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Sample records for anoxybacillus flavithermus wk1

  1. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Jimmy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mountain, Bruce W [NEW ZEALAND; Feng, Lu [NANKAI UNIV; Omelchenko, Marina V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Hou, Shaobin [UNIV OF HAWAII; Saito, Jennifer A [UNIV OF HAWAII; Stott, Matthew B [NEW ZEALAND; Li, Dan [NANKAI UNIV; Zhao, Guang [NANKAI UNIV; Wu, Junli [NANKAI UNIV; Galperin, Michael Y [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Koonin, Eugene V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Makarova, Kira S [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Wolf, Yuri I [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Rigden, Daniel J [UNIV OF LIVERPOOL; Dunfield, Peter F [UNIV OF CALGARY; Wang, Lei [NANKAI UNIV; Alam, Maqsudul [UNIV OF HAWAII

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.

  2. Novel Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1: A Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2017-06-14

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1 is a thermophilic bacterium that is able to survive at temperatures ranging from 55 to 60∘C. The AK1 strain was isolated from the hot spring “Al-Ain Alhara” located at a distance of 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia. This study presents the morphological characterization of A. flavithermus AK1, including a detailed description of its complete genome sequence. A total of 50 contigs were used to produce a genome sequence of 2,630,664 bp that includes 2724 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA genes, 18 of which are rRNA genes. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strains that were previously submitted to NCBI revealed that the AK1 strain has the smallest genome size with the highest GC content. The strain can therefore be exploited for several biotechnological applications based on its high thermophilic potential.

  3. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  4. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Alqarawi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel L-arabinose isomerase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus useful in D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Zhu, Yueming; Liu, Anjun; Sun, Yuanxia

    2011-05-01

    D-Tagatose is a highly functional rare ketohexose and many attempts have been made to convert D-galactose into the valuable D-tagatose using L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI). In this study, a thermophilic strain possessing L-AI gene was isolated from hot spring sludge and identified as Anoxybacillus flavithermus based on its physio-biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of its 16s rRNA gene. Furthermore, the gene encoding L-AI from A. flavithermus (AFAI) was cloned and expressed at a high level in E. coli BL21(DE3). L-AI had a molecular weight of 55,876 Da, an optimum pH of 10.5 and temperature of 95°C. The results showed that the conversion equilibrium shifted to more D-tagatose from D-galactose by raising the reaction temperatures and adding borate. A 60% conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose was observed at an isomerization temperature of 95°C with borate. The catalytic efficiency (k (cat) /K (m)) for D-galactose with borate was 9.47 mM(-1) min(-1), twice as much as that without borate. Our results indicate that AFAI is a novel hyperthermophilic and alkaliphilic isomerase with a higher catalytic efficiency for D-galactose, suggesting its great potential for producing D-tagatose.

  6. The effect of pH and ionic strength on proton adsorption by the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Peta-Gaye; Heinrich, Hannah; Peak, Derek; Bremer, Phil J.; McQuillan, A. James; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2006-04-01

    Numerous studies have utilized surface complexation theory to model proton adsorption behaviour onto mesophilic bacteria. However, few experiments, to date, have investigated the effects of pH and ionic strength on proton interactions with thermophilic bacteria. In this study, we characterize proton adsorption by the thermophile Anoxybacillus flavithermus by performing acid-base titrations and electrophoretic mobility measurements in NaNO 3 (0.001-0.1 M). Equilibrium thermodynamics (Donnan model) were applied to describe the specific chemical reactions that occur at the water-bacteria interface. Acid-base titrations were used to determine deprotonation constants and site concentrations for the important cell wall functional groups, while electrophoretic mobility data were used to further constrain the model. We observe that with increasing pH and ionic strength, the buffering capacity increases and the electrophoretic mobility decreases. We develop a single surface complexation model to describe proton interactions with the cells, both as a function of pH and ionic strength. Based on the model, the acid-base properties of the cell wall of A. flavithermus can best be characterized by invoking three distinct types of cell wall functional groups, with p Ka values of 4.94, 6.85, and 7.85, and site concentrations of 5.33, 1.79, and 1.42 × 10 -4 moles per gram of dry bacteria, respectively. A. flavithermus imparts less buffering capacity than pure mesophilic bacteria studied to date because the thermophile possesses a lower total site density (8.54 × 10 -4 moles per dry gram bacteria).

  7. Acid-base titrations of functional groups on the surface of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus: comparing a chemical equilibrium model with ATR-IR spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Hannah T M; Bremer, Phil J; Daughney, Christopher J; McQuillan, A James

    2007-02-27

    Acid-base functional groups at the surface of Anoxybacillus flavithermus (AF) were assigned from the modeling of batch titration data of bacterial suspensions and compared with those determined from in situ infrared spectroscopic titration analysis. The computer program FITMOD was used to generate a two-site Donnan model (site 1: pKa = 3.26, wet concn = 2.46 x 10(-4) mol g(-1); site 2: pKa = 6.12, wet concn = 6.55 x 10(-5) mol g(-1)), which was able to describe data for whole exponential phase cells from both batch acid-base titrations at 0.01 M ionic strength and electrophoretic mobility measurements over a range of different pH values and ionic strengths. In agreement with information on the composition of bacterial cell walls and a considerable body of modeling literature, site 1 of the model was assigned to carboxyl groups, and site 2 was assigned to amino groups. pH difference IR spectra acquired by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxyl groups. The spectra appear to show a carboxyl pKa in the 3.3-4.0 range. Further peaks were assigned to phosphodiester groups, which deprotonated at slightly lower pH. The presence of amino groups could not be confirmed or discounted by IR spectroscopy, but a positively charged group corresponding to site 2 was implicated by electrophoretic mobility data. Carboxyl group speciation over a pH range of 2.3-10.3 at two different ionic strengths was further compared to modeling predictions. While model predictions were strongly influenced by the ionic strength change, pH difference IR data showed no significant change. This meant that modeling predictions agreed reasonably well with the IR data for 0.5 M ionic strength but not for 0.01 M ionic strength.

  8. Aerobic growth of Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1(T): emended descriptions of A. pushchinoensis and the genus Anoxybacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Cleland, David; Tang, Jane

    2003-01-01

    In this work, corrections are made to the descriptions of the species Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis corrig. and the genus ANOXYBACILLUS: Experiments to determine the relationship of A. pushchinoensis K1(T) to oxygen showed that it was capable of aerobic growth, but preferred to grow anaerobically. During aerobic growth, the redox indicator resazurin was reduced as a result of hydrogen gas production. The facultatively anaerobic nature of K1(T) was ascertained by cultivation in aerobic liquid medium, where growth began at the bottom of the tube. The anaerobic nature of K1(T) was also indicated by a negative catalase reaction. This work is submitted to correct the description of the species A. pushchinoensis from obligate anaerobe to aerotolerant anaerobe and to emend the description of the genus Anoxybacillus from obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes to aerotolerant anaerobes or facultative anaerobes.

  9. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus geothermalis Strain GSsed3, a Novel Thermophilic Endospore-Forming Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Jeanneret, Nicole; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Regenspurg, Simona; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Paul; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus geothermalis strain GSsed3 is an endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from filter deposits in a geothermal site. This novel species has a larger genome size (7.2 Mb) than that of any other Anoxybacillus species, and it possesses genes that support its phenotypic metabolic characterization and suggest an intriguing link to metals. PMID:26067952

  10. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  11. Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) ( = CGMCC 1.8979(T) = JCM 16594(T)).

  12. LC-ESI-MS/MS Identification of Polar Lipids of Two Thermophilic Anoxybacillus Bacteria Containing a Unique Lipid Pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Kambourova, M.; Derekova, A.; Kolouchová, I.; Sigler, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2012), s. 729-739 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anoxybacillus * Plasmalogens * O-Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerols Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2012

  13. Immobilization of α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 on ReliZyme and Immobead Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummirul Mukminin Kahar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0–9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5–12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.

  14. A High Molecular-Mass Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 Amylopullulanase: Characterization and Its Relationship in Carbohydrate Utilization

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    Kian Mau Goh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable and Detergent-Stable α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. AH1

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    Fatma Matpan Bekler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermostable and detergent-stable α-amylase from a newly isolated Anoxybacillus sp. AH1 was purifi ed and characterized. Maximum enzyme production (1874.8 U/mL was obtained at 24 h of incubation. The amylase was purified by using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, after which an 18-fold increase in specific activity and a yield of 9 % were achieved. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 85 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme were 7.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme was highly stable in the presence of 30 % glycerol, retaining 85 % of its original activity at 60 °C within 120 min. Km and vmax values were 0.102 μmol and 0.929 μmol/min, espectively, using Lineweaver-Burk plot. The enzyme activity was increased by various detergents, but it was significantly inhibited in the presence of urea. Mg2+ and Ca2+ also significantly activated α-amylase, while Zn2+, Cu2+ and metal ion chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen greatly inhibited the enzyme activity. α-Amylase activity was enhanced by β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME and dithiothreitol (DTT to a great extent, but inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB. Iodoacetamide (IAA and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM had a slight, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF had a strong inhibitory effect on the amylase activity.

  16. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophile Community Within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Heni Yohandini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A community of thermophiles within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring (South Sumatera have been cultivated and identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The hot spring has temperature 80 °C–91 °C and pH 7–8. We used a simple method for culturing the microbes, by enriching the spring water with nutrient broth media. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the method could recover microbes, which clustered within four distinct taxonomic groups: Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. These microbes closely related to Anoxybacillus rupiensis, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Geobacillus pallidus, Brevibacillus thermoruber, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of one isolate only had 96% similarity with Brevibacillus sequence in GenBank.

  17. Tracking spore-forming bacteria in food: from natural biodiversity to selection by processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postollec, Florence; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Bernard, Muriel; Divanac'h, Marie-Laure; Pavan, Sonia; Sohier, Danièle

    2012-08-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and exhibit a wide range of diversity leading to their natural prevalence in foodstuff. The state of the art of sporeformer prevalence in ingredients and food was investigated using a multiparametric PCR-based tool that enables simultaneous detection and identification of various genera and species mostly encountered in food, i.e., Alicyclobacillus, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Bacillus, B. cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Clostridium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Moorella and Paenibacillus species. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to extend identification to other possibly present contaminants. A total of 90 food products, with or without visible trace of spoilage were analysed, i.e., 30 egg-based products, 30 milk and dairy products and 30 canned food and ingredients. Results indicated that most samples contained one or several of the targeted genera and species. For all three tested food categories, 30 to 40% of products were contaminated with both Bacillus and Clostridium. The percentage of contaminations associated with Clostridium or Bacillus represented 100% in raw materials, 72% in dehydrated ingredients and 80% in processed foods. In the last two product types, additional thermophilic contaminants were identified (A. flavithermus, Geobacillus spp., Thermoanaerobacterium spp. and Moorella spp.). These results suggest that selection, and therefore the observed (re)-emergence of unexpected sporeforming contaminants in food might be favoured by the use of given food ingredients and food processing technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization and molecular identification of novel cellulose degrading bacteria isolated from Egyptian environment

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    Azhar A. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase producing bacteria were isolated from both soil and ward poultry, using CMC (carboxymethylcellulose agar medium and screened by iodine method. Cellulase activity of the isolated bacteria was determined by DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid method. The highly cellulolytic isolates (BTN7A, BTN7B, BMS4 and SA5 were identified on the basis of Gram staining, morphological cultural characteristics, and biochemical tests. They were also identified with 16S rDNA analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rDNA sequence data showed that BTN7B has 99% similarity with Anoxybacillus flavithermus, BMS4 has 99% similarity with Bacillus megaterium, SA5 has 99% homology with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and BTN7A was 99% similar with Bacillus subtilis. Cellulase production by these strains was optimized by controlling different environmental and nutritional factors such as pH, temperature, incubation period, different volumes of media, aeration rate and carbon source. The cellulase specific activity was calculated in each case. In conclusion four highly cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and identified and the optimum conditions for each one for cellulase production were determined. These strains could be used for converting plant waste to more useful compounds.

  19. Modelling of the acid base properties of two thermophilic bacteria at different growth times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Hannah T. M.; Bremer, Phil J.; McQuillan, A. James; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2008-09-01

    Acid-base titrations and electrophoretic mobility measurements were conducted on the thermophilic bacteria Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus at two different growth times corresponding to exponential and stationary/death phase. The data showed significant differences between the two investigated growth times for both bacterial species. In stationary/death phase samples, cells were disrupted and their buffering capacity was lower than that of exponential phase cells. For G. stearothermophilus the electrophoretic mobility profiles changed dramatically. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to simultaneously describe the data from the titrations and the electrophoretic mobility measurements. A simple approach was developed to determine confidence intervals for the overall variance between the model and the experimental data, in order to identify statistically significant changes in model fit and thereby select the simplest model that was able to adequately describe each data set. Exponential phase cells of the investigated thermophiles had a higher total site concentration than the average found for mesophilic bacteria (based on a previously published generalised model for the acid-base behaviour of mesophiles), whereas the opposite was true for cells in stationary/death phase. The results of this study indicate that growth phase is an important parameter that can affect ion binding by bacteria, that growth phase should be considered when developing or employing chemical models for bacteria-bearing systems.

  20. Propensity for biofilm formation by aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic spore forming bacteria isolated from Chinese milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Flint, Steve; Yuan, Lei; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; He, GuoQing

    2017-12-04

    Biofilms on the surface of dairy manufacturing plants are potential reservoirs of microbial contamination. These microbial aggregates may harbour pathogenic and spoilage organisms which contaminate dairy products. The biofilm forming capacity of many spore forming isolates of dairy origin has not been given much attention. The present study explored the biofilm forming potential of 148 isolates, comprising mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, with particular emphasis on Bacillus licheniformis on polystyrene and stainless steel (SS) surfaces. We concluded that only four species are of significance for biofilm development on the surface of SS in the presence of skimmed milk, namely, B. licheniformis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermoleovorans group and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. The maximum number of cells recovered from the biofilms developed on SS coupons in the presence of skimmed milk for these four species was as follows: 4.8, 5.2, 4.5 and 5.3logCFU/cm 2 , respectively. Number of cells recovered from biofilms on 1cm 2 SS coupons increased in the presence of tryptic soy broth (TSB) for all mesophiles including B. licheniformis, while decreased for G. stearothermophilus, G. thermoleovorans group and A. flavithermus. The crystal violet staining assay on polystyrene proved to be inadequate to predict cell counts on SS for the bacteria tested in our trial in the presence of either TSB or skimmed milk. The results support the idea that biofilm formation is an important part of bacterial survival strategy as only the most prevalent isolates from milk powders formed good biofilms on SS in the presence of skimmed milk. Biofilm formation also proved to be a strain-dependent characteristic and interestingly significant variation in biofilm formation was observed within the same RAPD groups of B. licheniformis which supports the previously reported genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within the same RAPD based groups. The work reported in this manuscript

  1. Reclassification of Geobacillus pallidus (Scholz et al. 1988) Banat et al. 2004 as Aeribacillus pallidus gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Galbis, David; Pinzón, Dora L; Lorén, J Gaspar; Manresa, Angels; Oliart-Ros, Rosa M

    2010-07-01

    Although Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus, two genera of thermophilic bacteria close to the genus Bacillus, have only been described recently, the number of species in these genera has increased rapidly. Four thermophilic, lipolytic strains (DR01, DR02, DR03 and DR04) isolated from a hot spring in Veracruz (Mexico), which could not be identified phenotypically, were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Three strains were identified as belonging to the genus Anoxybacillus, but strain DR03 was identified as Geobacillus pallidus. This result led us to perform a phylogenetic analysis of the genera Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from all the type strains of these genera. Phylogenetic trees showed three major clusters, Anoxybacillus-Geobacillus tepidamans, Geobacillus sensu stricto and Geobacillus pallidus, while the 16S rRNA gene sequences of G. pallidus (DR03 and the type strain) showed low similarity to sequences of Anoxybacillus (92.5-95.1 %) and Geobacillus (92.8-94.5 %) species, as well as to Bacillus subtilis (92.2-92.4 %). In addition, G. pallidus could be differentiated from Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus on the basis of DNA G+C content and fatty acid and polar lipid profiles. From these results, it is proposed that Geobacillus pallidus should be classified in a novel genus, for which we propose the name Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus gen. nov., comb. nov. The type strain of Aeribacillus pallidus is H12(T) (=ATCC 51176(T) =DSM 3670(T) =LMG 19006(T)).

  2. Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain GS3372, an Endospore-Forming Bacterium Isolated in a Deep Geothermal Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Sevasti Filippidou; Marion Jaussi; Thomas Junier; Tina Wunderlin; Nicole Jeanneret; Simona Regenspurg; Po-E Li; Chien-Chi Lo; Shannon Johnson; Kim McMurry; Cheryl D. Gleasner; Momchilo Vuyisich; Patrick S. Chain; Pilar Junier

    2015-01-01

    The genome of strain GS3372 is the first publicly available strain of Aeribacillus pallidus. This endospore-forming thermophilic strain was isolated from a deep geothermal reservoir. The availability of this genome can contribute to the clarification of the taxonomy of the closely related Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, and Aeribacillus genera.

  3. Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain GS3372, an Endospore-Forming Bacterium Isolated in a Deep Geothermal Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Jeanneret, Nicole; Regenspurg, Simona; Li, Po-E; Lo, Chien-Chi; Johnson, Shannon; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S; Junier, Pilar

    2015-08-27

    The genome of strain GS3372 is the first publicly available strain of Aeribacillus pallidus. This endospore-forming thermophilic strain was isolated from a deep geothermal reservoir. The availability of this genome can contribute to the clarification of the taxonomy of the closely related Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, and Aeribacillus genera. Copyright © 2015 Filippidou et al.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a radiation resistant thermophilic bacterium from radon hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Yang Long; Zhang Hong; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4-33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60 Co γ-rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4-33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources, and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C 14:1 (48.8%) and C 15:1 (15.2%). The (G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58.2%. Phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequence showed R4-33 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Anoxybacillus, especially to that of Anoxybacillus gonensis (99.5%). Based on the above, the strain R4-33 was proposed to the evolution branch of Anoxybacillus and designated as Anoxybacillu sp. R4-33. The UV and γ-radiation tests showed that the strain R4-33 had an ability of resistance to UV of 396 J/m 2 and 60 Co γ-rays irradiation of 14.0 kGy, indicating that the strain was a radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium. (authors)

  5. Microbial ecology of two hot springs of Sikkim: Predominate population and geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishfaq Nabi; Sherpa, Mingma Thundu; Das, Sayak; Das, Saurav; Thakur, Nagendra

    2018-10-01

    Northeastern regions of India are known for their floral and faunal biodiversity. Especially the state of Sikkim lies in the eastern Himalayan ecological hotspot region. The state harbors many sulfur rich hot springs which have therapeutic and spiritual values. However, these hot springs are yet to be explored for their microbial ecology. The development of neo generation techniques such as metagenomics has provided an opportunity for inclusive study of microbial community of different environment. The present study describes the microbial diversity in two hot springs of Sikkim that is Polok and Borong with the assist of culture dependent and culture independent approaches. The culture independent techniques used in this study were next generation sequencing (NGS) and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA). Having relatively distinct geochemistry both the hot springs are thermophilic environments with the temperature range of 50-77 °C and pH range of 5-8. Metagenomic data revealed the dominance of bacteria over archaea. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes although other phyla were also present such as Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Parcubacteria and Spirochaetes. The PLFA studies have shown the abundance of Gram Positive bacteria followed by Gram negative bacteria. The culture dependent technique was correlative with PLFA studies. Most abundant bacteria as isolated and identified were Gram-positive genus Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus. The genus Geobacillus has been reported for the first time in North-Eastern states of India. The Geobacillus species obtained from the concerned hot springs were Geobacillus toebii, Geobacillus lituanicus, Geobacillus Kaustophillus and the Anoxybacillus species includes Anoxybacillus gonensis and Anoxybacillus Caldiproteolyticus. The distribution of major genera and their statistical correlation analyses with the geochemistry of the springs predicted that the temperature, p

  6. Changes of tear film after LASIK with corneal flap created by femtosecond laser and microkeratome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the changes of tear film on the patients after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith corneal flap created by femtosecond laser and microkeratome.METHODS: Totally 150 patients(300 eyeswith myopia received operation of LASIK. Patients were divided into two groups according to the methods of making corneal flap. The patients of group one were assigned to receiving LASIK with corneal flap creation by Intralase femtosecond laser(190 eyes of 95 patients, group two were assigned to receiving LASIK with corneal flap creation by microkeratome(110 eyes of 55 patients. Dry eye symptom score, tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(S I t, corneal fluorescein staining(FLwere recorded preoperatively and postoperatively at 1wk; 1, 3 and 6mo. RESULTS: Dry eye symptom score: there existed obvious differences at 1wk; 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. BUT: there existed obvious differences at 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. SchirmerⅠ test: there existed obvious differences in the 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05. FL: there existed obvious differences in the 1wk, 1, 3mo between two groups(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: The early stability of tear film decrease after operation in both of the two groups. The dry eye symptoms are lighter and recover faster.

  7. Association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverdes, John C; Ray, Billy M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Hand, Gregory A; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association between depressive symptoms and physical activity (PA) in a sample of men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Secondary analysis included stratification by age and body mass index (BMI). Our cross-sectional analysis included 9580 men, age 20-87 yr, who completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale during 1996-2006. A score of 10 or higher defined depressive symptoms. Four PA categories based on the 2008 PA guidelines were created from a self-report leisure time PA questionnaire: inactive (0 MET·min·wk(-1)), low (1-499 MET·min·wk(-1)), medium (500-999 MET·min·wk(-1)), and high (≥1000 MET·min·wk(-1)). There were 727 men with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional analyses showed a significant inverse relationship between PA categories and depressive symptoms (P for trend leisure time activities (odds ratios = 0.36-0.58). Compared with the inactive group, the light, medium, and high PA categories were 24%, 51%, and 51% less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms, respectively. The inverse relationship was maintained for age and BMI groups except for those 60 yr or older, who exhibited fewer depressive symptoms than other ages. Men with a BMI of 30 kg·m(-2) or higher lowered their odds of depressive symptoms for all PA categories, whereas those with a BMI less than 30 kg·m(-2) needed at least 500 MET·min·wk(-1) to show a similar association. Overall, our analyses found an inverse association between PA and depressive symptoms. Most of this benefit was seen in the medium PA category, which seemed to plateau around 500 MET·min·wk(-1). This indicates that men meeting the 2008 PA Guidelines may not only experience physical health benefits but also reduce the likelihood of depressive symptoms.

  8. Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Andrea; Ramachandran, Padmini; Reed, Elizabeth; White, James R; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Ryan, Gina; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Christopher; Daquiqan, Ninalynn; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc; Colwell, Rita; Brown, Eric; Chen, Yi

    2016-11-16

    Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes

  9. NT-pro-BNP during hypoglycemia and hypoxemia in normal subjects: impact of renin-angiotensin system activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Andersen, R; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høi-Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    subjects with high-RAS activity and 10 subjects with low-RAS activity (age 26 +/- 1 yr; mean +/- SE) were studied in a single-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study on three occasions separated by at least 3 wk: 1) hypoglycemia (mean nadir plasma glucose 2.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/l), 2) hypoxemia...

  10. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/327618671; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of

  11. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    manure and NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on some growth and yield attributes. Application rates of 80 kg/ha ..... Table 2: Effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer and poultry manure on crop growth rate (CGR) gm-2wk-1 ..... (Brassica oleracea). International ...

  12. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  13. Influence of initial insulin dosage on blood glucose dynamics of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Gong, Chunxiu; Cao, Bingyan; Meng, Xi; Wei, Liya; Wu, Di; Liang, Xuejun; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Min; Gu, Yi; Su, Chang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of initial insulin dosage on blood glucose (BG) dynamics, β-cell protection, and oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Sixty newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus patients were randomly assigned to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions of 0.6 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 1), 1.0 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 2), or 1.4 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 3) for 3 wk. BG was monitored continuously for the first 10 d and the last 2 d of wk 2 and 3. A total of 24-hour urinary 8-iso-PGF2α was assayed on days 8, 9, and 10. The occurrence and duration of the honeymoon period were recorded. Fasting C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assayed after 1, 6, and 12 months of insulin treatment. BG decreased to the target range by the end of wk 3 (group 1), wk 2 (group 2), or wk 1 (group 3). The actual insulin dosage over the 3 wk, frequency of hypoglycemia on wk 1 and 2, and median BG at the end of wk 1 differed significantly, but not 8-iso-PGF2α and the honeymoon period in the three groups. No severe hypoglycemia event was observed in any patient, but there was significant difference in the first occurrence of hypoglycemia. Differences in initial insulin dosage produced different BG dynamics in wk 1, equivalent BG dynamics on wk 2 and 3, but had no influence on short- and long-term BG control and honeymoon phase. The wide range of initial insulin dosage could be chosen if guided by BG monitoring. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Diabetes published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ocular surface changes after combined surgery of glaucoma and cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of phacoemulsification intraocular lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy on ocular surface in the treatment of glaucoma and cataract. METHODS: Totally 45 cases of patients with glaucoma and cataract in our hospital from February 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. All the patients had unilateral disease, and the medical records of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. The sicked eyes were set as the observation group and contralateral eyes were set as the control group. The dry eye score, break-up time(BUT, corneal fluorescein staining score(FL, tear secretion test(SⅠtand conjunctival epithelium goblet cell density(CICwas compared between two groups before operation and at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operation. RESULTS: The preoperative dry eye score of the observation group had no significant difference with that of the control group(P>0.05. At 1wk, 1mo after operation, data of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group and before operation, with statistical significance(PP>0.05. Preoperative BUT of the observation group had no significant difference with that of the control group(P>0.05; at 1 wk,1 and 3mo after operation, data of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group and before operation, with statistical significance(PPPP>0.05, and the postoperative SⅠt scores of the observation group at 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively was evidently lower than that of the control group and before operation(PPCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification intraocular lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy for treatment of glaucoma and cataract can aggravate dry eye symptoms, as well as reduce tear film stability and tear secretion, impair conjunctival epithelium goblet cell.

  15. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  16. On the spaces of Dotsenko-Fateev integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvotti, R.

    1994-01-01

    In two seminal papers Dotsenko and Fateev produced explicit integral formulas for some conformal blocks of conformal field theory. The structure of such integrals is illustrated by the following model. Let w 1 ,hor-ellipsis, wk-1 be given distinct points on C,μ,hor-ellipsis, μ1,hor-ellipsis,μk-1 and μ be complex parameters. Here and in what follows we shall use the index k to label the point at infinity and write w k = ∞

  17. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on body composition among colon cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Zemel, Babette S; Troxel, Andrea B; Rickels, Michael R; Damjanov, Nevena; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-11-21

    Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months. The prespecified key body composition outcome was visceral adipose tissue quantified using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion (P trend =0.008). Compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose exercise groups lost 9.5 cm 2 (95% CI: -22.4, 3.5) and 13.6 cm 2 (95% CI: -27.0, -0.1) in visceral adipose tissue, respectively. Each 60 min wk -1 increase in exercise predicted a 2.7 cm 2 (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) reduction in visceral adipose tissue. Aerobic exercise reduces visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion among patients with stage I-III colon cancer. Visceral adipose tissue may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces the risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors.

  18. A randomized dose-response trial of aerobic exercise and health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Damjanov, Nevena; Courneya, Kerry S; Troxel, Andrea B; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-04-01

    To examine the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among colon cancer survivors. Thirty-nine stage I to III colon cancer survivors were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: usual-care control, 150 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low-dose) and 300 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high-dose) for 6 months. HRQoL outcomes included the Short Form (SF)-36 physical and mental component summary, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group bowel function questionnaire, assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary hypothesis was that exercise would improve HRQoL outcomes in a dose-response fashion, such that high-dose aerobic exercise would yield the largest improvements in HRQoL outcomes. Over 6 months, the low-dose group completed 141 ± 10 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise, and the high-dose group completed 247 ± 11 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise. Over 6 months, exercise improved the physical component summary score of the SF-36 (P trend  = 0.002), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (P trend  = 0.025), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P trend  = 0.049), and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (P trend  = 0.045) in a dose-response fashion. Between-group standardized mean difference effects sizes for the above-described findings were small to moderate in magnitude (0.35-0.75). No dose-response effects were observed for the mental component summary score of the SF-36, the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, or bowel function. Higher doses of aerobic exercise, up to 300 min·wk -1 , improve multiple HRQoL outcomes among stage I to III colon cancer survivors. These findings provide evidence that aerobic exercise may provide multiple health benefits for colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Improving Pullulanase Catalysis via Reversible Immobilization on Modified Fe3O4@Polydopamine Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Zhongmei; Zhou, Zhemin

    2017-08-01

    To improve the catalysis of pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp.WB42, Fe 3 O 4 @polydopamine nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 @PDA) were prepared and modified with functional groups for immobilization of pullulanases via covalent binding or ionic adsorption. Immobilized pullulanases had lower thermal stability than that of free pullulanase, whereas their catalysis depended on the surface characteristics of nanoparticles. As for covalent immobilization of pullulanases onto Fe 3 O 4 @PDA derivatives, the spacer grafted onto Fe 3 O 4 @PDA made the catalytic efficiency of pullulanase increase up to the equivalence of free enzyme but dramatically reduced the pullulanase thermostability. In contrast, pullulanases bounded ionically to Fe 3 O 4 @PDA derivatives had higher activity recovery and catalytic efficiency, and their catalytic behaviors varied with the modifier grafted onto Fe 3 O 4 @PDA. Among these immobilized pullulanases, ionic adsorption of pullulanase on Fe 3 O 4 @PDA-polyethyleneimine-glycidyltrimethylammonium gave a high-performance and durable catalyst, which displayed not only 1.5-fold increase in catalytic efficiency compared to free enzyme but also a significant improvement in operation stability with a half of initial activity after 27 consecutive cycles with a total reaction time of 13.5 h, and was reversible, making this nanoparticle reusable for immobilization.

  20. Molecular analysis of microbial community in arsenic-rich groundwater of Kolsor, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial community composition within the highly arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater from Kolsur, West Bengal was analyzed over a period of 3 years using 16S rRNA gene clone library and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Molecular phylogenetic study revealed abundance of α-Proteobacteria (56%) and Firmicutes (29%) along with members of β-Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Sphingobacteria as relatively minor groups. Along with consistent physicochemical environment, a stable microbial community structure comprising of bacterial genera Agrobacterium-Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Anoxybacillus and Penibacillus was recorded over the three years study period. Presence of cytosolic arsenate reductase (arsC) gene was observed within the microbial community. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the arsC sequences were closely related to the same gene from γ-proteobacterial members while the community was consisted of mainly α-proteobacterial groups. Such phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA and arsC genes possibly indicated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the ars genes within the groundwater community. Overall, the study reported a nearly stable geomicrobial environment and genetic determinant related to As homeostasis gene, and provided a better insight on biogeochemistry of As contaminated aquifer of West Bengal.

  1. Production and properties of two novel exopolysaccharides synthesized by a thermophilic bacterium Aeribacillus pallidus 418.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenkova, Nadja; Vassilev, Spasen; Panchev, Ivan; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Tomova, Iva; Nicolaus, Barbara; Kuncheva, Margarita; Petrov, Kaloyan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2013-09-01

    Synthesis of innovative exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs) was reported for few thermophilic microorganisms as one of the mechanisms for surviving at high temperature. Thermophilic aerobic spore-forming bacteria able to produce exopolysaccharides were isolated from hydrothermal springs in Bulgaria. They were referred to four species, such as Aeribacillus pallidus, Geobacillus toebii, Brevibacillus thermoruber, and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis. The highest production was established for the strain 418, whose phylogenetic and phenotypic properties referred it to the species A. pallidus. Maltose and NH4Cl were observed to be correspondingly the best carbon and nitrogen sources and production yield was increased more than twofold in the process of culture condition optimization. After purification of the polymer fraction, a presence of two different EPSs, electroneutral EPS 1 and negatively charged EPS 2, in a relative weight ratio 3:2.2 was established. They were heteropolysaccharides consisting of unusual high variety of sugars (six for EPS 1 and seven for EPS 2). Six of the sugars were common for both EPSs. The main sugar in EPS 1 was mannose (69.3 %); smaller quantities of glucose (11.2 %), galactosamine (6.3 %), glucosamine (5.4 %), galactose (4.7 %), and ribose (2.9 %) were also identified. The main sugar in EPS 2 was also mannose (33.9 %), followed by galactose (17.9 %), glucose (15.5 %), galactosamine (11.7 %), glucosamine (8.1 %), ribose (5.3 %), and arabinose (4.9 %). Both polymers showed high molecular weight and high thermostability.

  2. CHANGES IN RESTING SALIVARY TESTOSTERONE, CORTISOL AND INTERLEUKIN-6 AS BIOMARKERS OF OVERTRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis; Haake, Simon; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Overtraining (OVT) is a concern for many athletes. Immunological (increased interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and hormonal (increased cortisol [C], decreased free testosterone [fT]) biomarkers have been analyzed during training to detect OVT development. This study determined if resting levels of salivary IL-6, T, and C change during a pre-season resistance training (RT) program in 20 Division I American football players (mean ± SD: age = 19.1 ± 1.1 years; height = 185.4 ± 6.7 cm; mass = 102.0 ± 22.2 kg; body fat = 14.7 ± 7.6%). 1RM squat, bench press and Olympic-style clean, IL-6, C and T were assessed at baseline (WK1), week 4 (WK4), week 6 (WK6) along with psychological status (PS) to determine affective state. 1RM (bench press: 121.6 ± 36.3 kg vs. 127.4 ± 35.9 kg, squat: 187.2 ± 30.2 kg, 190.9 ± 28.1 kg, clean: 116.8 ± 14.6 kg, vs. 119.2 ± 14.5 kg), IL-6 (1.42 ± 1.77 pg/mL vs. 5.60 ± 12.57 pg/mL) and C (2.57 ± 2.46 nmol/L vs. 5.33 ± 4.94) increased signihcantly from WK1 to WK6 ( p < .05), fT decreased signihcantly (417.44 ± 83.63 pmol/Lvs. 341.10 ± 87.79 pmol/L) from WK1 to WK6 ( p < .05). PS was minimally affected during the study. Signihcant biomarker changes were detected, but no OVT was induced (i.e. performance improved). Therefore, directional changes in these biomarkers may not be sufficiently reflective of OVT in RT programs.

  3. Perinatal intermittent hypoxia alters γ-aminobutyric acid: a receptor levels in rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Eung-Kwon; Yoon, Audrey J; Ahuja, Bhoomika; Lau, Gary W; Nguyen, Daniel D; Kim, Yong; Harper, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Perinatal hypoxia commonly causes brain injury in infants, but the time course and mechanisms underlying the preferential male injury are unclear. Intermittent hypoxia disturbs cerebellar γ-aminobutyric (GABA)-A receptor profiles during the perinatal period, possibly responding to transient excitatory processes associated with GABA(A) receptors. We examined whether hypoxic insults were particularly damaging to the male rodent cerebellum during a specific developmental time window. We evaluated cerebellar injury and GABA(A) receptor profiles following 5-h intermittent hypoxia (IH: 20.8% and 10.3% ambient oxygen, switched every 240s) or room-air control in groups of male and female rat pups on postnatal d 1-2, wk 1, or wk 3. The cerebella were harvested and compared between groups. The mRNA levels of GABA(A) receptors α6, normalized to a house-keeping gene GAPDH, and assessed using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR assays were up-regulated by IH at wk 1, more extensively in male rats, with sex influencing the regulatory time-course. In contrast, GABA(A) α6 receptor protein expression levels, assessed using Western blot assays, reached a nadir at wk 1 in both male and female rats, possibly indicating involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism. The extent of cerebellar damage and level of apoptosis, assessed by DNA fragmentation, were greatest in the wk 3 IH-exposed group. The findings suggest partial protection for female rats against early hypoxic insult in the cerebellum, and that down-regulation of GABA(A) receptors, rather than direct neural injury assessed by DNA fragmentation may modify cerebellar function, with potential later motor and other deficits. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegani, M; Chowdhury, S R; Oinas, N; MacDonald, E J; Smith, T K

    2006-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of laying hens, turkey poults, and broiler breeder hens. In Experiment 1, thirty-six 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA). Concentrations of brain neurotransmitters and metabolites were analyzed in pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and the metabolites measured included dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxylphenyacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The feeding of contaminated grains significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT and decreased the 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid:5-HT in the pons region in the brain stem. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. There was no effect of diet on concentrations of other neurotransmitters or metabolites in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. In Experiment 2, thirty-six 1-d-old turkey poults were fed diets including the following for 4 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Hypothalamic, pons, and cortex neurotransmitter concentrations were not affected by diet. In Experiment 3, forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens were fed diets including the following for 15 wk: 1) control, 2) contaminated grains, and 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. There was no effect of diet on neurotransmitter concentrations in the pons, hypothalamus, or cortex. It was concluded that differences in intraspecies effects of these mycotoxins on brain neurotransmitter concentrations might explain the intraspecies differences in the severity of Fusarium mycotoxin-induced reductions in feed intake.

  5. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE, calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1 compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p *wk-1. Two thirds (65% of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63% of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337 and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p p Conclusions Substantial proportions of Palestinian women, and subgroups of Palestinian men, are insufficiently active. Culturally appropriate intervention strategies are warranted, particularly for this vulnerable

  6. Identification of metformin poor responders, requiring supplemental insulin, during randomization of metformin versus insulin for the control of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoush, Sherif; El-Said, Mourrad; Fathi, Hisham; Abdelnaby, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate glycemic control among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under insulin versus metformin (with or without insulin supplementation), and to identify metformin poor responders requiring supplemental insulin. In Ain Shams University Hospital, mothers with 26-32-week GDM pregnancies, failing diet control, were randomized to receive metformin (n = 47) or insulin (n = 48). The primary outcome was glycemic control. Secondary outcomes included maternal weight, parameters predicting successful metformin monotherapy, neonatal hypoglycemia, and birthweight. Women using metformin (23.4% needing supplemental insulin) gained less weight (P metformin group was related to initial body mass index, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), and first week mean glucose level. The 1-h glucose level during initial GTT (Hr1-GTT) and the mean fasting glucose level during the first week of therapy (Wk1-mFG) were the two independent parameters associated with requiring supplemental insulin. Women with Hr1-GTT >212 mg/dL and Wk1-mFG >95 mg/dL had a risk ratio of 58.6 (95%CI: 3.68-933.35, P = 0.004) and 11.5 (95%CI: 2.77-47.34,= 0.0008), respectively for needing supplemental insulin during the course of the study compared with women without. Metformin is an effective and safe alternative to insulin in GDM. Women using metformin (± supplemental insulin) had similar glycemic control, less weight gain, and similar rates of side-effects as those on insulin monotherapy. Insulin supplementation to metformin therapy was more likely with elevated Hr1-GTT and Wk1-mFG. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

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    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  8. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (≥ d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of

  9. Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+/K+ pump {alpha}2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson; Wendell, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    was unaltered, but the 3-K (3,000 m) time was reduced (Pexpression and performance remained unaltered in CON. The present data suggest that both short- and long-term......% reduction in the amount of training but including speed endurance training consisting of 6-12 30-s sprint runs 3-4 times a week (SET, n=12) or a control group (CON, n=5), which continued the endurance training (about 55 km(.)wk(-1)). For SET the expression of the muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2-subunit was 68...

  10. Growth Normal Faulting at the Western Edge of the Metropolitan Taipei Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum, Northern Taiwan

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    Chih-Tung Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth strata analysis is an useful tool in understanding kinematics and the evolution of active faults as well as the close relationship between sedimentation and tectonics. Here we present the Shanchiao Fault as a case study which is an active normal fault responsible for the formation of the 700-m-thick late Quaternary deposits in Taipei Basin at the northern tip of the Taiwan mountain belt. We compiled a sedimentary record, particularly the depositional facies and their dated ages, at three boreholes (SCF-1, SCF-2 and WK-1, from west to east along the Wuku Profile that traverses the Shanchiao Fault at its central segment. By incorporating the global sea level change curve, we find that thickness changes of sediments and changes of depositional environments in the Wuku area are in a good agreement with a rapid sea level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM of about 23 ka. Combining depositional facies changes and their ages with their thickness, we are able to introduce a simple back-stripping method to reconstruct the evolution of growing strata across the Shanchiao Fault since the LGM. We then estimate the vertical tectonic slip rate since 23 ka, which exhibits 2.2 mm yr-1 between SCF-2 and WK-1 and 1.1 mm yr-1 between SCF-1 and SCF-2. We also obtain the Holocene tectonic subsidence rate of 2.3 mm yr-1 at WK-1 and 0.9 mm yr-1 at SCF-2 since 8.4 ka. We thus conclude that the fault zone consists of a high-angle main fault to the east between SCF-2 and WK-1 and a western lower-angle branch fault between SCF-1 and SCF-2, resembling a tulip structure developed under sinistral transtensional tectonism. We find that a short period of 600-yr time span in 9 - 8.4 ka shows important tectonic subsidence of 7.4 and 3.3 m for the main and branch fault, respectively, consistent with possible earthquake events proposed by previous studies during that time. A correlation between geomorphology and subsurface geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone shows

  11. Clinical research on overnight orthokeratology for vision quality

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    Chun-Ming Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the changes of visual quality in myopic eyes undergoing overnight orthokeratology.METHODS:Fifty-five myopia adolescents(110 eyeswere recruited. Optical scattering index(OSI,MTF cut off, Strehl ratio, OQAS value(OV100%、OV20%、OV9%, index of highest asymmetry(IHA,index of highest decentration(IHD,aberration coefficient(ABRwere performed before and 1wk,1,3 and 6mo after wearing orthokeratology with OQASTMⅡ and corneal topography. RESULTS:The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAbefore wearing orthokeratology lens was 0.21±0.13,but at 1wk,1,3 and 6mo after wearing were 0.48±0.15,0.72±0.14,0.93±0.13 and 1.02±0.13,respectively,and there were statistical differences before and after wearing(PPPPPPPPCONCLUSION:Orthokeratology deteriorates vision quality. But the loss is acceptable. Orthokeratology can improve UCVA quickly and effectively. It is worth of affirmation on control of myopia.

  12. Factors associated with the effect of open splenectomy for immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Dawei; Hua, Fanli; Gao, Song; Wu, Yangjiong; Xu, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect and complications of open splenectomy (OS) for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and determine preoperative factors associated with surgical effect. This was a retrospective analysis of ITP patients who failed medical therapy and were treated with OS between 1997 and 2014 at the Jinshan Hospital, China. Follow-up was 60 months. Surgical effect was determined from platelet counts and bleeding episodes. Complications were assessed including bleeding episodes. Preoperative factors were identified by logistic regression analysis. Fifty-six patients (48.2 ± 16.2 yr old; 39 females) were included. Disease course was 31.2 ± 48.2 months; 91.1% patients had preoperative platelet count effect at 1 wk, 1 month, 1 yr, and 5 yrs was in 91.1%, 92.9%, 91.1%, and 89.3% patients, respectively. Pneumonia or lower extremity thrombosis occurred in 7.1% patients. Postoperative mild, moderate, and severe bleeding occurred in 33.9%, 50.0%, and 16.1% patients, respectively. No patients required blood transfusion. Mortality was zero. Larger spleen size associated with surgical effect at 1 wk, 1 month, and 1 yr, and lower preoperative minimum platelet count associated with effect at 5 yrs (P effective treatment with less complications for the management of ITP. Lower preoperative minimum platelet count associated with successful OS at 5 yrs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  14. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  15. The effect of concurrent training organisation in youth elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Kevin; Morton, James; Iga, John; Drust, Barry

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the adaptive responses to two concurrent training programmes frequently used in professional soccer. Fifteen youth soccer players (17.3 ± 1.6 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m, 77.0 ± 7.3 kg; VO2 peak, 62.0 ± 4.7 ml(-1) kg(-1) min(-1)) who compete in the English Premier League volunteered for this study. In addition to completing their habitual training practices, the participants were asked to alter the organisation concurrent training by performing strength (S) training either prior to (S + E, n = 8) or after (E + S, n = 7) soccer-specific endurance training (E) 2d wk(-1) for 5 wk(-1). With the exception of 30 m sprint, IMVC PF, quadriceps strength (60°/s(CON), 180°/s(CON), 120°/s(ECC)) pooled data revealed training effects across all other performances measures (P nutrition may be able to modulate small but clinically significant changes in physical performance parameters associated with match-play. This may have practical implications for practitioners who prescribe same day concurrent training protocols.

  16. Semi-Field Evaluation of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Nets on Host-Seeking Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Kankaew, Prasan; Chanaimongkol, Somporn; Pongsiri, Arissara; Richardson, Jason H; Evans, Brian P

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of a metofluthrin-impregnated net (MIN) known as the "Mushikonazu" on the house entry behavior of female Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus mosquitoes was evaluated using a semi-field 50-m tunnel setup. While the MIN is labeled for the control of chironomids and moth flies, this study determined the feasibility of using the device, given its current construction and metofluthrin formulation, as a spatial repellent against mosquitoes. Sentinel and cone bioassays were used to determine the insecticidal effect of the MIN. A spatial activity index (SAI) was calculated to evaluate responses of the mosquitoes. For the spatial repellent evaluation against Ae. aegypti, the overall mean of SAI was slightly less than 0 at wk 1 after the MIN application and then decreased for the last 4 wk showing a preference to treatment tent. For An. dirus, the mean SAI at wk 1 was positive, indicating a presumed repellent effect of the MIN against An. dirus. For the subsequent 4 wk, the SAI was negative, indicating a preference for the MIN. Results suggested that the MIN may not be a promising approach to repel Ae. aegypti and An. dirus under field conditions in Thailand. However, it remains probable that the MIN may be effective as a spatial repellent if modifications are made to the metofluthrin concentration or formulation and/or the construction of the device.

  17. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  18. Effects of two different incision phacoemulsification on corneal astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effect of different incision in corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Totally 88 cases(122 eyeswith pure cataract were randomly divided into two groups. Forty cases(60 eyeswere clarity corneal incision in group A, and 48 cases(62 eyeswere sclera tunnel incision in group B. Mean corneal astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism(SIA, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand best correct vision acuity(BCVAwere observed in pre- and post-operation at 1d; 1wk; 1mo.RESULTS: The mean astigmatism had statistically significant difference between two groups at 1d; 1wk; 1mo after operation(PPP>0.05. UCVA≥0.5 and BCVA≥0.8 had statistically significant difference at 1d; 1wk(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with scleral tunnel incision remove combined intraocular lens(IOLimplantation has small changes to corneal astigmatism. By selecting personalized corneal incision according to the corneal topography might be more beneficial.

  19. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  20. Anterior foregut microbiota of the glassy-winged sharpshooter explored using deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing from individual insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Rogers

    Full Text Available The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS is an invasive insect species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium causing Pierce's disease of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases. X. fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium of sharpshooters, where it may interact with other naturally-occurring bacterial species. To evaluate such interactions, a comprehensive list of bacterial species associated with the sharpshooter cibarium and precibarium is needed. Here, a survey of microbiota associated with the GWSS anterior foregut was conducted. Ninety-six individual GWSS, 24 from each of 4 locations (Bakersfield, CA; Ojai, CA; Quincy, FL; and a laboratory colony, were characterized for bacteria in dissected sharpshooter cibaria and precibaria by amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq technology. An average of approximately 150,000 sequence reads were obtained per insect. The most common genus detected was Wolbachia; sequencing of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene placed this strain in supergroup B, one of two Wolbachia supergroups most commonly associated with arthropods. X. fastidiosa was detected in all 96 individuals examined. By multilocus sequence typing, both X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa and subspecies sandyi were present in GWSS from California and the colony; only subspecies fastidiosa was detected in GWSS from Florida. In addition to Wolbachia and X. fastidiosa, 23 other bacterial genera were detected at or above an average incidence of 0.1%; these included plant-associated microbes (Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ralstonia and soil- or water-associated microbes (Anoxybacillus, Novosphingobium, Caulobacter, and Luteimonas. Sequences belonging to species of the family Enterobacteriaceae also were detected but it was not possible to assign these to individual genera. Many of these species likely interact with X. fastidiosa in the

  1. Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria isolated from spoiled canned food and their heat resistance. Results of a French ten-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, S; Zuber, F; Remize, F

    2013-07-15

    Thermal processing of Low Acid Canned Foods (LACF), which are safe and shelf-stable at ambient temperature for several years, results in heat inactivation of all vegetative microorganisms and the partial or total inactivation of spores. Good Manufacturing Hygienic Practices include stability tests for managing the pathogen risk related to surviving mesophilic bacterial spores. LACF are also often submitted to additional incubation conditions, typically 55 °C for 7 days, to monitor spoilage by thermophiles. In this study we identified the bacterial species responsible for non-stability after prolonged at 55 °C of incubation of LACF from 455 samples collected from 122 French canneries over 10 years. Bacteria were identified by microsequencing or a recent developed tool for group-specific PCR detection (SporeTraQ™). A single species was identified for 93% of examined samples. Three genera were responsible for more than 80% of all non-stability cases: mostly Moorella (36%) and Geobacillus (35%), and less frequently Thermoanaerobacterium (10%). The other most frequent bacterial genera identified were Bacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanaerobius, Anoxybacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium. Species frequency was dependent on food category, i.e. vegetables, ready-made meals containing meat, seafood or other recipes, products containing fatty duck, and related to the intensity of the thermal treatment applied in these food categories. The spore heat resistance parameters (D or δ and z values) from 36 strains isolated in this study were determined. Taken together, our results single out the species most suitable for use as indicators for thermal process settings. This extensively-documented survey of the species that cause non-stability at 55 °C in LACF will help canneries to improve the management of microbial contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the microbiomes of scalder and chiller tank waters throughout a typical commercial poultry processing day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, M J; Locatelli, A; Glenn, T C; Thomas, J C; Caudill, A C; Kiepper, B H; Hiett, K L

    2016-10-01

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbiota of processing water tanks within the processing plant. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the microbiomes of the scalder and chiller tanks during a typical commercial processing d, and determine how bacterial populations, including foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, change during the processing day in relation to the bacterial communities as a whole. Additionally, considering this is the first microbiomic analysis of processing tank waters, 2 water sampling methods also were compared. Results of this study show that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented over half of the sequences recovered from both tanks at the phylum level, but the microbiomic profiles needed to be analyzed at the genus level to observe more dynamic population shifts. Bacteria known to predominate in the live production environment were found to increase in the scalder tank and gram negative spoilage-related bacteria were found to decrease in the chiller tank throughout the processing day. Directly sampling the scalder water, as compared to analyzing filtered samples, resulted in significantly different microbiomic profiles dominated by Anoxybacillus species. While no sequences related to major foodborne pathogens were found, further sampling collection and processing optimization should provide researchers and the poultry industry a new tool to understand the ecological role of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within processing tank waters. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  4. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Coleri Cihan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%, the facultative thermophiles (14% and the mesophiles (12%. These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16, Brevibacillus (13, Paenibacillus (1 and Thermoactinomycetes (2 were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6, B. lichenformis (3, B. subtilis (3, B. agri (3, B. smithii (2, T. vulgaris (2 and finally P. barengoltzii (1. In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.

  5. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  6. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  7. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  8. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women) and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA) behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE), calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs), was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1) compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p < 0.0001), or to Palestinian and Israeli women, who had similar medians (2776 METs-min*wk-1). Two thirds (65%) of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63%) of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337) and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p < 0.0001). Palestinian women reported the lowest level of walking. Considering all domains, 26% of Palestinian women were classified as

  9. The effect of long-term, high-volume aerobic exercise training on postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Bell, Heather K

    2010-04-01

    We have previously found no effect of moderate-volume aerobic exercise training (approximately 3 hrs*wk(-1)) on postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a higher volume of exercise is needed to impact postprandial oxidative stress in young, otherwise healthy individuals. Our purpose was to compare blood triglycerides (TAGs) and oxidative stress biomarkers in 10 healthy untrained and 10 healthy highly aerobically trained (eg, >or= 40 miles running*wk(-1) or >or= 150 miles cycling*wk(-1)) men and women following ingestion of a lipid meal. Blood samples were collected before (in a 10-hour fasted state), and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid load (heavy whipping cream at 1 g*kg(-1)). Blood samples were analyzed for TAGs, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). No training status or interaction effects were noted for TAGs, MDA, H2O2, or NOx (P > 0.05). However, a time effect was noted for TAGs (P = 0.01), with values higher at 2 hours (67 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)) compared with premeal (41 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)). A time effect was also noted for H2O2 (P = 0.0001), with values higher at 2 hours (24 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), 4 hours (23 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), and 6 hours (21 +/- 3 mumol.L(-1)) compared with premeal (7 +/- 2 micromol*L(-1)). The time effect for MDA approached significance (P = 0.07), with values peaking at 4 hours post-meal (1.59 +/- 0.16 micromol*L(-1)) compared with premeal (0.99 +/- 0.15 micromol*L(-1)). These data indicate that aerobic exercise training (even when performed at a relatively high volume) does not attenuate postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress as compared with no exercise when healthy men and women consume a lipid load in the form of heavy whipping cream. Fasting TAG values may be most important in this regard. It is possible that long-term exercise may be capable of attenuating postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress in older individuals, those with chronic disease, or those with

  10. Daughters and mothers exercising together (DAMET): a 12-week pilot project designed to improve physical self-perception and increase recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, L B; Dratt, J; Kennedy, C; O'Neill, S; DeVoe, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 12-week single-sex, family-based physical activity intervention grounded in Social Cognitive Theory. Mother/daughter pairs and triads (n = 20) attended physical activity and classroom sessions twice weekly. Physiological data (VO2peak, height, and weight), psychological data (physical self-perception profile subscale scores), information about physical activity participation (PAP, d x wk(-1)) and qualitative impressions (QI) of the program were collected pre- and post-intervention. PAP and QI were also collected 6-months after completing the intervention. Although no significant increases in physical activity were reported, significant improvements in perceived sport competence, physical condition, and strength and muscularity were reported over time. The social cognitive theory, as used to plan this physical activity intervention, offered a promising theoretical perspective for facilitating improved physical self-perception in adolescent girls and their mothers.

  11. Antiobesity effects of the beta-cell hormone amylin in diet-induced obese rats: effects on food intake, body weight, composition, energy expenditure, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Kendall, Eric; Baron, Alain D; Anderson, Christen M

    2006-12-01

    Effects of amylin and pair feeding (PF) on body weight and metabolic parameters were characterized in diet-induced obesity-prone rats. Peripherally administered rat amylin (300 microg/kg.d, 22d) reduced food intake and slowed weight gain: approximately 10% (Pcontrols; VEH), amylin did not. During wk 1, amylin and PF reduced 24-h respiratory quotient (mean+/-se, 0.82+/-0.0, 0.81+/-0.0, respectively; PEnergy expenditure (EE mean+/-se) tended to be reduced by PF (5.67+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) and maintained by amylin (5.86+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) relative to VEH (5.77+/-0.0 kcal/h.kg). By wk 3, respiratory quotient no longer differed; however, EE increased with amylin treatment (5.74+/-0.09 kcal/.kg; Pmetabolic effects.

  12. Analysis on second operation after laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xuan Pei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe clinical effects between the laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKsurgery and the laser subepithelial keratomileusis(LASEKsurgery as the second operation after an unsuccessful LASIK surgery. METHODS:Forty-nine patients(98 eyeswith refractive regression after LASIK operation received the second surgery. All patients were divided into two groups: group A and B. Group A(48 eyes of 24 patientsreceived LASIK surgery and group B(50 eyes of 25 patientsreceived LASEK surgery. Inspect the main parameters included visual acuity, refraction, corneal curvature, and the total value of high-aberration after 1wk, 1mo and 1a, t-test of groups was used as statistical analysis method.RESULTS: There was statistically significant(PP>0.05. There developed one case of epithelium in growth after LASIK surgery, and one case of haze Ⅱ after LASEK surgery. CONCLUSION: Both LASIK and LASEK surgery can obtain satisfactory therapeutic results after an unsuccessful LASIK surgery.

  13. Application analysis on different suture of scleral flap in trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the application of scleral flap suture in trabeculectomy. METHODS: Totally 114 primary angle-closure glaucoma patients, aged from 36-72 years old, were selected as the objects, and randomly divided into research group and control group. The two groups received different administration methods. Traditional sewing method of sclera flap was used in research group and improved sewing method of sclera flap was used in control group. RESULTS: There was statistical differences between postoperative intraocular pressure of the patients in the observation group and the control group after 1d; 2wk; 1, 3mo(PPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: It is safe and effective that the improved sewing method of sclera flap for trabeculectomy of acute angle-closure glaucoma, and it is a better method to avoid the occurrence of shallow anterior chamber than the traditional sewing method in the early stage after operation.

  14. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  15. Changes in stress hormones and metabolism during a 105-day simulated Mars mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Felice; Vassilieva, Galina; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Masini, Mariangela; Santucci, Daniela; Borgia, Luisa; Magni, Paolo; Celotti, Fabio; Nikiporuc, Igor

    2014-08-01

    The Mars-105 project was aimed at simulating crew's activities, workload, and communication during a mission to Mars, evaluating the homeostatic adaptations to prolonged confinement and cohabitation. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin, C-peptide, leptin, cortisol, and NGF and BDNF plasma levels were monitored in six healthy nonsmoking male subjects taking part in a 105-d Mars mission simulation. Samples were collected from each subject before (0 wk), during (2.5 wk; 5 wk; 10 wk; 15 wk), and after confinement (+1 wk). Confinement resulted in impaired glucometabolic parameters, since FPG increased during the first 5 wk (baseline: 85.2 ± 10.8 mg · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 98.4 ± 4.7 mg · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 92.5 ± 6.0 mg · dl⁻¹) and insulin dropped at 2.5 wk (baseline: 14.4 ± 4.8 mU · L⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 7.7 ± 2.1 mU · L⁻¹), subsequently returning to baseline values. HOMA-IR paralleled plasma insulin, dropping to 1.8 ± 0.5 at 2.5 wk (baseline: 3.0 ± 1.2). At all time-points tested, plasma leptin levels were decreased (baseline: 4.4 ± 3.3 ng · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 1.6 ± 1.2 ng · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 1.3 ± 0.8 ng · dl⁻¹; 10 wk: 1.5 ± 1.1 ng · dl⁻¹; 15 wk:1.7 ± 0.8 ng · dl⁻¹), whereas cortisol levels were increased (baseline: 10.8 ± 4.9 ng · dl⁻¹; 2.5 wk: 16.8 ± 3.5 ng · dl⁻¹; 5 wk: 18.1 ± 7.6 ng · dl⁻¹; 10 wk: 18.1 ± 8.3 ng · dl⁻¹; 15 wk:14.2 ± 4.4 ng · dl⁻¹), resulting in a negative correlation between these hormones. BDNF levels increased only at 5 and 10 wk (baseline: 67.1 ± 36.0 pg · ml⁻¹; 5 wk: 164 ± 54 pg · ml⁻¹; and 10 wk: 110.2 ± 28.9 pg · ml⁻¹). The data obtained with the Mars-105 experiment suggest that environmental stress has a strong impact upon metabolic and stress response, indicating the need for further studies and the implementation of specific countermeasures.

  16. Efficacy of Ablation Therapy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism by Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous Thermoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Qian, Linxue; Zu, Yuan; Wei, Ying; Hu, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the value of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave thermoablation to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). One hundred and thirty-eight parathyroid glands from 56 patients with SHPT were ablated in this study. All the parathyroid glands were evaluated by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound before, during and after ablation. Changes in serum parathyroid hormone (sPTH) levels were measured before treatment and at 1 h, 1 wk, 1 mo and 6 mo after thermoablation treatment. All 56 cases had a 1-mo follow-up, and 34 cases had a 6-mo follow-up. The sPTH level of the 54 cases 1 mo after ablation was significantly lower than that before (p 0.05). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave thermoablation is a feasible and effective non-surgical alternative treatment for SHPT patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Application of the microprobe dredging operation in the treatment of the meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qiang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the function of the microprobe dredging technology in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDand to provide fast, efficient, economical and practical method of treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD. METHODS:The 100μm diameter stainless steel wire was made as the microprobe with the total length of 3cm, which the needle was about 5mm and hand shank was about 2.5cm. Selected 140 cases with dry eyes of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, patients were divided into two groups and made them have comparability. Observation group(n=70used microprobe to dredge meibomian gland pipe accompanied with drugs, hot compress and meibomian gland massage treatment. The control group(n=70was given conventional drugs, hot compress and meibomian massage treatment. To compare the tear break-up time(BUT, efficient rate and the cure rate of the two groups after treatment of 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1 mo, 2mo and 3mo.RESULTS: BUT were significantly prolonged in observation group and control group after treatment, and the observation group improved more obviously; the efficient rate and cure rate of the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1mo, 2mo and 3mo treatment. CONCLUSION:Using microprobe to unclog the meibomian gland tube can provide the fast and efficient, economical and practical treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, which can be promoted in the clinical practice.

  18. Modeling accumulations of particles in lung during chronic inhalation exposures that lead to impaired clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of insoluble particles of low toxicity that produce substantial lung burdens of particles, or inhalation of particles that are highly toxic to the lung, can impair clearance. This report describes model calculations of accumulations in lung of inhaled low-toxicity diesel exhaust soot and high-toxicity Ga2O3 particles. Lung burdens of diesel soot were measured periodically during a 24-mo exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust at soot concentrations of 0, 0.35, 3.5, and 7 mg m-3, 7 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y after a 4-wk exposure to 23 mg Ga2O3 m-3, 2 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y both studies using inhaled radiolabeled tracer particles. Simulation models fit the observed lung burdens of diesel soot in rats exposed to the 3.5- and 7-mg m-3 concentrations of soot only if it was assumed that clearance remained normal for several months, then virtually stopped. Impaired clearance from high-toxicity particles occurred early after accumulations of a low burden, but that from low-toxicity particles was evident only after months of exposure, when high burdens had accumulated in lung. The impairment in clearances of Ga2O3 particles and radiolabeled tracers was similar, but the impairment in clearance of diesel soot and radiolabeled tracers differed in magnitude. This might have been related to differences in particle size and composition between the tracers and diesel soot. Particle clearance impairment should be considered both in the design of chronic exposures of laboratory animals to inhaled particles and in extrapolating the results to people

  19. Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Cook, Nancy R; Flint, Alan J; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-10-01

    Although studies have shown health benefits for moderate-intensity physical activity, there is limited evidence to support beneficial effects for high amounts of vigorous activity among middle-age and older men. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity, compared with moderate-intensity activity, and risk of major chronic disease in men. We prospectively examined the associations between vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity and risk of major chronic disease among 44,551 men age 40-75 yr in 1986. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed biennially by questionnaire. During 22 yr of follow-up, we documented 14,162 incident cases of major chronic disease, including 4769 cardiovascular events, 6449 cancer events, and 2944 deaths from other causes. The HR of major chronic disease comparing ≥ 21 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of exercise was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-0.91) for vigorous-intensity activity and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.90) for moderate activity. For cardiovascular disease (CVD), the corresponding HRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70-0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.88), respectively. When examined separately, running, tennis, and brisk walking were inversely associated with CVD risk. Furthermore, more vigorous activity was associated with lower disease risk; the HR comparing >70 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of vigorous-intensity exercise was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P < 0.0001 for trend) for major chronic disease and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P < 0.0001 for trend) for CVD. Vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activities were associated with lower risk of major chronic disease and CVD. Increasing amounts of vigorous activity remained inversely associated with disease risk, even among men in the highest categories of exercise.

  20. Prospective study of physical activity and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahmann, Petra H; Russell, Anne; Green, Adèle C

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown and difficult to investigate due to confounding by sun exposure. We prospectively examined the association of recreational and occupational physical activity and incidence of SCC accounting for photoaging and other risk factors. We used available information on physical activity from the Australian population-based Nambour Skin Cancer Study comprising 1,171 adults aged 25-75 years at baseline (1992). In sex-stratified analyses (person-based and tumor-based) we estimated the associations between type of activity and incidence of SCC prospectively to 2007. During 16 years of follow-up, 98 men and 90 women newly developed SCC. We found no significant association between recreational activity measures and SCC after controlling for potential confounding factors including indicators of sun exposure. In men, the observed risk pattern was however suggestive of elevated risk with increasing total hours of recreational activity (compared to inactive men, RR (95%CI) 0.89 (0.54, 1.46) for ≤ 1.5 hrs/wk; 1.29 (0.82, 2.04) for ≤ 4.0 hrs/wk; 1.33 (0.86, 2.05) > 4.0 hrs/wk), while among women, higher level of occupational activity (standing and manual versus sedentary work activities) was associated with a reduced incidence of SCC tumors (P trend = 0.03). Despite some suggestion that recreational activity in men and occupational activity in women are related to occurrence of SCC, there is no firm support for a role of physical activity in the development of cutaneous SCC

  1. In situ Culturing with Isolation-chip Technology in Hydrogeothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, T.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Duca, Z. A.; Balayan, V.; Rajesh, N.; Rennie, V.; Haneda, S.; Matsuura, K.; Thiel, V.; Stockton, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 99% of the world's microbial species are uncultivable by traditional laboratory procedures; however, when microbes can be cultured, valuable phenotypic, metabolic and extracellular information can be attained due to increased sample mass and purity [1,2]. Recent attempts to culture the uncultivable microbial "dark matter" have included co-culturing and culturing in situ [3,4]. An emerging microfluidic in situ culturing platform, the isolation chip (iChip), is based on agarose gel microbial trapping. Samples are taken, diluted and inoculated into the agarose matrix, and followed by emplacement back in the site of origin, where nutrients are accessible from the environment. We tested these devices in hydrothermal fields in 2015 in Iceland, followed by additional field campaigns in Japan and Iceland in 2016. The Japan field campaign, described here, was conducted in the Japanese Alps in the Negano prefecture. The site was monitored over a ten-day period, during which temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen were recorded. Fluorescent confocal microscopy was used to visualize the morphologies of 56 sample plugs. A majority of the growth occurred within 50 microns of the plug surface, and a majority of the observed morphologies were documented. Amplification and sequencing of the 16s rRNA region (V3-V4) indicated that of the 26 samples selected, 4 samples were isolated extremophile monocultures. Two members of the genus Anoxybacillus were identified in a chip which had incubated under green mats and in high levels of dissolved oxygen in the bulk fluid, which may indicate culturing selectivity. This work represents the novel application of an emerging microfluidic technology to provide pure monoclonal samples of extremophile organisms, potentially enabling study via molecular techniques that would otherwise be inaccessible. [1] Amador, E. S. et al. Planetary and Space Science 106, 1-10, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.006 (2015). [2] Lombard, N., Prestat, E

  2. Piezophilic Bacteria Isolated from Sediment of the Shimokita Coalbed, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Kato, C.; Hori, T.; Morono, Y.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    RNA gene sequences, we have identified abundant Alkalibacterium sp. in 6R-3 and 29R-7 at the first HP cultivation. We also identified Haloactibacillus sp. in 6R-3 and Anoxybacillus related sp. in 19R-1~25R-3 at the third HP cultivation. These microorganisms are likely piezophiles and play an important role in degradation of sedimentary organic matter and production of microbial metabolites sustaining the deep microbial ecosystem in the Shimokita Coalbed. The complete 16S sequencing and isolation of piezophiles are now ongoing.

  3. Search for the algorithm of genes distribution during the process of microbial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.

    2015-09-01

    Previous two and three dimensional graph analysis of eco-physiological data of Archaea demonstrated specific geometry for distribution of major Prokaryotic groups in a hyperboloid function. The function of a two-sheet hyperboloid covered all known biological groups, and therefore, could be applied for the entire evolution of life on Earth. The vector of evolution was indicated from the point of hyper temperature, extreme acidity and low salinity to the point of low temperature and increased alkalinity and salinity. According to this vector, the following groups were chosen for the gene screening analysis. In the vector "High-Temperature → Low-Temperature" within extreme acidic pH (0-3), it is: 1) the hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota - order Sulfolobales, 2) moderately thermophilic Euryarchaeota - Class Thermoplasmata, and 3) mesophilic acidophiles- genus Thiobacillus and others. In the vector "Low pH → High pH" the following groups were selected in three temperature ranges: a) Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Eubacteria, b) moderately thermophilic - representatives of the genera Anaerobacter and Anoxybacillus, and c) mesophilic haloalkaliphiles (Eubacteria and Archaea). The genes associated with acidophily (H+ pump), chemolitho-autotrophy (proteins of biochemichal cycles), polymerases, and histones were proposed for the first vector, and for the second vector the genes associated with halo-alkaliphily (Na+ pumps), enzymes of organotrophic metabolisms (sugar- and proteolytics), and others were indicated for the screening. Here, an introduction to the phylogenetic constant (ρη) is presented and discussed. This universal characteristic is calculated for two principally different life forms -Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Existence of the second type of living forms is impossible without the first one. The number of chromosomes in Prokaryotic organisms is limited to one (with very rare exceptions, to two), while in Eukaryotic organisms this number is larger. Currently

  4. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  5. Growth characteristics of mangrove seedling in silvofishery pond – the allometric relationship of height, diameter and leaf abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Hastuti, Endah; Budi Hastuti, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic environment condition of the silvofishery pond should provide an effect on the growth of mangrove seedling. This research aimed to observe the morphometric growth rate of mangrove seedling of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata planted in the silvofishery pond and to analyze the morphometric growth relationship of height, diameter and leaf number development of mangrove seedling. The research was conducted through field experiment involving mangrove species of A. marina and R. mucronata for 18 months during March 2015 to September 2016, both single structured and mixed structure. The observation was conducted every 13 weeks including seedling height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis was conducted by regression to provide the statistical relation between the growth of diameter – height, diameter – number of leaves and height – number of leaves. The result showed that the growth rate of A. marina in single structured pond was ranged from 0.38 – 3.00 cm.wk-1, 0.0015 – 0.0969 cm.wk‑1 and 0.1 – 13.7 leaves.wk‑1 respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves, while in mixed structure was 0.23 – 1.69 cm.wk‑1, 0.0169 – 0.0731 cm.wk‑1 and 0.5 – 14.0 leaves.wk-. The growth of R. mucronata respectively in single and mixed structure were 0.08 – 2.00 cm.wk‑1 and 0.15 – 2.62 cm.wk‑1, 0.0031 – 0.1369 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0008 – 0.0831 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.9 leaves.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.6 leaves.wk-1respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis showed that the growth of seedling height of Avicennia in the mixed structure was significantly affected by its diameter growth and the number of leaves of Avicennia in single structured was significantly affected by its diameter. While the height, diameter and number of leaves of R. mucronata both in mixed and single structured silvofishery ponds were independent to each other. This research concluded that mangrove seedling growth is varied among

  6. Effect of Conbercept injection and macular grid pattern photocoagulation in treating macular edema after non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects and safety of intravitreal injection of Conbercept combined with macular grid pattern photocoagulation for macular edema secondary to non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVO. METHODS: A total of 38 patients(38 eyes with macular edema following non-ischemic BRVO were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were given best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, intraocular pressure, slit lamp with preset lens, optic coherent tomography(OCTand fluorescence fundus angiography(FFAexamination. The BCVA and central macular thickness(CMTwere observed before and 1wk, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12mo after treatment. The change in pre-treatment and post-treatment were compared, and the related complications were recorded. RESULTS:BCVA before treatment and 1wk, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12mo after treatment were 0.89±0.62, 0.64±0.59, 0.55±0.62, 0.46±0.43, 0.53±0.67, 0.43±0.38, 0.42±0.29, 0.40±0.30, the difference was statistically significant between that before and after treatment(PP>0.05. CMT were 683.25±236.47, 298.65±116.12, 276.89±107.28, 281.55±99.62, 251.41±119.47, 240.58±88.62, 231.74±75.36, 209.51±84.68μm, the difference was statistically significant between that before and after treatment(PP>0.05. There were 11 eyes received one injection, 18 eyes with two injections, 2 eyes with 3, 3 eyes with 4, and 4 eyes more than 4, the average injection was 2.01±1.42. The CMT decreased after every injection. The intraocular hypertension and other complications were not seen after treatment. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of conbercept combined with macular grid pattern photocoagulation for macular edema to non-ischemic BRVO can reduce the macular edema and improve BCVA, which is effective and safety.

  7. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  8. Effects of alley and stall surfaces on indices of claw and leg health in dairy cattle housed in a free-stall barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokey, F J; Guard, C L; Erb, H N; Galton, D M

    2001-12-01

    A 15-wk 2 x 3 factorial trial in a university dairy herd compared the effects of two alley surfaces and three free-stall beds on indices of lameness. Alley surfaces were grooved concrete (Ct) or 1.9-cm-thick interlocking rubber mats (R). Stalls were deep sand (S), rubber mattresses (M), or concrete (C). Mattress and concrete stalls were bedded with sawdust. At wk 1 and 15, the hind claws and hocks of 120 primi- (n = 69) and multiparous (n = 51) cows were scored for lesions and three claw measurements (dorsal wall length, heel depth, and toe angle) were recorded. Rates of lateral and medial claw growth and wear were calculated by measuring the migration of a reference mark away from the coronet. Digital photographs of claw surfaces were used to rescore claw lesions. Clinical lameness was evaluated by assigning a locomotion score from 1 to 4 to each cow during wk 1, 5, 10, and 14. Digital dermatitis (present/not present) and interdigital dermatitis (mild, moderate, or severe) were recorded at wk 15. The number of days that cows spent in a hospital barn was recorded. Before assignment, cows were professionally foot trimmed, sorted by initial claw lesion score, and then randomized in consecutive blocks of three to stall treatments. Photograph scores were highly repeatable. Nonparametric statistical techniques were used for analyses of rank data. Claw lesion score increased significantly for all treatment groups except RC and RS; however, when early lactation cows were excluded, no differences were found between treatment groups. Hock scores increased significantly more for cows in CtC than in CtS or RS. Significantly more animals from RC spent more than 10 d in the hospital pen compared with RM and RS. Groups did not significantly differ for clinical lameness. Cows in RS and RC had significantly lower rates for lateral claw net growth than those in CtM. Having moderate or severe interdigital dermatitis at wk 15 was associated with greater increases in claw lesion score

  9. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Anterior and posterior capsule densitometry levels after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Txomin Alberdi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze and compare five different variables over one year follow-up (1wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo: anterior capsule (AC, and posterior capsule (PC area densitometry values, AC and PC linear densitometry values, and AC opening area reduction ratio after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective comparative study. Seventy-one patients underwent femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery on single eye between June 2014 and December 2015. A 5.0 mm diameter laser assisted anterior capsulotomy was performed on all eyes. In every post-surgery evaluation, AC opacificaction (ACO and PC opacification (PCO density levels were provided by Oculus Pentacam®HR using area and linear densitometry methods. Digital images were captured with a slit-lamp Topcon photographic camera and IMAGEnet® 5 software. The AC opening area on the digital images was measured using the Sketchandcalc area calculator and converted to reduction ratio levels. RESULTS: Using Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, we found no correlation (r=-0.091, P=0.46 in the twelfth month assessment between the evolution of ACO area densitometry values and PCO area densitometry values considered as independent variables. We found no correlation, using PCC (r=-0.096, P=0.43 between the evolution of ACO linear densitometry values and PCO linear densitometry values, in the twelfth month visit, working both as independent variables. AC linear densitometry levels and AC area densitometry levels continued to grow strongly from sixth to twelfth months. Analysis of the values of AC opening area reduction ratio (1wk, 1, 3, 6, 12mo revealed statistically significant differences between the values of successive examinations but the magnitude of the change decreased. In the final period of monitoring between six and twelve months the magnitude of change was low. CONCLUSION: Our results show strong increases of Scheimpflug ACO densitometry values from the sixth to the

  11. Short communication: Proteins from circulating exosomes represent metabolic state in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Peiris, H; Koh, Y; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Moyes, K M; Murray, A; Dukkipati, V S R; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Roche, J R; Mitchell, M D

    2016-09-01

    Biomarkers that identify prepathological disease could enhance preventive management, improve animal health and productivity, and reduce costs. Circulating extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, are considered to be long-distance, intercellular communication systems in human medicine. Exosomes provide tissue-specific messages of functional state and can alter the cellular activity of recipient tissues through their protein and microRNA content. We hypothesized that exosomes circulating in the blood of cows during early lactation would contain proteins representative of the metabolic state of important tissues, such as liver, which play integral roles in regulating the physiology of cows postpartum. From a total of 150 cows of known metabolic phenotype, 10 cows were selected with high (n=5; high risk) and low (n=5; low risk) concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and liver triacylglycerol during wk 1 and 2 after calving. Exosomes were extracted from blood on the day of calving (d 0) and postcalving at wk 1 and wk 4, and their protein composition was determined by mass spectroscopy. Extracellular vesicle protein concentration and the number of exosome vesicles were not affected by risk category; however, the exosome protein cargo differed between the groups, with proteins at each time point identified as being unique to the high- and low-risk groups. The proteins α-2 macroglobulin, fibrinogen, and oncoprotein-induced transcript 3 were unique to the high-risk cows on d 0 and have been associated with metabolic syndrome and liver function in humans. Their presence may indicate a more severe inflammatory state and a greater degree of liver dysfunction in the high-risk cows than in the low-risk cows, consistent with the high-risk cows' greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and liver triacylglycerol concentrations. The commonly shared proteins and those unique to the low-risk category indicate a role for exosomes in immune function. The data

  12. Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B; Self, Jennifer A; Lane, Sandra; Spencer, Luise; Lutgens, Brian; Kim, Dong-Yun; Halling, Mary H; Rudder, Tammie C; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural therapy (HT) is a subgroup of occupational therapy (OT). Both HT and OT have been successful as adjunctive treatment modalities in substance abuse treatment. Studies have indicated that gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. The study intended to assess the effect of HT versus nonhorticultural OT on cortisol levels, depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol cravings, and quality of life. The research team designed a randomized pilot study. The study was open for participation from July 2012-October 2012. It took place during multiple occurrences of a 28-d treatment programs for substance use disorder at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants • Participants were 49 veterans, averaging 46.4 y old (SD = 11.9); the dropout rate was 37%. Participants were randomly assigned to the HT or the OT group. They attended supervised HT and OT groups 5 h/d for 3 wk. Outcome Measures • Pre- and posttreatment, participants completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW), the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCLC), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Salivary cortisol samples were taken at wk 1, 2, and 3. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F2,20 = 0.878) revealed that the HT performed was associated with a 12% reduction in salivary cortisol levels from wk 1 to wk 3, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .43). Separate 1-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed no statistically significant differences in the self-administered tests, although both the Q-LES-Q-SF and CES-D showed a trend toward improving quality of life and depressive symptoms in the HT group compared with the OT group. Additional analysis of the nonbiologic tests suggests that most participants in the HT and OT had some benefit from the

  13. Outcome comparison between transcanalicular and external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunay; Uludag; Baris; Yeniad; Erdinc; Ceylan; Ayse; Yildiz-Tas; Lale; Kozer-Bilgin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes achieved with external dacryocystorhinostomy(EX-DCR) and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy(TC-DCR) using a multidiode laser in patients with bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction(NLDO).METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on38 eyes of 19 patients with bilateral NLDO. Simultaneous bilateral surgery was performed on all patients. TC-DCR(Group 1) with a diode laser was used in the right eye,and EX-DCR(Group 2) was used in the left eye. All patients were placed under general anesthesia. Routine follow-ups were scheduled at 1wk; 1, 3, 6 and 12 mo postoperative intervals. Objective(lacrimal system irrigation) and subjective [tearing, irritation, pain,discharge and visual analogue scale(VAS) score]outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS: The overall objective success rate at 12 mo was 73.7%(14/19) in Group 1 and 89.5 %(17/19) in Group2. This difference was statistically significant. There were no significant between-group differences in the subjective results, such as tearing, pain and irritation.Only the discharge scores were found to be significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at the 1y followup. The average VAS score was 6.8 in Group 1 and 8.7 in Group 2, with no statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: Although TC-DCR allows surgeons to perform a minimally invasive and safe procedure, EX-DCR offers better objective and subjective outcomes than TC-DCR.

  14. CORRELATIONS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS IN THE BROADER AREA OF ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Changes of postoperative macular structure in primary angle closure disease complicated with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-long Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the change of postoperative macular structure in primary angle closure disease(PACDcomplicated with cataract. METHODS: The clinical data of 200 cases of PACD patients complicated with cataract treated in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into the Group A(n=60, 60 eyes, treated with trabeculectomy, the Group B(n=72, 72 eyes, given the phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantationand the Group C(n=68, 68 eyes, given the trabeculectomy and phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. The vision changes before and after treatment and the changes of intraocular pressure and macular thickness(foveal area, near central area, foveal surrounding areabefore operation and at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operation were compared and observed, and the incidence of complications was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the improvement rate and reduction rate of visual acuity among three groups at 3mo after operation(PPPPPPPPPCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation can relieve angle closure caused by pupillary block and lens factors, and can significantly improve the vision and reduce intraocular pressure of PACD patients with cataract, and it has small effects on postoperative macular edema with few complications.

  16. Clinical effect of neovascular glaucoma treated by vitrectomy and cyclophotocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Jin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the postoperative intraocular pressure(IOPand operation safety in the eyes of the neovascular glaucoma pateints treated by intraocular cyclophotocoagulation which needed vitrectomy at the same time. METHODS: A total of 12 neovascular glaucoma cases(14 eyessecondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment surgery and trauma were reviewed in our study. This procedure mainly used intraocular photocoagulation catheter to highlight the ciliary processes until the ciliary became white atrophy or plosion after vitreous surgery treatment. The intraocular photocoagulation catheter was performed at a power of 300-500mW, for a duration of 0.1-0.2ms. Postoperative follow-up was at least for 6mo. The observation of 14 postoperative neovascular glaucoma was performed at 1wk, 1, 6mo observing the IOP and complications. RESULTS: IOP of the 11 eyes was significantly declined and controlled in normal. After cyclophotocoagulation, average IOP at 1wk was 16.7±14.4mmHg, 15.7±8.8mmHg at 1mo and 12.9±4.5mmHg at 6mo, which compared with untreatment(39.6 ±10.0mmHgwas statistically significant different(PCONCLUSION: The intraocular cyclophotocoagulation and vitrectomy simultaneously can deal with the primary disease and secondary neovascular glaucoma. The operation can be accurately performed under direct cyclophotocoagulation and it is a safe and effective way for neovascular glaucoma which needs vitreous surgery.

  17. Efficacy on chopping with lens loop-pad in the small incision extracapsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ning Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical effects of chopping with lens loop-pad in the small incision extracapsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation.METHODS:A total of 75 cases(80 eyes, in which loop-pad and chop knife were performed to chop nucleus before implanting intraocular lens. Visual acuity, postoperative astigmatism degree, intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed. The post-operative follow-up periods ranged from 3 to 12mo.RESULTS: The visual acuity was 0.3-0.5 in 37 eyes and 0.6 or better in 21 eyes at 1d, while was respectively in 43 eyes and in 26 eyes at 1mo. Compared with preoperative astigmatism(0.85±0.29D, there were significant difference at postoperative 1wk(1.75±0.55D(PP>0.05. Intraoperative posterior capsule rupture occurred in 4 eyes, which implantation was successful in 1 eye and 3 eyes was managed viaciliary sulcus. Two eyes had dermatoglyphic pattern edema in corneal endothelium which recovered after about 3d. Two eyes had local patchy opacities which recovered in 2wk. Two eyes had transient high intraocular pressure.CONCLUSION: The surgery is efficient, low cost, easy process and less complications, it is worth to be popularized.

  18. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  19. Sensitivity of monthly heart rate and psychometric measures for monitoring physical performance in highly trained young handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether monthly resting heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and psychometric measures can be used to monitor changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. Data were collected in 37 adolescent players (training 10±2.1 h.wk(-1)) on 11 occasions from September to May during the in-season period, and included an estimation of training status (resting HR and HRV, the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire), and 3 physical performance tests (a 10-m sprint, a counter movement jump and a graded aerobic intermittent test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test). The sensitivity of HR and psychometric measures to changes in physical performance was poor ( 75%), irrespective of the markers and the performance measures. Finally, the difference in physical performance between players with better vs. worse estimated training status were all almost certainly trivial. The present results highlight the limitation of monthly measures of resting HR, HRV and perceived mood and fatigue for predicting in-season changes in physical performance in highly-trained adolescent handball players. This suggests that more frequent monitoring might be required, and/or that other markers might need to be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Improving the Q:H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kavin K W; DiPasquale, Angela A

    2011-10-01

    Plyometric training programs have been implemented in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Plyometric exercises are designed to aid in the improvement of muscle strength and neuromuscular control. Our purpose was to examine the effects of plyometric training on lower leg strength in women. Thirty (age = 20.3 ± 1.9 years) recreationally active women were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed a plyometric training program for 6 weeks, 3 d·wk(-1). All subjects attended 4 testing sessions: before the start of the training program and after weeks 2, 4, and 6. Concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength (dominant leg) was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60 and 120°·s(-1). Peak torque, average peak torque, and average power (AvgPower) were measured. The results revealed a significant (p plyometric group than in the control group at testing session 4 and that AvgPower was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group in testing sessions 2-4. Our results indicate that the plyometric training program increased hamstring strength while maintaining quadriceps strength, thereby improving the Q:H strength ratio.

  1. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI WHEY KEFIR DAN AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE [Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Whey Kefir and Its Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Febrisiantosa*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of whey-based kefir products and their activity to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. Kefir was produced by using many types of whey, namely SK: skim milk based kefir (control; WK: gouda cheese whey based kefir; and WKB: commercial whey powder based kefir. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each treatment was conducted in triplicates. Kefirs were evaluated for physical and chemical properties (pH, total titratable acidity, viscosity, protein, fat, lactose, and alcohol, microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and yeast population, peptide concentration, ACE inhibition, IC50 and Inhibition Efficiency Ratio (IER. The results showed that the types of whey used for kefir productions significantly affected the physical and chemical characteristics of the products (p0.05. The peptide concentration and ACE inhibitory activity of WK, 1.54±0.02 mg/mL and 73.07±0.91%, was significantly higher (p0.05 from the control (47.19±0.09% per mg/mL but was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of WKB (45.75±0.18% per mg/mL. This research indicated that whey kefir is a potential source of bioactive peptide for antihypertention agent.

  2. Curative effect observation of n-flap and off-flap EPi-LASIK in ametropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical effect of on-flap and off-flap epipolis laser in situ keratomileusis(EPi-LASIKin ametropia.METHODS: Sixty-eight myopia patients(136 eyesreceiving surgical treatment were selected and divided into research group and control group according to different therapies. The patients in research group adopted off-flap EPi-LASIK and those in control group adopted on-flap EPi-LASIK. The index like uncorrected visual acuity, diopter and Haze of two groups before surgery, 1wk, 1 and 4mo after surgery was observed. RESULTS: One month after surgery, the uncorrected visual acuity of research group was 1.33±0.22 while that of control group was 1.22±0.19(PPPCONCLUSION:On-flap and off-flap EPi-LASIK are safe and effective surgery approaches in the clinical treatment of ametropia. The presence of corneal epithelial flap has a certain effect in the postoperative clinical outcome at early stage. The impact will be gradually reduced over time.

  3. Visual and flight performance recovery after PRK or LASIK in helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Pol, Corina; Greig, Joanna L; Estrada, Art; Bissette, Gina M; Bower, Kraig S

    2007-06-01

    Refractive surgery, specifically photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), is becoming more accepted in the military environment. Determination of the impact on visual performance in the more demanding aviation environment was the impetus for this study. A prospective evaluation of 20 Black Hawk pilots pre-surgically and at 1 wk, 1 mo, and 6 mo postsurgery was conducted to assess both PRK and LASIK visual and flight performance outcomes on the return of aviators to duty. Of 20 pilots, 19 returned to flight status at 1 mo after surgery; 1 PRK subject was delayed due to corneal haze and subjective visual symptoms. Improvements were seen under simulator night and night vision goggle flight after LASIK; no significant changes in flight performance were measured in the aircraft. Results indicated a significantly faster recovery of all visual performance outcomes 1 wk after LASIK vs. PRK, with no difference between procedures at 1 and 6 mo. Low contrast acuity and contrast sensitivity only weakly correlated to flight performance in the early post-operative period. Overall flight performance assessed in this study after PRK and LASIK was stable or improved from baseline, indicating a resilience of performance despite measured decrements in visual performance, especially in PRK. More visually demanding flight tasks may be impacted by subtle changes in visual performance. Contrast tests are more sensitive to the effects of refractive surgical intervention and may prove to be a better indicator of visual recovery for return to flight status.

  4. Comparison of the corneal biomechanical effects after small-incision lenticule extraction and Q value guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:By comparing the changes of biomechanical properties of the cornea after small-incision lenticule extraction(SMILEand those after Q value guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis(FSLASIK, to study the stability of biomechanical properties of the cornea after these two kinds of surgery and provide objective data for clinical operation.METHODS: Prospective comparative cases. One hundred and two cases(200 eyeswith myopia and myopic astigmatism were divided into 2 groups, 51 cases(100 eyesfor SMILE, and 51 cases(100 eyesfor Q value guided FS-LASIK. Corneal hysteresis(CHand the corneal resistance factor(CRFwere quantitatively assessed with the Ocular Response Analyzer(ORApreoperatively and 1d, 2wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively.RESULTS: The decrease in CH and the CRF were statistically significant in both groups(PP>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the biomechanical changes in the two groups at any time(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: Both SMILE and Q value guided FS-LASIK can cause biomechanical decreases in the cornea. After 1d postoperatively, the decreases are nearly stable. There are no significant differences between the effect of SMILE and Q value guided FS-LASIK on the biomechanical properties of the cornea.

  5. Clinical analysis of intravitreal injection of Conbercept combined with 532-laser treating Coats disease in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze clinical observation and the efficiency of intravitreal conbercept combined with 532-laser on Coats disease in adulthood. METHODS: This was an retrospective analysis. Six eyes from 6 patients(5 males and 1 femalewith coats disease diagnosed by fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere enrolled. Before the injection, best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAof early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study(ETDRS, non-contact tonometer, ophthalmoscope, fundus photography, FFA, and OCT were examined. The initial average visual acuity(ETDRS letterswere 51.17±15.15. The initial average central retina thickness(CRTwas 303.30±107.87μm. All affected eyes were treated with intravitreal conbercept 0.05mL(10mg/mLcombined with 532-laser. Patients were followed up for 6 to 12mo, with a mean duration of 7.33±1.26mo. Post-treatment BCVA were compared with baseline using repeat analysis. RESULTS: The mean BCVA showed significant improvement during 1 wk, 1, 3mo post-treatment and the latest follow up(PCONCLUSION: Coats disease in adulthood more likely to have lower symptom and have a better response on treatment. Intravitreal conbercept combined with 532-laser significantly improve visual acuity and absorb the subretina fluid.

  6. EXPALS, Least Square Fit of Linear Combination of Exponential Decay Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas Gardner, C.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This program fits by least squares a function which is a linear combination of real exponential decay functions. The function is y(k) = summation over j of a(j) * exp(-lambda(j) * k). Values of the independent variable (k) and the dependent variable y(k) are specified as input data. Weights may be specified as input information or set by the program (w(k) = 1/y(k)). 2 - Method of solution: The Prony-Householder iteration method is used. For unequally-spaced data, a number of interpolation options are provided. This revision includes an option to call a differential correction subroutine REFINE to improve the approximation to unequally-spaced data when equal-interval interpolation is faulty. If convergence is achieved, the probable errors in the computed parameters are calculated also. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Generally, it is desirable to have at least 10n observations where n equals the number of terms and to input k+n significant figures if k significant figures are expected

  7. Aerobic exercise did not have compensatory effects on physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Bruno Pereira; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Franceschini, Sylvia Do Carmo Castro; Reis, Janice Sepúlveda; Amorim, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Although exercise promotes beneficial effects in diabetic patients, some studies have questioned the degree of their importance in terms of the increase in total energy expenditure. In these studies, the decrease of physical activity levels (PAL) was referred as "compensatory effect of exercise". However, our aim was to investigate whether aerobic exercise has compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients. Eight volunteers (51.1 ± 8.2 years) were enrolled in a supervised exercise programme for 8 weeks (3 d · wk(-1), 50-60% of VO2 peak for 30-60 min). PAL was measured using tri-axial accelerometers in the 1st, 8th and 12th weeks. Biochemical tests, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric assessment and body composition were measured in the 2nd and 11th weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric tests (Friedman and Wilcoxon, P exercise programme generated a significant 14.8% increase in VO2 peak and a 15% reduction in fructosamine. The exercise programme had no compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients, but improved their cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control.

  8. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  9. The metabolic equivalents of one-mile walking by older adults; implications for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Lucinda Gault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instructions for older adults regarding the intensity of walking may not elicit an intensity to infer health gains. We recorded the metabolic equivalents (METs during a 1-mile walk using constant and predicted values of resting MET in older adults to establish walking guidelines for health promotion and participation.Methods: In a cross-sectional design study, participants (15 men, 10 women walked 1-mile over ground, in a wooden floored gymnasium, wearing the Cosmed K4b2 for measurement of energy expenditure. Constant or predicted values for resting MET were used to calculate the number of 1-mile walks to meet 450-750 MET∙min∙wk-1.Results: Participants had MET values higher than 3 for both methods, with 29% and 64% of the participants higher than 6 for a constant and predicted MET value, respectively. The METs of the1-mile walk were (mean ± SD 6 ± 1 and 7 ± 1 METs using constant and predicted resting MET,and similar for men (constant: 6 ± 1 METs; predicted: 7 ± 1 METs and women (constant: 5±1METs; predicted: 6 ± 1 METs (P > 0.05.Conclusion: Older adults that are instructed to walk 1-mile at a fast and constant pace meet the minimum required intensity for physical activity, and public health guidelines. Health professionals, that administer exercise, could encourage older adults to accumulate between six and nine 1-mile walks per week for health gains.

  10. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  11. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  12. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J G; Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J; Yeater, R A

    1989-10-01

    Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  13. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF A LOW VOLUME STAIRCLIMBING PROGRAMME ON MEASURES OF HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS IN SEDENTARY OFFICE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Kennedy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its obvious advantages, few studies have examined health outcomes of regular stariclimbing. In this study, we investigated the training effects of eight weeks of stairclimbing on recognised measures of health-related fitness in an occupational setting. Forty-five public sector employees (22 male, 23 female aged 42.3 ± 9.0 years were randomly assigned to control (n = 16 or stairclimbing (n = 29 groups. Stairclimbing training began with 1 bout 5d·wk-1 in week 1, increasing by one climb per day every two weeks until week 5, where a maintenance level of 3 climbs per day was reached. Participants climbed on staircases located within an 8 storey office block, consisting of 145 steps. The prescribed exercise intensity involved climbing the 8 flights of stairs at a rate of 75 steps·min-1. All participants agreed not to change their diet or lifestyle over the experimental period. Relative to controls, the stairclimbing group showed a significant increase of 9.4% in predicted VO2max (p < 0. 05. No significant changes in blood pressure, blood lipid concentrations or body composition were noted. These findings provide evidence that stairclimbing can enhance an important component of health-related fitness, namely cardiovascular fitness. Given that such improvement resulted from less than 30 minutes per week of moderate exercise, stairclimbing in the workplace should be promoted as a health-enhancing physical activity

  14. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  15. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    meal before (Pre), 1 wk, 3 mo, and 1 yr after RYGB. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent-insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), ß-cell glucose sensitivity (ß-GS), and disposition index (D......(ß-GS): ß-GS × 1/HOMA-IR) were calculated. Within the first week after RYGB, fasting glucose [T2D Pre: 8.8 ± 2.3, 1 wk: 7.0 ± 1.2 (P ....003)] but not in NGT. HOMA-IR decreased by 50% in both groups. ß-GS increased in T2D [Pre: 1.03 ± 0.49, 1 wk: 1.70 ± 1.2, (P = 0.012)] but did not change in NGT. The increase in DI(ß-GS) was 3-fold in T2D and 1.5-fold in NGT. After RYGB, glucagon secretion was increased in response to the meal. GIP secretion...

  16. Intravitreal injection with ranibizumab combined with triamcinolone acetonide sub-Tenon injection for macular edema due to CRVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal injection with Ranibizumab combined with sub-Tenon injection with Triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor macular edema(MEdue to central retinal venous occlusions(CRVO.METHODS:Forty-six patients(46 eyeswere diagnosed ischemic CRVO with significant macular edema by fundus fluorescence-angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCT. All the patients had panretinal photocoagulation(PRP, a week after the four times therapies. Twenty-three patients(23 eyesin group A were randomly chosen to receive intravitreal injection with ranibizumab(IVR, another 23 patients(23 eyesin group B to treat with both IVR and sub-Tenon injection with TA(PSTT. There was no significant difference on macular edema and best corrected visual activity(BCVAbetween the two groups. The changes in BCVA and central macular thickness(CMTbefore and 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after treatments were analyzed.RESULTS: One week after the treatment: the BCVA increased while the CMT decreased compared with that of pretreatment in groups A and B(PPPPPP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Not only IVR can decrease ME caused by CRVO and increase the BCVA, but also IVR combined with PSTT can. But combined therapies can be more rapidly and have more positive effect on decreasing the ME and protecting the visual function.

  17. Swimming and cycling overloaded training in triathlon has no effect on running kinematics and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzetti, S; Margaritis, I; Guezennec, C Y

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether an overloaded training (OT) in triathlon deteriorates running kinematics (RK) and running economy (RE). Thirteen well-trained male long-distance triathletes (age: 28.1 +/- 4.3 yrs; V.O (2max): 65.0 +/- 3.1 ml O (2) . min (-1) . kg (-1)) were divided into two groups: completed an individualized OT program (OG; n = 7) or maintained a normal level of training (NT) (CG; n = 6) for a duration of 3 weeks. Every week, each triathlete completed a standardized questionnaire to quantify the influence of training loads on mood state. To reach OT, total training load (h . 3 wk (-1)) was increased by 24 %; swimming and cycling total volumes were increased by 46 and 57 %, respectively, but the distance run was not modified in order to limit the risk of injuries. RK and RE were determined on treadmill test at 12 km . h (-1) before and after the 3 weeks. The 3-week swimming and cycling OT in triathlon was sufficiently stressful to alter mood state but not to deteriorate the running kinematics and economy parameters in our previously well-trained male long-distance triathletes.

  18. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting the Salmonella carrier-state in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumstead Nat

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selection for increased resistance to Salmonella colonisation and excretion could reduce the risk of foodborne Salmonella infection. In order to identify potential loci affecting resistance, differences in resistance were identified between the N and 61 inbred lines and two QTL research performed. In an F2 cross, the animals were inoculated at one week of age with Salmonella enteritidis and cloacal swabs were carried out 4 and 5 wk post inoculation (thereafter called CSW4F2 and CSW4F2 and caecal contamination (CAECF2 was assessed 1 week later. The animals from the (N × 61 × N backcross were inoculated at six weeks of age with Salmonella typhimurium and cloacal swabs were studied from wk 1 to 4 (thereafter called CSW1BC to CSW4BC. A total of 33 F2 and 46 backcross progeny were selectively genotyped for 103 and 135 microsatellite markers respectively. The analysis used least-squares-based and non-parametric interval mapping. Two genome-wise significant QTL were observed on Chromosome 1 for CSW2BC and on Chromosome 2 for CSW4F2, and four suggestive QTL for CSW5F2 on Chromosome 2, for CSW5F2 and CSW2BC on chromosome 5 and for CAECF2 on chromosome 16. These results suggest new regions of interest and the putative role of SAL1.

  19. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  20. Hydrochemical data base for the Death Valley Region, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfect, D.L.; Faunt, C.C.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data derived from samples collected within an approximately 100,000-square-kilometer area in the Southern Great Basin have been compiled into a digital data base. The data were compiled from published reports, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS), and previously unpublished USGS files. The data are contained in two compressed files which self-expand into Lotus (.WK1) files. The first file contains 4,738 records (4.84 megabytes) and represents the basic compilation of all identified analyses. The second file is an edited version of the first and contains 3,733 records (3.84 megabytes). Editing included the removal of duplicate records and the combining of records, when appropriate. The analyses presented are of variable quality and comprehensiveness and include no isotopic data. Of the 3,733 analyses in the edited data base, 58 percent of the major ion concentrations balance to within ±10 percent. Most of the remaining records are not sufficiently complete for a balance to be calculated

  1. Surgical effect of traumatic lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the effect of lens extraction combined with vitrectomy to treat traumatic lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma.METHODS:Thirty-one eyes(31 casesof lens dislocation caused by blunt trauma with secondary glaucoma were treated respectively with cataract extraction combined with anterior vitrectomy, trabeculectomy and intraocular lens implantation. The visual acuity and pressure were observed 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operative. RESULTS:Thirty-one eyes were all complete the operation successfully, and 6 eyes were given combined trabeculectomy, 9 eyes were implanted anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation(IOLand 15 eyes were given posterior chamber suture fixation. Sixteen eyes were implanted in one-stage operation, while 8 eyes were implanted in two-stage operation. All intraocular pressure(IOPwere controlled to the normal level after operation and 23 eyes had visual acuity of more than 0.3.CONCLUSION:Lens extraction combined with vitrectomy is an effective method for treatment of lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma. In order to control the IOP and get well visual function, we should choose IOL implantation or trabeculectomy according to the patient's condition.

  2. A randomized controlled trial of Kung Fu training for metabolic health in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2009-07-01

    Twenty overweight/obese adolescents underwent six months of Kung Fu or placebo (Tai Chi) training, 3x.wk(-1). Outcomes included fasting insulin and insulin resistance, lipids, glucose and HbA(1c), and C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP decreased significantly (p = 0.03) in both groups over time at six months. Although insulin sensitivity did not change, HbA(1c) tended to decrease over time (p = 0.09), again with no group difference (p = 0.60). Reduced CRP was related to increased upper body strength (p = 0.01). Increased lean body mass was related to reductions in HbA(1c), insulin resistance, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Improvements in lean body mass appear to have a potential role in favorable metabolic outcomes, independent of changes in fat mass. Further research in this area is warranted before definite conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of martial arts training for metabolic outcomes in this cohort.

  3. A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.

  4. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  5. A community-based aquatic exercise program to improve endurance and mobility in adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Renée M.; Ross, Michael D.; Runco, Wendy; Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a community-based aquatic exercise program on physical performance among adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID). Twenty-two community-dwelling adults with mild to moderate ID volunteered to participate in this study. Participants completed an 8-week aquatic exercise program (2 days/wk, 1 hr/session). Measures of physical performance, which were assessed prior to and following the completion of the aquatic exercise program, included the timed-up-and-go test, 6-min walk test, 30-sec chair stand test, 10-m timed walk test, hand grip strength, and the static plank test. When comparing participants’ measures of physical performance prior to and following the 8-week aquatic exercise program, improvements were seen in all measures, but the change in scores for the 6-min walk test, 30-sec chair stand test, and the static plank test achieved statistical significance (P<0.05). An 8-week group aquatic exercise program for adults with ID may promote improvements in endurance and balance/mobility. PMID:28349039

  6. Relationship of adipocyte size to hyperphagia in developing male obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Fiene, J A; Maggio, C A

    1992-01-01

    In growing male obese Zucker rats, hyperphagia reaches a maximum or "breakpoint" and declines at an earlier age with high fat than with chow-type diets. A serial adipose tissue biopsy technique was used to correlate changes of retroperitoneal adipocyte size and feeding behavior in 5- to 7-wk-old male lean and obese rats fed laboratory chow or a 35% fat diet until 30 wk of age. Although chow-fed groups had significantly greater cumulative intake, fat-fed groups had significantly greater body weight gain, retroperitoneal depot weight, and adipocyte number. Mean adipocyte size increased continuously in chow-fed groups but decreased over weeks 20-30 in fat-fed groups, reflecting increased adipocyte number. In fat-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 11 wk and disappeared by 13 wk. In chow-fed obese rats, hyperphagia reached a breakpoint at 15-16 wk and disappeared by 19 wk. Biopsy samples revealed that adipocyte size of fat-fed obese rats was already close to maximal at 10 wk (1.12 micrograms lipid), while that of chow-fed obese rats only approached maximal at 20 wk (0.81 microgram lipid). At these time points, lipoprotein lipase activity paralleled adipocyte size. These data indicate that the duration of the growing obese rat's hyperphagia coincides with adipocyte filling and suggest the existence of feeding stimulatory and inhibitory signals from adipose tissue.

  7. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

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    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  8. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  9. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

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    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  10. Immune responses of Holstein and Jersey calves during the preweaning and immediate postweaned periods when fed varying planes of milk replacer.

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    Ballou, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of breed and planes of preweaned milk replacer (MR) nutrition on the immune responses of pre- and postweaned dairy calves. Forty-two bull calves (n=20 Holstein and n=22 Jersey, 2±1 d old) were studied. Holstein and Jersey calves came from separate dairies. Calves were fed either a higher plane of MR nutrition or a lower plane of MR nutrition. Holstein and Jersey calves on the lower planes of MR nutrition were fed 454 g (as fed)/d of a 20% crude protein (CP)/20% fat MR. Holstein calves on the higher plane of MR nutrition were fed 810 and 1,180 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/20% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. Jersey calves on the higher plane of nutrition were fed 568 and 680 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/25% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. On d 4, 42, and 77, peripheral blood was collected for ex vivo immunological analyses, and on d 7 all calves were challenged subcutaneously with commercially available lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (4 µg/kg of body weight); clinical and biochemical responses were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 72 h. We observed a breed difference in total serum protein, wherein Jersey calves had higher concentrations than Holsteins. Holsteins and calves fed the higher plane of MR nutrition had greater glucose concentrations following the LPS challenge. With the exception of plasma haptoglobin concentrations at 24 h postchallenge, we observed no treatment × time interactions following the LPS challenge. Calves fed higher planes of MR nutrition had greater plasma haptoglobin concentrations 24h following the LPS challenge. Isolated mononuclear cells from Holstein calves secreted more tumor necrosis factor-α than did cells from Jersey calves when stimulated ex vivo with LPS on d 77. In addition, when whole blood was incubated with a live enteropathogenic E. coli culture, blood from Holsteins had a greater killing capacity than did whole blood from

  11. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

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    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  12. Nandrolone effects on men’s semen parameters in Erbil city

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    Abdalmuhaimn Y. Sharef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds based on the structure of testosterone, and are used to treat various conditions such as reproductive system dysfunction. High doses of anabolic androgenic steroids and exercise influence the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis, which can, in turn, affect testicular apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anabolic androgenic steroids on semen parameters in bodybuilders (heavy exercise in Erbil city. Methods: Semen specimens and serum were collected from 150 which divided into three groups; each consists of 50 men. The control group (A didn't practice exercise so didn't receive nandrolone. The exercise group (B who practice daily without taking nandrolone. The exercise and treated group (C who practice exercise and had been using nandrolone (200 mg- wk-1, intramuscularly for at least three months. Smear prepared by methyline blue stain and assessment of semen volume, sperm morphology, sperm concentration ,motility were carried out .Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were also carried out. Results: There was no difference in the semen volume within three groups. Sperm concentration and the percentage of sperm motility in the group C was significantly lower (P <0.001 than that in the other groups. A significantly increased percentage of sperm with the tapered head was found in the group C. Our results also demonstrated a significant decrease in testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone in the group C compared to group A and B. Conclusion: Users of anabolic-androgenic steroids have sperm with abnormal shape, especially tapered head, and low concentration of sperm with sluggish motility attributing to infertility.

  13. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

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    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  14. Malian children with moderate acute malnutrition who are treated with lipid-based dietary supplements have greater weight gains and recovery rates than those treated with locally produced cereal-legume products: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.

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    Ackatia-Armah, Robert S; McDonald, Christine M; Doumbia, Seydou; Erhardt, Juergen G; Hamer, Davidson H; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-03-01

    Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), defined as weight-for-length z score between -3 and -2 or midupper arm circumference between 11.5 and 12.5 cm, affects ∼33 million children aged health centers in rural Mali were randomly assigned to provide to 1264 MAM children aged 6-35 mo one of 4 dietary supplements containing ∼500 kcal/d for 12 wk: 1) ready-to-use, lipid-based supplementary food (RUSF); 2) special corn-soy blend (CSB++); 3) locally processed, fortified flour (Misola); or 4) locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). In total, 1178 children (93.2%) completed the study. The adjusted mean (95% CI) change in weight (kg) from baseline was greater with RUSF than with the locally processed blends and was intermediate with CSB++ [1.16 (1.08, 1.24) for RUSF, 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) for CSB++, 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) for Misola, and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for LMF; P < 0.001]. For length change, RUSF and CSB++ differed significantly from LMF. Sustained recovery rates were higher with RUSF (73%) than with Misola (61%) and LMF (58%), P < 0.0001; CSB++ recovery rates (68%) did not differ from any of the other groups. RUSF was more effective, but more costly, than other dietary supplements for the treatment of MAM; CSB++ yielded intermediate results. The benefits of treatment should be considered in relation to product costs and availability. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Lifestyle changes in cancer patients undergoing curative or palliative chemotherapy: is it feasible?

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    Vassbakk-Brovold, Karianne; Berntsen, Sveinung; Fegran, Liv; Lian, Henrik; Mjåland, Odd; Mjåland, Svein; Nordin, Karin; Seiler, Stephen; Kersten, Christian

    2017-12-14

    This study aimed to explore the feasibility of an individualized comprehensive lifestyle intervention in cancer patients undergoing curative or palliative chemotherapy. At one cancer center, serving a population of 180,000, 100 consecutive of 161 eligible newly diagnosed cancer patients starting curative or palliative chemotherapy entered a 12-month comprehensive, individualized lifestyle intervention. Participants received a grouped startup course and monthly counseling, based on self-reported and electronically evaluated lifestyle behaviors. Patients with completed baseline and end of study measurements are included in the final analyses. Patients who did not complete end of study measurements are defined as dropouts. More completers (n = 61) vs. dropouts (n = 39) were married or living together (87 vs. 69%, p = .031), and significantly higher baseline physical activity levels (960 vs. 489 min . wk -1 , p = .010), more healthy dietary choices (14 vs 11 points, p = .038) and fewer smokers (8 vs. 23%, p = .036) were observed among completers vs. dropouts. Logistic regression revealed younger (odds ratios (OR): 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 0.99) and more patients diagnosed with breast cancer vs. more severe cancer types (OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.56) among completers vs. dropouts. Improvements were observed in completers healthy (37%, p < 0.001) and unhealthy dietary habits (23%, p = .002), and distress (94%, p < .001). No significant reductions were observed in physical activity levels. Patients treated with palliative intent did not reduce their physical activity levels while healthy dietary habits (38%, p = 0.021) and distress (104%, p = 0.012) was improved. Favorable and possibly clinical relevant lifestyle changes were observed in cancer patients undergoing curative or palliative chemotherapy after a 12-month comprehensive and individualized lifestyle intervention. Palliative patients were able to

  16. Clinical efficacy of different artificial tears for patients with xerophthalmia after phacoemulsification

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    Bing Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare and analyze the clinical efficacy of different artificial tears for patients with xerophthalmia after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective analysis on the clinical data of 150 cases(150 eyestreated by phacoemulsification in our hospital from March 2014 to April 2017. And according to the artificial tears used, they were divided into Group A(control groupand B(application of sodium hyaluronate eye drops, Group C(used carbomer gel eye drops,50 cases 50 eyes in every group. We compared and analyzed the BUT, FL, SⅠt findings, OSDI scores preoperatively and 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively, and visual acuity before and 3mo after operation in the three groups. RESULTS: There were no differences in BUT, FL, SⅠt and OSDI scores between the three groups before and at 1wk after the operation(P>0.05. At 1mo after operation, the levels of BUT and SⅠt in Group B and Group C were higher than those in Group A, and the scores of OSDI and FL were lower than those in Group A(PP>0.05. After 3mo, the levels of BUT and SⅠt in the Group B and Group C were higher than that in the Group A, and the FL level and OSDI score were lower than those in the Group A(PPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: different types of artificial tear can improve the symptoms of dry eyes in patients age-related cataract after phacoemulsification, in which carbomer eye drops or lipid containing artificial tears improve postoperative dry eye symptoms and signs, and will not affect the recovery of visual acuity.

  17. Explore the full thick layer of corneal transplantation in the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal ulcer infection

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    Xin Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the feasibility, safety and effect of the full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty for the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal ulcer. METHODS: Based on a retrospective non-controlled study, 25 patients were given the full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty for clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and corneal ulcer medication conventional anti-gram-negative bacteria. Routine follow-up were carried out at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3, 6, 12, 18mo to observe the situation of corneal epithelial healing, recurrent infection, immune rejection, graft transparency and best corrected visual acuity, etc. At the 6 and 12mo postoperative, corneal endothelial cell density was reexamined.RESULTS: No patients because of Descemet's membrane rupture underwent penetrating keratoplasty surgery: One only in cases of bacterial infection after 1mo, once again did not cultivate a culture of bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the remaining 24 cases average follow-up 14±6mo, corneal graft were transparent, the cure rate was 96%. At the sixth month after surgery, there were 16 cases of eye surgery best corrected visual acuity ≥4.5, of which 3 cases ≥4.8. At the sixth month after surgery, the average corneal endothelial cell density 2 425±278/mm2; At 12mo postoperatively, it was 2 257± 326/mm2.CONCLUSION: Full-thickness lamellar keratoplasty is an effective method of pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the treatment of corneal ulcers, corneal drying material glycerol can be achieved by visual effects.

  18. Skeletal Adaptations to Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance Following Eight Weeks of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    Coupled concentric-eccentric resistive exercise maintains bone mineral density (BMD) during bed rest and aging. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training with higher ratios of eccentric to concentric loading would enhance hip and lumbar BMD. METHODS: Forty untrained male volunteers (34.9+/-7.0 yrs, 80.9+/-9.8 kg, 178.2+/-7.1 cm; mean+/-SD) were matched for leg press (LP) 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) strength and randomly assigned to one of 5 training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0, 33, 66, 100, or 138% of concentric) for all training sessions. Subjects performed a periodized supine LP and heel raise (HR) training program 3 d wk-1 for 8 wks using a modified Agaton Fitness System (Agaton Fitness AB, Boden, Sweden). Hip and lumbar BMD (g/sq cm) was measured in triplicate pre- and post-training using DXA (Hologic Discovery ). Pre- and post-training means were compared using the appropriate ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Within group pre- to post-training BMD was compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS: There was a main effect of training on L1, L2, L3, L4, total lumbar, and greater trochanter BMD, but there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Eights wks of lower body resistive exercise increased greater trochanter and lumbar BMD. Inability to detect group differences may have been influenced by a potentially osteogenic vibration associated with device operation in the 0, 33, and 66% groups.

  19. Intravaginal lactic Acid bacteria modulated local and systemic immune responses and lowered the incidence of uterine infections in periparturient dairy cows.

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    Qilan Deng

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1 one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1; 2 one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2, and 3 one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR. The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA. Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows.

  20. Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satko, S G; Burkart, J M; Bleyer, A J; Jordan, J R; Manning, T

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD.

  1. Clinical observation of alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids on acute optic neuritis

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    Ke-Shun Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical effect of alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis(AON.METHODS: Seventy patients(70 eyeswith AON from January, 2012 to June, 2014 were randomly divided into two groups. 35 patients in observation group were used 10ug alprostadil with 10mL normal saline(NSby intravenous injection, once/d for 7d/one treatment course, and 10mL NS was used by intravenous injection in 35 patients of control group. Besides, the two groups were treated with the combined therapy as follows: 20mg methylprednisolone was injected periglomerularly beside the eyeballs, once /3d for 3 times; 800~1 000mg of methylprednisolone through intravenous drip for 3d, once/d; after 3d, oral administration of prednisone acetate for 1wk, 1mg/(kg·d; after 1wk, the dose decreased to 5mg/wk until withdraw. Simultaneously, oral administration of ranitidine capsules, calcium carbonate and vitamin D3 tablets were combined in the supportive treament. The differences of curative effect between two groups were comparatively analyzed.RESULTS: In the observation group, 25 eyes(71.4%were markedly effective, 7 eyes(20.0%were valid and 3 eyes(8.6%were invalid, and the total effective rate was 91.4%. In the control group, 15 eyes(42.9%were markedly effective, 14 eyes(40.0%were valid and 6 eyes(17.1%were invalid, and the total effective rate was 82.9%. The difference of total effective rate between the two groups was not statistically significant(P=0.477, but there was a significant difference in markedly effective rate between the two groups(χ2=5.833, P=0.016.CONCLUSION: Alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids is effective for AON, and it is worth of advocation.

  2. Maximal sustained levels of energy expenditure in humans during exercise.

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    Cooper, Jamie A; Nguyen, David D; Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A

    2011-12-01

    Migrating birds have been able to sustain an energy expenditure (EE) that is five times their basal metabolic rate. Although humans can readily reach these levels, it is not yet clear what levels can be sustained for several days. The study's purposes were 1) to determine the upper limits of human EE and whether or not those levels can be sustained without inducing catabolism of body tissues and 2) to determine whether initial body weight is related to the levels that can be sustained. We compiled data on documented EE as measured by doubly labeled water during high levels of physical activity (minimum of five consecutive days). We calculated the physical activity level (PAL) of each individual studied (PAL = total EE / basal metabolic rate) from the published data. Correlations were run to examine the relationship between initial body weight and body weight lost with both total EE and PAL. The uppermost limit of EE was a peak PAL of 6.94 that was sustained for 10 consecutive days of a 95-d race. Only two studies reported PALs above 5.0; however, significant decreases in body mass were found in each study (0.45-1.39 kg·wk(-1) of weight loss). To test whether initial weight affects the ability to sustain high PALs, we found a significant positive correlation between TEE and initial body weight (r = 0.46, P body weight (r = 0.27, not statistically significant). Some elite humans are able to sustain PALs above 5.0 for a minimum of 10 d. Although significant decreases in body weight occur at this level, catabolism of body tissue may be preventable in situations with proper energy intake. Further, initial body weight does not seem to affect the sustainability of PALs.

  3. Intake of High-Fat Yogurt, but Not of Low-Fat Yogurt or Prebiotics, Is Related to Lower Risk of Depression in Women of the SUN Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Molero, Patricio; Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-01

    Yogurt and prebiotic consumption has been linked to better health. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has assessed the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk. We longitudinally evaluated the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk in a Mediterranean cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project is a dynamic, prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates. A total of 14,539 men and women (mean age: 37 y) initially free of depression were assessed during a median follow-up period of 9.3 y. Validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and after a 10-y follow-up were used to assess prebiotic (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharide) intake and yogurt consumption (yogurt intake was associated with reduced depression risk: HR for the highest [≥7 servings/wk (1 serving = 125 g)] compared with the lowest (yogurt consumption was associated with a higher incidence of depression (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.65; P-trend = 0.001), although this association lost significance after the exclusion of early incident cases, suggesting possible reverse causation bias. Prebiotic consumption was not significantly associated with depression risk. Our study suggests that high consumption of whole-fat yogurt was related to a lower risk of depression in women of the SUN cohort. No association was observed for prebiotics. Further studies are needed to clarify why the yogurt-depression association may differ by fat content of the yogurt. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab combined with laser for diabetic macular edema

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    Yan-Xia Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab combined with laser for diabetic macular edema(DME. METHODS: Totally 60 cases(60 eyesof DME patients treated in ophthalmology department of our hospital from June 2014 to June 2016 were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group. The control group were treated with laser therapy, and the observation group received intravitreal injection of ranibizumab on the basis of the treatment of the control group. Comparison between two groups on the best corrected visual acuity before operation and at 1wk, 1, 3, 6mo after operation was taken. The non-contact tonometer was used to measure intraocular pressure before and after treatment. The optical coherence tomography(OCTwas conducted to assess preoperative and postoperative central macular thickness(CMT.The postoperative complications of two groups were recorded subsequently. RESULTS: The two groups' postoperative visual acuity was significantly improved, data of the observation group at 1, 3mo after operation was sharply higher than that of the control group, there was statistical significance(PP>0.05. After 1wk of treatment, the two groups' intraocular pressure increased, with statistical significance(PP>0.05. The postoperative CMT of two groups significantly decreased, data of the observation group at 1, 3mo after treatment was evidently lower than that of the control group, there was statistical significance(PP>0.05. In the observation group, 5 cases(5 eyesrecurred within 6mo, the recurrence rate was 17%. In the control group, 10 cases(10 eyesrelapsed, the recurrence rate was 33%, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Compared with laser therapy alone, intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with laser therapy has a significant and safe short-term treatment effective for DME patients with a fast visual acuity recovery.

  5. Insertion/Deletion Within the KDM6A Gene Is Significantly Associated With Litter Size in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous whole-genome association analysis identified lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A, which encodes a type of histone demethylase, as a candidate gene associated to goat fecundity. KDM6A gene knockout mouse disrupts gametophyte development, suggesting that it has a critical role in reproduction. In this study, goat KDM6A mRNA expression profiles were determined, insertion/deletion (indel variants in the gene identified, indel variants effect on KDM6A gene expression assessed, and their association with first-born litter size analyzed in 2326 healthy female Shaanbei white cashmere goats. KDM6A mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, skin and testis; the expression levels in testes at different developmental stages [1-week-old (wk, 2, 3 wk, 1-month-old (mo, 1.5 and 2 mo] indicated a potential association with the mitosis-to-meiosis transition, implying that KDM6A may have an essential role in goat fertility. Meanwhile, two novel intronic indels of 16 bp and 5 bp were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that only the 16 bp indel was associated with first-born litter size (P < 0.01, and the average first-born litter size of individuals with an insertion/insertion genotype higher than that of those with the deletion/deletion genotype (P < 0.05. There was also a significant difference in genotype distributions of the 16 bp indel between mothers of single-lamb and multi-lamb litters in the studied goat population (P = 0.001. Consistently, the 16 bp indel also had a significant effect on KDM6A gene expression. Additionally, there was no significant linkage disequilibrium (LD between these two indel loci, consistent with the association analysis results. Together, these findings suggest that the 16 bp indel in KDM6A may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS of goats.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Clinical and Pathological Features and Associated Risk Factors in an Observational Study of 118 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Corpas, T; Morales-Suárez-Varela, M; Rausell Fontestad, N; Fuertes Prósper, A; Marquina-Vila, A; Jordá-Cuevas, E

    2015-12-01

    In the latest edition of its cancer staging manual, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) revised the criteria for staging squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by introducing high-risk tumor features to define tumor stage (T) and help to identify tumors with a higher risk of metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with SCC meeting the high-risk criteria defined by the AJCC for T2 lesions. We performed a case-case observational study in which patients with SCC were included over a period of 18 months. We collected clinical, anthropometric, and tumor data, and analyzed these using PASW Statistics (SPSS) version 18. One-hundred eighteen patients, the majority of whom were men, were included. Mean age was 77 years. Over 70% of the tumors were located in the head region and a majority of tumors measured 2 cm or less. The prevalence of SCC T2 was 61.9%. The risk factors significantly associated with SCC T2 were an age of over 85 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.48), location in the head and neck region (OR, 3.38), presence of solar elastosis in the peritumoral tissue (OR, 2.08), a higher tumor growth rate (>1.5 mm·wk(-1); OR, 5.73), and higher cumulative exposure to smoking (>20 pack-years, OR, 3.63). Advanced age, location in the head and neck region, presence of solar elastosis, high tumor growth rate, and high cumulative smoking exposure were all significantly associated with the presence of SCC T2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knikou, Maria; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K

    2014-06-01

    Spinal inhibition is significantly reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined if locomotor training can improve spinal inhibition exerted at a presynaptic level. Sixteen people with chronic SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days/wk, 1 h/day. The soleus H-reflex depression in response to low-frequency stimulation, presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferent terminals following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve, and bilateral EMG recovery patterns were assessed before and after locomotor training. The soleus H reflexes evoked at 1.0, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14, and 0.11 Hz were normalized to the H reflex evoked at 0.09 Hz. Conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the associated unconditioned H reflex evoked with subjects seated, while during stepping both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked after the test H reflex at each bin of the step cycle. Locomotor training potentiated homosynaptic depression in all participants regardless the type of the SCI. Presynaptic facilitation of soleus Ia afferents remained unaltered in motor complete SCI patients. In motor incomplete SCIs, locomotor training either reduced presynaptic facilitation or replaced presynaptic facilitation with presynaptic inhibition at rest. During stepping, presynaptic inhibition was modulated in a phase-dependent manner. Locomotor training changed the amplitude of locomotor EMG excitability, promoted intralimb and interlimb coordination, and altered cocontraction between knee and ankle antagonistic muscles differently in the more impaired leg compared with the less impaired leg. The results provide strong evidence that locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after SCI in humans at rest and during walking. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. METs in adults while playing active video games: a metabolic chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Kenta; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2010-06-01

    Active video game systems controlled through arm gestures and motions (Nintendo Wii Sports) and video games controlled through force plate (Wii Fit Plus) are becoming increasingly popular. This study was performed to determine the energy expenditure (EE) during Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports game activities. Twelve adult men and women performed all the activities of Wii Sports (five activities: golf, bowling, tennis, baseball, and boxing) and Wii Fit Plus (63 activities classified as yoga, resistance, balance, and aerobic exercises). Each activity was continued for at least 8 min to obtain a steady-state EE. Because EE was assessed in an open-circuit indirect metabolic chamber consisting of an airtight room (20,000 or 15,000 L), subjects were freed of apparatus to collect expired gas while playing the games. MET value was calculated from resting EE and steady-state EE during activity. The mean MET values of all 68 activities were distributed over a wide range from 1.3 METs (Lotus Focus) to 5.6 METs (single-arm stand). The mean MET values in yoga, balance, resistance, and aerobic exercise of Wii Fit Plus and Wii Sports were 2.1, 2.0, 3.2, 3.4, and 3.0 METs, respectively. Forty-six activities (67%) were classified as light intensity (6.0 METs). Time spent playing one-third of the activities supplied by motion- and gesture-controlled video games can count toward the daily amount of exercise required according to the guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association, which focus on 30 min of moderate-intensity daily physical activity 5 d x wk(-1).

  9. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  10. Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Red/near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Ho, Michael D.; Krengel, Maxine H.; Bogdanova, Yelena; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Yee, Megan K.; Zafonte, Ross; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Koo, Bang-Bon

    2015-05-01

    This invited paper reviews our research with scalp application of red/near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) to improve cognition in chronic, traumatic brain injury 1. Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased ATP, important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. Eleven chronic, mTBI participants with closed-head injury and cognitive dysfunction received 18 outpatient treatments (MWF, 6 Wks) starting at 10 Mo. to 8 Yr. post-mTBI (MVA, sports-related, IED blast injury). LED therapy is non-invasive, painless, non-thermal (FDA-cleared, non-significant risk device). Each LED cluster head (2.1" diameter, 500mW, 22.2mW/cm2) was applied 10 min (13J/cm2) to 11 scalp placements: midline, from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal, and parietal areas. Testing performed pre- and post-LED (+1 Wk, 1 and 2 Mo post- 18th treatment) showed significant linear trend for LED effect over time, on improved executive function and verbal memory. Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported. New studies at VA Boston include TBI patients treated with transcranial LED (26J/cm2); or treated with only intranasal red, 633nm and NIR, 810nm diodes placed into the nostrils (25 min, 6.5mW, 11.4J/cm2). Intranasal LEDs are hypothesized to deliver photons to hippocampus. Results are similar to Naeser et al. (2014). Actigraphy sleep data show increased sleep time (average, +1 Hr/night) post-18th transcranial or intranasal LED treatment. LED treatments may be self-administered at home (Naeser et al., 2011). A shamcontrolled study with Gulf War Illness Veterans is underway.

  12. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma after sequential failed trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qin Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma after sequential failed trabeculectomy. METHODS: Thirty-six patients(36 eyeswith prior failed sequential trabeculectomy who underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation were included. The intraocular pressure(IOP, best corrected visual acuity(BCVAand complications were ovserved and all the patients were followed up at least for 12mo. RESULTS: Mean preoperative IOP was 35.20±7.28mmHg and reduced to 10.15±3.34, 11.23±3.56, 15.63±5.72, 17.17±5.47, 17.73±6.23,19.76±5.43mmHg at 1, 2wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after surgery, which was significant different from the preoperative level(t=12.643, 11.837, 10.324, 8.839, 8.462, 8.046, all PZ=-0.420, P>0.05. At 12mo after operation, the complete success rate reached 78% and the conditional success rate reached 92%. There were 5 eyes complicated with shallow anterior chamber, 3 eye complicated with anterior chamber hemorrhage, which all recovered after additional treatments. Late complications included valve exposure and encapsulated cystic blebs around the plate. Severe corneal endothelium loss occurred in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation is effective in reducing IOP at 1-year follow-up in refractory glaucoma patients with prior sequential failed trabeculectomy, but we should fully understand and attach great importance to all kinds of complications that may occur.

  14. Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats. Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1 ) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg (control); 2 ) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3 ) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO 2 /kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The use of the isometric squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Beckham, George K; Sato, Kimitake

    2015-05-01

    The isometric squat has been used to detect changes in kinetic variables as a result of training; however, controversy exists in its application to dynamic multijoint tasks. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between isometric squat kinetic variables and isoinertial strength measures. Subjects (17 men, 1-repetition maximum [1RM]: 148.2 ± 23.4 kg) performed squats 2 d · wk(-1) for 12 weeks and were tested on 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, and isometric squat at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was very good for all isometric measures (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.90); however, rate of force development 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° seemed to have a higher systematic error (relative technical error of measurement = 8.12%, 9.44%). Pearson product-moment correlations indicated strong relationships between isometric peak force at 90° (IPF 90°) and 1RM squat (r = 0.86), and IPF 120° and 1RM partial squat (r = 0.79). Impulse 250 milliseconds (IMP) at 90° and 120° exhibited moderate to strong correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.70, 0.58) and partial squat (r = 0.73, 0.62), respectively. Rate of force development at 90° and 120° exhibited weak to moderate correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.55, 0.43) and partial squat (r = 0.32, 0.42), respectively. These findings demonstrate a degree of joint angle specificity to dynamic tasks for rapid and peak isometric force production. In conclusion, an isometric squat performed at 90° and 120° is a reliable testing measure that can provide a strong indication of changes in strength and explosiveness during training.

  16. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Sanders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age self- selected to a water exercise (WEX group (n = 48 or control (C group (n = 18. The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1 supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05 flexibility (8%, sit- to-stand (31%, walking speed (16% and stride length (10%, agility (20%, stair climb (22%, arm curl (39%, and static (42-48% balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance.

  17. Insertion/Deletion Within the KDM6A Gene Is Significantly Associated With Litter Size in Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Yan, Hailong; Wang, Ke; Xu, Han; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhu, Haijing; Liu, Jinwang; Qu, Lei; Lan, Xianyong; Pan, Chuanying

    2018-01-01

    A previous whole-genome association analysis identified lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A), which encodes a type of histone demethylase, as a candidate gene associated to goat fecundity. KDM6A gene knockout mouse disrupts gametophyte development, suggesting that it has a critical role in reproduction. In this study, goat KDM6A mRNA expression profiles were determined, insertion/deletion (indel) variants in the gene identified, indel variants effect on KDM6A gene expression assessed, and their association with first-born litter size analyzed in 2326 healthy female Shaanbei white cashmere goats. KDM6A mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, skin and testis); the expression levels in testes at different developmental stages [1-week-old (wk), 2, 3 wk, 1-month-old (mo), 1.5 and 2 mo] indicated a potential association with the mitosis-to-meiosis transition, implying that KDM6A may have an essential role in goat fertility. Meanwhile, two novel intronic indels of 16 bp and 5 bp were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that only the 16 bp indel was associated with first-born litter size (P goat population (P = 0.001). Consistently, the 16 bp indel also had a significant effect on KDM6A gene expression. Additionally, there was no significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between these two indel loci, consistent with the association analysis results. Together, these findings suggest that the 16 bp indel in KDM6A may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of goats. PMID:29616081

  18. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Mobility Trial: A Novel Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Gregory, Michael A; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Hachinski, Vladimir; Fitzgerald, Clara; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    More evidence is needed to conclude that a specific program of exercise and/or cognitive training warrants prescription for the prevention of cognitive decline. We examined the effect of a group-based standard exercise program for older adults, with and without dual-task training, on cognitive function in older adults without dementia. We conducted a proof-of-concept, single-blinded, 26-wk randomized controlled trial whereby participants recruited from preexisting exercise classes at the Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging in London, Ontario, were randomized to the intervention group (exercise + dual-task [EDT]) or the control group (exercise only [EO]). Each week (2 or 3 d · wk(-1)), both groups accumulated a minimum of 50 min of aerobic exercise (target 75 min) from standard group classes and completed 45 min of beginner-level square-stepping exercise. The EDT group was also required to answer cognitively challenging questions while doing beginner-level square-stepping exercise (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of interventions on standardized global cognitive function (GCF) scores at 26 wk was compared between the groups using the linear mixed effects model approach. Participants (n = 44; 68% female; mean [SD] age: 73.5 [7.2] yr) had on average, objective evidence of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, mean [SD]: 24.9 [1.9]) but not dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, mean [SD]: 28.8 [1.2]). After 26 wk, the EDT group showed greater improvement in GCF scores compared with the EO group (difference between groups in mean change [95% CI]: 0.20 SD [0.01-0.39], P = 0.04). A 26-wk group-based exercise program combined with dual-task training improved GCF in community-dwelling older adults without dementia.

  19. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women's perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk(-1)) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second trimester, in total, light and moderate intensity. Women spent most of their weekly time on domestic, occupational and leisure activities, except sport activities. There are some health care providers that do not recommend physical activity

  20. Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, B D; Trotz-Williams, L A; McKnight, D R; Leslie, K E; Wallace, M M; Todd, C G; Sharpe, P H; Peregrine, A S

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-one Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth from 3 dairy farms in Eastern Ontario. Each calf was assigned at random to oral treatment with either 5 mg of halofuginone lactate in 10.0 mL of aqueous carrier solution (Halocur, base comprised 10 mg of benzoic acid, 100 mg of lactic acid, and 0.3 mg of tartrazine) or 10 mL of placebo (Halocur base minus the active ingredient, halofuginone lactate) administered 15 to 30 min after morning milk feeding for the first 7 d of life. Intakes of milk, calf starter, and water, and fecal consistency score were recorded daily for 56 d. Calf weights were recorded weekly for 56 d. Fecal samples were taken from all calves at approximately 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of age for isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on the incidence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection status. The odds of C. parvum shedding among calves in the halofuginone lactate-treated group was 70% lower than the odds of shedding among calves in the placebo group. In calves treated with halofuginone lactate, no oocyst shedding occurred until 2 wk of age, whereas 12.5% of calves in the placebo group began shedding oocysts during wk 1. From all ages of placebo-treated calves, 31 of 73 samples (42.5%) were positive for C. parvum, whereas only 15 of 67 samples (22.4%) from all ages of halofuginone lactate-treated calves tested positive. The largest number of C. parvum-positive samples occurred in the third week of life. There was a significant delay of 3.1 d in the incidence of diarrhea among calves treated with halofuginone lactate. Intake of milk and starter, body weight gains, and age at weaning were not significantly different between treatment groups.

  1. Surgical outcomes for unilateral superior oblique palsy in Chinese population:a retrospective study

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    Gordon Shing kin Yau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcome after surgery for unilateral superior oblique (SO palsy in Chinese. METHODS: The medical records of 39 patients that underwent surgery for unilateral SO palsy between January 2003 and December 2012 at Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, were retrospectively reviewed. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. Pre-operative assessments for vertical deviation, cyclo-deviation, and Knapp’s classification were obtained to determine the nature and degree of surgical correction. Vertical deviation was measured at 1wk; 1, 6mo and on last follow-up day post-operatively. Cyclo-deviation was measured on last follow-up day post-operatively. RESULTS: During the 10y period, 39 subjects were recruited. The most common etiology was congenital (94.9%. Knapp’s Type III (66.7% and Type I (12.8% classifications were the most common subtypes. To treat SO palsy, the most common surgical procedures were: isolated inferior oblique (IO anteriorization (41.0%, isolated IO myectomy (10.3%, and isolated IO recession (10.3%. At 3.5±2.1y post-operatively, the vertical deviation was significantly reduced (15.1±6.2 PD versus 0.5±1.4 PD, PCONCLUSION: The majority of subjects achieved corrected vertical deviation after a single surgery although there was no improvement in cyclo-deviation. Those with over-correction of primary position deviation had greater preoperative vertical deviation and it may be related to simultaneous multiple muscle surgery.

  2. An examination of current practices and gender differences in strength and conditioning in a sample of varsity high school athletic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Monica L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Petlichkoff, Linda M; Gao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about strength and conditioning programs at the high school level. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore current practices in strength and conditioning for varsity high school athletes in selected sports. The following were specifically examined: who administers programs for these athletes, what kinds of training activities are done, and whether the responsible party or emphasis changes depending on the gender of the athletes. Coaches of varsity soccer, basketball, softball, and baseball in 3 large Idaho school districts were asked to complete an online survey. Sixty-seven percent (32/48) of the questionnaires were completed and used for the study. The majority of coaches (84%) provided strength and conditioning opportunities for their athletes, although only 37% required participation. Strength training programs were designed and implemented primarily by either physical education teachers or head coaches. Compared with coaches of male athletes, coaches of female athletes were less likely to know the credentials of their strength coaches, and they were less likely to use certified coaches to plan and implement their strength and conditioning programs. Most programs included dynamic warm-ups and cool-downs, plyometrics, agility training, speed training, and conditioning, and most programs were conducted 3 d·wk(-1) (76%) for sessions lasting between 30 and 59 minutes (63%). Compared with their female counterparts, male athletes were more likely to have required training, participate in strength training year round, and train using more sessions per week. This study provides additional information related to the practice of strength and conditioning in a sample of high school athletic teams.

  3. A RANDOMISED PLACEBO-EXERCISE CONTROLLED TRIAL OF KUNG FU TRAINING FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN BODY COMPOSITION IN OVERWEIGHT/OBESE ADOLESCENTS: THE

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    Tracey W. Tsang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8; 60% girls were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC control group 3 d.wk-1 for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD, percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents

  4. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  5. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  6. In-the-bag IOL stability of super high myopic eyes with different size of capculorhexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the in-the-bag IOL stability of different size of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis(CCCin super high myopic eyes with cataract underwent phacoemulsification.METHODS: A total of fourteen cataract patients with bilateral super high myopia were included,Phaco+IOL implantation were performed on both eyes, one eye was randomly classified into 5mm diameter CCC observation group, the fellow eye was 6mm diameter CCC observation group. Cataract extraction combined with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation(IOLwith the type of hydrophilic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens(MCX11by well experienced surgeon. The operation was running smoothly, the next day after operation, all patients were confirmed by Image-pro plus6.0 image analysis software for the measurement of main meridian sac diameter with target capsulorhexis diameter no more than ±0.2mm. Slit lamp examination of IOL shape and position, changes of anterior capculorhexis edge, refraction, anterior chamber depth was measured and observed of all eyes after operation 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo.RESULTS: Compared with postoperation 1wk, the former sac diameter of two groups were slightly smaller at postoperation 1mo, with no statistically significant difference between two groups. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had slightly hyperopic shift in follow-up 1-3mo, 6mm diameter CCC observation group had hyperopic shift in follow-up 1mo, and getting stable after 1mo. Refraction change was related to anterior chamber depth changes. 5mm diameter CCC observation group had 3 minor loop folding in follw-up 3mo.CONCLUSION: Relatively smaller continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in super high myopic eyes underwent cataract surgery may cause a tendency of uneven construction or effective lens position change of in-the-bag IOL. Unusual refraction change or shift after operation 1mo could suggest instability of IOL, early noticing or interruption could prevent further complications.

  7. How stable are physical activity habits among adults? The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, H Susan J; Wendel-vos, G C Wanda; Vreeken, Hilda L; Schuit, A Jantine; Verschuren, W Monique M

    2011-01-01

    Leisure time physical activity in compliance with recommended levels is associated with improved health and lower mortality, but little is known on whether these physical activity habits are stable among adults and what characteristics predict physical activity changes. Our objective was to determine change in the levels of leisure time physical activity among adults during a period of 10 yr. Detailed information on time spent on cycling, gardening, doing odd jobs, and sports from three measurement periods (1993-1997, 1998-2002, and 2003-2007) of the population-based Doetinchem Cohort Study was used to define being active: spending at least 3.5 h·wk(-1) on moderate to vigorous physical activities, an approximation of the Dutch recommended level. Almost one-third (31.4%) of the population were active at all three points in time, 3.6% were inactive, and 45.0% of the participants changed their level of physical activity, almost equally distributed over decreasers, increasers, and varying. Not smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence limits (CL) = 1.14-1.89) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CL = 1.07-1.92) were associated with staying active. Inactive men (OR = 0.73, 95% CL = 0.57-0.94) had the highest risk of staying inactive, whereas good perceived health was associated with becoming active (OR = 1.49, 95% CL = 1.09-2.03). The finding that, in a decade, almost half of the population changed from active to inactive or vice versa affects the interpretation of the long-term health effects of physical activity measured only once, and it stresses the importance of interventions not only in increasing physical activity levels but also in maintaining a physically active lifestyle.

  8. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin sensitivity in humans and therefore may be a consequence rather than a cause of diabetes.

  9. Training-specific muscle architecture adaptation after 5-wk training in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas D; Bronks, Roger; Newton, Robert U

    2003-12-01

    This study examined changes in the muscle size, muscle architecture, strength, and sprint/jump performances of concurrently training athletes during 5 wk of "altered" resistance training (RT). Eight female and 15 male athletes performed 4 wk of sprint, jump, and resistance training in addition to their sports training (standardization) before adopting one of three different programs for 5 wk: 1) squat lift training (SQ, N = 8) with sprint/jump training; 2) forward hack squat training (FHS, N = 7) with sprint/jump training; or 3) sprint/jump training only (SJ, N = 8). Muscle size, fascicle angle, and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles (using ultrasound procedures) as well as 20-m sprint run, vertical jump, and strength performance changes were examined. A small increase in VL fascicle angle in SQ and FHS was statistically different to the decrease in SJ subjects (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal). VL fascicle length increased for SJ only (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal) and increased in RF in SQ subjects (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness of VL and RF increased in all training groups (P < 0.05) but only at proximal sites. There were no between-group differences in squat, forward hack squat, or isokinetic strength performances, or in sprint or jump performances, despite improvements in some of the tests across the groups. Significant muscle size and architectural adaptations can occur in concurrently training athletes in response to a 5-wk training program. These adaptations were possibly associated with the force and velocity characteristics of the training exercises but not the movement patterns. Factors other than, or in addition to, muscle architecture must mediate changes in strength, sprint, and jump performance.

  10. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  11. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  12. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

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    Burbank Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and examine physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods Nine hundred and four community dwelling older men (n = 263 and women (n = 641 with a mean (95% Confidence Interval age of 76.6 (76.1, 77.1 years underwent tests of physical function (Timed Up and Go; TUG, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and data were collected on self-reported health quality of life (SF-36, falls during the past 6 months, number of medications per day, depression (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Results Subjects completed the TUG in 8.7 (8.2, 9.2 seconds and expended 6,976 (6,669, 7,284 Kcal.wk-1 in physical activity. The older persons had a mean BMI of 27. 6 (27.2, 28.0, 62% took 3 or more medications per day, and14.4% had fallen one or more times over the last 6 months. Mean scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS was 50.6 (50.2, 51,0 and the Physical Component Summary (PCS was 41.3 (40.8, 41.8. Multiple sequential regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for TUG floor surface correlates of physical function included age, sex, education, physical activity (weekly energy expenditure, general health, bodily pain, number of medications taken per day, depression and Body Mass Index. Further, there is a dose response relationship such that greater degree of physical function impairment is associated with poorer scores on physical health-related variables. Conclusions Physical

  13. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Desinia B.; Snow, Samantha J.; Henriquez, Andres; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy E.; Andrews, Debora L.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.25 ppm or 1.00 ppm ozone, 5 h/day, 3 consecutive days/week (wk) for 13 wks. Pulmonary, metabolic, insulin signaling and stress endpoints were determined immediately after 13 wk or following a 1 wk recovery period (13 wk + 1 wk recovery). We show that episodic ozone exposure is associated with persistent pulmonary injury and inflammation, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, as well as, elevated circulating adrenaline and cholesterol when measured at 13 wk, however, these responses were largely reversible following a 1 wk recovery. Moreover, the increases noted acutely after ozone exposure in non-esterified fatty acids and branched chain amino acid levels were not apparent following a subchronic exposure. Neither peripheral or tissue specific insulin resistance nor increased hepatic gluconeogenesis were present after subchronic ozone exposure. Instead, long-term ozone exposure lowered circulating insulin and severely impaired glucose-stimulated beta-cell insulin secretion. Thus, our findings in young-adult rats provide potential insights into epidemiological studies that show a positive association between ozone exposures and type 1 diabetes. Ozone-induced beta-cell dysfunction may secondarily contribute to other tissue-specific metabolic alterations following chronic exposure due to impaired regulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. - Highlights: • Subchronic episodic ozone exposure caused pulmonary and metabolic effects. • These

  14. Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Pregnancy or Childbirth Complications or Cesarean Delivery in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Peerson, Janet M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-09-01

    Background: Pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery are common in Bangladesh. Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery. Methods: We conducted the Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial within a community health program in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals. Pregnancy and childbirth complications and the cesarean delivery rate were secondary outcomes of the study. Results: Women in the LNS-PL group did not differ significantly from the IFA group with respect to mean systolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (113 and 112 mm Hg; P = 0.17), diastolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (68.9 and 68.7 mmHg; P = 0.88), or mean total number of pregnancy and childbirth complications (0.32 and 0.31; P = 0.86). They also did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of high blood pressure at 36 wk (1.74% and 2.03%; P = 0.62), antepartum hemorrhage (0.83% and 1.39%; P = 0.21), prolonged labor (8.34% and 8.79%; P = 0.68), early rupture of membranes (9.30% and 8.45%; P = 0.43), convulsions (1.57% and 1.08%; P = 0.24), high blood pressure in labor (1.54% and 1.19%; P = 0.46), obstructed labor (2.83% and 2.91%; P = 0.90), any complications during pregnancy or childbirth (35.9% and 37.1%; P = 0.64), episiotomy (6.31% and 6.44%; P = 0.90), or cesarean delivery (15.6% and 14.2%; P = 0.48). Conclusion: Compared with IFA, antenatal LNS-PL did not increase or decrease pregnancy and childbirth complications or cesarean delivery among women in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American

  15. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  16. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  17. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P pigs fed diets without CLA. These results indicate that feeding 0.6% dietary CLA did not enhance growth performance in weanling swine and that the use of dietary antibiotics can

  18. Calculation of concrete shielding wall thickness for 450kVp X-ray tube with MCNP simulation and result comparison with half value layer method calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Lee, Eun Joong; Kim, Chan Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Sam Suk [Sam Yong Inspection Engineering Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation generating devices must be properly shielded for their safe application. Although institutes such as US National Bureau of Standards and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have provided guidelines for shielding X-ray tube of various purposes, industry people tend to rely on 'Half Value Layer (HVL) method' which requires relatively simple calculation compared to the case of those guidelines. The method is based on the fact that the intensity, dose, and air kerma of narrow beam incident on shielding wall decreases by about half as the beam penetrates the HVL thickness of the wall. One can adjust shielding wall thickness to satisfy outside wall dose or air kerma requirements with this calculation. However, this may not always be the case because 1) The strict definition of HVL deals with only Intensity, 2) The situation is different when the beam is not 'narrow'; the beam quality inside the wall is distorted and related changes on outside wall dose or air kerma such as buildup effect occurs. Therefore, sometimes more careful research should be done in order to verify the effect of shielding specific radiation generating device. High energy X-ray tubes which is operated at the voltage above 400 kV that are used for 'heavy' nondestructive inspection is an example. People have less experience in running and shielding such device than in the case of widely-used low energy X-ray tubes operated at the voltage below 300 kV. In this study, Air Kerma value per week, outside concrete shielding wall of various thickness surrounding 450 kVp X-ray tube were calculated using MCNP simulation with the aid of Geometry Splitting method which is a famous Variance Reduction technique. The comparison between simulated result, HVL method result, and NCRP Report 147 safety goal 0.02 mGy wk-1 on Air Kerma for the place where the public are free to pass showed that concrete wall of thickness 80 cm is needed to achieve the

  19. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. II: Effect of genetic strain and diet on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Roche, J R; Kolver, E S

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-six genetically divergent New Zealand and North American Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows grazed pasture, and were offered 0, 3, or 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day for an extended lactation (605 +/- 8.3 d in milk; mean +/- standard error of the mean). Weekly blood samples collected from individual cows from wk 1 to 10 postpartum (early lactation), and from wk 47 to 63 postpartum (extended lactation) were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), calcium, and urea. During early lactation, NEFA and GH concentrations were greater and IGF-I concentrations were less, and increased at a slower rate in North American HF. During this 10-wk period, there were no strain effects on plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, or calcium. During the extended lactation period, North American HF had greater NEFA and GH concentrations; there were strain x diet interactions for insulin and leptin, and a tendency for a strain x diet interaction for glucose. These interactions were primarily due to greater plasma insulin, leptin, and glucose concentrations in the New Zealand HF fed 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day, a result of excessive body condition in this treatment. In this period, there was no strain effect on plasma IGF-I, calcium, or urea concentration. During early lactation, there was a linear increase in glucose and IGF-I, and a linear decrease in GH and urea with increasing concentrate in the diet. However, plasma calcium, NEFA, insulin, and leptin remained unchanged. During the extended lactation period, there was an effect of feed supplementation on GH and urea, which decreased linearly with increasing concentrate in the diet. There was, however, no supplementation effect on NEFA, calcium, or IGF-I. These data indicate potential strain differences in recoupling of the somatotropic axis, insulin resistance, and energy partitioning, and may help explain the physiology behind the previously

  20. Clinical ketosis and standing behavior in transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itle, A J; Huzzey, J M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is a common disease in dairy cattle, especially in the days after calving, and it is often undiagnosed. The objective of this study was to compare the standing behavior of dairy cows with and without ketosis during the days around calving to determine if changes in this behavior could be useful in the early identification of sick cows. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was measured in 184 cows on a commercial dairy farm twice weekly from 2 to 21d after calving. Standing behavior was measured from 7d before calving to 21d after calving using data loggers. Retrospectively, 15 cows with clinical ketosis (3 consecutive BHBA samples >1.2mmol/L and at least one sample of BHBA >2.9mmol/L) were matched with 15 nonketotic cows (BHBA ketosis occurred 4.5±2.1d after calving. Total daily standing time was longer for clinically ketotic cows compared with nonketotic cows during wk -1 (14.3±0.6 vs. 12.0±0.7h/d) and on d 0 (17.2±0.9 vs. 12.7±0.9h/d) but did not differ during the other periods. Clinically ketotic cows exhibited fewer standing bouts compared with nonketotic cows on d 0 only (14.6±1.9 vs. 20.9±1.8bouts/d). Average standing bout duration was also longer for clinically ketotic cows on d 0 compared with nonketotic cows [71.3min/bout (CI: 59.3 to 85.5) vs. 35.8min/bout (CI: 29.8 to 42.9)] but was not different during the other periods. Differences in standing behavior in the week before and on the day of calving may be useful for the early detection of clinical ketosis in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  2. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  3. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  4. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  5. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  6. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  7. Comparison of the femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for flap cutting in LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK performed with a femtosecond laser versus a mechanical microkeratome for myopia and astigmatism.METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized study, 120 eyes with myopia received a LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser for flap cutting, and 120 eyes received a conventional LASIK surgery with a mechanical microkeratome. Flap thickness, visual acuity, manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity function (CSF curves, HOAs and dry-eye were measured at 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after surgery.RESULTS:At 6mo postoperatively, the mean central flap thickness in femtosecond laser procedure was 113.05±5.89 µm (attempted thickness 110 µm, and 148.36±21.24 µm (attempted thickness 140 µm in mechanical microkeratome procedure. An uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA of 4.9 or better was obtained in more than 98% of eyes treated by both methods, a gain in logMAR lines of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA occurred in more than 70% of eyes treated by both methods, and no eye lost ≥1 lines of CDVA in both groups. The difference of the mean UDVA and CDVA between two groups at any time post-surgery were not statistically significant (P>0.05. The postoperative changes of spherical equivalent occurred markedly during the first month in both groups. The total root mean square values of HOAs and spherical aberrations in the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly less than those in the microkeratome treated eyes during 6mo visit after surgery (P<0.01. The CSF values of the femtosecond treated eyes were also higher than those of the microkeratome treated eyes at all space frequency (P<0.01. The mean ocular surface disease index scores in both groups were increased at 1wk, and recovered to preoperative level at 1mo after surgery. The mean tear breakup time (TBUT of the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly

  8. Comparison of the femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for flap cutting in LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li-Kun; Yu, Jie; Chai, Guang-Rui; Wang, Dang; Li, Yang

    2015-01-01

    To compare refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed with a femtosecond laser versus a mechanical microkeratome for myopia and astigmatism. In this prospective, non-randomized study, 120 eyes with myopia received a LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser for flap cutting, and 120 eyes received a conventional LASIK surgery with a mechanical microkeratome. Flap thickness, visual acuity, manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity function (CSF) curves, HOAs and dry-eye were measured at 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after surgery. At 6mo postoperatively, the mean central flap thickness in femtosecond laser procedure was 113.05±5.89 µm (attempted thickness 110 µm), and 148.36±21.24 µm (attempted thickness 140 µm) in mechanical microkeratome procedure. An uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 4.9 or better was obtained in more than 98% of eyes treated by both methods, a gain in logMAR lines of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) occurred in more than 70% of eyes treated by both methods, and no eye lost ≥1 lines of CDVA in both groups. The difference of the mean UDVA and CDVA between two groups at any time post-surgery were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The postoperative changes of spherical equivalent occurred markedly during the first month in both groups. The total root mean square values of HOAs and spherical aberrations in the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly less than those in the microkeratome treated eyes during 6mo visit after surgery (P<0.01). The CSF values of the femtosecond treated eyes were also higher than those of the microkeratome treated eyes at all space frequency (P<0.01). The mean ocular surface disease index scores in both groups were increased at 1wk, and recovered to preoperative level at 1mo after surgery. The mean tear breakup time (TBUT) of the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly longer than those of the microkeratome

  9. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  10. Grazing dairy cows had decreased interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17, and increased expression of interleukin-10 during the first week after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Axel; McCarthy, Allison; Wedlock, Neil; Meier, Susanne; Kay, Jane; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Morgan, Stuart; Watkins, Kate; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R

    2015-02-01

    Peripartum, and especially during the transition period, dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes. These coincide with an increased risk of disease during the first 2 wk after calving and have been linked to dairy cows failing to achieve production as well as reproductive targets. Previous evidence suggests that these physiological changes affect the immune system and that transition dairy cows experience some form of reduced immunocompetence. However, almost all of these studies were undertaken in high-production, housed dairy cows. Grazing cows have much lower levels of production and this study aimed to provide clarity whether or not the dysfunctional attributes of the peripartum immune system reported in high production housed cows are evident in these animals. Therefore, cell culture techniques, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were applied to analyze the cellular composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from transition dairy cows as well as the performance of these cells in an in vitro assay. First, a combination of in vitro stimulation and quantitative PCR for cytokines was validated as a quantifiable immunocompetence assay in 29 cattle and a correlation of quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated. Second, the relative number of T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, γδ T cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes in peripheral blood was measured, of which B cells and natural killer cells increased in number postcalving (n=29) compared with precalving. Third, following in vitro stimulation cytokine profiles indicated decreased expression of IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-17 and increased expression of IL-10 wk 1 after calving, which later all returned to precalving values (n=39). Additionally, treatment of transition cows with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., carprofen) administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (n=19; untreated control n=20) did not affect the cytokine expression at any time point. In conclusion

  11. Calculation of concrete shielding wall thickness for 450kVp X-ray tube with MCNP simulation and result comparison with half value layer method calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Lee, Eun Joong; Kim, Chan Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong; Hur, Sam Suk

    2016-01-01

    Radiation generating devices must be properly shielded for their safe application. Although institutes such as US National Bureau of Standards and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have provided guidelines for shielding X-ray tube of various purposes, industry people tend to rely on 'Half Value Layer (HVL) method' which requires relatively simple calculation compared to the case of those guidelines. The method is based on the fact that the intensity, dose, and air kerma of narrow beam incident on shielding wall decreases by about half as the beam penetrates the HVL thickness of the wall. One can adjust shielding wall thickness to satisfy outside wall dose or air kerma requirements with this calculation. However, this may not always be the case because 1) The strict definition of HVL deals with only Intensity, 2) The situation is different when the beam is not 'narrow'; the beam quality inside the wall is distorted and related changes on outside wall dose or air kerma such as buildup effect occurs. Therefore, sometimes more careful research should be done in order to verify the effect of shielding specific radiation generating device. High energy X-ray tubes which is operated at the voltage above 400 kV that are used for 'heavy' nondestructive inspection is an example. People have less experience in running and shielding such device than in the case of widely-used low energy X-ray tubes operated at the voltage below 300 kV. In this study, Air Kerma value per week, outside concrete shielding wall of various thickness surrounding 450 kVp X-ray tube were calculated using MCNP simulation with the aid of Geometry Splitting method which is a famous Variance Reduction technique. The comparison between simulated result, HVL method result, and NCRP Report 147 safety goal 0.02 mGy wk-1 on Air Kerma for the place where the public are free to pass showed that concrete wall of thickness 80 cm is needed to achieve the safety goal

  12. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  13. Systemic metabolic derangement, pulmonary effects, and insulin insufficiency following subchronic ozone exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Desinia B. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Snow, Samantha J. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Henriquez, Andres [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy E.; Andrews, Debora L. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Acute ozone exposure induces a classical stress response with elevated circulating stress hormones along with changes in glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in rats, with similar alterations in ozone-exposed humans. These stress-mediated changes over time have been linked to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that acute ozone-induced stress response and metabolic impairment would persist during subchronic episodic exposure and induce peripheral insulin resistance. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.25 ppm or 1.00 ppm ozone, 5 h/day, 3 consecutive days/week (wk) for 13 wks. Pulmonary, metabolic, insulin signaling and stress endpoints were determined immediately after 13 wk or following a 1 wk recovery period (13 wk + 1 wk recovery). We show that episodic ozone exposure is associated with persistent pulmonary injury and inflammation, fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, as well as, elevated circulating adrenaline and cholesterol when measured at 13 wk, however, these responses were largely reversible following a 1 wk recovery. Moreover, the increases noted acutely after ozone exposure in non-esterified fatty acids and branched chain amino acid levels were not apparent following a subchronic exposure. Neither peripheral or tissue specific insulin resistance nor increased hepatic gluconeogenesis were present after subchronic ozone exposure. Instead, long-term ozone exposure lowered circulating insulin and severely impaired glucose-stimulated beta-cell insulin secretion. Thus, our findings in young-adult rats provide potential insights into epidemiological studies that show a positive association between ozone exposures and type 1 diabetes. Ozone-induced beta-cell dysfunction may secondarily contribute to other tissue-specific metabolic alterations following chronic exposure due to impaired regulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. - Highlights: • Subchronic episodic ozone exposure caused pulmonary and metabolic effects. • These

  14. The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, S; Bergeron, R; Lachance, S; Vasseur, E

    2015-09-01

    Access to pasture has advantages for cows such as reduced lameness and improved udder health, but also may expose cows to stressors such as extreme heat. The objective of this study was to understand how portable shade affected physiological and behavioral responses of pastured dairy cows in a Canadian summer. Over 8wk, a total of 24 lactating Holstein cows were separated into 2 treatments, one with access to shade and a control without access to shade. The cows were pastured in groups of 4, with 3 field sections per treatment. Instantaneous scan sampling of behaviors (drinking, lying, grazing, other) performed in the shade or not were recorded every 5min for 3h/d during the hottest part of the day (peak hours: 1130-1530h) 3d/wk. Ambient temperature, humidity, and vaginal temperature were recorded at 10-min intervals. Daily milk production was also recorded. Differences between treatments by week were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model with group as random effect and treatment as fixed effect. Cows with shade access were observed at the water trough up to 6.42 times less and lying down up to 1.75 times more. Cows with shade access grazed up to 1.5 times more but only when the temperature-humidity index was above their comfort threshold (≥72) during the hottest part of the day (wk 2). Cows sought shade when it was made available, but spent less than half of their time observed (%) in the shade (40.8±4.67) with the exception of wk 2 when most of the time was spent under the shade (74.3±4.77). Daily lying time was highest during peak hours for cows with shade access. However, no overall difference in total lying time between the 2 treatments was observed. No differences were found in vaginal temperature or milk production between treatments with the exception of wk 1 for daily milk production, which was higher for cows in the control treatment. In conclusion, cows sought shade when it was provided at pasture, whereas cows without access to shade

  15. In utero exposure to heat stress during late gestation has prolonged effects on the activity patterns and growth of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, J; Fabris, T F; Skibiel, A L; Powell, J L; Hayen, M J; Horvath, K; Miller-Cushon, E K; Dahl, G E

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to heat stress during late gestation exerts negative carryover effects on the postnatal performance of the calf. In this study, we evaluated the health, growth, and activity patterns of calves born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT, provided only shade, n = 31) or cooling (CL, fans, soakers, and shade, n = 29) during late gestation (∼46 d, maternal dry period). Calves' body weight, rectal temperature, suckling reflex, and movement scores were recorded at birth, and calves were fed 6.6 L of maternal colostrum in 2 meals. Blood samples were collected at birth (before feeding), 24 h after birth, and at d 10 and 28 of age. Calves were housed in individual pens, fed pasteurized milk (6 L/d), and had ad libitum access to grain and water until weaning (49 d). Activity was assessed during the first week of life (wk 1), at weaning (wk 7), and in the first week postweaning (wk 8) using electronic data loggers. Health and body weight were monitored weekly. At birth, calves born to CL cows were heavier (41.9 vs. 39.1 ± 0.8 kg), their temperature was lower (38.9 vs. 39.3 ± 0.08°C), and they were more efficient at absorbing IgG than HT calves. Suckling reflex and movement score at birth were not different between groups, but calves born to CL cows spent more time (50 min/d) standing in the first week of life as a result of longer standing bouts. In wk 7 and 8, calves born to CL cows had less frequent standing bouts than HT heifers, but CL heifers maintained greater total daily standing time (36 min/d) due to longer (7 min/bout) standing bouts. All calves were healthy, but HT heifers tended to have higher (looser) fecal scores on d 10. Heifers born from CL cows gained 0.2 kg/d more from birth to weaning, weighed 4 kg more at weaning, and had greater concentrations of IGF-1 than HT calves, particularly on d 28. In utero heat stress during late gestation had immediate and prolonged effects on passive immunity, growth, and activity patterns in dairy calves. Copyright

  16. A prospective randomized trial of hyperfractionated versus conventional once daily radiation for advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and pharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, B.J.; Keane, T.J.; Pintilie, M.; O'Sullivan, B.; Payne, D.; Warde, P.; McLean, M.; Waldron, J.; Liu, F.-F.; Gullane, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of an increased dose of radiation therapy (RT) delivered by a hyperfractionated schedule compared to conventional once daily RT on toxicity, locoregional control and survival in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the larynx and pharynx. Materials/Methods: Between 1988 and 1995 336 patients were randomized to receive RT with curative intent. Eligible patients had biopsy proven SCC of the larynx or pharynx, with TN stages (AJC-UICC 1987) T3 or T4 N0, or any T with any N+. All patients were M0. Patients were stratified by site (larynx/oropharynx/hypopharynx), node status (clinically positive/negative), and performance status. Patients were treated with either 51 Gy TAD/20 fractions/4 wk (2.55 Gy 1x/d, conventional RT=CRT) or 58 Gy TAD/40 fractions/4 wk (1.45 Gy 2x/d, hyperfractionated RT=HFRT). Patients underwent EUA and selective biopsies 10 wk after RT; surgical salvage was performed for residual or recurrent cancer whenever possible. Results: The primary cancer arose in the oropharynx (138), larynx (133) or hypopharynx (65). T stages were distributed T1 22, T2 72, T3 133 and T4 109. N stage distribution was N0 127, N1 74, N2 117 and N3 18. The proportion of patients with acute mucosal toxicity (RTOG Grade 3 or 4) was increased by HFRT (60% versus 40%), but other acute and late toxicity was not significantly different. There was no difference in the incidence of morbidity in the two treatment groups in those who underwent surgery following RT. The locoregional control rates at 3 yrs for all cases were 45% (HFRT) vs 40% (CRT) log rank p=0.16; for primary tumors <4 cm 54% (HFRT) vs 42% (CRT) p=0.04; for primary tumors ≥ 4 cm 38% (HFRT) vs 41% (CRT) p=0.73. Local control was improved to some extent in SCC which arose in all sites, but most noticeably in hypopharyngeal cancers. The disease free survival rates at 3 yr for all cases were 37% (HFRT) vs 30% (CRT) p=0.15; for primary tumors < 4 cm 47% (HFRT) vs 34% (CRT) p=0

  17. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  18. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  19. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma vs primary open angle glaucoma: a one-year comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Miraftabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the efficacy of single-session 360-degree selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT for reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXFG and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective, nonrandomized comparative study. Patients older than 18 years of age with uncontrolled PXFG or POAG eyes requiring additional therapy while on maximally tolerated IOP-lowering medications were included. The primary outcome measure changed in IOP from baseline. Success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% from baseline without any additional IOP-lowering medication. All patients were examined at 1d, 1wk, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12mo after SLT. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (20 eyes with PXFG and 27 patients (28 eyes with POAG were included in the study. In the visual fields mean deviation was -2.88 (±1.67 in the POAG and -3.1 (±1.69 in the PXFG groups (P=0.3. The mean (±SD IOP was 22.9 (±3.7 mm Hg in the POAG group and 25.7 (±4.4 mm Hg in the PXFG group at baseline and decreased to 18.4 (±3.2 and 18.0 (±3.9 mm Hg in the POAG group (P<0.001 and P=0.02, and to 17.9 (±4.0 and 21.0 (±6.6 mm Hg in the PXFG group (P<0.001 and P=0.47 at 6 and 12mo, respectively. The number of medications was 2.6 (±0.8 in the POAG group and 2.5 (±0.8 in the PXFG group at baseline, and did not change at all follow-up visits in both groups (P=0.16 in POAG and 0.57 in PXFG. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the success rate was 75% in the POAG group compared to 94.1% in the PXFG group (P=0.08; log rank test at 6mo, and 29.1% and 25.0% at 12mo, respectively (P=0.9; log rank. CONCLUSION: The 360-degree SLT is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic modality in patients with POAG and PXFG by reducing IOP without any change in number of medications. The response was more pronounced early in the postoperative period in patients with PXFG whereas there was no statistically significant difference at 12

  20. Application of Ranibizumab at perioperative period of compound trabeculectomy in patients with neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effect of intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab at perioperative period of compound trabeculectomy on iris neovascularization, intraocular pressure(IOPfor patients with neovascular glaucoma(NVG.METHODS:Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, compound trabeculectomy and panretinal photocoagulation were given to 38 patients(38 eyeswith neovascular glaucoma, which could not be controlled by drugs, from January 2013 to January 2014 in Anyang Eye Hospital. Iris neovascularization, IOP and changes of visual acuity were observed before and after treatments. The patients were followed up for 6mo after treatments.RESULTS: Seven days after intravitreal injection, 36 cases(94.74%had complete regression of iris neovascularization. Two cases(5.26%had regression of small blood vessels in the iris, a little thick blood vessels were remained. At 1mo after compound trabeculectomy, iris neovascularization in all patients were subsided; at 3mo after treatments, the iris neovascularization in 8 patients(21.05%were performed again, and accepted intravitreal injection of ranibizumab again. Six months after the first treatments, all patients showed no iris neovascularization. The mean IOP before injection was 42.82±10.29mmHg. At 5d after the drug injection was 39.13±9.71mmHg. Before and after the drug injection, change of IOP was not statistically significant(q=2.65, P>0.05. At 1wk,1,3 and 6mo after compound trabeculectomy, IOP was 10.53±1.81mmHg, 10.11±1.73mmHg, 11.29±2.49mmHg, 12.58±3.01mmHg,which decreased significantly(q=23.15,23.46,22.61,21.68, all Pq=20.51,20.81,19.96,19.04, all PCONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab at perioperative period of compound trabeculectomy can effectively improve the success rate of the surgeries and reduce risk of complications, and the effect is certainly safe.

  1. Evaluation of visual quality of spherical and aspherical intraocular lenses by Optical Quality Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the impact of spherical and aspherical intraocular lenses on the postoperative visual quality of age-related cataract patients using Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS. METHODS: Seventy-four eyes with age-related cataracts were randomly divided into spherical and aspherical lens implantation groups. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was measured preoperatively, one day, one week, two weeks, one month and two months after surgery. A biometric systems analysis using the OQAS objective scattering index (OSI was performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in visual acuity (P>0.05 before and after spherical and aspheric lens implantation. There was a negative linear correction between the OSI value and BCVA (r=-0.634, P=0.000, and positive corrections between the OSI value and the lens LOCUS III value of nucleus color (NC, nucleus opacity (NO, cortex (C and posterior lens capsular (P (r=0.704, P=0.000; r=0.514, P=0.000; r=0.276, P=0.020; r=0.417, P=0.000, respectively. OSI values of spherical vs aspherical lenses were 11.5±3.6 vs 11.8±3.4, 4.1±0.9 vs 3.3±0.8, 3.5±0.9 vs 2.7±0.7, 3.3±0.8 vs 2.6±0.7, 3.2±0.7 vs 2.5±0.8, and 3.2±0.8 vs 2.5±0.8 before and 1d, 1, 2wk, 1 and 2mo after surgery, respectively. All time points varied significantly (P<0.01 between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Aspherical IOLs does not significantly affect visual acuity compared with spherical IOLs. The OSI value, was significantly lower in the aspherical lens group compared with the spherical lens. This study shows that objective visual quality of aspheric IOLs is better than that of the spherical lens by means of OQAS biological measurement method.

  2. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengna; Quddus, Abdullah; Stinson, Lynda; Shikany, James M; Howard, Barbara V; Kutob, Randa M; Lu, Bing; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water. Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported. Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95). Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  4. Awareness of chronic disease related health benefits of physical activity among residents of a rural South Indian region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Maiya, Arun G; Nair, Suma; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Nair, Narayanapillai Sreekumaran; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2014-02-27

    Physical activity trends for a lower-middle income country like India suggest a gradual decline in work related physical activity and no concomitant increase in leisure time physical activity. Perceived health benefits of physical activity and intention to increase physical activity have been established as independent correlates of physical activity status. In India, not much is known about peoples' perceptions of health benefits of physical activity and their intention to increase physical activity levels. This study was performed to understand peoples' perceptions and awareness about health benefits of physical activity in a rural South Indian region. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling design. A content validated, field tested questionnaire was administered in person by a trained interviewer in the participants' native language. The questionnaire assessed the participants' perceptions about their lifestyle (active or sedentary), health benefits of physical activity and need for increasing their physical activity. In addition, the participant's physical activity was assessed using version 2 of global physical activity questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarise perceived health benefits of physical activity and other categorical variables. Age and body mass index were summarised using mean ± SD, whereas physical activity (MET.min.wk -1) was summarised using median and interquartile range. Four hundred fifty members from 125 randomly selected households were included in the study, of which 409 members participated. 89% (364) of participants felt they lead an active lifestyle and 83.1% (340) of participants did not feel a need to increase their physical activity level. 86.1%, (352) of the participants were physically active. Though 92.4% (378) of participants felt there were health benefits of physical activity, majority of them (75.1%) did not report any benefit related to chronic diseases. None

  5. Analysis on therapy efficacy of different drugs for dry eyes after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the therapy efficacy of different drugs for dry eyes after cataract surgery.METHODS: Collected from June 2014 to June 2016 in patients with dry eyes in our departments of cataract surgery, a total of 60 cases with 120 eyes, according to the doctor order divided into pure sodium hyaluronate eye drops group 20 cases(40 eyes, sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group 20 cases(40 eyes, sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill group of 20 cases(40 eyes. All patients were treated for 1mo. Observation of break up time(BUT, Shimmer Ⅰ test(SItand fluorescein corneal staining(FIwere recorded before the treatment and 1, 2wk, 1, 3mo after treatment. RESULTS: Difference of efficient rates of three groups 1mo after treatment were statistically significant(PP>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; but sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill group(12.14±1.97swas superior to pure sodium hyaluronate eye drops group(10.54±1.88sand sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group(12.05±1.63s.SIt: there was no statistically significant difference among three groups before treatment(P>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; at 1, 3mo after treatment compared with before treatment, the differences of the three groups were statistically significant(PPP>0.05.CONCLUSION:Sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops and Qiju Dihuang pill in the treatment of dry eye after cataract surgery is better than that of sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined pranoprofen eye drops group and simple application of sodium hyaluronate eye drops, which can better improve the visual function, improve tear film stability, get better

  6. Effects of pranoprofen eye drops on corneal endothelium and tears inflammatory factors in perioperative period of cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Rong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of pranoprofen eye drops on corneal endothelium and tears inflammatory factors in perioperative period of cataract surgery. METHODS: Totally 60 cases(60 eyesof senile cataract patients were enrolled in this study. Patients with diabetes or other systemic diseases, with other eye diseases or eye surgery, drug allergy were excluded. All the patients were given ophthalmic surgery for the first time. All the patients were randomly divided into 4 groups, 15 patients per group. Each group of patients had been given levofloxacin eye drops preoperatively for 3d, 4 times per day, and tobramycin dexamethasone eye drops postoperatively, 3 times per day for the first week, 2 times per day for the second week. Group A was the control group, without any other drugs. Group B was given pranoprofen eye drops 4 times per day for 3d before the operation. Group C was given pranoprofen eye drops 4 times per day for 1wk after the operation. Group D was given pranoprofen eye drops 4 times per day for 3d before the operation and 1wk after the operation. All the surgeries were done by the same ophthalmologist, using the same phacoemulsification machine and the same ultrasound energy parameters. The loss rate of endothelial cell was measured by corneal endothelium counterometry. Interleukin-6(IL-6and tumor necrosis factor(TNFin the tear fluid were measured by ELISA before surgery(before using eye dropsand 1wk, 1mo and 3mo postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in patients' gender, age and phacoemulsification time among 4 groups. The levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 in the tear fluid of the Group B before surgery had no significant difference compared to that at 3mo postoperatively(P>0.05, but the differences among the other groups at different time points were statistically significant(PP>0.05. At 1wk after the operation, there was significant difference between the Group A and the other three groups(PPP>0.05. At 1mo

  7. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  8. Association of Kt/V and creatinine clearance with outcomes in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda; Hebah, Nasser; Finkelstein, Fredric; Piraino, Beth

    2008-12-01

    The 2006 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommended a minimum total Kt/V of 1.7, eliminated creatinine clearance (Ccr) as a target, and recommended the use of ideal body weight to calculate Kt/V. We assessed these recommendations as predictors of outcomes in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients. Retrospective observational study using administrative data. 1,432 peritoneal dialysis patients with anuria from January 1, 1994, to January 31, 2005, in a national sample (1,428 with Kt/V, 1,416 with Ccr). Kt/V and Ccr at anuria; Kt/V based on actual body weight and ideal body weight. Association of dialysis adequacy with mortality and time to first hospitalization after anuria assessed by using accelerated failure time models. 293 anuric patients had Kt/V less than 1.7, 366 had Kt/V of 1.7 to 2.0, and 769 had Kt/V greater than 2.0, using actual body weight for calculation. In unadjusted analyses, Kt/V calculated using actual body weight both less than 1.7 (-41.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -55.5 to -22.6) and 1.7 to 2.0 (-26.1%; 95% CI, -42.6 to -4.6) were associated with shorter time to mortality. Kt/V calculated using actual body weight less than 1.7 was associated with shorter time to hospitalization (-38.1%; 95% CI, -50.0 to -23.4), but Kt/V calculated using actual body weight of 1.7 to 2.0 was not a significant predictor (-3.3%; 95% CI, -21.1 to 18.6). After adjustment, Kt/V calculated using actual body weight less than 1.7 remained associated with mortality (-25.3%; 95% CI, -41.1 to -4.8) and hospitalization (-33.4%; 95% CI, -47.1 to -16.0). Ccr did not predict mortality. In unadjusted analysis, Ccr was not associated with hospitalization, but after adjustment, Ccr less than 50 L/wk/1.73 m(2) was significantly associated with shorter time to hospitalization (-19.9%; 95% CI, -35.0 to -1.3). Kt/V using ideal body weight was not a significant predictor in adjusted models. This study was nonrandomized, with few malnourished patients. In addition, there is

  9. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

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    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  10. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  11. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (≥ 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 μIU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows

  12. A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Couture, Patrick; Leclerc, Myriam; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Talbot, Denis; Tchernof, André; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions. We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA. Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P DHA compared with EPA was significant in men but not in women (P-treatment × sex interaction = 0.046). DHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation

  13. Changes in the expression of α-tocopherol-related genes in liver and mammary gland biopsy specimens of peripartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, S; Miyaji, M; Nakano, M; Ishizaki, H; Matsuyama, H; Katoh, K; Roh, S G

    2018-03-28

    (samples were collected at wk -1 relative to parturition) and mature milk. The expression of TTPA, SEC14L2, and CYP4F2 mRNA in bovine mammary gland tissue was detected. However, TTPA and SEC14L2 mRNA expressions showed the opposite trends: the expression levels of TTPA mRNA peaked whereas SEC14L2 mRNA reached a nadir at calving. These results indicate that the expression of α-Toc-related genes involved in specific α-Toc transfer and metabolism in the liver and mammary gland are altered during calving. Moreover, these changes might be associated with the maintenance of lower serum α-Toc concentrations after calving. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of palatability of protein source on dietary selection in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in

  15. SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON HORMONES, METABOLITES, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM, GLYCOGEN CONCENTRATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE ADAPTATIONS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gomes De Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. The Wistar were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT. The lactate minimum (LM was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP (baseline, 6 and 12 wk. The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw: 1 30 s of effort; 2 30 s of passive recovery; 3 exercise until exhaustion (AP. Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 wk (5.2±0.2 % bw in relation to baseline (4.4±0.2 % bw, but not after 6 wk (4.5±0.3 % bw. The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT= 58±5 s; CT=40±7 s and 12 wk (HIIT=62±7 s; CT=49±3 s. Glycogen (mg/100mg increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 wk (0.757±0.076 and 12 wk (1.014±0.157 in comparison to baseline (0.358±0.024. In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 wk (0.738±0.057 and 12 wk (0.709±0.085 in comparison to baseline (0.417±0.035. The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 wk (4.079±0.319 in relation to baseline (2.400±0.416. The corticosterone (ng/mL in HIIT increased after 6 wk (529.0±30.5 and reduced after 12 wk (153.6±14.5 in comparison to baseline (370.0±18.3. In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term (6wk was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the glycogen super-compensantion increased after short and long term HIIT in comparison to

  16. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Fyfe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  17. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a