about 1 km from an HF and VHF receiving site. The satellite terminal was equipped with an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS

  14. Exploring the concept of web site customization : applications and antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerling, M.L.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.

    2006-01-01

    While mass customization is the tailoring of products and services to the needs and wants of individual customers, web site customization is the tailoring of web sites to individual customers’ preferences. Based on a review of site customization applications, the authors propose a model with four

  15. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    OpenAIRE

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that t...

  16. An Empirical Research on Marketing Strategies of Different Risk Preference Merchant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Holiday merchandise has unique demand characteristics, unofficial start data, and a limited life cycle. In an intensely competitive market, individual merchants are able to get more sales opportunities if they display their products earlier. In this study, a time-variant variance and time-variant expected market demand model are introduced to investigate the order strategies that are used by risk-averse holiday merchants. Our results show that risk preference, market uncertainty, and market power have a significant effect on the merchant’s market strategies. Risk-averse merchants prefer to enhance forecast accuracy rather than using an early-display advantage. They can even give up their early-display advantage if they are faced with increased market uncertainty and small market power. Compared with the fixed purchase cost, the time-sensitive purchase cost can stimulate the merchant to purchase in advance, but this can decrease the merchant’s profit. Consequently, risk-averse merchants always display their merchandise later, decrease the order quantity, and, finally, miss the market opportunity.

  17. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  18. Women's preference of cosmetic results after gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kathryn; Goldberg, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cosmetic appeal of different incision types used in gynecologic surgery. One hundred women between the ages of 20 and 40 years were shown 4 color photographs of a female abdomen with incision sites marked for Pfannenstiel, minilaparotomy, traditional laparoscopy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopy. The women were asked to rank the photographs on cosmetic appeal alone. An additional photograph depicting single-port laparoscopy was then added, and patients were asked to again rank the photographs. Participants were also asked basic demographic information and prior surgical history. Office practice. One hundred women between the ages of 20 and 40. Participants. Minilaparotomy was ranked as the most appealing incision among the first set of photographs by 74% of the participants, and the remaining 26% preferred traditional laparoscopy. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy was ranked as the least appealing scar type by 42%, and no patient selected it as their first choice. Sixty-four percent preferred the appearance of a single-port laparoscopic scar when that option was added. The only demographic variable that reached statistical significance was the presence of prior abdominal surgery. Patients without prior surgery ranked minilaparotomy as more cosmetically appealing. When several minimally invasive surgical approaches are possible, the patient should be counseled regarding the cosmetic results of each. Patients in this study strongly preferred the appearance of minilaparotomy and single-port incisions over full Pfannenstiel or robotic incisions. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Lumeng, L.; Li, Ting-Kai

    1990-01-01

    Saturable [ 3 H]-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The B max values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding K D values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats

  20. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  1. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  2. Site preferences of actinide cations in [NZP] compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H. T.; Spearing, D. R.; Smith, D. M.; Hampel, F. G.; Veirs, D. K.; Scheetz, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Compounds adopting the sodium dizirconium tris(phosphate) (NaZr2(PO4)3) structure type belong to the [NZP] structural family of compounds. [NZP] compounds possess desirable properties that would permit their application as hosts for the actinides. These properties include compositional flexibility (i.e., three structural sites that can accommodate a variety of different cations), high thermal stability, negligible thermal expansion, and resistance to radiation damage. Experimental data indicate that [NZP] compounds resist dissolution and release of constituents over a wide range of experimental conditions. Moreover, [NZP] compounds may be synthesized by both conventional and novel methods and may be heat treated or sintered at modest temperatures (800 °C-1350 °C) in open or restricted systems.

  3. RNAcontext: a new method for learning the sequence and structure binding preferences of RNA-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kazan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs. These proteins regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and have critical roles in numerous cellular processes including mRNA splicing, export, stability and translation. Despite their ubiquity and importance, the binding preferences for most RBPs are not well characterized. In vitro and in vivo studies, using affinity selection-based approaches, have successfully identified RNA sequence associated with specific RBPs; however, it is difficult to infer RBP sequence and structural preferences without specifically designed motif finding methods. In this study, we introduce a new motif-finding method, RNAcontext, designed to elucidate RBP-specific sequence and structural preferences with greater accuracy than existing approaches. We evaluated RNAcontext on recently published in vitro and in vivo RNA affinity selected data and demonstrate that RNAcontext identifies known binding preferences for several control proteins including HuR, PTB, and Vts1p and predicts new RNA structure preferences for SF2/ASF, RBM4, FUSIP1 and SLM2. The predicted preferences for SF2/ASF are consistent with its recently reported in vivo binding sites. RNAcontext is an accurate and efficient motif finding method ideally suited for using large-scale RNA-binding affinity datasets to determine the relative binding preferences of RBPs for a wide range of RNA sequences and structures.

  4. How Spatial Relationships Influence Economic Preferences for Wind Power—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Knapp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies in the environmental and resource economic literature suggest that preferences for changes or improvements in environmental amenities, from water quality to recreation, are spatially heterogeneous. One of these effects in particular, distance decay, suggests that respondents exhibit a higher willingness to pay (WTP the closer they live to a proposed environmental improvement and vice versa. The importance of spatial effects cannot be underestimated. Several of these studies find significant biases in aggregate WTP values, and therefore social welfare, from models that disregard spatial factors. This relationship between spatial aspects and preferences, however, remains largely ignored in the non-market valuation literature applied to valuing preferences for renewable energy, generally, and wind power, specifically. To our knowledge, fourteen peer-reviewed studies have been conducted to estimate stated preferences (SP for onshore and/or offshore wind development, yet less than half of those utilize any measure to account for the relationship between spatial effects and preferences. Fewer still undertake more robust measures that account for these spatially dependent relationships, such as via GIS, outside incorporating a single ‘distance’ attribute within the choice experiment (CE referenda. This paper first reviews the methodologies of the SP wind valuation studies that have integrated measure(s to account for spatial effects. We then categorize these effects into three dimensions—distance to a proposed wind project, distance to existing wind project(s, and cumulative effects—supporting each with a discussion of significant findings, including those found in the wind hedonic and acceptance literature. Policy implications that can be leveraged to maximize social welfare when siting future wind projects as well as recommendations for additional research to control for preference spatial heterogeneity in wind

  5. Factors Influencing Parents' Preferences and Parents' Perceptions of Child Preferences of Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing parents' preferences and their perceptions of their children's preferences for picturebooks. First, a content analysis was conducted on a set of picturebooks (N = 87) drawn from the sample described in Wagner (2013); Then, parents (N = 149) rated the books and several content properties were examined for their ability to predict parents' preferences and their perception of their children's preferences. The initial content analysis found correlated clusters of disparate measures of complexity (linguistic, cognitive, narrative) and identified a distinctive sub-genre of modern books featuring female protagonists. The experimental preference analysis found that parents' own preferences were most influenced by the books' age and status; parents' perceptions of their children's preferences were influenced by gender, with parents perceiving their sons (but not daughters) as dis-preferring books with female protagnoists. In addition, influences of the child's reading ability and the linguistic complexity of the book on preferences suggested a sensitivity to the cultural practice of joint book-reading. PMID:28919869

  6. Preferences and actual chemotherapy decision-making in the greater plains collaborative breast cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ann M; Buzalko, Russell J; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Gardner, Bret J; Djalilova, Dilorom M; Otte, Julie L

    2017-12-01

    There is renewed interest in identifying breast cancer patients' participation in decision-making about adjuvant chemotherapy. There is a gap in the literature regarding the impact of these decisions on quality of life (QOL) and quality of care (QOC). Our aims were to determine similarities and differences in how patients diagnosed with breast cancer preferred to make decisions with providers about cancer treatment, to examine the patient's recall of her role when the decision was made about chemotherapy and to determine how preferred and actual roles, as well as congruence between them, relate to QOL and perceived QOC. Greater Plains Collaborative clinical data research network of PCORnet conducted the 'Share Thoughts on Breast Cancer' survey among women 12-18 months post-diagnosis at eight sites in seven Midwestern United States. Patients recalled their preferred and actual treatment decision-making roles and three new shared decision-making (SDM) variables were created. Patients completed QOL and QOC measurements. Correlations and t-tests were used. Of 1235 returned surveys, 873 (full sample) and 329 (subsample who received chemotherapy) were used. About one-half of women in both the full (50.7%) and subsample (49.8%,) preferred SDM with providers about treatment decisions, but only 41.2% (full) and 42.6% (subsample) reported experiencing SDM. Significant differences were found between preferred versus actual roles in the full (p decision-making variables with QOL, but there was an association with QOC. The subsample's decision-making variables related to several QOL scales and QOC items, with a more patient-centered decision than originally preferred related to higher physical and social/family well-being, overall QOL and QOC. Patients benefit from providers' efforts to identify patient preferences, encourage an active role in SDM, and tailor decision making to their desired choice.

  7. Comparison of preference and safety of powder and liquid lactulose in adult patients with chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Barish

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Charles F Barish1, Bryan Voss2, Byron Kaelin21Wake Research Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; 2Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc., Nashville, Tennessee, USABackground: Chronic constipation is an important clinical condition which can result in serious discomfort and even require hospitalization. Powder and liquid lactulose are designated as clinically equivalent for the treatment of constipation, but there are significant differences in the taste, consistency, and portability of the products, which may affect patient compliance and therefore clinical outcome.Aim: To evaluate patient preference between powder and liquid lactulose in terms of overall preference, taste, consistency, and portability, and safety in terms of adverse events.Methods: Three sites randomized patients (total n = 50 to powder or liquid lactulose for seven days with crossover. Patient preference was assessed by a questionnaire, and the occurrence of adverse events was monitored.Results: Of those expressing a preference, 44% and 57% more patients preferred the taste and consistency, respectively, of powder over liquid lactulose. More than six times as many patients preferred the portability of powder compared with liquid lactulose and, overall, 77% more patients preferred powder over liquid lactulose. There was no difference between treatment groups in terms of adverse events (P = 0.635.Conclusions: More patients preferred powder compared with liquid lactulose and the products were equally safe. These findings may impact patient compliance, and therefore may affect clinical outcome.Keywords: constipation, lactulose, laxative

  8. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Humans' preference for others who share our group membership is well documented, and this heightened valuation of in-group members seems to be rooted in early development. Before 12 mo of age, infants already show behavioral preferences for others who evidence cues to same-group membership...... such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers...... in situations when they can expect to receive information. We then used this neural measure of anticipatory theta activity to explore the expectations of 11-mo-olds when facing social partners who either speak the infants' native language or a foreign tongue (study 2). A larger increase in theta oscillations...

  9. Directional preference of European lobster (Homarus gammarus movements on the Yorkshire Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Wood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recaptures of 838 tagged Homarus gammarus individuals identified a directional preference, with bearings from release to recapture concentrated along a North-West to South-East axis, aligning with the predominant current direction for the study site.

  10. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigations for site preference and anisotropic size change of RE{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 6−x}M{sub x} (RE = La, Ce; M = Li, Ge; x = 1, 1.96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Beom-Yong; Jeon, Jieun [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junseong [Department of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Chonnam 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongsik [Department of Chemistry, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); You, Tae-Soo [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Graphical abstract: Reported is experimental and theoretical studies to understand the site-preference between anionic elements and the anisotropic size-change of the 3-D anionic frameworks of two polar intermetallic compounds in the RE{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 6−x}M{sub x} (RE = La, Ce; M = Li, Ge; x = 1, 1.96) phase. Indium atoms with a smaller electronegativity prefer to occupy the “dumbbell-site” having the smaller QVAL value, and the anisotropic size-change of the anionic framework in La{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 5.00(1)}Li{sub 1.00} is rationalized by using various COHP curves analyses. - Highlights: • Site-preference between anions was elucidated by the QVAL value of each site. • Ten models with different atomic orderings were examined by coloring problems. • COHP curves explained the anisotropic size-change of La{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 5.00(1)}Li{sub 1.00}. - Abstract: Two polar intermetallic compounds in the RE{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 6−x}M{sub x} (RE = La, Ce; M = Li, Ge; x = 1, 1.96) series have been synthesized by conventional high-temperature reactions and characterized by both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffractions. Both compounds crystallized in the tetragonal crystal system (space group I4/mmm, Z = 4, Pearson symbol tI84) with nine crystallographically independent atomic positions in the asymmetric unit and adopted the Sm{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 6}-type structure, which can be considered as an ordered version of the Ho{sub 11}Ge{sub 10}-type. The lattice parameters are a = 11.8370(4) Å and c = 17.2308(7) Å for La{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}In{sub 5.00(1)}Li{sub 1.00}; a = 11.8892(4) Å, c = 16.5736(7) Å for Ce{sub 11}Ge{sub 5.96(3)}In{sub 4.04}. The overall crystal structures of two isotypic compounds can be described as a combination of the cage-shaped 3-dimensional (3-D) anionic framework and three different types of cationic polyhedra filling the inside of the 3-D frameworks. Anionic elements consisting of the frameworks indicate the

  12. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  13. Nest-site Selection of the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis in Fallow Fields of I-Lan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Hsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nest site quality often affects nest success and the fitness of avian breeders. Vegetation structure and water depth are possible factors evaluated in nest-site selection by ground nesting birds in wetlands. Vegetation structure may affect the predation risk, and water depth is linked to the possibility of being flooded. We examined these two factors in the nest site selection of a wetland bird, the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis, in I-Lan, Taiwan. We found 17 Greater Painted Snipe nests in wet fallow fields. By paired comparisons, we found the breeders tended to nest on sites with higher vegetation coverage and lower water depth than random sites. No significant difference was found in the vegetation height between the nest sites and the paired random sites. Five nests failed to hatch due to flooding or predation. The preference for nest sites with low water depth may be an effort to avoid being flooded and the preference for dense vegetation coverage at nest sites may be a response to predation risk.

  14. Psychiatric patients' preferences and experiences in clinical decision-making: examining concordance and correlates of patients' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; de Rivera, Luis

    2014-08-01

    To assess the concordance between patients' preferred role in clinical decision-making and the role they usually experience in their psychiatric consultations and to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, clinical and personality characteristics on patients' preferences. 677 consecutive psychiatric outpatients were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey and 507 accepted. Patients completed Control Preference Scale twice consecutively before consultation, one for their preferences of participation and another for the style they usually experienced until then, and locus of control and self-efficacy scales. Sixty-three percent of psychiatric outpatients preferred a collaborative role in decision-making, 35% preferred a passive role and only a 2% an active one. A low concordance for preferred and experienced participation in medical decision-making was registered, with more than a half of patients wanting a more active role than they actually had. Age and doctors' health locus of control orientation were found to be the best correlates for participation preferences, while age and gender were for experienced. Psychiatric diagnoses registered significant differences in patients' preferences of participation but no concerning experiences. The limited concordance between preferred and experienced roles in psychiatric patients is indicative that clinicians need to raise their sensitivity regarding patient's participation. The assessment of patient's attribution style should be useful for psychiatrist to set objectives and priority in the communication with their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risky Business: An Analysis of Teacher Risk Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.

    2015-01-01

    A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences of…

  16. Adolescent patient preferences surrounding partner notification and treatment for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Taylor, Regina G; Holland, Carolyn K; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Important barriers to addressing the sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic among adolescents are the inadequate partner notification of positive STI results and insufficient rates of partner testing and treatment. However, adolescent attitudes regarding partner notification and treatment are not well understood. The aim was to qualitatively explore the barriers to and preferences for partner notification and treatment among adolescent males and females tested for STIs in an emergency department (ED) setting and to explore the acceptability of ED personnel notifying their sexual partners. This was a descriptive, qualitative study in which a convenience sample of 40 adolescents (18 females, 22 males) 14 to 21 years of age who presented to either adult or pediatric EDs with STI-related complaints participated. Individualized, semistructured, confidential interviews were administered to each participant. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim by an independent transcriptionist. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Barriers to partner notification included fear of retaliation or loss of the relationship, lack of understanding of or concern for the consequences associated with an STI, and social stigma and embarrassment. Participants reported two primary barriers to their partners obtaining STI testing and treatment: lack of transportation to the health care site and the partner's fear of STI positive test results. Most participants preferred to notify their main sexual partners of an STI exposure via a face-to-face interaction or a phone call. Most participants were agreeable with a health care provider (HCP) notifying their main sexual partners of STI exposure and preferred that the HCP notify the partner by phone call. There are several adolescent preferences and barriers for partner notification and treatment. To be most effective, future interventions to prevent adolescent STIs should incorporate these preferences and address the

  17. Wine consumers’ preferences in Spain: an analysis using the best-worst scaling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on wine consumers’ preferences has largely been explored in the academic literature and the importance of wine attributes has been measured by rating or ranking scales. However, the most recent literature on wine preferences has applied the best-worst scaling approach to avoid the biased outcomes derived from using rating or ranking scales in surveys. This study investigates premium red wine consumers’ preferences in Spain by applying best-worst alternatives. To achieve this goal, a random parameter logit model is applied to assess the impacts of wine attributes on the probability of choosing premium quality red wine by using data from an ad-hoc survey conducted in a medium-sized Spanish city. The results suggest that some wine attributes related to past experience (i.e. it matches food followed by some related to personal knowledge (i.e. the designation of origin are valued as the most important, whereas other attributes related to the image of the New World (i.e. label or brand name are perceived as the least important or indifferent.

  18. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred kinesthetic more. Moreover, the findings revealed that Kinesthetic learning was the least preferred learning style of the most female students, whereas the least preferred learning style of male students was tactile learning.  Keywords:  Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, Gender, EFL

  19. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  20. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  1. Utilities availability report for seven candidate salt sites: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SC) conducted a study of availability and accessibility of electric power and natural gas supplies for each of the seven candidate sites in salt for a nuclear waste repository. The objective of this study is to indicate the existing or potential availability of adequate electric power and natural gas supplies, together with representative routing of reasonable access corridors for utility lines, for the candidate sites at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher and Deaf Smith Counties in Texas, and Davis and Lavender Canyons in Utah. The report describes the major characteristics of each supply and the representative routes by which each supply could be connected to the assumed respective repository site. Included are a brief narrative, maps showing representative utilities access routes, and a summary tabulation of relevant data. The supply routes used in this study are not necessarily the recommended, preferred, or selected routes. No decision affecting the final location of the preferred route has been made, therefore the routes used in this study are not to be construed as an implied decision. The routes and supply sources used in this study are for comparative purposes only, as no final selections will be made prior to site characterization

  2. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  3. Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

    2013-10-01

    Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Tourists’ Preferences for Recreational Trips in National and Natural Parks as a Premise for Long-Term Sustainable Management Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Dumitras

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism management plans rely on relevant and consistent information about factors that can influence the decision to visit a protected area. This paper uses the choice experiment method to investigate tourists’ preferences with regard to recreational trip characteristics in national and natural parks in Romania. An on-site survey questionnaire was administered to visitors. The multinomial logit model was employed to investigate the preference orderings of the identified groups of recreational users. Overall, results indicate that tourists gain benefits after visiting the parks. Main preference differences were found for information sources and location of campsites. Visitors who stated that the park was the main trip destination were willing to have access to more information sources, the marks on trails being insufficient. Camping is preferred only in organized places, expressing the concern for environmental protection. The results of this study have management implications, highlighting the importance of assessing tourists’ preferences as a foundation for developing sustainable tourism strategies.

  5. An investigation on mate preferences with emphasize on the role of personality characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Dibaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between Big-Five personality traits and mate preferences in Isfahan, Iran. The sample consisted of 225 single girls and boys that they were volunteer to complete the research measures. They completed of Neo- FFI-3 to evaluate personality traits and Iranian cultural preference questionnaire. To response to research question, data was examined in two steps. The first step was to examine the intercorrelate relations matrix among dependent and independent variables. The results showed extraversion is related to attractive appearance, educational level, no having sexy relations with opposite sex in single period, and no having addiction. Also attractive appearance and no having too close relations with each other family is correlated with neuroticism and conscientiousness. Also extraversion can predict attractive appearance and no having addiction preferences. Neuroticism can predict no having too close relations with mate families preference. Other variables, although contributing to the overall variance, were not significant predictors in our focused and cultural preferences.

  6. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  7. An automatic iterative decision-making method for intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic preference relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lidan; Jin, Feifei; Ni, Zhiwei; Chen, Huayou; Tao, Zhifu

    2017-10-01

    As a new preference structure, the intuitionistic fuzzy linguistic preference relation (IFLPR) was recently introduced to efficiently deal with situations in which the membership and non-membership are represented as linguistic terms. In this paper, we study the issues of additive consistency and the derivation of the intuitionistic fuzzy weight vector of an IFLPR. First, the new concepts of order consistency, additive consistency and weak transitivity for IFLPRs are introduced, and followed by a discussion of the characterisation about additive consistent IFLPRs. Then, a parameterised transformation approach is investigated to convert the normalised intuitionistic fuzzy weight vector into additive consistent IFLPRs. After that, a linear optimisation model is established to derive the normalised intuitionistic fuzzy weights for IFLPRs, and a consistency index is defined to measure the deviation degree between an IFLPR and its additive consistent IFLPR. Furthermore, we develop an automatic iterative decision-making method to improve the IFLPRs with unacceptable additive consistency until the adjusted IFLPRs are acceptable additive consistent, and it helps the decision-maker to obtain the reasonable and reliable decision-making results. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  8. IRscope: An online program to visualize the junction sites of chloroplast genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Ali; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Poczai, Peter

    2018-04-05

    Genome plotting is performed using a wide range of visualizations tools each with emphasis on a different informative dimension of the genome. These tools can provide a deeper insight into the genomic structure of the organism. Here we announce a new visualization tool that is specifically designed for chloroplast genomes. It allows the users to depict the genetic architecture of up to ten chloroplast genomes in the vicinity of the sites connecting the inverted repeats to the short and long single copy regions. The software and its dependent libraries are fully coded in R and the reflected plot is scaled up to realistic size of nucleotide base pairs in the vicinity of the junction sites. We introduce a website for easier use of the program as well as R source code of the software to be used in case of preferences to be changed and integrated into personal pipelines. The input of the program is an annotation GenBank (.gb) file, the accession or GI number of the sequence or a DOGMA output file. The software was tested using over a hundred embryophyte chloroplast genomes and in all cases a reliable output was obtained. Source codes and the online suit available @ https://irscope.shinyapps.io/irapp/ or @ https://github.com/Limpfrog/irscope. ali.amiryousefi@helsinki.fi.

  9. Patients' preferences for patient-centered communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, Søren Troels; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2013-01-01

    To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.......To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone....

  10. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  11. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM. Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI and inferior parietal lobule (IPL in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.

  12. Dim Light Melatonin Onset and Affect in Adolescents With an Evening Circadian Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolsen, Michael R; Harvey, Allison G

    2018-01-01

    A shift toward an evening circadian preference and the onset of mood problems often occur during adolescence. Although these changes are linked to poorer outcomes, few studies have considered how positive and negative affect are related to the circadian rhythm during adolescence. This study examined the relationship between evening and morning affect ratings and dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a measure of endogenous circadian rhythm. Age and sex were tested as moderators. This study is based on a subset of 163 (94 female, age = 14.7) adolescents with an evening circadian preference from a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-funded study. Participants provided saliva for melatonin analysis and rated evening and morning affect. Higher evening negative affect was related to a later DLMO. Evening positive affect was not significantly related to DLMO timing. Age but not sex was a significant moderator such that higher negative and lower positive affect were related to a later DLMO for 10- to 13-year-olds, whereas higher positive affect was related to a later DLMO for 17- to 18-year-olds. DLMO was not significantly related to morning affect ratings. There is evidence that higher negative and lower positive affect may be related to the shift toward an evening circadian preference observed in adolescents, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the Preferences of Central Bankers : An Analysis of Four Voting Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the voting records of four central banks (Sweden, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) with spatial models of voting. We infer the policy preferences of the monetary policy committee members and use these to analyze the evolution in preferences over time and the

  14. Estradiol induces region-specific inhibition of ZENK but does not affect the behavioral preference for tutored song in adult female zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Svec, Lace A.; Wade, Juli

    2008-01-01

    Female zebra finches display a preference for songs of males raised with tutors compared to those from males without tutors. To determine howthis behavioral preference may bemediated by auditory perception sites, the social behavior network, and the dopamine reward system, and whether responses of these regions are affected by estradiol, females were treated with hormone or blank implants.An auditory choice test was conducted followed by exposure to tutored or untutored song or silence to exa...

  15. An Online Causal Inference Framework for Modeling and Designing Systems Involving User Preferences: A State-Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Delibalta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a causal inference framework to model the effects of machine learning algorithms on user preferences. We then use this mathematical model to prove that the overall system can be tuned to alter those preferences in a desired manner. A user can be an online shopper or a social media user, exposed to digital interventions produced by machine learning algorithms. A user preference can be anything from inclination towards a product to a political party affiliation. Our framework uses a state-space model to represent user preferences as latent system parameters which can only be observed indirectly via online user actions such as a purchase activity or social media status updates, shares, blogs, or tweets. Based on these observations, machine learning algorithms produce digital interventions such as targeted advertisements or tweets. We model the effects of these interventions through a causal feedback loop, which alters the corresponding preferences of the user. We then introduce algorithms in order to estimate and later tune the user preferences to a particular desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms through experiments in different scenarios.

  16. Influence of n$^{+}$ and p$^{+}$ doping on the lattice sites of implanted Fe in Si

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Daniel José; Correia, João Guilherme; Araújo, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted $^{59}$Fe in n$^{+}$ and p$^{+}$ type Si by means of emission channeling. We found clear evidence that the preferred lattice location of Fe changes with the doping of the material. While in n$^{+}$ type Si Fe prefers displaced bond-centered (BC) sites for annealing temperatures up to 600°C, changing to ideal substitutional sites above 700°C, in p$^{+}$ type Si, Fe prefers to be in displaced tetrahedral interstitial positions after all annealing steps. The dominant lattice sites of Fe in n$^{+}$ type Si therefore seem to be well characterized for all annealing temperatures by the incorporation of Fe into vacancy-related complexes, either into single vacancies which leads to Fe on ideal substitutional sites, or multiple vacancies, which leads to its incorporation near BC sites. In contrast, in p$^{+}$ type Si, the major fraction of Fe is clearly interstitial (near-T or ideal T) for all annealing temperatures. The formation and possible lattice sites of Fe in FeB...

  17. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  18. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  19. Estimating the preferences of central bankers : an analysis of four voting records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the voting records of four central banks (Sweden, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) with spatial models of voting. We infer the policy preferences of the monetary policy committee members and use these to analyze the evolution in preferences over time and the differences in

  20. The Revised Animal Preference Test: An Implicit Probe of Tendencies Toward Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Ian B; Bair, Jessica; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    At least some forms of interpersonal violence could follow from a vision of the self as a fierce, dominant creature. This should be particularly true when psychopathic (more proactive, less reactive) tendencies are involved. Possible relations of this type were examined in two studies (total N = 278) in which college student samples were presented with a new, structured version of an old projective test typically used in psychotherapy contexts. Participants were presented with predator-prey animal pairs (e.g., lion-zebra) that were not explicitly labeled as such. For each pair, the person was asked to choose the animal that they would more prefer to be. Participants who desired to be predator animals more often, on this Revised Animal Preference Test (RAPT), tended toward psychopathy to a greater extent. In Study 1, such relations were manifest in terms of correlations with psychopathic traits and with an interpersonal style marked by hostile dominance. Further analyses, though, revealed that predator self-identifications were more strongly related to primary psychopathy than secondary psychopathy. Study 2 replicated the interpersonal style correlates of the RAPT. In addition, photographs were taken of the participants in the second study and these photographs were rated for apparent hostility and dominance. As hypothesized, participants who wanted to be predator animals to a greater extent also appeared more hostile and dominant in their nonverbal behaviors. These studies suggest that projective preferences can be assessed in a reliable manner through the use of standardizing procedures. Furthermore, the studies point to some of the motivational factors that may contribute to psychopathy and interpersonal violence.

  1. Dissecting the active site of the collagenolytic cathepsin L3 protease of the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Corvo

    Full Text Available A family of secreted cathepsin L proteases with differential activities is essential for host colonization and survival in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica. While the blood feeding adult secretes predominantly FheCL1, an enzyme with a strong preference for Leu at the S2 pocket of the active site, the infective stage produces FheCL3, a unique enzyme with collagenolytic activity that favours Pro at P2.Using a novel unbiased multiplex substrate profiling and mass spectrometry methodology (MSP-MS, we compared the preferences of FheCL1 and FheCL3 along the complete active site cleft and confirm that while the S2 imposes the greatest influence on substrate selectivity, preferences can be indicated on other active site subsites. Notably, we discovered that the activity of FheCL1 and FheCL3 enzymes is very different, sharing only 50% of the cleavage sites, supporting the idea of functional specialization. We generated variants of FheCL1 and FheCL3 with S2 and S3 residues by mutagenesis and evaluated their substrate specificity using positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL. Besides the rare P2 Pro preference, FheCL3 showed a distinctive specificity at the S3 pocket, accommodating preferentially the small Gly residue. Both P2 Pro and P3 Gly preferences were strongly reduced when Trp67 of FheCL3 was replaced by Leu, rendering the enzyme incapable of digesting collagen. In contrast, the inverse Leu67Trp substitution in FheCL1 only slightly reduced its Leu preference and improved Pro acceptance in P2, but greatly increased accommodation of Gly at S3.These data reveal the significance of S2 and S3 interactions in substrate binding emphasizing the role for residue 67 in modulating both sites, providing a plausible explanation for the FheCL3 collagenolytic activity essential to host invasion. The unique specificity of FheCL3 could be exploited in the design of specific inhibitors selectively directed to specific infective stage

  2. Taste preferences, diet and overweight in European children: An epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfer, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigated taste preferences of children from eight European countries. It is based on data from the epidemiological IDEFICS study. The methodological part of the thesis revealed that the reproducibility of the IDEFICS taste preference and -sensitivity tests was high while the reproducibility of the IDEFICS food frequency questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) was comparable to that of previous FFQs. Etiological analyses showed that country affiliation was the strongest predictor of taste pre...

  3. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent’s and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents’ and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins’ host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins’ principle, and the concept of ‘chemical legacy.’ PMID:26288070

  4. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  5. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  6. Heterogeneity and nonlinearity in consumers’ preferences: An application to the olive oil shopping behavior in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred. PMID:28892516

  7. Heterogeneity and nonlinearity in consumers' preferences: An application to the olive oil shopping behavior in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel; Gil, José María

    2017-01-01

    In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred.

  8. Eye-tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an ASD Subtype Associated with Increased Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically and biologically, ASD is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye-tracking are hallmarks, yet whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole, or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. Methods A sample of 334 toddlers from 6 distinct groups (115 ASD, 20 ASD-Features, 57 DD, 53 Other, 64 TD, and 25 Typ SIB) participated. Toddlers watched a movie containing both geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each AOI and validation statistics for this independent sample computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (N=110) was added totaling 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. Results As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images greater than 69%. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity 98%, and PPV 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had (a) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and (b) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggest that this test may not be appropriate with children > 4 years. Conclusions Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. PMID:25981170

  9. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  10. Patterns of sugar feeding and host plant preferences in adult males of An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Poueme, Rodrigue S; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-12-01

    Sugar feeding by male mosquitoes is critical for their success in mating competition. However, the facets of sugar source finding under natural conditions remain unknown. Here, evidence obtained in Western Burkina Faso indicated that the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. (M and S molecular forms) males across different peri-domestic habitats is dependent on the availability of potential sugar sources from which they obtain more favorable sites for feeding or resting. Among field-collected anophelines, a higher proportion of specimens containing fructose were found on flowering Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Dolonix regia (Fabaceae), Thevetia neriifolia (Apocynaceae), Senna siamea, and Cassia sieberiana (both Fabaceae) compared to that recorded on other nearby plants, suggesting that some plants are favored for use as a sugar source over others. Y-tube olfactometer assays with newly-emerged An. gambiae s.s. exposed to odors from individual plants and some combinations thereof showed that males use odor cues to guide their preference. The number of sugar-positive males was variable in a no-choice cage assay, consistent with the olfactory response patterns towards corresponding odor stimuli. These experiments provide the first evidence both in field and laboratory conditions for previously unstudied interactions between males of An. gambiae and natural sugar sources. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Work-family conflict and retirement preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.

  12. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan K. Schmocker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication.

  13. Liking goes with liking: An intuitive congruence between preference and prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvinski, Coby; Amir, On

    2018-03-26

    In a series of 8 experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a "labeling effect" wherein people intuitively relate preferred choices to prominently labeled cues (such as heads as opposed to tails in a coin toss) and vice versa. Importantly, the observed congruence is asymmetric-it does not manifest for nonprominent cues and nonpreferred choices. This is because the congruence is driven by a process of evaluative matching: prominent cues are liked, but nonprominent cues are neutral or at most slightly negative in contrast. When we test prominent, yet truly negatively labeled cues, we indeed find a matching with less liked products. We discuss the theoretical contributions to the study of preferences and decision making, as well as demonstrate the practical implications to researchers and practitioners by using this process to assess intuitive preferences and reduce the compromise effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students and rated on-line games as significantly more energizing/engaging and more effective for learning (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students. In conclusion, the results of this

  15. Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.; Zuo, X.

    2006-01-01

    Diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy has been applied to resolve site-specific Mn local structure in manganese ferrite films grown under nonequilibrium conditions. The DAFS spectra were measured at a number of Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K edge. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around crystallographically inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell with nominal octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The strong preference for Mn to be tetrahedrally coordinated in this compound is not only manifested in the relative site occupancies but also in a strong reduction in coordination number for Mn ions at nominal octahedral sites

  16. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  17. What Do Women's Advertised Mate Preferences Reveal? An Analysis of Video Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D. Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1 “good genes” indicators 2 good resource investment potential indicators 3 good parenting indicators and 4 good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value.

  18. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  19. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  20. Like, Comment, Retweet: Understanding Student Social Media Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Dee Winn; Michael Groenendyk; Melissa Rivosecchi

    2016-01-01

    The majority of academic libraries currently use one or more social media websites in their efforts to communicate and engage with students. Some of the most widely used sites are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Education students at the University of British Columbia were surveyed and asked to rank whether they preferred receiving Library communications from Facebook, Twitter or WordPress (blogs). The results indicate that students ranked Facebook first, WordPress second and Twitte...

  1. Stated preferences for tropical wildlife conservation amongst distant beneficiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse-Jones, Sian; Bateman, Ian J.; Kontoleon, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Despite heightened awareness of the need to find additional resources for tropical biodiversity conservation, and recognition that the benefits to populations in developed countries may be significant, very few empirical studies have been conducted to estimate these values. In this article, we...... report the results of a choice experiment survey that investigated the preferences of UK residents for the conservation of threatened wildlife in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania, part of the Eastern Afromontane “biodiversity hotspot”. We examine the sensitivity of values to species types......, the number of species, the number of conservation sites and, more unusually, to potential substitutes/complements. Critically we find some evidence of coherency in preferences. Respondents are willing to pay significant, positive amounts to conserve charismatic and/or endemic species and are scope sensitive...

  2. Reasons for unmet need for family planning, with attention to the measurement of fertility preferences: protocol for a multi-site cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiyama, Kazuyo; Casterline, John B; Mumah, Joyce N; Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Obare, Francis; Odwe, George; Kabiru, Caroline W; Yeasmin, Sharifa; Cleland, John

    2017-02-09

    Unmet need for family planning points to the gap between women's reproductive desire to avoid pregnancy and contraceptive behaviour. An estimated 222 million women in low- and middle-income countries have unmet need for modern contraception. Despite its prevalence, there has been little rigorous research during the past fifteen years on reasons for this widespread failure to implement childbearing desires in contraceptive practice. There is demographic survey data on women's self-reported reasons for non-use, but these data provide limited insight on the full set of possible obstacles to use, and one may doubt the meaningfulness of explanations provided by non-users alone. To rectify this evidence gap, this study will gather extensive information on women's perceptions of contraception (generic and method-specific) and their past contraceptive experience, and it will allow for more complexity in fertility preferences than is standard in demographic surveys. A multi-site cohort study will be conducted in urban Kenya, rural Kenya, and rural Bangladesh. In each setting trained fieldworkers will recruit and interview 2600 women, with participants re-interviewed at 12 and 18 months. Data will be collected using a questionnaire whose development was informed by a review of existing literature and instruments from past studies in both developed and developing countries. Dozens of experts in the field were consulted as the instrument was developed. The questionnaire has three main components: a sub-set of Demographic and Health Survey items measuring socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and sexual activity; additional questions on prospective and retrospective fertility preferences designed to capture ambivalence and uncertainty; and two large blocks of items on (i) generic concerns about contraception and (ii) method-specific attributes. The method-specific items encompass eight modern and traditional methods. Policy and programmes intended to reduce

  3. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  4. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergaast, G.; Moffett, D.; Lawrence, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    42,500 m 3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  5. Leisure market segmentation : an integrated preferences/constraints-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which

  6. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  7. USERS' PREFERENCE TOWARDS TRADITIONAL BANKING VERSUS E-BANKING – AN ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. Anthony Rahul Golden

    2016-01-01

    Banking transactions that takes place in a virtual ambience on the website of a banking company or a financial institution is termed as ‘Internet Banking’. The essence of Internet banking lies in on-line access by customers of banking and financial services. This is the right time to discuss about the customer prefer whether traditional banking or online banking. What are reasons are beyond that for their preference has been analysed here. Finally, it is concluded that as people are very clos...

  8. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Housing as a way of life: towards an understanding of middle-class families' preferences for an urban residential location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Paddison, R.; Ostendorf, W.

    2010-01-01

    Housing studies show an overwhelming preference by middle-class families for suburban living locations. In this paper an atypical category, middle-class families living in the city, is addressed. The aim is to understand why these households disconnect the seemingly natural relationship between

  10. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Other-regarding preferences and leadership styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  12. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  13. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Kadir PALA; Mukaddes ERDEM

    2011-01-01

    This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relati...

  14. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiet Puthenveetil

    Full Text Available Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  15. Multivalent peptidic linker enables identification of preferred sites of conjugation for a potent thialanstatin antibody drug conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveetil, Sujiet; He, Haiyin; Loganzo, Frank; Musto, Sylvia; Teske, Jesse; Green, Michael; Tan, Xingzhi; Hosselet, Christine; Lucas, Judy; Tumey, L Nathan; Sapra, Puja; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Graziani, Edmund I

    2017-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are no longer an unknown entity in the field of cancer therapy with the success of marketed ADCs like ADCETRIS and KADCYLA and numerous others advancing through clinical trials. The pursuit of novel cytotoxic payloads beyond the mictotubule inhibitors and DNA damaging agents has led us to the recent discovery of an mRNA splicing inhibitor, thailanstatin, as a potent ADC payload. In our previous work, we observed that the potency of this payload was uniquely tied to the method of conjugation, with lysine conjugates showing much superior potency as compared to cysteine conjugates. However, the ADC field is rapidly shifting towards site-specific ADCs due to their advantages in manufacturability, characterization and safety. In this work we report the identification of a highly efficacious site-specific thailanstatin ADC. The site of conjugation played a critical role on both the in vitro and in vivo potency of these ADCs. During the course of this study, we developed a novel methodology of loading a single site with multiple payloads using an in situ generated multi-drug carrying peptidic linker that allowed us to rapidly screen for optimal conjugation sites. Using this methodology, we were able to identify a double-cysteine mutant ADC delivering four-loaded thailanstatin that was very efficacious in a gastric cancer xenograft model at 3mg/kg and was also shown to be efficacious against T-DM1 resistant and MDR1 overexpressing tumor cell lines.

  16. Preference for Print or Electronic Book Depends on User’s Purpose for Consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine patron format preference, perceived usability and frequency of e-book usage, and to study use and preference of e-reading devices. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Large public research university in the United States of America. Subjects – 339 students, faculty, and staff members Methods – An anonymous 23-item survey was available in online and print formats. Print surveys were distributed in the lobby of the library and throughout various buildings on campus. A direct link to the online version of the survey was included in e-newsletters, on the library homepage, and on the library’s Facebook site. A definition of e-book was placed prominently at the beginning of the survey. Questions included information on preference of format (11, experiences using e-books (3, ownership of particular devices for reading e-books (1, attitudes regarding library purchase of e-books and readers (3, demographic information (4, and additional comments (1. Main Results – Of the 339 completed surveys, 79 were completed online and 260 in print. When asked about preference in format for reading, 79.6% of respondents preferred print books compared to 20.4% choosing e-books. If the library was purchasing a book to support class research and projects, 53.9% preferred print and 46.1% preferred electronic, but if the library purchased a book for leisure reading, 76% preferred print and 24% preferred electronic. In response to the question about how often they used e-books from the library, 50.1% of respondents never used library e-books, 21.1% used once per year, 20.8% monthly, 7.4% weekly and 0.6% daily. Of those who used e-books, 38.1% read only sections they needed, 31% searched keywords, 24.2% downloaded and printed pages to read later, 21.8% read the most relevant chapters, 17.1% skimmed the entire book and 14.2% read the entire book. If both formats were available, 25.1% felt that the library should purchase the print

  17. Community preferences for a social health insurance benefit package: an exploratory study among the uninsured in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Luu, Tinh Viet; Leppert, Gerald; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding public preferences in terms of health benefit packages (HBPs) remains limited, yet gathering community insights is an important endeavour when developing people-centred health systems and moving towards universal health coverage. Our study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by eliciting community preferences for the social health insurance benefit package among the uninsured in Vietnam. We adopted a mixed methods approach that included a ranking exercise followed by focus group discussions. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 174 uninsured people in Bac Giang, a province in northern Vietnam. Study participants were purposively selected from 12 communities and assembled in 14 group sessions that entailed three stages: participants first selected and ranked benefit items individually, then in groups and finally they engaged in a discussion regarding their decisions. The majority of respondents (both as individuals and as groups) preferred an HBP that covers both curative and preventive care, with a strong preference for the inclusion of high-cost care, resulting from rare and costly events (inpatient care), as well as frequent and less costly events (drugs, tests and outpatient care). The process of group discussion highlighted how individual choices could be modified in the context of group negotiation. The shift in preferences was motivated by the wish to protect low-income people from catastrophic expenditure while maximising community access to vital yet costly healthcare services. Future research, interventions and policies can built on this initial exploration of preferences to explore how stakeholders can engage communities and support greater public involvement in the development of HBPs in Vietnam and other low-income and middle-income countries.

  18. Explanations for Special Neighbourhood Preferences among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can be expla......In this paper is examined if preferences exist among ethnic minorities for living close to an ethnic social network, in so-called ethnic enclaves, or living in neighbourhoods with many residents belonging to different ethnic minorities. It is analysed to what extent these preferences can...

  19. The benefits, risks and costs of privacy: patient preferences and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenbarg, David E; Asche, Carl; Ramsahai, Shweta; Duling, Joy; Ren, Jinma

    2017-05-01

    Multiple surveys show that patients want medical privacy; however, there are costs to maintaining privacy. There are also risks if information is not shared. A review of previous surveys found that most surveys asked questions about patient's privacy concerns and willingness to share their medical information. We found only one study that asked about sharing medical information for better care and no survey that asked patients about the risk, cost or comparison between medical privacy and privacy in other areas. To fill this gap, we designed a survey to: (1) compare medical privacy preferences to privacy preferences in other areas; (2) measure willingness to pay the cost of additional privacy measures; and (3) measure willingness to accept the risks of not sharing information. A total of 834 patients attending physician offices at 14 sites completed all or part of an anonymous questionnaire. Over 95% of patients were willing to share all their medical information with their treating physicians. There was no difference in willingness to share between primary care and specialty sites including psychiatry and an HIV clinic. In our survey, there was no difference in sharing preference between standard medical information and information with additional legal protections including genetic testing, drug/alcohol treatment and HIV results. Medical privacy was ranked lower than sharing social security and credit card numbers, but was deemed more private than other information including tax returns and handgun purchases. There was no statistical difference for any questions by site except for HIV/AIDS clinic patients ranking privacy of the medical record more important than reducing high medical costs and risk of medical errors (p risks to keep medical information hidden. Patients were very willing to share medical information with their providers. They were able to see the importance of sharing medical information to provide the best possible care. They were unwilling to

  20. Home Care Services as Teaching Sites for Geriatrics in Family Medicine Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguillo, Edgardo

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of family medicine programs and residency training in geriatrics found almost half using home care services as teaching sites. In the program design preferred by residents, the resident followed the patient long-term and discussed management with a multidisciplinary team. An alternative combined rotation is discussed. (Author/MSE)

  1. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  2. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  3. Fuzzy relations for the analysis of traders' preferences in an information market game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Walle, B.A.; Turoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on preference and decision data gathered during a computer-supported information market game in which 35 students participated during seven consecutive trading sessions. The participants’ individual preferences on the market shares are collected to calculate a collective

  4. Treatment preferences of psychotherapy patients with chronic PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Meehan, Kevin B; Petkova, Eva; Zhao, Yihong; Van Meter, Page E; Neria, Yuval; Pessin, Hayley; Nazia, Yasmin

    2016-03-01

    Patient treatment preference may moderate treatment effect in major depressive disorder (MDD) studies. Little research has addressed preference in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); almost none has assessed actual patients' PTSD psychotherapy preferences. From a 14-week trial of chronic PTSD comparing prolonged exposure, relaxation therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy, we report treatment preferences of the 110 randomized patients, explore preference correlates, and assess effects on treatment outcome. Patients recruited between 2008 and 2013 with chronic DSM-IV PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] score ≥ 50) received balanced, scripted psychotherapy descriptions prerandomization and indicated their preferences. Analyses assessed relationships of treatment attitudes to demographic and clinical factors. We hypothesized that patients randomized to preferred treatments would have better outcomes, and to unwanted treatment worse outcomes. Eighty-seven patients (79%) voiced treatment preferences or disinclinations: 29 (26%) preferred prolonged exposure, 29 (26%) preferred relaxation therapy, and 56 (50%) preferred interpersonal psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 18.46, P psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 22.71, P psychotherapy preferences to outcome. Despite explanations emphasizing prolonged exposure's greater empirical support, patients significantly preferred interpersonal psychotherapy. Preference subtly affected psychotherapy outcome; depression appeared an important moderator of the effect of unwanted treatment on outcome. Potential biases to avoid in future research are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00739765. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. An approach to selecting routes over which to transport excess salt from the Deaf Smith County Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report presents an approach to be utilized in the identification of rail and/or highway routes for the disposal of waste salt and other salt contaminated material from repository construction. Relevant issues regarding salt transport also are identified. The report identifies a sequence of activities that precede actual route selection, i.e., final selection of a salt disposal method and its location, refined estimates of salt shipment volume and schedule, followed by selection of rail or truck or a combination thereof, as the preferred transport mode. After these factors are known, the route selection process can proceed. Chapter 2.0 of this report identifies directives and requirements that potentially could affect salt transport from the Deaf Smith site. A summary of salt disposal alternatives and reference cases is contained in Chapter 3.0. Chapter 4.0 identifies and discusses current methods of salt handling and transport in the United States, and also provides some perspective as to the volume of excess salt to be transported from the Deaf Smith site relative to current industry practices. Chapter 5.0 identifies an approach to the salt transportation issue, and suggests one system for evaluating alternative highway routes for truck shipments

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani; Meysam Dehgahi; Hanie Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred ki...

  7. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  8. On the meaningfulness of testing preference axioms in stated preference discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tjur, Carl Tue; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2012-01-01

    A stream of studies on evaluation of health care services and public goods have developed tests of the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity and methods for detecting other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, and random error, in stated preference...... discrete choice experiments. This methodological paper tries to identify the role of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of such experiments and discusses whether or howsuch axioms and phenomena can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests....

  9. Fe2+-Mg2+ order in an olivine from the lunar anorthosite 67075 and the significance of cation order in lunar and terrestrial olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata; Wan, Che'ng; McCallum, I.

    1976-01-01

    In an olivine, (Fesub(1.010)Mgsub(1.015)Casub(0.002)Mnsub(0.014)SiO 4 , from the lunar anorthosite 67075, Fe 2+ indicates a slight preference for the M1 site, the KD value being 1.197. Available data in synthetic, lunar and terrestrial olivines indicate that for iron-rich olivines (>20 mol percent Fayalite), Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site, the site preference decreasing with decreasing temperature. In magnesium-rich olivines, Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site at high temperature, but may prefer the M2 site at low temperature. The olivine from sample 67075 most likely was cooled from the crystallization temperature to 800 0 C or less in 10 days. (author)

  10. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisgratog, Rungarun; Tananchai, Chatchai; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Tuntakom, Siripun; Bangs, Michael J; Corbel, Vincent; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-07

    Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2 months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600 hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC), outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC). A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%), followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68%) and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%). An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent) of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60%) versus inside structures. Significantly (P feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector

  11. Children's gender and parents' color preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N

    2013-04-01

    Gender differences in color preferences have been found in adults and children, but they remain unexplained. This study asks whether the gendered social environment in adulthood affects parents' color preferences. The analysis used the gender of children to represent one aspect of the gendered social environment. Because having male versus female children in the U.S. is generally randomly distributed, it provides something of a natural experiment, offering evidence about the social construction of gender in adulthood. The participants were 749 adults with children who responded to an online survey invitation, asking "What's your favorite color?" Men were more likely to prefer blue, while women were more likely to prefer red, purple, and pink, consistent with long-standing U.S. patterns. The effect of having only sons was to widen the existing gender differences between men and women, increasing the odds that men prefer blue while reducing the odds that women do; and a marginally significant effect showed women having higher odds of preferring pink when they have sons only. The results suggest that, in addition to any genetic, biological or child-socialization effects shaping adults' tendency to segregate their color preferences by gender, the gender context of adulthood matters as well.

  12. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  13. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  14. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  16. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicele Jonauskaite

    Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  17. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M.; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally. PMID:27022909

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  20. Customer Preference-Based Information Retrieval to Build Module Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference is viewed as an outer feeling of a product, also as a reflection of human's inner thought. It dominates the designers' decisions and affects our purchase intention. In the paper, a model of preference elicitation from customers is proposed to build module concepts. Firstly, the attributes of customer preference are classified in a hierarchy and make the surveys to build customer preference concepts. Secondly, the documents or catalogs of design requirements, perhaps containing some textual description and geometric data, are normalized by using semantic expressions. Some semantic rules are developed to describe low-level features of customer preference to construct a knowledge base of customer preference. Thirdly, designers' needs are used to map customer preference for generating module concepts. Finally, an empirical study of the stapler is surveyed to illustrate the validity of module concept generation.

  1. Eliciting Preferences of Multimorbid Elderly Adults in Family Practice Using an Outcome Prioritization Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Summeren, Jojanneke J. G. T.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Schuling, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo explore an outcome prioritization tool (OPT) in eliciting individuals' preferred health outcomes (remaining alive, maintaining independence, reducing pain, reducing other symptoms) in the context of medication review in family practice. DesignCross-sectional pilot study with

  2. Electric utility preferred stock financing - twilight or new dawn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The tax laws have greatly diminished the importance of utility preferred stock. But with utility construction programs expected to rise, it is an opportune time to see if preferreds can be an attractive option again. As recently as 1980, preferred stock financing by electric utilities comprised 55% of all U.S. corporate preferred stock issued. By 1989, this percentage had declined to under 12%. In dollar amounts, electric utility preferred stock financing had decreased by two-thirds over the same time period. The author analyzes just why this decline occurred and what it portends for the future

  3. Where to settle--settlement preferences of Mytilus galloprovincialis and choice of habitat at a micro spatial scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The global mussel aquaculture industry uses specialised spat catching and nursery culture ropes made of multi-filament synthetic and natural fibres to optimise settlement and retention of mussels for on-growing. However, the settlement ecology and preferences of mussels are poorly understood and only sparse information exists in a commercial context. This study quantified the settlement preferences of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis on increasingly complex surfaces and settlement locations at a micro spatial scale on and within ropes under commercial hatchery operating conditions using optical microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT. M. galloprovincialis has clear settlement preferences for more complex materials and high selectivity for settlement sites from the pediveliger through to the plantigrade stage. Pediveligers of M. galloprovincialis initially settle inside specialised culture ropes. Larger pediveligers were located close to the exterior of ropes as they increased in size over time. In contrast, smaller individuals were located deeper inside of the ropes over time. This study demonstrates that X-ray µCT is an excellent non-destructive technique for mapping settlement and attachment sites of individuals as early as one day post settlement, and quantifies the number and location of settled individuals on and within ropes as a tool to understand and optimise settlement in complex multi-dimensional materials and environments.

  4. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Adaptive Modeling Technique for Instream Fish Habitat Preference of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias Latipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Mori, Makito; Shikasyo, Shiomi

    2005-01-01

    It is widely known that habitat selections of riverine fish differ within and between rivers. In our past study, the preference intensity of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) to three environmental factors of water depth, current velocity and cover ratio was quantified on laboratory open-channel experiments for developing a general habitat preference model. A simplified fuzzy reasoning method was introduced in consideration of essential vagueness of fish behaviors. The fuzzy preference inten...

  7. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  8. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  9. Millennial Instructional Preferences in Post-Secondary Business Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Cynthia Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to examine the instructional preferences of millennial learners and how their instructional preferences affect their choice in post-secondary business programs. The instructional preferences of millennial learners are an important question for post-secondary business programs enrolling learners from…

  10. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-Konsult AB, Naessjoe (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    This report gives an account of what requirements are made on the rock, what conditions in the rock are advantageous and how the fulfilment of requirements and preferences is to be judged prior to the selection of sites for a site investigation and during a site investigation. The conclusions and results of the report are based on the knowledge and experience acquired by SKB over many years of research and development. The results, and particularly the stipulated criteria, apply to a repository for spent fuel of the KBS-3 type, i.e. a repository where the fuel is contained in copper canisters embedded in bentonite clay at a depth of 400 - 700 m in the Swedish crystalline basement. The report analyzes how the rock's different geological conditions, mechanical, thermal, hydrogeological, chemical and transport properties influence the functions of the deep repository, and whether it is possible to determine requirements and preferences regarding the influence of these properties. Where possible, these requirements or preferences have then been translated into requirements or preferences regarding the individual properties. Criteria are formulated that are based on the quantities that can be measured or estimated at the relevant stage of the investigation. The following requirements are made on the rock: The rock in the repository's deposition zone may not have any ore potential. Regional plastic shear zones shall be avoided if it cannot be demonstrated that the properties of the zone do not deviate from those of the rest of the rock. There may, however, be so-called 'tectonic lenses' near regional plastic shear zones where the bedrock is homogeneous and relatively unaffected. Deposition tunnels and deposition holes for canisters may not pass through or be positioned too close to major regional and major local fracture zones. Deposition holes may not intersect identified local minor fracture zones. The rock's strength, fracture geometry and

  11. An empirical study of preferred settings for lumbar support on adjustable office chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, N; Hull, B P; Ellitt, G

    1998-04-01

    The preferred settings for lumbar support height and depth of 43 male and 80 female office workers were investigated. All subjects were equipped with identical modern office chairs with foam-padded backrests adjustable in both height and depth. Measurements of lumbar support settings were recorded in the workplace, outside of working hours, on four different occasions, over a 5 week period. Preferred lumbar support height and depth settings extended to both extremes of the adjustment range. The mean preferred height setting was 190 mm above the compressed seat surface. The mean depth setting (horizontal distance from front of seat to lumbar support point) was 387 mm. A regression model examining the effects of standing height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender on mean preferred lumbar support height showed a significant relationship between preferred height and BMI. Higher lumbar supports were chosen by subjects with greater BMIs. Gender and standing height were not associated with preferred lumbar support height settings. Preferred lumbar support depth was not significantly associated with standing height, gender or BMI. Older subjects were more likely to readjust their lumbar support from a disrupted position than younger subjects, indicating that older users are more sensitive to the position of their lumbar support. Subjects who reported recent back pain or discomfort that they believed to be associated with their chair or office work were found to set their lumbar support significantly closer to the front of the seat, probably to ensure greater support for their back. Based on the evidence that a high proportion of users do make adjustments to the height and depth of their lumbar support, and the finding that different groups of users, with different physical characteristics, adjust the position of their lumbar support in distinct and predictable ways, the researchers conclude that office chairs with traditional padded fixed-height lumbar supports are unlikely

  12. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  13. Experimental manipulation of melanism demonstrates the plasticity of preferred temperature in an agricultural pest (Phaulacridium vittatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature.

  14. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  15. From whom do older persons prefer support? The case of rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittirong, Jongjit; Prasartkul, Pramote; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    This study explores rural elderly preferences for support across a multi-dimensional measure of elderly care needs. Applying a framework developed in the U.S. to Thailand for the first time, five diverse types of support are considered: meal preparation, personal care, transportation, financial support, and emotional support. The emphasis is on preferences for care and not actual care received. The data are from focus group discussions conducted in seven villages in Nang Rong district, northeastern Thailand. Thailand and the study site represent the social and economic conditions faced by many rapidly industrializing places-where there has been a dramatic demographic transition (lowered fertility and substantial out-migration), growing numbers of older persons remaining in rural settings, and limited publically-financed elderly care or market-based elder care available for purchase. For this study, in each village, male and female older persons aged 60 and over participated in the focus group discussions. As part of the discussion, focus group participants were asked to rank their first four preferences by type of support. Male and female older persons' preferences were slightly different for genderized tasks. In addition, social closeness and geographical proximity mattered. Traditional matrilocal residence patterns contributed to the perceptions of the older persons. Neighbors were preferred when kin were not available. Preferences inform strategic choices by older persons given the context of available resources. Understanding preferences and strategic choices among the older persons can help policy makers tailor programs more effectively and efficiently, without jeopardizing elderly well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMER PREFERENCES RESEARCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  17. Characteristics of the consumer preferences research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  18. The Lookahead Principle for Preference Elicitation: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Viappiani, Paolo; Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Preference-based search is the problem of finding an item that matches best with a user's preferences. User studies show that example-based tools for preference-based search can achieve significantly higher accuracy when they are complemented with suggestions chosen to inform users about the available choices. We discuss the problem of eliciting preferences in example-based tools and present the lookahead principle for generating suggestions. We compare two different implementations of this p...

  19. Clinical decision-making: physicians' preferences and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making has been advocated; however there are relatively few studies on physician preferences for, and experiences of, different styles of clinical decision-making as most research has focused on patient preferences and experiences. The objectives of this study were to determine 1 physician preferences for different styles of clinical decision-making; 2 styles of clinical decision-making physicians perceive themselves as practicing; and 3 the congruence between preferred and perceived style. In addition we sought to determine physician perceptions of the availability of time in visits, and their role in encouraging patients to look for health information. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. physicians. Results 1,050 (53% response rate physicians responded to the survey. Of these, 780 (75% preferred to share decision-making with their patients, 142 (14% preferred paternalism, and 118 (11% preferred consumerism. 87% of physicians perceived themselves as practicing their preferred style. Physicians who preferred their patients to play an active role in decision-making were more likely to report encouraging patients to look for information, and to report having enough time in visits. Conclusion Physicians tend to perceive themselves as practicing their preferred role in clinical decision-making. The direction of the association cannot be inferred from these data; however, we suggest that interventions aimed at promoting shared decision-making need to target physicians as well as patients.

  20. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  1. No evidence for UV-based nest-site selection in sticklebacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Theo CM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nests are built in various animal taxa including fish. In systems with exclusive male parental care, the choice of a nest site may be an important component of male fitness. The nest site may influence male attractiveness as a mate, and male, embryo, and juvenile survival probabilities. Reproductively active three-spined stickleback males establish and defend a territory in which they build a nest. Territories can differ remarkably in qualities that influence male and female reproductive success like predation risk or abiotic factors such as dissolved oxygen concentration or lighting conditions. The latter may be important because in sticklebacks the extended visual capability into the ultraviolet (UV wave range plays a role in female mate choice. Males are thus expected to be choosy about the habitat in which they will build their nest. Results We tested nest-site choice in male three-spined sticklebacks with respect to different UV lighting conditions. Reproductively active males were given the simultaneous choice to build their nest either in an UV-rich (UV+ or an UV-lacking (UV- environment. Males exhibited no significant nest-site preferences with respect to UV+ or UV-. However, larger males and also heavier ones completed their nests earlier. Conclusion We found that UV radiation as well as differences in luminance had no influence on nest-site choice in three-spined sticklebacks. Males that built in the UV-rich environment were not different in any trait (body traits and UV reflection traits from males that built in the UV-poor environment. There was a significant effect of standard length and body mass on the time elapsed until nest completion in the UV experiment. The larger and heavier a male, the faster he completed his nest. In the brightness control experiment there was a significant effect only of body mass on the duration of nest completion. Whether nest building preferences with respect to UV lighting

  2. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  3. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste: An Example of Deliberative Democracy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    gaining access to the agenda, and a request for participatory deliberative democracy. The permission to hold a presentation can be connected to criticism of the previous consultations in Oskarshamn and Stockholm. At these consultations, environmental organisations requested opportunities to set the agenda without success. These consultations can therefore mainly be seen as information arenas for SKB rather than arenas for deliberation. At all the consultations, different actors tried to place the deep holes method on an equal footing with the KBS 3-method without any success. There are also examples of how SKB tried to play down the alternative expert conclusions that organisations wanted to raise by saying that the organisations did not have enough knowledge to participate in the discussion on equal terms with SKB. This is an example of one actor showing a preference for a participatory deliberative democracy and another for a rational deliberative democracy. To conclude, the consultations are firstly important to study in order to get a picture of how actors try to draw boundaries about the decision of where to site the Swedish HLNW. The results of the paper are secondly of importance for further studies of the siting process of HLNW, as well as the EIA-process, because of the final conclusions as to which actor(s) that got support for their attempts to impact the decision, which actor(s) that had access to the discussions, and the character of the deliberations. Thirdly, the design of the EIA is an interesting example of a process that opens up for more participative deliberations in advance of important decisions than is usual in a representative democracy.

  4. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste: An Example of Deliberative Democracy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2006-01-01

    access to the agenda, and a request for participatory deliberative democracy. The permission to hold a presentation can be connected to criticism of the previous consultations in Oskarshamn and Stockholm. At these consultations, environmental organisations requested opportunities to set the agenda without success. These consultations can therefore mainly be seen as information arenas for SKB rather than arenas for deliberation. At all the consultations, different actors tried to place the deep holes method on an equal footing with the KBS 3-method without any success. There are also examples of how SKB tried to play down the alternative expert conclusions that organisations wanted to raise by saying that the organisations did not have enough knowledge to participate in the discussion on equal terms with SKB. This is an example of one actor showing a preference for a participatory deliberative democracy and another for a rational deliberative democracy. To conclude, the consultations are firstly important to study in order to get a picture of how actors try to draw boundaries about the decision of where to site the Swedish HLNW. The results of the paper are secondly of importance for further studies of the siting process of HLNW, as well as the EIA-process, because of the final conclusions as to which actor(s) that got support for their attempts to impact the decision, which actor(s) that had access to the discussions, and the character of the deliberations. Thirdly, the design of the EIA is an interesting example of a process that opens up for more participative deliberations in advance of important decisions than is usual in a representative democracy

  5. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  7. Prototype system to recommend appropriate amount of independent musicians who matched user's preference

    OpenAIRE

    Uetake, Tomofumi; Kiyohara, Seiya

    2006-01-01

    Recently we can easily get music information at home. Furthermore, by using ''independent music community site''on lnternet, we can easily get songs of independent musicians. However, it is very difficult for us to look for the musician who matched one's preference. Because there is a great deal of number of the musicians, and a genre of a song is various. In this paper, We analyze the independent community music site in Japan and clarify the characteristics of the information about registere...

  8. Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation.

  9. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford's early reactors were crucial to the sites's history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO 3 plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site's Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon

  10. When autocratic leaders become an option--uncertainty and self-esteem predict implicit leadership preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoel, Christiane; Bluemke, Matthias; Mueller, Patrick; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the impact of uncertainty on leadership preferences and propose that the conjunction of self-esteem level and stability is an important moderator in this regard. Self-threatening uncertainty is aversive and activates the motivation to regain control. People with high and stable self-esteem should be confident of achieving this goal by self-determined amelioration of the situation and should therefore show a stronger preference for democratic leadership under conditions of uncertainty. By contrast, people with low and unstable self-esteem should place their trust and hope in the abilities of powerful others, resulting in a preference for autocratic leadership. Studies 1a and 1b validate explicit and implicit leadership measures and demonstrate a general prodemocratic default attitude under conditions of certainty. Studies 2 and 3 reveal a democratic reaction for individuals with stable high self-esteem and a submissive reaction for individuals with unstable low self-esteem under conditions of uncertainty. In Study 4, this pattern is cancelled out when individuals evaluate leadership styles from a leader instead of a follower perspective. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Substance use disorders and PTSD: an exploratory study of treatment preferences among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Killeen, Therese K; Teer, Andrew P; Hartwell, Emily E; Federline, Amanda; Beylotte, Frank; Cox, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among Veterans and are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Historically, treatments for SUDs and PTSD have been delivered sequentially and independently. More recently, however, integrated treatments have shown promise. This study investigated Veterans' perceptions of the interrelationship between SUDs and PTSD, as well as treatment preferences. Participants were 35 Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and prior operations, who completed the Treatment Preferences Questionnaire as well as an in-depth interview. The majority (94.3%) perceived a relationship between their SUD and PTSD symptoms. Veterans reported that PTSD symptom exacerbation was typically (85.3%) associated with an increase in substance use, and PTSD symptom improvement was typically (61.8%) followed by a decrease in substance use (pdevelopment and provision of care for Veterans with SUDs and PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Neural correlates of cognitive dissonance and choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    According to many modern economic theories, actions simply reflect an individual's preferences, whereas a psychological phenomenon called "cognitive dissonance" claims that actions can also create preference. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between two equally preferred items, the act of rejecting a favorite item induces an uncomfortable feeling (cognitive dissonance), which in turn motivates individuals to change their preferences to match their prior decision (i.e., reducing preference for rejected items). Recently, however, Chen and Risen [Chen K, Risen J (2010) J Pers Soc Psychol 99:573-594] pointed out a serious methodological problem, which casts a doubt on the very existence of this choice-induced preference change as studied over the past 50 y. Here, using a proper control condition and two measures of preferences (self-report and brain activity), we found that the mere act of making a choice can change self-report preference as well as its neural representation (i.e., striatum activity), thus providing strong evidence for choice-induced preference change. Furthermore, our data indicate that the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of cognitive dissonance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our findings provide important insights into the neural basis of how actions can alter an individual's preferences.

  13. An evidence-based walking program among older people with knee osteoarthritis: the PEP (participant exercise preference) pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2017-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common joint problem leading to an increase of pain and a loss of function in older individuals. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if a participant who was randomly assigned to his preferred group improved his adherence to an effective walking program compared to a participant who did not receive his preferred group. This was a 9-month pilot randomized clinical trial, based on a patient treatment preferences design. The 69 eligible participants had a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: a supervised community-based or unsupervised walking program, based on the Ottawa Panel guidelines. At 6 months, participants who expressed a preference, either for the supervised or unsupervised program, and who were assigned to their preferred choice of program showed significantly higher adherence to walking sessions (supervised 60.7 ± 12.3%, P walking program, while ensuring the maintenance of clinical benefits of walking, among older adults susceptible to avoid or not properly engage in physical activity.

  14. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisgratog Rungarun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2 months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600 hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC, outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC. Results A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%, followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68% and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%. An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60% versus inside structures. Significantly (P An. minimus were collected from human-baited methods compared with a tethered cow, indicating a more anthropophilic feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. Conclusions The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito

  15. Evaluation of the need, feasibility, and siting of the MRS in Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1985-12-16

    This summary report outlines the results of an independent assessment of the need, feasibility, and siting of the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The detailed reports of this assessment are included as appendices to the summary report. The Department of Energy (DOE) has concluded that the MRS is not absolutely necessary, but preferred, in order to manage and move spent fuel from reactors to a repository. The team has attemped to assess need'' by comparing to advantages and disadvantages of various systems, with and without the MRS. Feasibility has been assessed by comparing the technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. The team was not asked to recommend a preferred system. That choice will depend on the importance that are used to compare alternatives. The five key criteria selected by the team for comparing alternate systems were: economic cost, radiological risk, non-radiological transportation impacts, the likelihood of successful implementation and operation of the system, and the likelihood of meeting the schedule in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The team compared twelve different systems and modeled the transportation impacts and risks with three repository sites and two MRS sites.

  16. Preference-based segmentation : a study of food category and meal preferences among Vietnamese teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi Hoa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of preference-based segmentation for a broad array of meals and food categories in the context of teenagers in Vietnam. A convenience sample of 413 Vietnamese teenagers in secondary and high schools provided an evaluation on the preference of 30 items of food categories and 36 common meals was collected based on structured questionnaires and then used as inputs for the analyses. A five-cluster solution for the food category segmentati...

  17. Técnicas de preferência declarada na análise do nível de serviço hoteleiro Techniques in stated preference for the analysis of hotel service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Galvão Novaes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O caminho usual para que os consumidores dêem suas respostas aos atributos de qualidade de serviço passa pelo uso efetivo do serviço. No entanto, estas ocasiões únicas não cobrem todos os casos de interesse. Uma alternativa para reduzir parcialmente essa limitação consiste em coletar e analisar as preferências dos consumidores com o auxílio de um experimento estatístico chamado pesquisa de preferência declarada ou análise conjunta. Para isso, os atributos são combinados, variando-se sistematicamente seus valores de forma a cobrir uma grande área de interesse, e representando assim cenários realistas. Estes cenários são usualmente apresentados na forma de cartões (textos, esquemas. Pede-se, às pessoas entrevistadas, após uma explicação introdutória, que classifiquem os cenários em ordem decrescente de preferência. Num segundo estágio, uma técnica de calibração é utilizada para ajustar os coeficientes de uma função utilidade. A classificação hoteleira no Brasil considera somente atributos físicos, tais como, quartos, garagem, recepção, etc. Os elementos relacionados ao serviço, como atendimento, acessibilidade e conforto não são explicitamente incluídos. Este trabalho descreve uma pesquisa de preferência declarada e um modelo de preferência do consumidor, com aplicação específica ao serviço hoteleiro de Balneário Camboriú.The usual way that customers show their response to service quality attributes is when they use the service effectively. But those occasions alone do not cover all the cases of interest. One way to partially reduce this limitation is to collect and analyze the customers' preferences with the aid of a statistical experiment called stated preference surveying, or conjoint analysis. In order to do this, the attributes are combined such that their values cover a range of interest, representing realistic scenarios. These scenarios are usually presented in the form of cards (text

  18. Measuring Patient Preferences: An Overview of Methods with a Focus on Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Glen S

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of patient preferences and methodologies to measure them. In this article, methods to quantify patient preferences are reviewed, with a focus on discrete choice experiments. In a discrete choice experiment, patients are asked to choose between 2 or more treatments. The results can be used to quantify the relative importance of treatment outcomes and/or other considerations relevant to medical decision making. Conducting and interpreting a discrete choice experiment requires multiple steps and an understanding of the potential biases that can arise, which we review in this article with examples in rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of Internet use as a preferred source of information on personal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Marc; Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Harvey, Charmian

    2008-11-01

    To understand the personal, social and cultural factors likely to explain recourse to the Internet as a preferred source of personal health information. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a population of 2923 Internet users visiting a firmly established website that offers information on personal health. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the determinants of site use. The analysis template comprised four classes of determinants likely to explain Internet use: beliefs, intentions, user satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics. Seven-point Likert scales were used. An analysis of the psychometric qualities of the variables provided compelling evidence of the construct's validity and reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the correspondence with the factors predicted by the theoretical model. The regression analysis explained 35% of the variance in Internet use. Use was directly associated with five factors: perceived usefulness, importance given to written media in searches for health information, concern for personal health, importance given to the opinions of physicians and other health professionals, and the trust placed in the information available on the site itself. This study confirms the importance of the credibility of information on the frequency of Internet use as a preferred source of information on personal health. It also shows the potentially influential role of the Internet in the development of personal knowledge of health issues.

  20. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.

  1. Face-to-Face or Not-to-Face: A Technology Preference for Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  2. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  5. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  6. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  7. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  8. Predicting Variation of DNA Shape Preferences in Protein-DNA Interaction in Cancer Cells with a New Biophysical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanov, Kirill; Wang, Junbai

    2017-09-18

    DNA shape readout is an important mechanism of transcription factor target site recognition, in addition to the sequence readout. Several machine learning-based models of transcription factor-DNA interactions, considering DNA shape features, have been developed in recent years. Here, we present a new biophysical model of protein-DNA interactions by integrating the DNA shape properties. It is based on the neighbor dinucleotide dependency model BayesPI2, where new parameters are restricted to a subspace spanned by the dinucleotide form of DNA shape features. This allows a biophysical interpretation of the new parameters as a position-dependent preference towards specific DNA shape features. Using the new model, we explore the variation of DNA shape preferences in several transcription factors across various cancer cell lines and cellular conditions. The results reveal that there are DNA shape variations at FOXA1 (Forkhead Box Protein A1) binding sites in steroid-treated MCF7 cells. The new biophysical model is useful for elucidating the finer details of transcription factor-DNA interaction, as well as for predicting cancer mutation effects in the future.

  9. Generation of Cu–In alloy surfaces from CuInO2 as selective catalytic sites for CO2 electroreduction

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem

    2015-08-11

    The lack of availability of efficient, selective and stable electrocatalysts is a major hindrance for scalable CO2 reduction processes. Herein, we report the generation of Cu–In alloy surfaces for electrochemical reduction of CO2 from mixed metal oxides of CuInO2 as the starting material. The material successfully generates selective active sites to form CO from CO2 electroreduction at mild overpotentials. Density functional theory (DFT) indicates that the site occupation of the inert In occurs more on the specific sites of Cu. In addition, while In atoms do not preferentially adsorb H or CO, Cu atoms, which neighbor the In atoms, alters the preference of their adsorption. This preference for site occupation and altered adsorption may account for the improved selectivity over that observed for Cu metal. This study demonstrates an example of a scalable synthesis method of bimetallic surfaces utilized with the mixed oxide precursor having the diversity of metal choice, which may drastically alter the electrocatalytic performance, as presented herein.

  10. Generation of Cu–In alloy surfaces from CuInO2 as selective catalytic sites for CO2 electroreduction

    KAUST Repository

    Jedidi, Abdesslem; Rasul, Shahid; Masih, Dilshad; Cavallo, Luigi; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The lack of availability of efficient, selective and stable electrocatalysts is a major hindrance for scalable CO2 reduction processes. Herein, we report the generation of Cu–In alloy surfaces for electrochemical reduction of CO2 from mixed metal oxides of CuInO2 as the starting material. The material successfully generates selective active sites to form CO from CO2 electroreduction at mild overpotentials. Density functional theory (DFT) indicates that the site occupation of the inert In occurs more on the specific sites of Cu. In addition, while In atoms do not preferentially adsorb H or CO, Cu atoms, which neighbor the In atoms, alters the preference of their adsorption. This preference for site occupation and altered adsorption may account for the improved selectivity over that observed for Cu metal. This study demonstrates an example of a scalable synthesis method of bimetallic surfaces utilized with the mixed oxide precursor having the diversity of metal choice, which may drastically alter the electrocatalytic performance, as presented herein.

  11. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  12. Action preferences and the anticipation of action outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, D.L.; Schaefers, T.; Canal Bruland, R.

    2014-01-01

    Skilled performers of time-constrained motor actions acquire information about the action preferences of their opponents in an effort to better anticipate the outcome of that opponent's actions. However, there is reason to doubt that knowledge of an opponent's action preferences would unequivocally

  13. An exploration of needs and preferences for dietary support in colorectal cancer survivors: A mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeke Hoedjes

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC survivors who perceive a need for dietary support; to examine which socio-demographic, cancer-related, and health-related characteristics are associated with this need; to explore reasons for (not needing support; and to explore CRC survivors' specific needs and preferences with regard to lifestyle (i.e., dietary, exercise, and/or weight management support.This mixed-methods study comprised a cross-sectional survey among 1774 Dutch CRC survivors and three focus groups (n = 16. To examine associations, logistic regression analyses were conducted. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach.Of 1458 respondents (82%, 1198 (67.5% were included for analyses. 17.5% reported a need for dietary support. Characteristics associated with this need were: being younger, living without a partner, having a stoma, having diabetes, and being overweight or obese. The main reason for needing support was being unable to initiate and maintain lifestyle changes without support. CRC survivors preferred receiving information soon after diagnosis to make an autonomous, informed decision on improving their lifestyle. They preferred to receive individually-tailored lifestyle support in an autonomy-supportive environment, preferably with involvement of their family and fellow-sufferers.This study has provided knowledge on appropriate support for CRC survivors in need for dietary support to improve health outcomes by promoting adherence to lifestyle and body weight recommendations. Findings can be used to better identify CRC survivors in need for dietary support, and to tailor lifestyle support to their needs and preferences in order to promote uptake, adherence, and effectiveness.

  14. Patient preference for genders of health professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Andela, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons,

  15. Consumer preference in using the services of bukalapak website with conjoint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batavio, A. B.; Tripiawan, W.; Amani, H.

    2017-12-01

    Internet has become a necessity for society in Indonesia, is seen with the internet impact for the development of information technology in the environment of the community, one of which is E-commerce (electronic commerce) or commonly referred to as the shopping activity is done online, e-commerce is one of the utilization of internet technology is done by the community. With e-commerce, the community may make purchases or sales in accordance with his wishes. Bukalapak one of the companies in Indonesia who stand as an e-commerce company that offers a community to be able to make purchases or sales on his website for free. Bukalapak has competitors to continue to compete in the world of e-commerce in Indonesia. This research aims to know the preferences of consumers in using the services of the site Bukalapak. This research includes the types of descriptive and exploratory research, using the technique of Non-probability sampling and purposive sampling that are specific to the community of Bandung city ever doing online shopping at Bukalapak as a criterion of the respondents in this study, with the number of samples as many as 100 respondents in Bandung. The analysis of the data used is conjoint analysis. The results of this study showed that overall the respondents made the attribute method of the payment as the main preference in using the services of the site Bukalapak, and then followed by the attribute display websites, products and features.

  16. Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrob, Mircea-Lucian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arsenic in ZnO and GaN: substitutional cation or anion sites?

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Rita, Elisabete; Marques, Ana Claudia; Alves, Eduardo; Carvalho Soares, José

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of ion implanted As in ZnO and GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. In contrast to what one might expect from its nature as a group V element, we find that As does not occupy substitutional O sites in ZnO but in its large majority substitutional Zn sites. Arsenic in ZnO is thus an interesting example for an impurity in a semiconductor where the major impurity lattice site is determined by atomic size and electronegativity rather than its position in the periodic system. In contrast, in GaN the preference of As for substitutional cation sites is less pronounced and about half of the implanted As atoms occupy Ga and the other half N sites. Apparently, the smaller size-mismatch between As and N and the chemical similarity of both elements make it feasible that As partly substitutes for N atoms.

  18. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site

  19. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site.

  20. Consumer preferences and values as an integral key to evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Although evidence-based practice (EBP) integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies with a clinician's expertise and patient preferences and values, most of what is emphasized in books and reports on EBP is the 5-step EBP process. However, the consideration of patient values and preferences in making clinical decisions is essential to deliver the highest quality of care. This article briefly reviews the status of EBP in the United States, described the ARCC mentorship model, and highlights how to engage consumers in the EBP process.

  1. Draft environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment, which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Swisher site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site. The DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Deaf Smith site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Deaf Smith site is one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization

  2. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  3. A Comparative Approach for Ranking Contaminated Sites Based on the Risk Assessment Paradigm Using Fuzzy PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Kluck, Cheryl; Achari, Gopal

    2009-11-01

    A ranking system for contaminated sites based on comparative risk methodology using fuzzy Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) was developed in this article. It combines the concepts of fuzzy sets to represent uncertain site information with the PROMETHEE, a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. Criteria are identified based on a combination of the attributes (toxicity, exposure, and receptors) associated with the potential human health and ecological risks posed by contaminated sites, chemical properties, site geology and hydrogeology and contaminant transport phenomena. Original site data are directly used avoiding the subjective assignment of scores to site attributes. When the input data are numeric and crisp the PROMETHEE method can be used. The Fuzzy PROMETHEE method is preferred when substantial uncertainties and subjectivities exist in site information. The PROMETHEE and fuzzy PROMETHEE methods are both used in this research to compare the sites. The case study shows that this methodology provides reasonable results.

  4. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines

  5. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  6. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  7. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines

  8. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  9. An Empirical Study on the Preference of Supermarkets with Analytic Hierarchy Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng Siew, Lam; Singh, Ranjeet; Singh, Bishan; Weng Hoe, Lam; Kah Fai, Liew

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale retailers are very important to the consumers in this fast-paced world. Selection of desirable market to purchase products and services becomes major concern among consumers in their daily life due to vast choices available. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine the most preferred supermarket among AEON, Jaya Grocer, Tesco, Giant and Econsave by the undergraduate students in Malaysia with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. Besides that, this study also aims to determine the priority of decision criteria in the selection of supermarkets among the undergraduatestudents with AHP model. The decision criteria employed in this study are product quality, competitive price, cleanliness, product variety, location, good price labelling, fast checkout and employee courtesy. The results of this study show that AEON is the most preferred supermarket followed by Jaya Grocer, Tesco, Econsave and Giant among the students based on AHP model. Product quality, cleanliness and competitive price are ranked as the top three influential factors in this study. This study is significant because it helps to determine the most preferred supermarket as well as the most influential decision criteria in the preference of supermarkets among the undergraduate students with AHP model.

  10. An Application of Conjoint Analysis to Consumer Preference for Beverage Products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a technique for establishing the relative importance of different attributes in the provision of a good or a service. In this study, conjoint analysis was applied to characterize beverage product preferences for customers. information during buyer-seller purchasing decision interactions. It identify the influence certain consumers preferences have on beverage purchasing behavior. Using focus group discussion, major attributes were specified. The attributes were then used to generate a plan card using the orthogonal array method. A conjoint based survey using 29 ranked beverages attributes formed the basis of the questionnaires that were randomly administered to 200 purchasers. of beverages drinks between January and March 2013 to specify their preferences. Conjoint analysis was used and the result indicates that the preference range that would deliver the most utility for beverage consumers include products attributes such as reduced price (- 0.478, cylindrical package (-5.822, moderately dissolving beverage granule (-1.833 and taste (- 0.333. The findings conclude that producer need to take the issue of packaging serious in production by ensuring that their product is packaged in cylindrical container which will attract optimum attention of consumers thereby leading to profitability in the long run.

  11. The liquidity preference theory: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Bertocco; Andrea Kalajzic

    2014-01-01

    Keynes in the General Theory, explains the monetary nature of the interest rate by means of the liquidity preference theory. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, to point out the limits of the liquidity preference theory. Second, to present an explanation of the monetary nature of the interest rate based on the arguments with which Keynes responded to the criticism levelled at the liquidity preference theory by supporters of the loanable funds theory such as Ohlin and Robertson. It ...

  12. Decision analysis for the siting of nuclear power plants: the relevance of multiattribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L; Nair, K.

    1975-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long-range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, clearly the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. Hence, the professional judgments and knowledge of experts in these areas should be utilized in analyses of siting decisions. Likewise, the preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate an approach for formally articulating the experts' judgments and the decision makers' preferences, both of which are clearly subjective, and processing these along with the more objective considerations in a logical manner to acquire the implications for decision making. The appropriateness and application of decision analysis for power plant location decisions is discussed and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of the decision maker's preferences and tradeoffs concerning multiple objectives. (U.S.)

  13. Audiovisual Presentations on a Handheld PC are Preferred As an Educational Tool by NICU Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, P; Cirelli, J; Goodstein, M; Bell, T; Liss, J

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy is critical for understanding complex medical problems and necessary for the well being of the patient. Printed educational materials (PM) have limitations in explaining the dynamics of a disease process. Multimedia formats may be useful for enhancing the educational process. To evaluate whether a printed format or animation with commentary on a handheld personal computer (PC) is preferred as an educational tool by parents of a baby in the NICU. PARENTS EVALUATED TWO FORMATS: A 1-page illustrated document from the American Heart Association explaining patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and animation with commentary on a handheld PC that explained the physiology of PDA in 1 minute. The reading grade level of the PM was 8.6 versus 18.6 for the audio portion of the animated presentation. Parents viewed each format and completed a four-item questionnaire. Parents rated both formats and indicated their preference as printed, animation, or both. Forty-six parents participated in the survey. Parents preferred animation over PM (50% vs. 17.4%. p = 0.02); 39.1% expressed that the animation was excellent; whereas 4.3% expressed that the PM was excellent (p0.05). Parents preferred animation on a small screen handheld PC despite a much higher language level. Because handheld PCs are portable and inexpensive, they can be used effectively at the bedside with low-cost animation to enhance understanding of complex disease conditions.

  14. Veterans' voices: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) Survey to identify My HealtheVet personal health record users' characteristics, needs, and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer research reveals considerable interest in the use of Personal Health Records (PHRs), yet adoption remains relatively low. Both adopters and nonadopters represent important perspectives from which to understand this paradox. Objective This study focuses on direct feedback from adopters obtained using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey on the My HealtheVet PHR portal (http://www.myhealth.va.gov) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results represent a source of direct feedback with which to better understand veterans' needs and preferences. Methods The ACSI Survey was implemented in October 2007 to measure satisfaction and elicit information about characteristics and preferences of My HealtheVet PHR adopters. The data represent a continuous random sample of site visitors who have navigated at least four pages on the site. A total of 100 617 surveys were completed (17.2%). Results Satisfaction with My HealtheVet is high (8.3/10.0), and users are highly likely to return to the site (8.6/10.0) and recommend the site to other veterans (9.1/10.0). The majority of system adopters are male (91%), between the ages of 51 and 70 (68%), and served in the Vietnam War (60%). Most veterans currently visit the site to utilize pharmacy-related features. Conclusion VHA has used the ACSI to monitor satisfaction, and to better understand the characteristics, needs, and preferences of early adopters. The data provide an important source of direct feedback to inform program development. Future research will include monitoring the impact of enhancements and new features on satisfaction, and conducting additional research with nonadopters to identify barriers to adoption and use. PMID:20190065

  15. Veterans' voices: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) Survey to identify My HealtheVet personal health record users' characteristics, needs, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research reveals considerable interest in the use of Personal Health Records (PHRs), yet adoption remains relatively low. Both adopters and nonadopters represent important perspectives from which to understand this paradox. This study focuses on direct feedback from adopters obtained using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey on the My HealtheVet PHR portal (http://www.myhealth.va.gov) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results represent a source of direct feedback with which to better understand veterans' needs and preferences. The ACSI Survey was implemented in October 2007 to measure satisfaction and elicit information about characteristics and preferences of My HealtheVet PHR adopters. The data represent a continuous random sample of site visitors who have navigated at least four pages on the site. A total of 100 617 surveys were completed (17.2%). Satisfaction with My HealtheVet is high (8.3/10.0), and users are highly likely to return to the site (8.6/10.0) and recommend the site to other veterans (9.1/10.0). The majority of system adopters are male (91%), between the ages of 51 and 70 (68%), and served in the Vietnam War (60%). Most veterans currently visit the site to utilize pharmacy-related features. VHA has used the ACSI to monitor satisfaction, and to better understand the characteristics, needs, and preferences of early adopters. The data provide an important source of direct feedback to inform program development. Future research will include monitoring the impact of enhancements and new features on satisfaction, and conducting additional research with nonadopters to identify barriers to adoption and use.

  16. Paired preference data with a no-preference option – Statistical tests for comparison with placebo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Ennis, John M.; Ennis, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    /preference responses or ties in choice experiments. Food Quality and Preference, 23, 13–17) noted that this proportion can depend on the product category, have proposed that the expected proportion of preference responses within a given category be called an identicality norm, and have argued that knowledge...... of such norms is valuable for more complete interpretation of 2-Alternative Choice (2-AC) data. For instance, these norms can be used to indicate consumer segmentation even with non-replicated data. In this paper, we show that the statistical test suggested by Ennis and Ennis (2012a) behaves poorly and has too...... when ingredient changes are considered for cost-reduction or health initiative purposes....

  17. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  18. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Croak

    Full Text Available Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features. Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  19. Stable intermediates determine proteins' primary unfolding sites in the presence of surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steen Vang; Andersen, Kell kleiner; Enghild, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite detailed knowledge of the overall structural changes and stoichiometries of surfactant binding, little is known about which protein regions constitute the preferred sites of attack for initial unfolding. Here we have exposed three proteins to limited proteolysis at anionic (SDS) and catio......Despite detailed knowledge of the overall structural changes and stoichiometries of surfactant binding, little is known about which protein regions constitute the preferred sites of attack for initial unfolding. Here we have exposed three proteins to limited proteolysis at anionic (SDS......) and cationic (DTAC) surfactant concentrations corresponding to specific conformational transitions, using the surfactant-robust broad-specificity proteases Savinase and Alcalase. Cleavage sites are identified by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. We observe well-defined cleavage fragments, which suggest......, cleavage sites can be rationalized from the structure of the protein's folding transition state and the position of loops in the native state. Nevertheless, they are more sensitive to choice of surfactant and protease, probably reflecting a heterogeneous and fluctuating ensemble of partially unfolded...

  20. Patient Preferences regarding Shared Decision-making in the Emergency Department: Findings from a multi-site survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Quigley, Denise D; Marie, Peter St; Nayyar, Nikita; Sabbagh, Sarah H; Gress, Kyle L; Probst, Marc A

    2018-06-13

    As Shared Decision-Making (SDM) has received increased attention as a method to improve the patient-centeredness of emergency department (ED) care, we sought to determine patients' desired level of involvement in medical decisions and their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of adult ED patients at three academic medical centers across the United States. The survey included 32 items regarding patient involvement in medical decisions including a modified Control Preference Scale (CPS) and questions about barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. Items were developed and refined based on prior literature and qualitative interviews with ED patients. Research assistants administered the survey in person. Of 797 patients approached, 661 (83%) agreed to participate. Participants were 52% female, 45% white, and 30% Hispanic. The majority of respondents (85-92%, depending on decision type) expressed a desire for some degree of involvement in decision-making in the ED, while 8-15% preferred to leave decision-making to their physician alone. Ninety-eight percent wanted to be involved with decisions when "something serious is going on." The majority of patients (94%) indicated that self-efficacy was not a barrier to SDM in the ED. However, most patients (55%) reported a tendency to defer to the physician's decision-making during an ED visit, with about half reporting they would wait for a physician to ask them to be involved. We found the majority of ED patients in our large, diverse sample wanted to be involved in medical decisions, especially in the case of a "serious" medical problem, and felt that they had the ability to do so. Nevertheless, many patients were unlikely to actively seek involvement and defaulted to allowing the physician to make decisions during the ED visit. After fully explaining the consequences of a decision, clinicians should make an effort to explicitly ascertain patients

  1. Patients' preferences for headache acute and preventive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Belesioti, Ioanna; Arvaniti, Chryssa; Mitropoulou, Euthymia; Deligianni, Christina; Kasioti, Elina; Constantinidis, Theodoros; Dermitzakis, Manolis; Vikelis, Michail

    2017-10-06

    We aimed to explore patients' preferences for headache treatments with a self-administered questionnaire including the Q-No questionnaire for nocebo. Questionnaires from 514 outpatients naïve to neurostimulation and monoclonal antibodies were collected. Patients assessed that the efficacy of a treatment is more important than safety or route of administration. They preferred to use an external neurostimulation device for both acute (67.1%) and preventive treatment (62.8%). Most patients preferred to take a pill (86%) than any other drug given parenterally for symptomatic pharmaceutical treatment. For preventive pharmaceutical treatment, most patients preferred to take a pill once per day (52%) compared to an injection either subcutaneously or intravenously each month (9% and 4%), or three months (15% and 11%). 56.6% of all participants scored more than 15 in Q-No questionnaire indicating potential nocebo behaviors that contributed significantly in their choices. These patient preferences along with efficacy and safety data may help physicians better choose the right treatment for the right person.

  2. An Examination of Women's Self-Presentation, Social Physique Anxiety, and Setting Preferences during Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated whether women experience self-presentational concerns related to rehabilitation settings and explored preferences for characteristics of the social and physical treatment environment in relation to women's Social Physique Anxiety (SPA). Methods. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted. In Study 1, female undergraduate students (n = 134) completed four questionnaires (Social Physique Anxiety Scale; three bespoke questionnaires assessing self-presentation in rehabilitation and social and physical environment preferences) with respect to hypothetical rehabilitation scenarios. Study 2 recruited injured women who were referred for physiotherapy (n = 62) to complete the same questionnaires regarding genuine rehabilitation scenarios. Results. Women with high SPA showed less preference for physique salient clothing than women with low SPA in both hypothetical (p = 0.001) and genuine settings (p = 0.01). In Study 2, women with high SPA also preferred that others in the clinic were female (p = 0.01) and reported significantly greater preference for private treatment spaces (p = 0.05). Conclusions. Self-presentational concerns exist in rehabilitation as in exercise settings. Results indicated inverse relationships between women's SPA and preference for the presence of men, physique-enhancing clothing, and open-concept treatment settings. Future studies to determine the effect of self-presentational concerns on treatment adherence are needed. PMID:28386484

  3. Intergenerational care: an exploration of consumer preferences and willingness to pay for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, N; Radford, K; Fitzgerald, J A; Comans, T; Harris, P; Harris, N

    2017-05-25

    To identify feasible models of intergenerational care programmes, that is, care of children and older people in a shared setting, to determine consumer preferences and willingness to pay. Feasible models were constructed in extensive consultations with a panel of experts using a Delphi technique (n = 23) and were considered based on their practical implementation within an Australian setting. This informed a survey tool that captured the preferences and willingness to pay for these models by potential consumers, when compared to the status quo. Information collected from the surveys (n = 816) was analysed using regression analysis to identify fundamental drivers of preferences and the prices consumers were willing to pay for intergenerational care programmes. The shared campus and visiting models were identified as feasible intergenerational care models. Key attributes of these models included respite day care; a common educational pedagogy across generations; screening; monitoring; and evaluation of participant outcomes. Although parents were more likely to take up intergenerational care compared to the status quo, adult carers reported a higher willingness to pay for these services. Educational attainment also influenced the likely uptake of intergenerational care. The results of this study show that there is demand for the shared campus and the visiting campus models among the Australian community. The findings support moves towards consumer-centric models of care, in line with national and international best practice. This consumer-centric approach is encapsulated in the intergenerational care model and enables greater choice of care to match different consumer demands.

  4. Snake venom serine proteinases specificity mapping by proteomic identification of cleavage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanis, André; Huesgen, Pitter F; Oliveira, Ana Karina; Tashima, Alexandre K; Serrano, Solange M T; Overall, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Many snake venom toxins are serine proteases but their specific in vivo targets are mostly unknown. Various act on components of the coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic and kallikrein-kinin systems to trigger various pathological effects observed in the envenomation. Despite showing high similarity in terms of primary structure snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) show exquisite specificity towards macromolecular substrates. Therefore, the characterization of their peptide bond specificity is important for understanding the active site preference associated with effective proteolysis as well as for the design of peptide substrates and inhibitors. Bothrops jararaca contains various SVSPs among which Bothrops protease A is a specific fibrinogenolytic agent and PA-BJ is a platelet-activating enzyme. In this study we used proteome derived peptide libraries in the Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) approach to explore the peptide bond specificity of Bothrops protease A and PA-BJ in order to determine their individual peptide cleavage sequences. A total of 371 cleavage sites (208 for Bothrops protease A and 163 for PA-BJ) were detected and both proteinases displayed a clear preference for arginine at the P1 position. Moreover, the analysis of the specificity profiles of Bothrops protease A and PA-BJ revealed subtle differences in the preferences along P6-P6', despite a common yet unusual preference for Pro at P2. Taken together, these results map the subsite specificity of both SVSPs and shed light in the functional differences between these proteinases. Proteolysis is key to various pathological effects observed upon envenomation by viperid snakes. The use of the Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) approach for the easy mapping of proteinase subsite preferences at both the prime- and non-prime sides concurrently gives rise to a fresh understanding of the interaction of the snake venom serine proteinases with peptide and

  5. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    revealed preference is the concept from economic consumer theory meaning that the observed consumption bundle chosen (e.g. the amounts of crop production, groundwater risk and everything else) is preferred to any other bundle possible (e.g. the bundle including more crop production and the concomitant increase in groundwater risk) given the constraints the consumer faces. This concept was initially applied at the level of an individual consumer, but it also applies by the same logic at the social level of analysis. Using the spatially explicit information provided by Landsat MRLI about land use on the surfaces recharging the aquifers, more efficient regulation can be devised to allow more production on the surface while protecting aquifers to the degree implied by this revealed preference analysis.

  6. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  7. Preference index supported by motivation tests in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Caroline Marques; Volpato, Gilson Luiz

    2017-01-01

    The identification of animal preferences is assumed to provide better rearing environments for the animals in question. Preference tests focus on the frequency of approaches or the time an animal spends in proximity to each item of the investigated resource during a multiple-choice trial. Recently, a preference index (PI) was proposed to differentiate animal preferences from momentary responses (Sci Rep, 2016, 6:28328, DOI: 10.1038/srep28328). This index also quantifies the degree of preference for each item. Each choice response is also weighted, with the most recent responses weighted more heavily, but the index includes the entire bank of tests, and thus represents a history-based approach. In this study, we compared this PI to motivation tests, which consider how much effort is expended to access a resource. We performed choice tests over 7 consecutive days for 34 Nile tilapia fish that presented with different colored compartments in each test. We first detected the preferred and non-preferred colors of each fish using the PI and then tested their motivation to reach these compartments. We found that fish preferences varied individually, but the results were consistent with the motivation profiles, as individual fish were more motivated (the number of touches made on transparent, hinged doors that prevented access to the resource) to access their preferred items. On average, most of the 34 fish avoided the color yellow and showed less motivation to reach yellow and red colors. The fish also exhibited greater motivation to access blue and green colors (the most preferred colors). These results corroborate the PI as a reliable tool for the identification of animal preferences. We recommend this index to animal keepers and researchers to identify an animal's preferred conditions.

  8. Preference index supported by motivation tests in Nile tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marques Maia

    Full Text Available The identification of animal preferences is assumed to provide better rearing environments for the animals in question. Preference tests focus on the frequency of approaches or the time an animal spends in proximity to each item of the investigated resource during a multiple-choice trial. Recently, a preference index (PI was proposed to differentiate animal preferences from momentary responses (Sci Rep, 2016, 6:28328, DOI: 10.1038/srep28328. This index also quantifies the degree of preference for each item. Each choice response is also weighted, with the most recent responses weighted more heavily, but the index includes the entire bank of tests, and thus represents a history-based approach. In this study, we compared this PI to motivation tests, which consider how much effort is expended to access a resource. We performed choice tests over 7 consecutive days for 34 Nile tilapia fish that presented with different colored compartments in each test. We first detected the preferred and non-preferred colors of each fish using the PI and then tested their motivation to reach these compartments. We found that fish preferences varied individually, but the results were consistent with the motivation profiles, as individual fish were more motivated (the number of touches made on transparent, hinged doors that prevented access to the resource to access their preferred items. On average, most of the 34 fish avoided the color yellow and showed less motivation to reach yellow and red colors. The fish also exhibited greater motivation to access blue and green colors (the most preferred colors. These results corroborate the PI as a reliable tool for the identification of animal preferences. We recommend this index to animal keepers and researchers to identify an animal's preferred conditions.

  9. Students' reasons for preferring teleological explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommler, Friederike; Gresch, Helge; Hammann, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The teleological bias, a major learning obstacle, involves explaining biological phenomena in terms of purposes and goals. To probe the teleological bias, researchers have used acceptance judgement tasks and preference judgement tasks. In the present study, such tasks were used with German high school students (N = 353) for 10 phenomena from human biology, that were explained both teleologically and causally. A sub-sample (n = 26) was interviewed about the reasons for their preferences. The results showed that the students favoured teleological explanations over causal explanations. Although the students explained their preference judgements etiologically (i.e. teleologically and causally), they also referred to a wide range of non-etiological criteria (i.e. familiarity, complexity, relevance and five more criteria). When elaborating on their preference for causal explanations, the students often focused not on the causality of the phenomenon, but on mechanisms whose complexity they found attractive. When explaining their preference for teleological explanations, they often focused not teleologically on purposes and goals, but rather on functions, which they found familiar and relevant. Generally, students' preference judgements rarely allowed for making inferences about causal reasoning and teleological reasoning, an issue that is controversial in the literature. Given that students were largely unaware of causality and teleology, their attention must be directed towards distinguishing between etiological and non-etiological reasoning. Implications for educational practice as well as for future research are discussed.

  10. Bayes-Optimal Entropy Pursuit for Active Choice-Based Preference Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pallone, Stephen N.; Frazier, Peter I.; Henderson, Shane G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the problem of learning a single user's preferences in an active learning setting, sequentially and adaptively querying the user over a finite time horizon. Learning is conducted via choice-based queries, where the user selects her preferred option among a small subset of offered alternatives. These queries have been shown to be a robust and efficient way to learn an individual's preferences. We take a parametric approach and model the user's preferences through a linear classifier...

  11. Pupils Learning Preferences and Interest Development in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikpo, Ofem U.; Domike, Grace

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the extent pupils learning preference and interest development influences their learning in schools. Interest is refers to an individual's relatively enduring psychological predisposition (preference) to re-engage in particular classes of objects, available evidence indicates that, there are many factors that…

  12. The role of the anionic and cationic pt sites in the adsorption site preference of water and ethanol on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates: A density functional theory investigation within the D3 van der waals corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminovski, Yohanna; Amaral, Rafael C.; Tereshchuk, Polina; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) atoms in the bulk face-centered cubic structure have neutral charge because they are equivalent by symmetry, however, in clean Pt surfaces, the effective charge on Pt atoms can turn slightly negative (anionic) or positive (cationic) while increasing substantially in magnitude for defected (low-coordinated) Pt sites. The effective charge affect the adsorption properties of molecular species on Pt surfaces and it can compete in importance with the coupling of the substrate-molecule electronic states. Although several studies have been reported due to the importance of Pt for catalysis, our understanding of the role played by low-coordinated sites is still limited. Here, we employ density functional theory within the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional and the D3 van der Waals (vdW) correction to investigate the role of the cationic and anionic Pt sites on the adsorption properties of ethanol and water on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. Four substrates were carefully selected, namely, two two-dimensional (2D) Pt4 configurations (2D-strand and 2D-island) and two tri-dimensional (3D) Pt4 (3D-fcc and 3D-hcp), to understand the role of coordination, effective charge, and coupling of the electronic states in the adsorption properties. From the Bader charge analysis, we identified the cationic and anionic sites among the Pt atoms exposed to the vacuum region in the Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. We found that ethanol and water bind via the anionic O atoms to the low-coordinated defected Pt sites of the substrates, where the angle PtOH is nearly 100° for most configurations. In the 3D-fcc or 3D-hcp defected configurations, the lowest-coordinated Pt atoms are anionic, hence, those Pt sites are not preferable for the adsorption of O atoms. The charge transfer from water and ethanol to the Pt substrates has similar magnitude for all cases, which implies similar Coulomb contribution to the adsorption energy. Moreover, we found a correlation of the

  13. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  14. Engineering of PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Unravelling the role of the specificity loop for sugar preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imberty Anne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lectins are proteins of non-immune origin capable of binding saccharide structures with high specificity and affinity. Considering the high encoding capacity of oligosaccharides, this makes lectins important for adhesion and recognition. The present study is devoted to the PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing lethal complications in cystic fibrosis patients. The lectin may play an important role in the process of virulence, recognizing specific saccharide structures and subsequently allowing the bacteria to adhere to the host cells. It displays high values of affinity towards monosaccharides, especially fucose – a feature caused by unusual binding mode, where two calcium ions participate in the interaction with saccharide. Investigating and understanding the nature of lectin-saccharide interactions holds a great potential of use in the field of drug design, namely the targeting and delivery of active compounds to the proper site of action. Results In vitro site-directed mutagenesis of the PA-IIL lectin yielded three single point mutants that were investigated both structurally (by X-ray crystallography and functionally (by isothermal titration calorimetry. The mutated amino acids (22–23–24 triad belong to the so-called specificity binding loop responsible for the monosaccharide specificity of the lectin. The mutation of the amino acids resulted in changes to the thermodynamic behaviour of the mutants and subsequently in their relative preference towards monosaccharides. Correlation of the measured data with X-ray structures provided the molecular basis for rationalizing the affinity changes. The mutations either prevent certain interactions to be formed or allow formation of new interactions – both of afore mentioned have strong effects on the saccharide preferences. Conclusion Mutagenesis of amino acids forming the specificity binding loop allowed

  15. Selection of potential sites in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damme, R. van den

    1976-01-01

    The construction of two nuclear power plants of 1000 MW is planned. In the framework of the characteristics of the country (lack of big rivers, population density, etc.) and because of the thermal saturation of the Scheldt and Meuse rivers the two units if installed along these rivers will be cooled in closed circuit. For economic considerations Belgium thought to site them along the coast in open-circuit cooling but for ecological and touristic reasons some opposition arose. A new possible siting could be Doel on the same site of the existing three units with a final concentration of 3000 MW. For the second unit different possible sites exist with some preference for Tihange, where two other units are installed. For the 1985 generation of nuclear power units the siting conditions remain the same: inland siting using cooling towers and coastal sites with open-circuit cooling, with a new possibility of creating artificial islands along the Belgian coast. The technical aspects of this alternative are reviewed. (A.F.)

  16. Social media, text messaging, and email-preferences of asthma patients between 12 and 40 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Alan P; Thompson, Michael; Grossman, Karla Stoermer; Mohammed, Layla; Sy, Annie; Sanders, Georgiana M

    2011-10-01

    Electronic media such as social media (Facebook, Twitter, MySpace), email, and text messaging could be useful in the management of asthma. However, patient use and preferences for electronic media in asthma management is currently unknown. A survey was sent to asthma patients between 12-40 years of age. The survey collected demographic information, use of electronic media, interest in using electronic media to receive asthma information, and interest in using electronic media to communicate with a health care provider about asthma. Free text entries were encouraged. 145 completed surveys were returned. Text messaging, email, and Facebook were used at least weekly by a majority of respondents (82%, 77%, and 65%, respectively). Email was clearly the most preferred method to receive asthma information and to communicate with a physician. There was some interest in using Facebook or text messaging, whereas Myspace and Twitter had minimal interest. On logistic regression analysis, female and Black or Hispanic participants were more likely to have an interest in the use of electronic media for asthma care. Frequent users (>1X/week) of each electronic media type had greater enthusiasm for their incorporation into asthma care. Free text entries revealed that many participants felt social media sites were for connecting with friends rather than for health care, and privacy concerns were also raised. Electronic media offers a novel way to improve asthma care. Email was the most preferred method, though text messaging and social media sites like Facebook may be appropriate for certain patients.

  17. SiteGuide: An example-based approach to web site development assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ‘SiteGuide’, a tool that helps web designers to decide which information will be included in a new web site and how the information will be organized. SiteGuide takes as input URLs of web sites from the same domain as the site the user wants to create. It automatically searches the pages

  18. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  19. A decision making method based on interval type-2 fuzzy sets: An approach for ambulance location preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazim Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the best solution to deploy an ambulance in a strategic location is of the important variables that need to be accounted for improving the emergency medical services. The selection requires both quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Fuzzy set based approach is one of the well-known theories that help decision makers to handle fuzziness, uncertainty in decision making and vagueness of information. This paper proposes a new decision making method of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Simple Additive Weighting (IT2 FSAW as to deal with uncertainty and vagueness. The new IT2 FSAW is applied to establish a preference in ambulance location. The decision making framework defines four criteria and five alternatives of ambulance location preference. Four experts attached to a Malaysian government hospital and a university medical center were interviewed to provide linguistic evaluation prior to analyzing with the new IT2 FSAW. Implementation of the proposed method in the case of ambulance location preference suggests that the ‘road network’ is the best alternative for ambulance location. The results indicate that the proposed method offers a consensus solution for handling the vague and qualitative criteria of ambulance location preference.

  20. Healthy-unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an association? An analysis through a consumer survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Alessia; De Marchi, Elisa; Banterle, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An integrated approach to site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, E.M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of analysing and evaluating the large number of factors influencing site selection is proposed, which can interrelate these factors and associated problems in an integrated way and at the same time establish a technique for site evaluation. The objective is to develop an integrated programme that illustrates the complexity and dynamic interrelationships of the various factors to develop an improved understanding of the functions and objectives of siting nuclear power plants and would aim finally at the development of an effective procedure and technique for site evaluation and/or comparative evaluation for making rational site-selection decisions. (author)

  2. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  3. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:28392774

  5. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  6. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  7. Statistical analysis of subjective preferences for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Russell L.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2010-02-01

    Measuring preferences for moving video quality is harder than for static images due to the fleeting and variable nature of moving video. Subjective preferences for image quality can be tested by observers indicating their preference for one image over another. Such pairwise comparisons can be analyzed using Thurstone scaling (Farrell, 1999). Thurstone (1927) scaling is widely used in applied psychology, marketing, food tasting and advertising research. Thurstone analysis constructs an arbitrary perceptual scale for the items that are compared (e.g. enhancement levels). However, Thurstone scaling does not determine the statistical significance of the differences between items on that perceptual scale. Recent papers have provided inferential statistical methods that produce an outcome similar to Thurstone scaling (Lipovetsky and Conklin, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that binary logistic regression can analyze preferences for enhanced video.

  8. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  9. Spatial Preference Modelling for equitable infrastructure provision: an application of Sen's Capability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismadi, Arif; Zuidgeest, Mark; Brussel, Mark; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling allows spatial decision support systems (SDSSs) to better address spatial equity, we introduce Spatial Preference Modelling (SPM). To evaluate the effectiveness of this model in addressing equity, various standardisation functions in both Non-Spatial Preference Modelling and SPM are compared. The evaluation involves applying the model to a resource location-allocation problem for transport infrastructure in the Special Province of Yogyakarta in Indonesia. We apply Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to define opportunity to mobility as a non-income indicator. Using the extended Moran's I interpretation for spatial equity, we evaluate the distribution output regarding, first, `the spatial distribution patterns of priority targeting for allocation' (SPT) and, second, `the effect of new distribution patterns after location-allocation' (ELA). The Moran's I index of the initial map and its comparison with six patterns for SPT as well as ELA consistently indicates that the SPM is more effective for addressing spatial equity. We conclude that the inclusion of spatial neighbourhood comparison factors in Preference Modelling improves the capability of SDSS to address spatial equity. This study thus proposes a new formal method for SDSS with specific attention on resource location-allocation to address spatial equity.

  10. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  11. Sexual health needs and educational intervention preferences for women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Cara; Goldfarb, Shari; Baser, Raymond E; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Barakat, Richard R; Dickler, Maura N; Carter, Jeanne

    2017-08-01

    To assess sexual/vaginal health issues and educational intervention preferences in women with a history of breast or gynecologic cancer. Patients/survivors completed a cross-sectional survey at their outpatient visits. Main outcome measures were sexual dysfunction prevalence, type of sexual/vaginal issues, awareness of treatments, and preferred intervention modalities. Descriptive frequencies were performed, and results were dichotomized by age, treatment status, and disease site. Of 218 eligible participants, 109 (50%) had a history of gynecologic and 109 (50%) a history of breast cancer. Median age was 49 years (range 21-75); 61% were married/cohabitating. Seventy percent (n = 153) were somewhat-to-very concerned about sexual function/vaginal health, 55% (n = 120) reported vaginal dryness, 39% (n = 84) vaginal pain, and 51% (n = 112) libido loss. Many had heard of vaginal lubricants, moisturizers, and pelvic floor exercises (97, 72, and 57%, respectively). Seventy-four percent (n = 161) had used lubricants, 28% moisturizers (n = 61), and 28% pelvic floor exercises (n = 60). Seventy percent (n = 152) preferred the topic to be raised by the medical team; 48% (n = 105) raised the topic themselves. Most preferred written educational material followed by expert discussion (66%, n = 144/218). Compared to women ≥50 years old (41%, n = 43/105), younger women (54%, n = 61/113) preferred to discuss their concerns face-to-face (p = 0.054). Older women were less interested in online interventions (52%, p sexual/vaginal health needs. Preferences for receiving sexual health information vary by age. Improved physician-patient communication, awareness, and educational resources using proven sexual health promotion strategies can help women cope with treatment side effects.

  12. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Walle, B.; De Baets, B.; Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  13. Needs and preference assessment for an in-home nutrition education program using social marketing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L; Strickland, Amy Williams

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition education programs for elder caregivers (CG) and their elder care recipients (CR) are important in preventing malnutrition. Using Social Marketing Theory, this study assessed the needs and preferences for nutrition education in elder CGs and their CRs in Guilford County, NC. Thirty-two pairs of community-residing elder CGs/CRs and three focus groups (FGs) participated. Health and diet questionnaires were administered to all CGs/CRs during in-home interviews. CGs/CRs and FGs evaluated nutrition education materials. Questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS v9. Ethnograph v5.0 was used to code the interviews regarding the education materials. The CGs were middle age (58.9 years), overweight (BMI = 28.8) Caucasian women. The CRs were old (79.4 years), overweight (BMI = 26.0) Caucasian women. Identified malnutrition risk factors of CGs and CRs included inadequate fluid and dietary intake, polypharmacy, and chronic disease. Identified nutrition needs and education preferences of CGs/CRs were similar. Perceived nutrition education preferences of the FGs did not reflect the interests of the CGs/CRs. This information is being used to revise the education materials and develop an in-home nutrition education program for CGs and CRs in Guilford County, NC.

  14. Do quality improvement collaboratives' educational components match the dominant learning style preferences of the participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Slaghuis, Sarah-Sue

    2015-06-20

    Quality improvement collaboratives are used to improve healthcare by various organizations. Despite their popularity literature shows mixed results on their effectiveness. A quality improvement collaborative can be seen as a temporary learning organization in which knowledge about improvement themes and methods is exchanged. In this research we studied: Does the learning approach of a quality improvement collaborative match the learning styles preferences of the individual participants and how does that affect the learning process of participants? This research used a mixed methods design combining a validated learning style questionnaire with data collected in the tradition of action research methodology to study two Dutch quality improvement collaboratives. The questionnaire is based on the learning style model of Ruijters and Simons, distinguishing five learning style preferences: Acquisition of knowledge, Apperception from others, Discovery of new insights, Exercising in fictitious situations and Participation with others. The most preferred learning styles of the participants were Discovery and Participation. The learning style Acquisition was moderately preferred and Apperception and Exercising were least preferred. The educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied (national conferences, half-day learning sessions, faculty site visits and use of an online tool) were predominantly associated with the learning styles Acquisition and Apperception. We observed a decrease in attendance to the learning activities and non-conformance with the standardized set goals and approaches. We conclude that the participants' satisfaction with the offered learning approach changed over time. The lacking match between these learning style preferences and the learning approach in the educational components of the quality improvement collaboratives studied might be the reason why the participants felt they did not gain new insights and therefore ceased

  15. Eye Tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Subtype Associated With Increased Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2016-04-15

    Clinically and biologically, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye tracking are hallmarks; however, whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. A sample of 334 toddlers from six distinct groups (115 toddlers with ASD, 20 toddlers with ASD features, 57 toddlers with developmental delay, 53 toddlers with other conditions [e.g., premature birth, prenatal drug exposure], 64 toddlers with typical development, and 25 unaffected toddlers with siblings with ASD) was studied. Toddlers watched a movie containing geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each area of interest and validation statistics for this independent sample were computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (n = 110) were added for a total of 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images >69% of the time. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity was 98%, and positive predictive value was 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had 1) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and 2) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggested that this test may not be appropriate with children >4 years old. Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  17. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, J.

    1994-01-01

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state's input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only

  18. Wine and culinary tourism: Preferences of experiential consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the key components of consumer demand for the development of a successful wine and culinary tourism segment. In particular, we investigate the demand preferences that are important to consumers interested in a wine and culinary related hotel stay in South Tyrol. Conceptually, we utilize the 4E-Model of experiential consumption by Pine & Gilmore [1, 2] and propose that the four realms of an experience (i.e., entertainment, education, escapist, and aesthetic relate to the principal components of consumer preferences. We survey potential tourists to gain a better understanding of their demand preferences for culinary and wine related hotel stays. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we identify the principal components of consumer demand preferences. The most preferred demand feature of a culinary wine experience relates to informative entertainment. The second feature relates to social-cultural activities that are educating. The third are escapist wine and food-specific activities and the forth relates to the aesthetics of accommodation traits and style in the culinary and wine domain. Moreover, we study the current supply attributes of wine and culinary related hotel offer in South Tyrol and their pricing using a hedonic model. Attributes that provide an entertainment experience form the basis of any offer in the wine and culinary domain. Attributes that provide an educational experience are highly relevant and add will a significant price premium. Matching demand preferences and supply conditions is crucial in developing a successful culinary and wine related tourism segment.

  19. Partnership Selection Involving Mixed Types of Uncertain Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnership selection is an important issue in management science. This study proposes a general model based on mixed integer programming and goal-programming analytic hierarchy process (GP-AHP to solve partnership selection problems involving mixed types of uncertain or inconsistent preferences. The proposed approach is designed to deal with crisp, interval, step, fuzzy, or mixed comparison preferences, derive crisp priorities, and improve multiple solution problems. The degree of fulfillment of a decision maker’s preferences is also taken into account. The results show that the proposed approach keeps more solution ratios within the given preferred intervals and yields less deviation. In addition, the proposed approach can treat incomplete preference matrices with flexibility in reducing the number of pairwise comparisons required and can also be conveniently developed into a decision support system.

  20. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  1. 22 CFR 42.32 - Employment-based preference immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and children of a graduate of a foreign medical school or of a person qualified to practice medicine... whether or not named in the petition, the child or spouse of an employment-based first preference... named in the petition, the child or spouse of an employment-based second preference immigrant, if not...

  2. Patients prefer electronic medical records - fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiza, Melissa; Mostert-Phipps, Nicky; Pottasa, Dalenca

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete patient medical history compromises the quality of care provided to a patient while well-kept, adequate patient medical records are central to the provision of good quality of care. According to research, patients have the right to contribute to decision-making affecting their health. Hence, the researchers investigated their views regarding a paper-based system and an electronic medical record (EMR). An explorative approach was used in conducting a survey within selected general practices in the Nelson Mandela Metropole. The majority of participants thought that the use of a paper-based system had no negative impact on their health. Participants expressed concerns relating to the confidentiality of their medical records with both storage mediums. The majority of participants indicated they prefer their GP to computerise their consultation details. The main objective of the research on which this poster is based was to investigate the storage medium of preference for patients and the reasons for their preference. Overall, 48% of the 85 participants selected EMRs as their preferred storage medium and the reasons for their preference were also uncovered.

  3. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  4. An advanced traveler navigation system adapted to route choice preferences of the individual users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Amirgholy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing navigation systems only account for a single aspect of the route choice, like travel time or distance, in finding the optimal route for the trips in the network. In this research, we first identify a range of diverse factors that travelers take into account in their route choice decision in the network. A stated preference survey is conducted to show the heterogeneity in the preferences of users and its dependence to the purpose of the trips over the weekdays and weekends. Interestingly, results of the survey show that road safety is the most influential factor in the route choice decision of the average participants over weekends, exceeding even the travel time, and participants give more importance to the scenic quality of the routes for their weekend trips in comparison to their weekday trips. The results of the second part of the survey also indicate that in 27% of the cases participants choose routes other than the ones suggested by navigation systems, and 33% of the times that they take the suggested routes, they modify these routes according to their own preferences. The partial inability of existing navigation systems to suggest the routes that match the preferences of users can be attributed to ignoring (1 the diversity in influential factors and (2 the heterogeneity in preferences of the users by these systems. We propose a dynamic mixed logit route choice model to include the effects of information and learning to estimate parameters of a multivariable utility function for individual users based on their own historical route choice data over time. Finally, we present the concept of a smart navigation system that can gather the required information from real-time and online sources to suggest the routes that best match the users’ own preferences.

  5. In-situ and on-site technologies; An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, F J [Technical Support Branch, ORD, RREL, U.S. EPA, Edison, New Jersey (US)

    1990-01-01

    A broad analysis of and perspective on the characteristics and measured performance of in-situ and on-site treatment technologies available for remediation of contaminated soils, groundwater and associated debris at hazardous waste sites. Included in the analysis is information from U.S. and European sources. Available data are appended from nine recently completed field demonstrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The most frequently applied technology areas appear to be on-site thermal treatment for organics, on-site and in-situ solidification/stabilization technologies for most inorganics and metals, traditional on-site water treatment techniques, and soil vapor extraction for volatile organic compounds. Rapidly developing areas include bioremediation technologies, and concentration technologies. Two of the weakest areas include materials handling for such situations as excavating buried drums and soils with volatiles safely, and performing physical and chemical site characterization using technology-sensitive parameters. An area worthy of international cooperatin is that of performing benchscale screening and treatability studies, including the specification of key parameters needing measurement, techniques for such measurement and for interpretation, storage and retrieval of resulting data. We are in the process of evaluating existing treatability study data on soils and debris, and will be installing that data onto an on-line information system available to the public world-wide. (AB) 10 refs.

  6. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 re...

  7. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  8. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences.

  9. Context differences in children's ingroup preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Rutland, Adam; Abrams, Dominic; Killen, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    Ingroup preferences when deciding who to include in 2 distinct intergroup contexts, gender and school affiliation, were investigated. Children and adolescents, in the 4th (9-10 years) and 8th (13-14 years) grades, chose between including someone in their group who shared their group norm (moral or conventional) or who shared their group membership (school affiliation or gender). With age, children displayed a greater ability to balance information about ingroup norms and group membership. Younger children were more likely to include an outgroup member who supported equal norms than were older children. Accompanying the choices made, there was a greater use of fairness reasoning in younger rather than older participants, and increased references to group identity and group functioning for school identification. There were no differences in ingroup preferences in the school and gender contexts for groups involving moral norms. Desires for equal allocation of resources trumped differences related to ingroup preference. For social-conventional norms, however, there was a greater ingroup preference in a school intergroup context than in a gender intergroup context. Thus, the results demonstrate the importance of context in the manifestation of ingroup preference and the increasing sophistication, with age, of children's and adolescents' group decision-making skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Characterization Plan for L/ILW Repository Candidate Sites in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.

    1998-01-01

    There have been four preferred sites for L/ILW repository selected in the siting program in Croatia so far. According to the accepted and verified site selection procedure, these sites are suitable for a more detailed characterization, including also site specific field investigations. The aim of these investigations is to measure and calculate all needed site specific parameters important for performance of safety assessment, aiming eventually with selection of the final disposal site. Both Croatian and IAEA regulations referring to radwaste repository siting procedure have been briefly discussed. Detailed site investigations foreseen to be done in order to perform a successful site characterization, refer to the following main topics: geomorphology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismicity, rock mechanics, surface-water hydrology, aquifer features and groundwater hydrology, rock and groundwater chemistry, and radionuclide transport modeling. All these issues are listed in suggested site characterization format. (author)

  11. Do Adolescents Prefer Electronic Books to Paper Books?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K. Merga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While electronic books offer a range of benefits and may be supposed to be more appealing to young people than paper books, this assumption is often treated as fact by educational researchers. Understanding adolescents’ true current preferences is essential, as incorrect assumptions can lead to decisions which restrict adolescent access to their preferred book mode. The belief that adolescents prefer electronic books to paper books has already led to some school libraries being expunged of paper books. As adolescents show a higher level of aliteracy than younger children, and regular reading offers a broad range of benefits for young people, it is imperative that school’s decisions around providing access to books are responsive to adolescent students’ genuine preferences. This paper analyses the current and relevant academic research around adolescent preferences for book modes, finding that, at present, the contention that adolescents prefer electronic books is not supported by the available research. In addition, there are a number of issues identified that make analyzing the findings in this area problematic. Future studies in this area are needed before an adolescent preference for electronic books can be unequivocally substantiated.

  12. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  13. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  14. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    . Muskoxen in this area had a very loose group structure, with mother-young pairs as the only apparent bond between individuals. Furthermore, the tagged muskoxen lacked strong fidelity to the site where they were tagged and roamed within an 11.000-km2 area. Hunters reported tagged muskoxen shot up to 120 km...... away from the capture site. From the hunters' reports, we determined that the central part of Jameson Land around Mikael Bjerg was the preferred hunting area in winter. In summer, most muskoxen were shot near the coast of the central part of Jameson Land. The hunter compliance in this study confirms...

  15. Prefered Feed of Anoa (Bubalus sp. at Manado Forestry Research Institute Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Irawati Dwi Arini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the type of fodder available and the level of scarcity of Anoa’s fodder at the condition prior to captivity at the Forestry Research Institute of Manado. The method employed was a trial of 12 (twelve types of fodder available around the captivity site given to 2 (two female anoas. The data were analyzed and displayed in tables and graphs while the data of preferred fodder were analyzed using Neu’s index equation. The findings suggest that anoa put in captivity at the Forestry Research Institute of Manado did not encounter problems during the process of feeding adaptation. The average fodder needs required anoa at the captivity site of the Forestry Research Institute of Manado range from 10.2 to 11.7 kg/ day in which the fodder was given twice a day. Meanwhile, based on the availability and ease of supplying the fodder from around the captivity site, the following are the types of fodder from higher to lower preferences, namely: field grass, kangkung, shoes banana, string beans, beans and cucumbers, respectively. While fodder with the lowest level of scarcity is the type of fodder with a hard texture such as sweet potatoes, carrots or potatoes. Based on the results of a number of studies, it is recommended that variations in anoa’s fodder can be done every 4-5 times a day.

  16. Patients' preferences for doctors' attire in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Osamu; Ohde, Sachiko; Deshpande, Gautam A; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2010-01-01

    Physicians' attire is one important factor to enhance the physician-patient relationship. However, there are few studies that examine patients' preferences for physicians' attire in Japan. We sought to assess patients' preference regarding doctors' attire and to assess the influence of doctors' attire on patients' confidence in their physician. Furthermore, we examined whether patients' preferences would change among various clinical situations. Employing a cross-sectional design, Japanese outpatients chosen over one week in October 2008 from waiting rooms in various outpatient departments at St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, were given a 10-item questionnaire. A 5-point Likert scale was used to estimate patient preference for four types of attire in both male and female physicians, including semi-formal attire, white coat, surgical scrubs, and casual wear. In addition, a 4-point Likert Scale was used to measure the influence of doctors' attire on patient confidence. Japanese outpatients consecutively chosen from waiting rooms at St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo for one week in October 2008. Of 2,272 outpatients enrolled, 1483 (67.1%) of respondents were women. Mean age of subjects was 53.8 years (SD 16.2 years). Respondents most preferred the white coat (mean rank: 4.18, SD: 0.75) and preferred casual attire the least (mean rank: 2.32, SD: 0.81). For female physicians, 1.4% of respondents ranked the white coat little/least preferred while 64.7% of respondents ranked casual wear little/least preferred. Among respondents who most preferred the white coat for physician attire, perceived hygiene (62.7%) and inspiring confidence (59.3%) were important factors for doctor's attire. Around 70% of all respondents reported that physicians' attire has an influence on their confidence in their physician. This study confirms that Japanese outpatients prefer a white coat. Furthermore, this study strongly suggests that wearing a white coat could favorably

  17. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S Clements

    Full Text Available Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point. When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah, 82±3% (leopard, 81±2% (lion, 97±2% (spotted hyaena and 96±2% (wild dog of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  18. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  19. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  20. An axiomatic approach to the estimation of interval-valued preferences in multi-criteria decision modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    In this paper we explore multi-dimensional preference estimation from imprecise (interval) data. Focusing on different multi-criteria decision models, such as PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, TOPSIS or VIKOR, and their extensions dealing with imprecise data, preference modeling is examined with respect...

  1. Colony-level variation in pollen collection and foraging preferences among wild-caught bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin, Mustafa; Jha, Shalene

    2014-04-01

    Given that many pollinators have exhibited dramatic declines related to habitat destruction, an improved understanding of pollinator resource collection across human-altered landscapes is essential to conservation efforts. Despite the importance of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as global pollinators, little is known regarding how pollen collection patterns vary between individuals, colonies, and landscapes. In this study, Vosnesensky bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski) were collected from a range of human-altered and natural landscapes in northern California. Extensive vegetation surveys and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based habitat classifications were conducted at each site, bees were genotyped to identify colony mates, and pollen loads were examined to identify visited plants. In contrast to predictions based on strong competitive interactions, pollen load composition was significantly more similar for bees captured in a shared study region compared with bees throughout the research area but was not significantly more similar for colony mates. Preference analyses revealed that pollen loads were not composed of the most abundant plant species per study region. The majority of ranked pollen preference lists were significantly correlated for pairwise comparisons of colony mates and individuals within a study region, whereas the majority of pairwise comparisons of ranked pollen preference lists between individuals located at separate study regions were uncorrelated. Results suggest that pollen load composition and foraging preferences are similar for bees throughout a shared landscape regardless of colony membership. The importance of native plant species in pollen collection is illustrated through preference analyses, and we suggest prioritization of specific rare native plant species for enhanced bumble bee pollen collection.

  2. Patient Preferences for Managing Insomnia: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Saini, Bandana; Laba, Tracey-Lea

    2018-03-03

    Despite the rapid development of effective treatments, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, insomnia management remains suboptimal at the practice interface. Patient preferences play a critical role in influencing treatment outcomes. However, there is currently a mismatch between patient preferences and clinician recommendations, partly perpetuated by a limited understanding of the patients' decision-making process. The aim of our study was to empirically quantify patient preferences for treatment attributes common to both pharmacological and non-pharmacological insomnia treatments. An efficient dual-response discrete choice experiment was conducted to evaluate patient treatment preferences for managing insomnia. The sample included 205 patients with self-reported insomnia and an Insomnia Severity Index ≥ 14. Participants were presented with two unlabelled hypothetical scenarios with an opt-out option across 12 choice sets. Data were analyzed using a mixed multinomial logit model to investigate the influence of five attributes (i.e. time, onset of action, maintainability of improved sleep, length of treatment, and monthly cost) on treatment preferences. Treatments were preferentially viewed if they conferred long-term sleep benefits (p managing insomnia.

  3. Patterns of mutation and selection at synonymous sites in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Nadia D; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L; Hubisz, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    , when applied to 18 coding sequences in 3 species of Drosophila, confirmed an earlier report that the Notch gene in Drosophila melanogaster was evolving under selection in favor of those codons defined as unpreferred in this species. This finding opened the possibility that synonymous sites may...... be subject to a variety of selective pressures beyond weak selection for increased frequencies of the codons currently defined as "preferred" in D. melanogaster. To further explore patterns of synonymous site evolution in Drosophila in a lineage-specific manner, we expanded the application of the maximum...... likelihood framework to 8,452 protein coding sequences with well-defined orthology in D. melanogaster, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila yakuba. Our analyses reveal intragenomic and interspecific variation in mutational patterns as well as in patterns and intensity of selection on synonymous sites. In D...

  4. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John