Sample records for anoxybacillus flavithermus wk1

  1. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Jimmy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mountain, Bruce W [NEW ZEALAND; Feng, Lu [NANKAI UNIV; Omelchenko, Marina V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Hou, Shaobin [UNIV OF HAWAII; Saito, Jennifer A [UNIV OF HAWAII; Stott, Matthew B [NEW ZEALAND; Li, Dan [NANKAI UNIV; Zhao, Guang [NANKAI UNIV; Wu, Junli [NANKAI UNIV; Galperin, Michael Y [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Koonin, Eugene V [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Makarova, Kira S [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Wolf, Yuri I [NCBI/NLM/NIH; Rigden, Daniel J [UNIV OF LIVERPOOL; Dunfield, Peter F [UNIV OF CALGARY; Wang, Lei [NANKAI UNIV; Alam, Maqsudul [UNIV OF HAWAII


    Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.

  2. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad


    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Krawczyk, Antonina O; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P


    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T.


    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27151781

  5. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of Acetyl Xylane Esterase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus DSM 2641(T) with Activity on Low Molecular-Weight Acetates. (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Ülker, Serdar; Sandallı, Cemal


    Family 4 carbohydrate esterases (CE-4) have deacetylate different forms of acetylated poly/oligosaccharides in nature. This family is recognized with a specific polysaccharide deacetylase domain assigned as NodB homology domain in their secondary structure. Most family 4 carbohydrate esterases have been structurally and biochemically characterized. However, this is the first study about the enzymological function of pdaB-like CE4s from thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus DSM 2641(T). A. flavithermus WK1 genome harbors five putative CE4 family genes. One of them is 762 bp long and encodes a protein of 253 amino acids in length and it was used as reference sequence in this study. It was described as acetyl xylane esterase (AXE) in genome project and this AfAXE gene was amplified without signal sequence and cloned. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by nickel affinity chromatography and its purity was visualized on SDS-PAGE. The activity of the recombinant enzyme was shown by zymogram analysis with α-naphtyl acetate as a substrate. The enzyme was characterized spectrophotometrically using chromogenic p-nitrophenyl acetate. Optimum temperature and pH were determined as 50 °C and 7.5, respectively. Km and Vmax were determined as 0.43 mM and 3333.33 U/mg, respectively under optimum conditions. To our knowledge this is the first enzymological characterization of a pdaB-like family 4 carbohydrate esterase from the members of Anoxybacillus genus.

  6. Development of a Multiplex-PCR assay for the rapid identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. (United States)

    Pennacchia, Carmela; Breeuwer, Pieter; Meyer, Rolf


    The presence of thermophilic bacilli in dairy products is indicator of poor hygiene. Their rapid detection and identification is fundamental to improve the industrial reactivity in the implementation of corrective and preventive actions. In this study a rapid and reliable identification of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus was achieved by species-specific PCR assays. Two primer sets, targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region and the rpoB gene sequence of the target species respectively, were employed. Species-specificity of both primer sets was evaluated by using 53 reference strains of DSMZ collection; among them, 13 species of the genus Geobacillus and 15 of the genus Anoxybacillus were represented. Moreover, 99 wild strains and 23 bulk cells collected from 24 infant formula powders gathered from several countries worldwide were included in the analyses. Both primer sets were highly specific and the expected PCR fragments were obtained only when DNA from G. stearothermophilus or A. flavithermus was used. After testing their specificity, they were combined in a Multiplex-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of the two target species. The specificity of the Multiplex-PCR was evaluated by using both wild strains and bulk cells. Every analysis confirmed the reliable identification results provided by the single species-specific PCR methodology. The easiness, the rapidity (about 4 h from DNA isolation to results) and the reliability of the PCR procedures developed in this study highlight the advantage of their application for the specific detection and identification of the thermophilic species G. stearothermophilus and A. flavithermus.

  7. Changes in Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium Ion Concentrations That Inhibit Geobacillus Biofilms Have No Effect on Anoxybacillus flavithermus Biofilms. (United States)

    Somerton, B; Lindsay, D; Palmer, J; Brooks, J; Flint, S


    This study investigated the effects of varied sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in specialty milk formulations on biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. The numbers of attached viable cells (log CFU per square centimeter) after 6 to 18 h of biofilm formation by three dairy-derived strains of Geobacillus and three dairy-derived strains of A. flavithermus were compared in two commercial milk formulations. Milk formulation B had relatively high sodium and low calcium and magnesium concentrations compared with those of milk formulation A, but the two formulations had comparable fat, protein, and lactose concentrations. Biofilm formation by the three Geobacillus isolates was up to 4 log CFU cm(-2) lower in milk formulation B than in milk formulation A after 6 to 18 h, and the difference was often significant (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found when biofilm formations by the three A. flavithermus isolates were compared in milk formulations A and B. Supplementation of milk formulation A with 100 mM NaCl significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 6 to 10 h. Furthermore, supplementation of milk formulation B with 2 mM CaCl2 or 2 mM MgCl2 significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 10 to 18 h. It was concluded that relatively high free Na(+) and low free Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations in milk formulations are collectively required to inhibit biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp., whereas biofilm formation by A. flavithermus is not impacted by typical cation concentration differences of milk formulations.

  8. Acid-base titrations of functional groups on the surface of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus: comparing a chemical equilibrium model with ATR-IR spectroscopic data. (United States)

    Heinrich, Hannah T M; Bremer, Phil J; Daughney, Christopher J; McQuillan, A James


    Acid-base functional groups at the surface of Anoxybacillus flavithermus (AF) were assigned from the modeling of batch titration data of bacterial suspensions and compared with those determined from in situ infrared spectroscopic titration analysis. The computer program FITMOD was used to generate a two-site Donnan model (site 1: pKa = 3.26, wet concn = 2.46 x 10(-4) mol g(-1); site 2: pKa = 6.12, wet concn = 6.55 x 10(-5) mol g(-1)), which was able to describe data for whole exponential phase cells from both batch acid-base titrations at 0.01 M ionic strength and electrophoretic mobility measurements over a range of different pH values and ionic strengths. In agreement with information on the composition of bacterial cell walls and a considerable body of modeling literature, site 1 of the model was assigned to carboxyl groups, and site 2 was assigned to amino groups. pH difference IR spectra acquired by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxyl groups. The spectra appear to show a carboxyl pKa in the 3.3-4.0 range. Further peaks were assigned to phosphodiester groups, which deprotonated at slightly lower pH. The presence of amino groups could not be confirmed or discounted by IR spectroscopy, but a positively charged group corresponding to site 2 was implicated by electrophoretic mobility data. Carboxyl group speciation over a pH range of 2.3-10.3 at two different ionic strengths was further compared to modeling predictions. While model predictions were strongly influenced by the ionic strength change, pH difference IR data showed no significant change. This meant that modeling predictions agreed reasonably well with the IR data for 0.5 M ionic strength but not for 0.01 M ionic strength.

  9. Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Kian Mau Goh

    Full Text Available Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.

  10. Isolation and characterization of pullulan-degrading Anoxybacillus species isolated from Malaysian hot springs. (United States)

    Chai, Yen Yen; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Md Salleh, Madihah; Md Illias, Rosli; Goh, Kian Mau


    Two thermophilic bacteria (SK3-4 and DT3-1) were isolated from the Sungai Klah (SK) and Dusun Tua (DT) hot springs in Malaysia. The cells from both strains were rod-shaped, stained Gram positive and formed endospores. The optimal growth of both strains was observed at 55 degrees C and pH 7. Strain DT3-1 exhibited a higher tolerance to chloramphenicol (100 microg ml(-1)) but showed a lower tolerance to sodium chloride (2%, w/v) compared to strain SK3-4. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that both strains belong to the genus Anoxybacillus. High concentrations of 15:0 iso in the fatty acid profiles support the conclusion that both strains belong to the genus Anoxybacillus and exhibit unique fatty acid compositions and percentages compared to other Anoxybacillus species. The DNA G + C contents were 42.0 mol% and 41.8 mol% for strains SK3-4 and DT3-1, respectively. Strains SK3-4 and DT3-1 were able to degrade pullulan and to produce maltotriose and glucose, respectively, as their main end products. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, and the DNA G + C content, we propose that strains SK3-4 and DT3-1 are new pullulan-degrading Anoxybacillus strains.

  11. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman. (United States)

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara


    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  12. Global transcriptomic response of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 to aluminum exposure. (United States)

    Lim, Jia Chun; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Selvaratnam, Chitra; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong


    Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and a member of family Bacillaceae. We had previously reported that the strain is an aluminum resistant thermophilic bacterium. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the global transcriptional response of Anoxybacillus when the cells were exposed to 600 mg L(-1) of aluminum. The transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq sequencer. Total of 708 genes were differentially expressed (fold change >2.00) with 316 genes were up-regulated while 347 genes were down-regulated, in comparing to control with no aluminum added in the culture. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the majority of genes encoding for cell metabolism such as glycolysis, sulfur metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism were up-regulated; while most of the gene associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, a significant number of the genes encoding ABC transporters, metal ions transporters, and some stress response proteins were also differentially expressed following aluminum exposure. The findings provide further insight and help us to understand on the resistance of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 toward aluminium.

  13. Anoxybacillus thermarum sp. nov., a novel thermophilic bacterium isolated from thermal mud in Euganean hot springs, Abano Terme, Italy. (United States)

    Poli, Annarita; Romano, Ida; Cordella, Paolo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Nicolaus, Barbara; Ceschi Berrini, Cristina


    A novel aerobe thermophilic endospore-forming bacterium designated strain AF/04(T) was isolated from thermal mud located in Euganean hot springs, Abano Terme, Padova, Italy. Strain AF/04(T) was Gram-positive, motile, rod-shaped, occurring in pairs, or filamentous. The isolate grew between 55 and 67 degrees C (optimum 65 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-7.5 (optimum pH 7.2). The strain was aerobic and grew on maltose, trehalose, and sodium acetate as sole carbon sources. The G + C content of DNA was 53.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AF/04(T) falls within the genus Anoxybacillus. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain AF/04(T) and the type strains of recognized Anoxybacillus species ranged from 95 to 99%. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain AF/04(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. Based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it was proposed that strain AF/04(T) (=DSM 17141(T) = ATCC BAA 1156(T)) should be placed in the genus Anoxybacillus as the type strain of a novel species, Anoxybacillus thermarum sp. nov.

  14. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04T, Isolated from the Euganean Hot Springs in Abano Terme, Italy. (United States)

    Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara; Chan, Kok-Gan; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chan, Chia Sing; Goh, Kian Mau


    Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04(T) was isolated from the Euganean hot springs in Abano Terme, Italy. The present work reports a high-quality draft genome sequence of strain AF/04(T). This work also provides useful insights into glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and sugar transporters that may be involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism.

  15. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04T, Isolated from the Euganean Hot Springs in Abano Terme, Italy



    Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04T was isolated from the Euganean hot springs in Abano Terme, Italy. The present work reports a high-quality draft genome sequence of strain AF/04T. This work also provides useful insights into glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and sugar transporters that may be involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism.

  16. Purification and characterization of extracellular α-amylase from a thermophilic Anoxybacillus thermarum A4 strain

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    Nimet Baltas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus thermarum A4 was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, with 29.8-fold purification and 74.6% yield. A4 amylase showed best performance for soluble potato starch hydrolysis at 70 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. A4 amylase was extremely stable at +4 °C, and the enzyme retained over 65% of its original α-amylase activity at 70 °C and 43% at 90 °C. The enzyme's Km values for soluble starch, amylopectin and amylose substrates were obtained as 0.9, 1.3 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. EDTA, Hg2+, B4O7 2-, OH-, CN- , and urea exhibited different inhibition effects; their IC50 values were identified as 8.0, 5.75, 16.5, 15.2, 8.2 and 10.9 mM, respectively. A4 amylase exhibited extreme stability toward some surfactants and perfect match for a wide variety of commercial solid and liquid detergents at 55 °C. So, it may be considered to be potential applications for detergent and other industrial uses.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12125-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bsp. fetu... 37 2.5 AL939121_196( AL939121 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) co...CP001230_1600( CP001230 |pid:none) Persephonella marina EX-H1, com... 35 9.6 CP001131_4102( CP001131 |pid:none) Anae...6 6 ( EK064413 ) 1092960107630 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 32 9.4 3 >( AU060237 ) Dictyostelium discoid...5 CP000036_147( CP000036 |pid:none) Shigella boydii Sb227, complete ... 53 3e-05 AB1838( AB1838 ) hypothetical protein...46 CP000922_1056( CP000922 |pid:none) Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1,... 42 0.046 CP000615_1905( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vie

  18. Immobilization of α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 on ReliZyme and Immobead Supports

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    Ummirul Mukminin Kahar


    Full Text Available α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0–9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5–12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.

  19. LC-ESI-MS/MS identification of polar lipids of two thermophilic Anoxybacillus bacteria containing a unique lipid pattern. (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomáš; Kambourova, Margarita; Derekova, Anna; Kolouchová, Irena; Sigler, Karel


    Phospholipids and glycolipids from two recently described species belonging to the thermophilic genus Anoxybacillus were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of total lipids from the facultatively anaerobic A. bogrovensis on a HILIC (Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography) column succeeded in separating diacyl- and plasmalogen phospholipids. The LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of the strict aerobe A. rupiensis revealed the presence of different unique polar lipids, predominantly alanyl-, lysyl-, and glucosyl-phosphatidylglycerols and cardiolipins. Each of the classes of polar lipids was then analyzed by means of the ESI-MS/MS and more than 140 molecular species of six lipid classes from A. bogrovensis and nearly 200 molecular species of nine classes of polar lipids from A. rupiensis were identified. Five classes of unidentified polar lipids were detected in both strains. Plasmalogens were thus determined for the first time in a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, i.e. A. bogrovensis.

  20. A High Molecular-Mass Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 Amylopullulanase: Characterization and Its Relationship in Carbohydrate Utilization

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    Kian Mau Goh


    Full Text Available An amylopullulanase of the thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ApuASK was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Though amylopullulanases larger than 200 kDa are rare, the molecular mass of purified ApuASK appears to be approximately 225 kDa, on both SDS-PAGE analyses and native-PAGE analyses. ApuASK was stable between pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and exhibited optimal activity at pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for ApuASK enzyme activity was 60 °C, and it retained 54% of its total activity for 240 min at 65 °C. ApuASK reacts with pullulan, starch, glycogen, and dextrin, yielding glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Interestingly, most of the previously described amylopullulanases are unable to produce glucose and maltose from these substrates. Thus, ApuASK is a novel, high molecular-mass amylopullulanase able to produce glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from pullulan and starch. Based on whole genome sequencing data, ApuASK appeared to be the largest protein present in Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. The α-amylase catalytic domain present in all of the amylase superfamily members is present in ApuASK, located between the cyclodextrin (CD-pullulan-degrading N-terminus and the α-amylase catalytic C-terminus (amyC domains. In addition, the existence of a S-layer homology (SLH domain indicates that ApuASK might function as a cell-anchoring enzyme and be important for carbohydrate utilization in a streaming hot spring.

  1. Heavy metal resistance of some thermophiles: potential use of alpha-amylase from Anoxybacillus amylolyticus as a microbial enzymatic bioassay. (United States)

    Poli, Annarita; Salerno, Anna; Laezza, Giusi; di Donato, Paola; Dumontet, Stefano; Nicolaus, Barbara


    Six thermophilic extremophiles, Anoxybacillus amylolyticus, Geobacillus thermoleovorans, Geobacillus thermoleovorans subspecies stromboliensis, Geobacillus toebii subspecies decanicus, Bacillus thermantarcticus and Thermus oshimai, isolated from different environmental sites, were studied for their heavy metal resistance. The effects of heavy metals on microorganism growth were studied here in a pilot fermenter tank spiked with various trace metals, (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Cr(6+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Cd(2+)) at concentrations spanning from 0.01 to 20 mM. Trace metal toxicity varied depending on the species and metal considered. Among the tested microorganisms, attention was focused on alpha-amylase producing-A. amylolyticus, an acidothermophilic bacterium recently isolated from geothermal soil samples from Mount Rittmann in Antarctica. The effect of heavy metals on the biosynthesis and activity of alpha-amylase of A. amylolyticus was investigated. When bacteria were grown in the presence of heavy metals, a decrease in alpha-amylase activity, correlated with a decrease in alpha-amylase production, was observed, suggesting an effect on the biosynthesis of the enzyme. A decrease in enzyme activity was also noted when the assay was performed in the presence of heavy metals. Thus, alpha-amylase could represent a potential sensitive bioassay for detecting trace heavy metals.

  2. Complete genome of the potential thermozyme producer Anoxybacillus gonensis G2(T) isolated from the Gönen hot springs in Turkey. (United States)

    Lim, Yan Lue; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ee, Robson; Belduz, Ali Osman; Canakci, Sabriye; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Yaakop, Amira Suriaty; Goh, Kian Mau


    Anoxybacillus gonensis type strain G2(T) (=NCIMB 13,933(T) =NCCB 100040(T)) has been isolated from the Gönen hot springs in Turkey. This strain produces a number of well-studied, biotechnologically important enzymes, including xylose isomerase, carboxylesterase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. In addition, this strain is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of areas with heavy metal pollution. Here, we present a high-quality, annotated, complete genome of A. gonensis G2(T). Furthermore, this report provides insights into several novel enzymes of strain G2(T) and their potential industrial applications.

  3. Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction by a newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA from a rotating drum biofilter for NOx removal. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Yan; Hao, Hong-hong; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jian-meng


    The reduction of Fe(II)EDTA-NO is one of the core processes in BioDeNOx, an integrated physicochemical and biological technique for NOx removal from industrial flue gases. A newly isolated thermophilic Anoxybacillus sp. HA, identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, could simultaneously reduce Fe(II)EDTA-NO and Fe(III)EDTA. A maximum NO removal efficiency of 98.7% was achieved when 3mM Fe(II)EDTA-NO was used in the nutrient solution at 55°C. Results of this study strongly indicated that the biological oxidation of Fe(II)EDTA played an important role in the formation of Fe(III)EDTA in the anaerobic system. Fe(II)EDTA-NO was more competitive than Fe(III)EDTA as an electron acceptor, and the presence of Fe(III)EDTA slightly affected the reduction rate of Fe(II)EDTA-NO. At 55°C, the maximum microbial specific growth rate μmax reached the peak value of 0.022h(-1). The maximum NO removal efficiency was also measured (95.4%) under this temperature. Anoxybacillus sp. HA, which grew well at 50°C-60°C, is a potential microbial resource for Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction at thermophilic temperatures.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Thermophilic Spore Formers Isolated from a Dairy-Processing Environment (United States)

    Caspers, Martien P. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kort, Remco; Nierop Groot, Masja


    Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four thermophilic strains from a milk-processing plant or standard milk, namely, a Geobacillus thermoglucosidans isolate (TNO-09.023), Geobacillus stearothermophilus TNO-09.027, and two Anoxybacillus flavithermus isolates (TNO-09.014 and TNO-09.016). PMID:27516503

  5. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Thermophile Community Within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Heni Yohandini


    Full Text Available A community of thermophiles within Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring (South Sumatera have been cultivated and identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The hot spring has temperature 80C-91C and pH 7-8. We used a simple method for culturing the microbes, by enriching the spring water with nutrient broth media. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the method could recover microbes, which clustered within four distinct taxonomic groups: Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. These microbes closely related to Anoxybacillus rupiensis, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Geobacillus pallidus, Brevibacillus thermoruber, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of one isolate only had 96% similarity with Brevibacillus sequence in GenBank.

  6. Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents. (United States)

    Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J


    In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached.

  7. Tracking spore-forming bacteria in food: from natural biodiversity to selection by processes. (United States)

    Postollec, Florence; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Bernard, Muriel; Divanac'h, Marie-Laure; Pavan, Sonia; Sohier, Danièle


    Sporeforming bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and exhibit a wide range of diversity leading to their natural prevalence in foodstuff. The state of the art of sporeformer prevalence in ingredients and food was investigated using a multiparametric PCR-based tool that enables simultaneous detection and identification of various genera and species mostly encountered in food, i.e., Alicyclobacillus, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Bacillus, B. cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Clostridium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Moorella and Paenibacillus species. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to extend identification to other possibly present contaminants. A total of 90 food products, with or without visible trace of spoilage were analysed, i.e., 30 egg-based products, 30 milk and dairy products and 30 canned food and ingredients. Results indicated that most samples contained one or several of the targeted genera and species. For all three tested food categories, 30 to 40% of products were contaminated with both Bacillus and Clostridium. The percentage of contaminations associated with Clostridium or Bacillus represented 100% in raw materials, 72% in dehydrated ingredients and 80% in processed foods. In the last two product types, additional thermophilic contaminants were identified (A. flavithermus, Geobacillus spp., Thermoanaerobacterium spp. and Moorella spp.). These results suggest that selection, and therefore the observed (re)-emergence of unexpected sporeforming contaminants in food might be favoured by the use of given food ingredients and food processing technologies.

  8. Screening & Identification of Starch Degradable Bacteria from Small Hot Spring & Initial Enzymatic Property Analysis of Its Amylase%一小型温泉中降解淀粉细菌的筛选、鉴定与淀粉酶性质初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫芹; 李腾云; 沈微; 樊游; 陈献忠; 王正祥; 石贵阳


    为筛选耐热淀粉酶产生菌并揭示其在温泉中的分布情况,从腾冲县腊幸村一小型热泉不同部位采集样品进行微生物分离及鉴定.样品在65℃培养,挑选形态有差异的菌落点种淀粉-台盼蓝平板,共获得34株具有淀粉降解能力的细菌.分子鉴定结果显示,从温泉底部沙土中筛选得到细菌具有较高的生物多样性,9株具有淀粉降解能力的细菌分别属于土芽胞杆菌(Geobacillus)、厌氧芽胞杆菌(Anoxybacillus)和芽胞杆菌(Bacillus)3个属、7个种,菌株间16S rDNA序列均有一定的差异.对编号为201(Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius)和208(Anoxybacillus flavithermus)的菌株胞外淀粉酶进行初步分析,其胞外淀粉酶最适温度分别为60和70℃,均高于淀粉糊化温度,具有一定的应用潜力.

  9. Modelling of the acid base properties of two thermophilic bacteria at different growth times (United States)

    Heinrich, Hannah T. M.; Bremer, Phil J.; McQuillan, A. James; Daughney, Christopher J.


    Acid-base titrations and electrophoretic mobility measurements were conducted on the thermophilic bacteria Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus at two different growth times corresponding to exponential and stationary/death phase. The data showed significant differences between the two investigated growth times for both bacterial species. In stationary/death phase samples, cells were disrupted and their buffering capacity was lower than that of exponential phase cells. For G. stearothermophilus the electrophoretic mobility profiles changed dramatically. Chemical equilibrium models were developed to simultaneously describe the data from the titrations and the electrophoretic mobility measurements. A simple approach was developed to determine confidence intervals for the overall variance between the model and the experimental data, in order to identify statistically significant changes in model fit and thereby select the simplest model that was able to adequately describe each data set. Exponential phase cells of the investigated thermophiles had a higher total site concentration than the average found for mesophilic bacteria (based on a previously published generalised model for the acid-base behaviour of mesophiles), whereas the opposite was true for cells in stationary/death phase. The results of this study indicate that growth phase is an important parameter that can affect ion binding by bacteria, that growth phase should be considered when developing or employing chemical models for bacteria-bearing systems.

  10. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China. (United States)

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing


    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  11. The use of amino sugars by Bacillus subtilis: presence of a unique operon for the catabolism of glucosamine. (United States)

    Gaugué, Isabelle; Oberto, Jacques; Putzer, Harald; Plumbridge, Jacqueline


    B. subtilis grows more rapidly using the amino sugar glucosamine as carbon source, than with N-acetylglucosamine. Genes for the transport and metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (nagP and nagAB) are found in all the sequenced Bacilli (except Anoxybacillus flavithermus). In B. subtilis there is an additional operon (gamAP) encoding second copies of genes for the transport and catabolism of glucosamine. We have developed a method to make multiple deletion mutations in B. subtilis employing an excisable spectinomycin resistance cassette. Using this method we have analysed the contribution of the different genes of the nag and gam operons for their role in utilization of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Faster growth on glucosamine is due to the presence of the gamAP operon, which is strongly induced by glucosamine. Although the gamA and nagB genes encode isozymes of GlcN6P deaminase, catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine relies mostly upon the gamA gene product. The genes for use of N-acetylglucosamine, nagAB and nagP, are repressed by YvoA (NagR), a GntR family regulator, whose gene is part of the nagAB yvoA(nagR) operon. The gamAP operon is repressed by YbgA, another GntR family repressor, whose gene is expressed divergently from gamAP. The nagAB yvoA synton is found throughout the Bacilli and most firmicutes. On the other hand the ybgA-gamAP synton, which includes the ybgB gene for a small protein of unknown provenance, is only found in B. subtilis (and a few very close relatives). The origin of ybgBA-gamAP grouping is unknown but synteny analysis suggests lateral transfer from an unidentified donor. The presence of gamAP has enabled B. subtilis to efficiently use glucosamine as carbon source.

  12. Anoxybacillusgeothermalis sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from mineral deposits in a geothermal station. (United States)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Jeanneret, Nicole; Palmieri, Fabio; Palmieri, Ilona; Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Chain, Patrick S; Regenspurg, Simona; Junier, Pilar


    A novel endospore-forming bacterium designated strain GSsed3T was isolated from deposits clogging aboveground filters from the geothermal power platform of Groß Schönebeck in northern Germany. The novel isolate was Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. Optimum growth occurred at 60 °C, 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7-8. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain GSsed3T belonged to the genus Anoxybacillus, and showed 99.8 % sequence similarity to Anoxybacillus rupiensis R270T, 98.2 % similarity to Anoxybacillus tepidamans GS5-97T, 97.9 % similarity to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis TH13T, 97.7 % similarity to Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus DSM 15730T and 97.6 % similarity to Anoxybacillus amylolyticus MR3CT. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) indicated only 16 % relatedness to Anoxybacillus rupiensis DSM 17127T. Furthermore, DDH estimation based on genomes analysis indicated only 19.9 % overall nucleotide similarity to Anoxybacillus amylolyticus DSM 15939T. The major respiratory menaquinone was MK-8. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phosphoglycolipid and one unknown phospholipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The peptidoglycan type was A1γ meso-Dpm-direct. The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was 46.9 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization indicated that strain GSsed3T differs from related species of the genus. Therefore, strain GSsed3T is considered to be a representative of a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus geothermalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Anoxybacillus geothermalis is GSsed3T (=CCOS808T =ATCC BAA2555T).

  13. Evidence for photoneutron production in the lead shielding of a dedicated intra-operative electron only facility. (United States)

    Biggs, P J


    A dedicated electron-only intra-operative suite has just been completed at the Massachusetts General Hospital. This suite is located on the 3rd floor with the shielding consisting entirely of lead and borated polyethylene, except for concrete in the floor and ceiling to support the lead and on the finished floor. The radiation protection barriers for this facility were calculated on the basis of a maximum permissible dose of 10 microSv wk(-1) for photons and 10 microSv wk(-1) for neutrons, based on a quality factor of 10 (this factor is specified in the regulations of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts). This even split was predicated on the basis that, except for the primary beam, the neutron leakage from the machine was generally about the same as for x rays. The initial survey showed that the neutron dose equivalent outside all barriers, except below the floor, was within the calculated values, neutron dose equivalent measured directly below the floor was found to be 35 microSv wk(-1) for the highest electron energy, a difference of > 25 microSv wk(-1). The neutron dose equivalent, for neutrons produced by bremsstrahlung photon interactions in the lead and based on a 3% photon background in the electron beam, was calculated to be 25 microSv wk(-1), in good agreement with this difference.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04715-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vithermus WK1, ... 40 0.034 CP000816_455( CP000816 |pid:none) Ignicoccus hospitalis KIN4/I, co... 40 0.034 C...-41... 33 4.2 CP000816_562( CP000816 |pid:none) Ignicoccus hospitalis KIN4/I, co.

  15. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Verk, Marcel C; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M


    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of t

  16. The Geobacillus Pan-Genome: Implications for the Evolution of the Genus. (United States)

    Bezuidt, Oliver K; Pierneef, Rian; Gomri, Amin M; Adesioye, Fiyin; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A


    The genus Geobacillus is comprised of a diverse group of spore-forming Gram-positive thermophilic bacterial species and is well known for both its ecological diversity and as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. Although the mechanisms underlying the thermophilicity of the organism and the thermostability of its macromolecules are reasonably well understood, relatively little is known of the evolutionary mechanisms, which underlie the structural and functional properties of members of this genus. In this study, we have compared 29 Geobacillus genomes, with a specific focus on the elements, which comprise the conserved core and flexible genomes. Based on comparisons of conserved core and flexible genomes, we present evidence of habitat delineation with specific Geobacillus genomes linked to specific niches. Our analysis revealed that Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus share a high proportion of genes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that horizontal gene transfer is a major factor deriving the evolution of Geobacillus from Bacillus, with genetic contributions from other phylogenetically distant taxa.

  17. Effects of activated sludge flocs and pellets seeds on aerobic granule properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huacheng Xu; Pinjing He; Guanzhao Wang; Liming Shao


    Aerobic granules seeded with activated sludge fiocs and pellets (obtained from activated sludge flocs) were cultivated in two sequencing batch reactors and their characteristics were compared.Compared with granules seeded with activated sludge flocs, those seeded with pellets had shorter start-up time, larger diameter, better chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency, and higher hydrophobicity, suspended solid concentration, and Mg2+ content.The different inocula led the granule surface with different microbial morphologies, but did not result in different distribution patterns of extracellular polymeric substances and cells.The anaerobic bacterium Anoxybacillus sp.was detected in the granules seeded with pellets.These results highlighted the advantage of pellet over activated sludge floc as the seed for aerobic granulation and wastewater treatment.

  18. Preservice physical educators' self-efficacy beliefs toward inclusion: the impact of coursework and practicum. (United States)

    Taliaferro, Andrea R; Hammond, Lindsay; Wyant, Kristi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of completion of an adapted physical education (APE) course with an associated on-campus practicum on preservice physical educators' self-efficacy beliefs toward the inclusion of individuals with specific disabilities (autism, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and visual impairments). Preservice students in physical education teacher education (N = 98) at a large U.S. Midwestern university enrolled in 1 of 2 separate 15-wk APE courses with an associated 9-wk practicum experience were surveyed at the beginning, middle, and conclusion of each course. Results of 4 separate 2-factor fixed-effect split-plot ANOVAs revealed significant improvements in self-efficacy beliefs from Wk 1 to Wk 8 and from Wk 1 to Wk 15 across all disability categories. Significant differences between courses were found only for autism in Time 1.

  19. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.


    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  20. Neuromuscular adaptations to different modes of combined strength and endurance training. (United States)

    Eklund, D; Pulverenti, T; Bankers, S; Avela, J; Newton, R; Schumann, M; Häkkinen, K


    The present study investigated neuromuscular adaptations between same-session combined strength and endurance training with 2 loading orders and different day combined training over 24 weeks. 56 subjects were divided into different day (DD) combined strength and endurance training (4-6 d·wk(-1)) and same-session combined training: endurance preceding strength (E+S) or vice versa (S+E) (2-3 d·wk(-1)). Dynamic and isometric strength, EMG, voluntary activation, muscle cross-sectional area and endurance performance were measured. All groups increased dynamic one-repetition maximum (ptraining (pstrength when E+S-training was performed, while gains in one-repetition maximum, endurance performance and hypertrophy did not differ between the training modes.

  1. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.


    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  2. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake


    De Bock, Katrien; Derave, W.; Eijnde, B. O.; Hesselink, M.K.; Koninckx, Erwin; Rose, A.J.; Schrauwen, P.; Bonen, A.; Richter, E A; Hespel, Peter


    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak (V) over dot O-2) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydratefed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新乐; 杨龙; 张虹; 张蕾


    氡温泉水样经8kGy60Co γ射线预处理后,从中分离获得1株耐60Co γ射线和UV辐照的嗜热菌株R4-33.经形态观察、生理生化试验、脂肪酸分析、(G+C)mol%含量和16S rDNA序列测定,结果表明,菌株R4-33为杆状,革兰氏阴性菌,无鞭毛,形成末端芽孢;最适生长温度60℃,最适生长pH 7.5;能以葡萄糖、麦芽糖和海藻糖等作为唯一碳源生长,水解酪素和淀粉;过氧化氢酶阳性;对青霉素、新霉素、红霉素、万古霉素、链霉素、庆大霉素、丁胺卡拉和氨苄青霉素敏感;细胞主要脂肪酸为C14:1(48.4%)和C15:1(15.2%);基因组DNA中(G+C)mo1%含量58.2%.经比对菌株R4-33的16SrDNA序列与Anoxybacillus属菌株有较高的同源性,其中与Anoxybacillus gonensis菌株的相似性高达99.5%.经R4-33菌株生理生化试验及16S rDNA序列分析,该株菌归属于Anoxybacillus属,暂命名为Anoxybacillus sp.R4-33.耐辐射细胞存活试验结果显示菌株R4-33对UV的耐辐射能力达396J/m2,对60Coγ射线耐辐照能力为14kGy,表明其对UV和γ射线辐照具有较高耐受性.%A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4 - 33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60Co -γ - rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4 -33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60°C and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources,and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:l (48. 4% ) and C15:1 (15. 2% ). The ( G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58. 2% . Phylogenetic tree based on

  4. 洗涤厂排污口可培养中度嗜热菌的多样性%Diversity of Culturable Mesophilic Bacteria from Outfall Soil of Laundry Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶学军; 邱宏端; 林新坚; 贾宪波; 陈济琛


    To investigate the diversity of mesophilic bacteria resulting from constant thermal conditions , the soil sample was collected at outfall of thermal wastewater from laundry factory .The culturable mesophilic bacteria were isolated with different medium to obtain pure culture , identified by 16S rDNA and the data were analyzed in phylogenetic tree .The results showed that the 29 strains in pure culture were obtained from the thermal wastewater outfall soil with different phenotype .The strains were classified into Bacilli ,attributed to 5 genus and 11 species , including three species of Geobacillus ,three species of Bacillus ,three species of Anoxybacillus ,one species of Ureibacillus ,and one species of Thermoactinomyces .The diversity of species was rich ,and the resources of species would have potential in practical application .%为考查洗涤厂热废水排放口土壤在常年人为热环境下的可培养嗜热菌的多样性,采集洗涤厂热废水排放口附近的湿热泥土,应用不同培养基分离纯化泥土中的可培养嗜热菌,并对获得的纯培养细菌进行16S rDNA鉴定和系统发育相关分析。结果表明:分离纯化得到的29株不同表型的纯培养菌株均属于坚壁菌门芽孢杆菌纲,归属于5个属11个种,分别是地芽孢杆菌属 Geobacillus 3个种,芽孢杆菌属 Bacillus 3个种,无氧芽孢杆菌属 Anoxybacillus 3个种,解脲芽孢杆菌属Ureibacillus 1个种和高温放线菌属 Thermoactinomyces 1个种,属种多样性丰富,菌株资源具有潜在开发应用价值。

  5. Detecting the nonviable and heat-tolerant bacteria in activated sludge by minimizing DNA from dead cells. (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong


    Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to determine viable microorganisms for clinical and environmental samples since selected naked DNA which was covalently cross-linked by this dye could not be PCR-amplified. In this study, we applied PMA to the activated sludge samples composed of complex bacterial populations to investigate the viability of human fecal bacteria and to determine the heat-tolerant bacteria by high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V3 region. The methodological evaluation suggested the validity, and about 2-3 magnitude signals decreasing from the stained DNA were observed. However, the nest PCR, which was previously conducted to further minimize signals from dead cells, seemed not suitable perhaps due to the limitation of the primers. On one hand, for typical human fecal bacteria, less than half of them were viable, and most genera exhibited the similar viable percentages. It was interesting that many "unclassified bacteria" showed low viability, implying their sensitivity to environmental change. On the other hand, after heating at 60 °C for 4 h, the bacteria with high survival rate in activated sludge samples included those reported thermophiles or heat-tolerant lineages, such as Anoxybacillus and diverse species in Actinobacteria, and some novel ones, such as Gp16 subdivision in Acidobacteria. In summary, our results took a glance at the fate of fecal bacteria during sewage treatment and established an example for identifying tolerant species to lethal shocks in a complex community.

  6. Metabolic reengineering invoked by microbial systems to decontaminate aluminum: implications for bioremediation technologies. (United States)

    Auger, Christopher; Han, Sungwon; Appanna, Varun P; Thomas, Sean C; Ulibarri, Gerardo; Appanna, Vasu D


    As our reliance on aluminum (Al) increases, so too does its presence in the environment and living systems. Although generally recognized as safe, its interactions with most living systems have been nefarious. This review presents an overview of the noxious effects of Al and how a subset of microbes can rework their metabolic pathways in order to survive an Al-contaminated environment. For instance, in order to expulse the metal as an insoluble precipitate, Pseudomonas fluorescens shuttles metabolites toward the production of organic acids and lipids that play key roles in chelating, immobilizing and exuding Al. Further, the reconfiguration of metabolic modules enables the microorganism to combat the dearth of iron (Fe) and the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted by Al toxicity. While in Rhizobium spp., exopolysaccharides have been invoked to sequester this metal, an ATPase is known to safeguard Anoxybacillus gonensis against the trivalent metal. Hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate moieties have also been exploited by microbes to trap Al. Hence, an understanding of the metabolic networks that are operative in microorganisms residing in polluted environments is critical in devising bioremediation technologies aimed at managing metal wastes. Metabolic engineering is essential in elaborating effective biotechnological processes to decontaminate metal-polluted surroundings.

  7. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE, calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1 compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p *wk-1. Two thirds (65% of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63% of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337 and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p p Conclusions Substantial proportions of Palestinian women, and subgroups of Palestinian men, are insufficiently active. Culturally appropriate intervention strategies are warranted, particularly for this vulnerable

  8. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

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    Wong eDutt Way


    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  9. Proliferation of L02 human hepatocytes in tolerized geneticall yimmunocompetent rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lin; Qing Mao; Yu-Ming Wang; Li Jiang


    AIM: To investigate whether human hepatocytes could proliferate after transplantation to normal immunocompetent rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene or Retrorsine and partial hepatectomy.METHODS: L02 hepatocyte-tolerant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Retrorsine, 2-acetaminofluorene or normal saline. L02 hepatocytes were then transplanted via the spleen. Human albumin and its mRNA, specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), L02 hepatocyte dynamic distribution, number density and area density of PCNA-positive cells in the liver were determined.RESULTS: All the examined indicators were not significantly different between the rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene and normal saline, which was not the case with rats treated with Retrorsine. A dynamic distribution of L02 hepatocytes in the rat liver was detected from wk 1 to mo 6 after transplantation in the Retrorsine group and from wk 1 to 10 in the 2-acetaminofluorene group. Human albumin and its mRNA were detected from wk 2 to mo 6 in the Retrorsine group and from wk 1 to 8 in the 2-acetaminofiuorene group.Specific human PCNA was detected in the rat liver from wk 2 to mo 6 in the Retrorsine group and from wk 2 to 6 in the 2-acetaminofluorene group. Human albumin and its mRNA contents as well as the number of PCNA positive cells reached a peak at wk 4.CONCLUSION: L02 human hepatocytes could not proliferate significiantly after transplantation to the normal,immunocompetent rats treated with 2-acetaminofluorene.L02 human hepatocytes can survive for 10 wk after transplantation and express human albumin for 8 wk. L02human hepatocytes can proliferate and express human albumin for 6 mo after transplantation to the rats treated with Retrorsine. The chimeric L02 human hepatocytes,which then underwent transplantation into tolerant rats,were normal in morphogenesis, biochemistry and function.

  10. Growth Normal Faulting at the Western Edge of the Metropolitan Taipei Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum, Northern Taiwan

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    Chih-Tung Chen


    Full Text Available Growth strata analysis is an useful tool in understanding kinematics and the evolution of active faults as well as the close relationship between sedimentation and tectonics. Here we present the Shanchiao Fault as a case study which is an active normal fault responsible for the formation of the 700-m-thick late Quaternary deposits in Taipei Basin at the northern tip of the Taiwan mountain belt. We compiled a sedimentary record, particularly the depositional facies and their dated ages, at three boreholes (SCF-1, SCF-2 and WK-1, from west to east along the Wuku Profile that traverses the Shanchiao Fault at its central segment. By incorporating the global sea level change curve, we find that thickness changes of sediments and changes of depositional environments in the Wuku area are in a good agreement with a rapid sea level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM of about 23 ka. Combining depositional facies changes and their ages with their thickness, we are able to introduce a simple back-stripping method to reconstruct the evolution of growing strata across the Shanchiao Fault since the LGM. We then estimate the vertical tectonic slip rate since 23 ka, which exhibits 2.2 mm yr-1 between SCF-2 and WK-1 and 1.1 mm yr-1 between SCF-1 and SCF-2. We also obtain the Holocene tectonic subsidence rate of 2.3 mm yr-1 at WK-1 and 0.9 mm yr-1 at SCF-2 since 8.4 ka. We thus conclude that the fault zone consists of a high-angle main fault to the east between SCF-2 and WK-1 and a western lower-angle branch fault between SCF-1 and SCF-2, resembling a tulip structure developed under sinistral transtensional tectonism. We find that a short period of 600-yr time span in 9 - 8.4 ka shows important tectonic subsidence of 7.4 and 3.3 m for the main and branch fault, respectively, consistent with possible earthquake events proposed by previous studies during that time. A correlation between geomorphology and subsurface geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone shows

  11. Combined effects of exercise and restriction of energy intake on moderately obese women.


    Thomas, D P; Belko, A Z; Mulroy, G L; Haas, J. D.; Roe, D A


    The current study was designed to assess the contribution of dietary-induced weight reduction on improvements in functional capacity in moderate obesity. Twelve females (means age = 29 yr, means fat percentage = 37%) served as subjects for the study. Subjects trained on a cycle ergometer 30, six day.wk-1 for three or six weeks at 75 to 85 per cent of maximum heart rate (HR max). Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (delta VO2 max I.min-1) and functional capacity (delta VO2 max ml.k...

  12. Increasing dietary fiber intake in terms of kiwifruit improves constipation in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annie On On Chan; Gigi Leung; Teresa Tong; Nina YH Wong


    AIM: To investigate if increased dietary fiber, in terms of kiwifruit, is effective in Chinese constipated patients.METHODS: 33 constipated patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited for a 4-wk treatment of kiwi fruit twice daily. Response during wk 1-4 was defined as an increase in complete spontaneous bowl, motion (CSBM)≥ 1/wk. Secondary efficacy included response during wk 1-4, individual symptoms and scores of bowel habits and constipation. Responses were compared with the baseline run-in period. Colonic transit time and anorectal manometry were performed before and after treatment.RESULTS: Responder rate was 54.5% in the constipated group. The mean CSBM increased after treatment (2.2 ± 2.6 vs 4.4 ± 4.6, P = 0.013). There was also improvement in the scores for bothersomeness of constipation (P = 0.02), and satisfaction of bowel habit (P = 0.001), and decreased in days of laxative used (P =0.003). There was also improvement in transit time (P =0.003) and rectal sensation (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in the bowel symptoms or anorectal physiology in the healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: Increasing dietary fiber intake is effective in relieving chronic constipation in Chinese population.

  13. Computer simulation of liquid-vapor coexistence of confined quantum fluids. (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro; Martinez, Alejandro


    The liquid-vapor coexistence (LV) of bulk and confined quantum fluids has been studied by Monte Carlo computer simulation for particles interacting via a semiclassical effective pair potential Veff(r) = VLJ + VQ, where VLJ is the Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential (LJ) and VQ is the first-order Wigner-Kirkwood (WK-1) quantum potential, that depends on β = 1∕kT and de Boer's quantumness parameter Λ=h/σ√mε, where k and h are the Boltzmann's and Planck's constants, respectively, m is the particle's mass, T is the temperature of the system, and σ and ε are the LJ potential parameters. The non-conformal properties of the system of particles interacting via the effective pair potential Veff(r) are due to Λ, since the LV phase diagram is modified by varying Λ. We found that the WK-1 system gives an accurate description of the LV coexistence for bulk phases of several quantum fluids, obtained by the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo method (GEMC). Confinement effects were introduced using the Canonical Ensemble (NVT) to simulate quantum fluids contained within parallel hard walls separated by a distance Lp, within the range 2σ ≤ Lp ≤ 6σ. The critical temperature of the system is reduced by decreasing Lp and increasing Λ, and the liquid-vapor transition is not longer observed for Lp∕σ < 2, in contrast to what has been observed for the classical system.

  14. Semi-Field Evaluation of Metofluthrin-Impregnated Nets on Host-Seeking Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Kankaew, Prasan; Chanaimongkol, Somporn; Pongsiri, Arissara; Richardson, Jason H; Evans, Brian P


    The efficacy of a metofluthrin-impregnated net (MIN) known as the "Mushikonazu" on the house entry behavior of female Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus mosquitoes was evaluated using a semi-field 50-m tunnel setup. While the MIN is labeled for the control of chironomids and moth flies, this study determined the feasibility of using the device, given its current construction and metofluthrin formulation, as a spatial repellent against mosquitoes. Sentinel and cone bioassays were used to determine the insecticidal effect of the MIN. A spatial activity index (SAI) was calculated to evaluate responses of the mosquitoes. For the spatial repellent evaluation against Ae. aegypti, the overall mean of SAI was slightly less than 0 at wk 1 after the MIN application and then decreased for the last 4 wk showing a preference to treatment tent. For An. dirus, the mean SAI at wk 1 was positive, indicating a presumed repellent effect of the MIN against An. dirus. For the subsequent 4 wk, the SAI was negative, indicating a preference for the MIN. Results suggested that the MIN may not be a promising approach to repel Ae. aegypti and An. dirus under field conditions in Thailand. However, it remains probable that the MIN may be effective as a spatial repellent if modifications are made to the metofluthrin concentration or formulation and/or the construction of the device.

  15. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.


    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  16. 联合输注泰素和表阿霉素晚期乳腺癌减缓心脏毒性18例%Slowdown cardiotoxicity of 18 patients with late breast adonocarcinoma treated by infusion tylosin and epirubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南林; 王岭; 杨华


    @@0 引言在乳腺癌的治疗中泰素和表阿霉素均表现出强抗癌活性,然而联合治疗的最佳方案仍不明确. 我们探讨表明泰素和表阿霉素联合应用每周1 h方案的安全性. 1 对象和方法自2000年以来,我科收治18例未经治疗的晚期乳腺癌患者,化疗方案为1 h输注泰素30 mg*m-2*wk-1,表阿霉素25 mg*m-2*wk-1,连续化疗6 wk. 所有患者每周化疗均给予G-CSF 2~4 d,分别在第0,2,4,6 wk行心电图、超声心动图和左室功能(LVEF)检查,评估心脏毒性.

  17. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method. (United States)

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H


    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  18. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

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    Arzu Coleri Cihan


    Full Text Available Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%, the facultative thermophiles (14% and the mesophiles (12%. These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16, Brevibacillus (13, Paenibacillus (1 and Thermoactinomycetes (2 were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6, B. lichenformis (3, B. subtilis (3, B. agri (3, B. smithii (2, T. vulgaris (2 and finally P. barengoltzii (1. In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.

  19. A review of the microbiology of the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund


    Full Text Available The Rehai Geothermal Field, located in Tengchong County, in central-western Yunnan Province, is the largest and most intensively studied geothermal field in China. A wide physicochemical diversity of springs (ambient to ∼97 °C; pH from ≤1.8 to ≥9.3 provides a multitude of niches for extremophilic microorganisms. A variety of studies have focused on the cultivation, identification, basic physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnological potential of thermophilic microorganisms from Rehai. Thermophilic bacteria isolated from Rehai belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Deinococcus-Thermus. Firmicutes include neutrophilic or alkaliphilic Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Caldalkalibacillus, Caldanaerobacter, Laceyella, and Geobacillus, as well as thermoacidophilic Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus. Isolates from the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum include several Meiothermus and Thermus species. Many of these bacteria synthesize thermostable polymer-degrading enzymes that may be useful for biotechnology. The thermoacidophilic archaea Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobus have also been isolated and studied. A few studies have reported the isolation of thermophilic viruses belonging to Siphoviridae (TTSP4 and TTSP10 and Fuselloviridae (STSV1 infecting Thermus spp. and Sulfolobus spp., respectively. More recently, cultivation-independent studies using 16S rRNA gene sequences, shotgun metagenomics, or “functional gene” sequences have revealed a much broader diversity of microorganisms than represented in culture. Studies of the gene and mRNA encoding the large subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA and the tetraether lipid crenarchaeol, a potential biomarker for AOA, suggest a wide diversity, but possibly low abundance, of thermophilic AOA in Rehai. Finally, we introduce the Tengchong Partnerships in International Research and Education (PIRE project, an international collaboration between Chinese and U.S. scientists with

  20. Two novel cyclodextrin-degrading enzymes isolated from thermophilic bacteria have similar domain structures but differ in oligomeric state and activity profile. (United States)

    Turner, Pernilla; Labes, Antje; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Hreggvidson, Gudmundur O; Schönheit, Peter; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Holst, Olle; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg


    In this paper, we present the expression and characterization of two novel enzymes from the alpha-amylase family exhibiting cyclomaltodextrinase specificity. The nucleotide sequences encoding the enzymes were isolated from the genomic DNA of two thermophilic bacterial strains originating from Icelandic hot springs and belonging to the genera Anoxybacillus (AfCda13) and Laceyella (LsCda13). The genes were amplified using a consensus primer strategy utilizing two of the four conserved regions present in glycoside hydrolase family 13. No identifiable signal peptides were present in open reading frames encoding the enzymes, indicating an intracellular location of both enzymes, and their physiological function to be intracellular cyclodextrin degradation. The domain structures of both enzymes were also similar, including an N-terminal domain, the catalytic module composed of the A- and B-domains, and a C-terminal domain. Despite the similarity in domain composition, the two enzymes displayed differences in the oligomeric state with AfCda13 being a dimeric protein, whereas LsCda13 was monomeric. The two enzymes also displayed significantly different activity profiles, despite being active on the same range of substrates. It was shown that the enzyme displaying the highest activity on cyclodextrin was dimeric (AfCda13). Moreover, a fraction of the dimeric enzyme could be converted to a monomeric state in the presence of KCl and this fraction retained only 23% of its activity on alpha-cyclodextrin while its activity on starch was not significantly affected, indicating that the oligomeric state is an important factor for a high activity on cyclodextrin substrates.

  1. Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows. (United States)

    Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R


    This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2 ×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1 ×) or 3 times daily (3 ×) for 3 or 6 wk immediately postpartum, and then 2 × for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1 × produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2 ×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1 × milking; these animals also produced less than 1 × cows switched to 2 × milking after 3 wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2 ×, those previously milked 1 × had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3 × postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2 × controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3 ×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3 × milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1 × postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2 wk after cows had switched to 2 × milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2 × controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3 × had lower plasma

  2. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves. (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J


    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration.

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of tegaserod in patients from China with chronic constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Ren Lin; Mei-Yun Ke; Jin-Yan Luo; Yao-Zong Yuan; Ji-Yao Wang; Shelley diTommaso; Verena Walter; Jiaqing Huang


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tegaserod,6 mg twice daily (b.i.d.), in men and women with chronic constipation (CC) from China.METHODS: This was a multicenter, double-blind,placebo-controlled study. Following a 2-wk treatmentfree baseline period, patients were randomized to receive either tegaserod (6 mg b.i.d.) or placebo (b.i.d.) for 4 wk. An analysis of covariance with repeated measures was used to determine the overall effect of treatment for the primary efficacy variable; the change from baseline in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) during the 4-wk treatment period.Secondary efficacy endpoints included other measures of response in terms of CSBMs, and patients' daily and weekly assessment of bowel habits. Safety was also assessed, based on the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs).RESULTS: A total of 607 patients were randomized to receive either tegaserod (n = 304) or placebo (n = 303).Tegaserod treatment resulted in a rapid and significant increase from baseline in the adjusted mean number of CSBMs per week over wk 1-4 compared with placebo(1.39 vs 0.91, P = 0.0002). A statistically significant difference in favor of tegaserod was also observed for a mean increase ≥ 1 CSBM/wk over wk 1-4 (47.7%vs 35.0%, tegaserod vs placebo, respectively, P =0.0018) and for the absolute number of ≥ 3 CSBMs/wkover wk 1-4 (25.0% vs 14.5%, tegaserod vs placebo,respectively, P = 0.0021). Improvements in other symptoms of CC were also seen in the tegaserod group,including improved stool form and reduced straining. In addition, more patients in the tegaserod group reported satisfactory relief from their constipation symptoms. The frequency and severity of AEs was comparable between tegaserod and placebo groups, with the exception of a greater incidence of diarrhea in patients receiving tegaserod (3.6%) compared with placebo (1.7%).CONCLUSION: Tegaserod treatment improved multiple symptoms of CC and was associated with a favorable

  4. Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+/K+ pump {alpha}2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson; Wendell, Jesper;


    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in work capacity in endurance-trained runners as a result of a reduced amount of training combined with speed endurance training. Seventeen runners were for a 6- to 9-wk period assigned to either a speed endurance group with a 25......% reduction in the amount of training but including speed endurance training consisting of 6-12 30-s sprint runs 3-4 times a week (SET, n=12) or a control group (CON, n=5), which continued the endurance training (about 55 km(.)wk(-1)). For SET the expression of the muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2-subunit was 68......% higher (Ptraining period. In SET, VO2-max...

  5. Spontaneous Migration of Polyethylene Molecule Sheathed inside Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Nano-Heat Pipe. (United States)

    Liao, Quanwen; Liu, Zhichun; Yang, Nuo; Liu, Wei


    Development of nanoscale thermal exchanging devices is critical to thermal management in nanoscale. The spontaneous migration of polyethylene molecule sheathed inside single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are observed. And the multi-factor analysis of spontaneous migration about temperature, mass and potential barrier shows new features about motion mechanisms, and enriches the existing mass transport theory greatly. Here, based on this finding, we report a nano-heat pipe (NHP) composing of a SWCNT and a polyethylene molecule. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the heat exchanging coefficient can reach 450 WK(-1) cm(-2) at 500 K by NHP arrays with a quantity density of 7 × 10(13) cm(-2). This study will benefit the designs of NHP and other nanoscale mass transport devices.

  6. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F


    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  7. Alfalfa pellet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows increases bacterial endotoxin in the rumen without causing inflammation. (United States)

    Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C


    A study was conducted to determine if subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by feeding alfalfa pellets results in increases in free bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid and peripheral blood, and acute phase proteins in plasma, and to determine the effect of alfalfa pellet-induced SARA on feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, milk production and composition, and blood metabolites. Eight lactating Holstein cows, 4 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 6-wk experiment and were fed once daily at 0900 h. During wk 1, cows received a diet containing 50% of DM as concentrate and 50% of DM chopped alfalfa hay. Between wk 2 and wk 6, alfalfa hay was gradually replaced with alfalfa pellets at the rate of 8% per week to reduce rumen pH. Rumen pH was monitored continuously in the ruminally cannulated cows using indwelling pH probes. Rumen fluid and peripheral blood were sampled 15 min before feed delivery and at 6 h after feed delivery. Based on adopted threshold of SARA of at least 180 min/d below pH 5.6, SARA was induced from wk 3 onwards. Replacing 40% of alfalfa hay with alfalfa pellets quadratically increased the DMI from 18.1 kg/d in wk 1 to 23.4 kg/d in wk 6. This replacement linearly decreased milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.9 kg/d) and milk fat percentage and yield (2.32 vs. 3.22%, and 0.77 vs. 1.14 kg/d, respectively), but increased milk protein percentage and yield (3.80 vs. 3.04%, and 1.23 vs. 1.07 kg/d, respectively). This gradual replacement also linearly increased the daily averages of total volatile fatty acids (90 to 121.9 mM), acetate (53.9 to 66.8 mM), propionate (21.5 to 39.6 mM), and osmolality (277.7 to 293.8 mmol/kg) in the rumen and decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 2.62 to 1.73. Replacing alfalfa hay with alfalfa pellets linearly increased blood lactate from 1.00 mM in wk 1 to a peak of 3.46 mM in wk 5. Induction of SARA in this study increased free rumen LPS concentration from 42,122 endotoxin unit (EU

  8. True digestible phosphorus requirement for forty- to eighty-kilogram pigs. (United States)

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O


    The objective of this study was to determine the true digestible P requirement of 40- to 60-kg (Exp. 1) and 60- to 80-kg (Exp. 2) pigs by broken-line analysis of growth performance data using 6 levels of true digestible P. In each 3-wk experiment, 108 barrows and gilts were used, and 6 levels of monocalcium phosphate were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet to establish 6 graded levels of true total tract digestible P ranging from 1.26 to 3.98 g/kg of diet in Exp. 1 or from 1.21 to 3.31 g/kg in Exp. 2. The true digestible P content was calculated using true total tract digestibility of 40.53%, 35.96%, and 84.31% for P in corn, soybean meal, and monocalcium phosphate, respectively. Limestone was added accordingly to maintain a constant Ca level across all diets of each experiment. The results of Exp. 1 showed that with graded supplementation of monocalcium phosphate, ADG linearly increased ( < 0.001) in wk 1 and both linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.01) in wk 2, wk 3, and wk 0 to 3, and G:F linearly improved ( < 0.001) in wk 1, quadratically improved ( < 0.05) in wk 3, and both linearly and quadratically improved ( < 0.05) in wk 2 and wk 0 to 3 ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, ADG linearly increased ( < 0.001) in wk 1 and both linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) in wk 2, wk 3, and wk 0 to 3, with the graded supplementation of monocalcium phosphate, and G:F linearly improved ( < 0.01) in wk 1 and wk 3 and both linearly and quadratically improved ( < 0.001) in wk 2 and wk 0 to 3. In Exp. 1, the true digestible P requirement was estimated to be 2.66, 2.79, and 2.51 g/kg of diet (884 g DM/kg) for pigs of mixed sex, barrows, and gilts, respectively, on the basis of broken-line regression of ADG data for wk 0 to 3 against 6 true digestible P levels. Using G:F, the P requirement estimate was correspondingly 2.67, 2.51, and 2.93 g/kg of diet. In Exp. 2, the true digestible P requirement was estimated to be 2.29, 2.20, and 2.39 g/kg of diet (884 g DM/kg) using

  9. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O


    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training...... program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  10. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni


    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P....87±0.97 to 18.44±1.06 s) and RST by 4.3% post-intervention in the HIT-group only. Baseline RST fatigue index (FI) was 7.0±2.9 and 6.2±5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (PYo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance...

  11. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of pre- and postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Wangsness, P J


    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in elderly lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum and 60% corn silage:40% concentrate postpartum. On day 4 postpartum, cows were switched abruptly to the postpartum ration for 9 wk. Buffered rations contained .6% sodium bicarbonate prepartum and .7% postpartum. Daily dry matter intake as a percent of body weight for cows fed buffer postpartum (3.51%) was greater than for cows fed no buffer (3.04%) of buffer pre- and postpartum (3.14%). Average production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed buffer postpartum and buffer pre- and postpartum (31.9 kg/day and 31.7 kg/day) than for cows fed no buffer (28.9 kg/day). Milk fat tests were not different. Cows fed the buffered rations lost body weight between wk 1 and 9 as compared to a net gain for cows fed no buffer. Cows fed buffers consumed more dry matter during wk 1 than did cows fed no buffer. Samples of rumen fluid, feces, and serum showed few differences that could be attributed to treatments. Compared to controls, cows fed sodium bicarbonate adapted to rations more rapidly postpartum as indicated by increased feed intake during the first 2 wk and by increased milk production during the first 4 wk of the trial.

  12. Amounts of substrate carbon and nitrogen control the decomposition of soil organic matter (United States)

    Liu, X. J. A.; Sun, J.; Finley, B. K.; Dijkstra, P.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.


    Climate change, mainly caused by rising atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) deposition due to human activities, is postulated to increase energy and nutrient inputs to soils that can accelerate or retard soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, a phenomenon called the priming effect. Yet, the direction and magnitude of priming in response to different amounts of energy and nutrient inputs remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of carbon (C) and N additions on priming, microbial turnover, extracellular enzyme activities, CO2 fluxes, and C accumulation in four different ecosystems. We applied low and high C (13C glucose; 350 and 1000 μg C g-1 wk-1) and C with N (NH4NO3; 35 and 100 μg N g-1 wk-1) for five weeks. We found: 1) high C and high C+N stimulated weekly priming in the first two weeks and then leveled off, indicating soil microorganisms may have a short-term of accelerated growth and activity but quickly adapt to frequent inputs of high substrate amounts, 2) high C induced greater cumulative priming, microbial turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than low C, 3) high C+N had significantly lower cumulative priming, turnover, and β-glucosidase activities than high C, 4) high C and high C+N stimulated greater CO2 fluxes and C accumulations than low substrate inputs. These results suggest that the amount of substrate (energy and nutrient) was a determinant factor in modulating the rate of SOM decomposition, microbial turnover, enzyme activities, and C balance. Overall we demonstrate that increased energy inputs can quickly accelerate SOM decomposition, but concurrent nutrient inputs can suppress such process, which could have a huge impact on terrestrial C storage and global biogeochemical C cycling under climate change.

  13. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. (United States)

    Brook, Matthew S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Mitchell, William K; Lund, Jonathan N; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Greenhaff, Paul L; Smith, Ken; Atherton, Philip J


    Resistance exercise training (RET) is widely used to increase muscle mass in athletes and also aged/cachectic populations. However, the time course and metabolic and molecular control of hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Using newly developed deuterium oxide (D2O)-tracer techniques, we investigated the relationship between long-term muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophic responses to RET. A total of 10 men (23 ± 1 yr) undertook 6 wk of unilateral (1-legged) RET [6 × 8 repetitions, 75% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) 3/wk], rendering 1 leg untrained (UT) and the contralateral, trained (T). After baseline bilateral vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies, subjects consumed 150 ml D2O (70 atom percentage; thereafter 50 ml/wk) with regular body water monitoring in saliva via high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer:isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Further bilateral VL muscle biopsies were taken at 3 and 6 wk to temporally quantify MPS via gas chromatography:pyrolysis:isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Expectedly, only the T leg exhibited marked increases in function [i.e., 1-RM/maximal voluntary contraction (60°)] and VL thickness (peaking at 3 wk). Critically, whereas MPS remained unchanged in the UT leg (e.g., ∼1.35 ± 0.08%/d), the T leg exhibited increased MPS at 0-3 wk (1.6 ± 0.01%/d), but not at 3-6 wk (1.29 ± 0.11%/d); this was reflected by dampened acute mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling responses to RET, beyond 3 wk. Therefore, hypertrophic remodeling is most active during the early stages of RET, reflecting longer-term MPS. Moreover, D2O heralds promise for coupling MPS and muscle mass and providing insight into the control of hypertrophy and efficacy of anabolic interventions.

  14. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players. (United States)

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G


    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  15. Pinitol supplementation does not affect insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older humans. (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Haub, Mark D; Fluckey, James D; Ostlund, Richard E; Thyfault, John P; Morse-Carrithers, Hannah; Hulver, Matthew W; Birge, Zonda K


    This study assessed the effect of oral pinitol supplementation on oral and intravenous glucose tolerances and on skeletal muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in older people. Fifteen people (6 men, 9 women; age 66 +/- 8 y; BMI 27.9 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2); hemoglobin A1c 5.39 +/- 0.46%, mean +/- SD) completed a 7-wk protocol. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups that during wk 2-7 consumed twice daily either a non-nutritive beverage (Placebo group, n = 8) or the same beverage with 1000 mg pinitol dissolved into it (Pinitol group, n = 7, total dose = 2000 mg pinitol/d). Testing was done at wk 1 and wk 7. In the Pinitol group with supplementation, 24-h urinary pinitol excretion increased 17-fold. The fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the 180-min area under the curve for these compounds, in response to oral (75 g) and intravenous (300 mg/kg) glucose tolerance challenges, were unchanged from wk 1 to wk 7 and were not influenced by pinitol. Also, pinitol did not affect indices of hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test and indices of insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, and glucose effectiveness from the intravenous glucose tolerance test, estimated using minimal modeling. Pinitol did not differentially affect total insulin receptor content and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1158 and insulin receptor phosphotyrosine 1162/1163 activation in vastus lateralis samples taken during an oral-glucose-induced hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic state. These data suggest that pinitol supplementation does not influence whole-body insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and muscle insulin receptor content and phosphorylation in nondiabetic, older people.

  16. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different. (United States)

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin


    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  17. 漠河盆地科学钻探井MK-1地下冷环境中嗜热微生物的多样性分析%Thermophilic Microorganisms Diversity in the Underground Cold Environment of Scientific Test Well MK-1 in Mohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 张亚丽; 吕杰; 杨红兵


    Some evidence of thermophilic microorganisms has been found in the underground cold environment of Mohe Basin Scientific Test Well MK-1.In this study,the thermophilic microorganisms are studied with phylogenetic analysis and strain isolation.The result with PCR amplification by 16S rDNA gene primer of bacteria and archeal shows that there was no existence of 16S rDNA belonging to archeal and thermophilic has nearly relative relation to Thermus,Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus.Three kinds of genus of Geobacillus,with similarity of 100% each other,were isolated from the sediment samples.Thermophilic microorganisms are common in warm and rich organic ecological system underground.Therefore,understanding their sources,distribution mechanisms and diversity has indicating significance for searching energy and resources.%在漠河盆地科学钻探井MK-1地下110m冷环境样品中发现大量嗜热微生物存在的证据,针对这些冷环境中的嗜热菌进行了克隆文库分析和分离培养,分别用细菌和古菌16SrDNA引物PCR扩增.结果表明:未发现古菌16SrDNA存在,而嗜热细菌与栖热菌属(Thermus),地芽孢杆菌属(Geoba-cillus)和厌氧芽孢杆菌属(Anoxybacillus)有较近的亲缘关系,通过分离培养分离出3种地芽孢杆菌属(Geobacillus)的细菌,其相似度均为100%.嗜热微生物多存在于地下温暖有机质丰富的生态系统中,了解它们的来源、分布机制及其多样性对于能源和资源的寻找在一定程度上具有指示意义.

  18. Effects of a 7-week outdoor circuit training program on Swiss Army recruits. (United States)

    Hofstetter, Marie-Claire; Mäder, Urs; Wyss, Thomas


    The purpose of this study was to implement an outdoor circuit training program as an addition to standard training and to examine its effects on physical fitness and injury incidence rate in Swiss Army recruits. An intervention group (standard and additional training, n = 134, 21.0 ± 1.1 years, 74.1 ± 10.0 kg, and 1.78 ± 0.1 m) and a control group (standard training only, n = 125, 20.4 ± 1.2 years, 73.3 ± 9.1 kg, and 1.78 ± 0.1 m) from the same fusilier infantry training school were compared. Physical standard training in the Swiss Army is specified to consist of 2 sessions with a total duration of at least 3 h·wk(-1). Groups of 20-50 recruits undergo these trainings in a gymnasium hall and outdoors. Standard training includes a wide range of exercises and sport activities (strength and aerobic fitness training, team sports, obstacle courses, physical fitness tests, and orienteering). The additional circuit fitness training program implemented in this study was conducted once a week for 60 minutes. It was performed outdoors and consisted of the same exercises every week (warm-up, squats, prone bridge, back and shoulder exercise, stair climbing, side bridge, single leg balance, walking on a balance beam, intermitted running, and active recovery). Volunteers' physical fitness was assessed during the first and last weeks of basic military training (7 weeks) using a standing long jump, seated 2-kg shot put, 1-leg standing test (OLS), trunk muscle strength test (TMS), and progressive endurance run (PER). Injury data were collected in medical records for the 21 weeks of military training school. The intervention group performed 1.0 session of standard training for 70.0 minutes and 1.0 session of additional outdoor circuit training for 50.0 min·wk(-1). The control group performed 1.3 sessions of standard training for a total of 70.7 min·wk(-1). After the 7-week basic military training, the intervention and the control groups showed significant improvements in OLS

  19. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems. (United States)

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C


    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  20. Dy3+ ions doped single and mixed alkali fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses for LASER and white LED applications (United States)

    Annapurna Devi, Ch. B.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Swapna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Vijaya Prakash, G.


    A new-fangled series of Dy3+ ions doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by using XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dysbnd O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined and in turn used to determine various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of tungsten tellurite glass (TeWK:1Dy). The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By correlating the experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral features with radiative lifetimes (τR), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated and found to be maximum for potassium combination tungsten tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass. The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The chromaticity colour coordinates evaluated for all the glasses fall within the white light region and white light emission can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, it was concluded that 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and white-LED applications.

  1. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows. (United States)

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M


    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  2. Rumen lipopolysaccharide and inflammation during grain adaptation and subacute ruminal acidosis in steers. (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C


    Three rumen-fistulated Jersey steers were gradually adapted to a wheat-barley concentrate over a 4-wk period. Adaptation steps consisted of four 1-wk periods during which steers were fed diets with forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratios of 100:0, 79:21, 59:41, and 39:61. The forage consisted of chopped hay (CH), and the concentrate consisted of pelleted concentrate containing 50% ground wheat and 50% ground barley. Steers were fed the all-forage diet ad libitum during wk 1. Feed offered in wk 2 to 4 was kept constant at the ad libitum intake during wk 1. On 2 d that were set 3 d apart during wk 5, subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was induced in the steers by feeding a diet with an F:C ratio of 24:76 by offering them 0.9 kg of CH at 0900 h followed by 2 meals of 3.0 kg each of wheat-barley pellets (WBP) at 1100 h and 1300 h and 0.9 kg of CH at 1700 h, to depress rumen pH for at least 3 h/d below 5.6. The average concentrate inclusion for the SARA induction diet was 76 +/- 10% DM. During stepwise adaptation, time with pH below 5.6 increased to an average of 121 min/d when the steers were consuming a diet containing 61% DM as WBP. Dietary inclusion of WBP at the rate of 76% DM induced SARA because the steers spent an average of 219 min/d with pH below 5.6. The free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration increased from 6,310 endotoxin units (EU)/mL with the all-forage diet to 18,197 EU/mL with the 61% concentrate diet. The ruminal LPS concentration increased to 26,915 EU/mL when SARA was induced. Serum haptoglobin increased from 0.53 mg/mL when steers were on the all-forage diet to 1.90 mg/mL with the 61% concentrate diet and were not increased further by inducing SARA. The serum amyloid-A concentration was not affected by increasing dietary concentrate during stepwise adaptation to the concentrate, but increased from 71 to 163 microg/mL when SARA was induced. A gradual increase in dietary concentrate so that the F:C ratio decreased to 39:61 resulted in increased

  3. Surgical induced astigmatism correlated with corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure: transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge versus 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shao; Li-Jie; Dong; Yan; Zhang; Hui; Liu; Bo-Jie; Hu; Ju-Ping; Liu; Xiao-Rong; Li


    AIM: To determine the difference of surgical induced astigmatism between conventional 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, and the influence of corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure(IOP) on surgical induced astigmatism in diabetic patients.METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive case series consisted of 40 eyes of 38 diabetic subjects who underwent either 20-gauge or 23-gauge vitrectomy. The corneal curvature and thickness were measured with Scheimpflug imaging before surgery and 1wk; 1, 3mo after surgery. We compared the surgical induced astigmatism(SIA) on the true net power in 23-gauge group with that in 20-gauge group. We determined the correlation between corneal thickness change ratio, IOP and SIA measured by Pentacam. RESULTS: The mean SIAs were 1.082 ±0.085 D( mean ± SEM), 0.689 ±0.070 D and 0.459 ±0.063 D at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3mo respectively in diabetic subjects. The vitrectomy induced astigmatisms were declined significantly with time(F2,36=33.629, P =0.000)postoperatively. The 23-gauge surgery group induced significantly less astigmatism than 20-gauge surgery group(F1,37=11.046, P =0.020). Corneal thickness in diabetes elevated after surgery(F3,78=10.532, P =0.000).The linear regression analysis at postoperatively 1wk went as: SIA =-4.519 +4.931 change ratio(Port3) +0.026IOP(R2=0.46, P =0.000), whereas the rate of cornealthickness change and IOP showed no correlation with the change of astigmatism at postoperatively 1 and 3mo.CONCLUSION: There are significant serial changes in both 20-gauge and 23-gauge group in diabetic subjects.23-gauge induce less astigmatism than 20-gauge and become stable more rapidly than 20-gauge. The elevation of corneal thickness and IOP was associated with increased astigmatim at the early postoperative stage both in 23-gauge and 20-gauge surgery group.

  4. Effects of breed and diet on growth and body composition of crossbred Boer and Spanish wether goats. (United States)

    Ngwa, A T; Dawson, L J; Puchala, R; Detweiler, G D; Merkel, R C; Wang, Z; Tesfai, K; Sahlu, T; Ferrell, C L; Goetsch, A L


    Sixty growing 3/4 Boer x 1/4 Spanish (BS) and Spanish (SP) wethers were used to determine influences of diet and breed on growth and body composition. A pelleted 50% concentrate diet (CD) and a diet based on grass hay (HD) were fed for ad libitum intake. Six wethers of each breed were slaughtered at 0 wk (total of 12). Six wethers of each diet-breed combination were slaughtered at 14 and 28 wk (24 per time) after consumption of the CD or HD. Initial BW of fed wethers were 21.6 and 18.8 kg for BS and SP, respectively (SEM = 0.7). Average daily gain during the entire experiment was influenced by an interaction (P diet (199, 142, 44, and 50 g/d for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively). Carcass mass was greater (P diet. Mass of internal fat (12.2, 12.1, 3.4, and 3.4% empty BW for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively; SEM = 0.3) differed (P diets. Energy in the carcass (320, 236, 87, and 79 MJ), noncarcass tissues (318, 237, 77, and 72 MJ), and empty body (638, 472, 164, and 150 MJ) ranked (P SP:CD > BS:HD and SP:HD. Empty body concentration of protein was 18.3, 17.5, 18.3, and 19.7% (SEM = 0.3) and of fat was 24.0, 23.4, 10.8, and 10.3% for BS:CD, SP:CD, BS:HD, and SP:HD, respectively (SEM = 0.6). Energy concentration in accreted tissue was 17.0, 18.7, 16.3, and 6.4 MJ/kg for CD:wk 1 to 14, CD:wk 15 to 28, HD:wk 1 to 14, and HD:wk 15 to 28, respectively (SEM = 1.4). In conclusion, relatively high growth potential of growing Boer crossbred goats with a moderate to high nutritional plane does not entail a penalty in realized growth when the nutritional plane is low. Body composition of growing Boer and Spanish goats is fairly similar regardless of growth rate. For growing meat goats other than with a prolonged limited nutritional plane, an average energy concentration in accreted tissue is 17.3 MJ/kg.

  5. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development. (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A


    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  6. Effect of a ractopamine feeding program on growth performance and carcass composition in finishing pigs. (United States)

    See, M T; Armstrong, T A; Weldon, W C


    Barrows and gilts (n = 100 per gender) were used to determine the effects of an increasing, decreasing, or constant ractopamine (RAC) dietary concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs, within a gender, were assigned randomly to pens (five pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Pens were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments at a starting weight of 71.2 kg, to target an average ending weight of 109 kg. The four dietary treatments (as-fed basis) were 1) control = 0 ppm RAC, wk 0 to 6; 2) RAC step-up = 5.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 20.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; 3) RAC step-down = 20.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 5.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; and 4) RAC constant = 11.7 ppm, wk 0 to 6. Feed allocation was recorded daily, and pigs were weighed and feed was weighed back every 2 wk. Jugular blood samples were obtained from two randomly selected pigs per pen on d -3, 7, 21, 35, and 41 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. Two pigs were selected randomly per pen and sent to a commercial slaughter facility at the end of the 6-wk experimental period. Carcass data were evaluated on an equal time basis and on an equal weight basis by using hot carcass weight (HCW) as a covariate. Overall, ADG and G:F were improved (P pigs fed RAC compared with control, with no differences among RAC feeding programs. In wk 3 and 4, improvements (P pigs. The concentrations of PUN were decreased (P pigs fed RAC. If pigs were considered to be on feed for an equal time period, advantages (P < 0.05) were observed for weight of boneless trimmed ham, shoulder and loin for the step-up and constant RAC treatments compared with the controls. Feeding a RAC step-up or constant feeding program resulted in favorable responses in growth performance and yielded more lean pork.

  7. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette


    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  8. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC. (United States)

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E


    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself.

  9. Clinical efficacy observation of treatment for orbital cellulites%眶蜂窝织炎治疗效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽美; 史少阳; 冯雪梅; 胡娜; 裴存文



  10. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI WHEY KEFIR DAN AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE [Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Whey Kefir and Its Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Febrisiantosa*


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of whey-based kefir products and their activity to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. Kefir was produced by using many types of whey, namely SK: skim milk based kefir (control; WK: gouda cheese whey based kefir; and WKB: commercial whey powder based kefir. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each treatment was conducted in triplicates. Kefirs were evaluated for physical and chemical properties (pH, total titratable acidity, viscosity, protein, fat, lactose, and alcohol, microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and yeast population, peptide concentration, ACE inhibition, IC50 and Inhibition Efficiency Ratio (IER. The results showed that the types of whey used for kefir productions significantly affected the physical and chemical characteristics of the products (p0.05. The peptide concentration and ACE inhibitory activity of WK, 1.54±0.02 mg/mL and 73.07±0.91%, was significantly higher (p0.05 from the control (47.19±0.09% per mg/mL but was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of WKB (45.75±0.18% per mg/mL. This research indicated that whey kefir is a potential source of bioactive peptide for antihypertention agent.

  11. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A


    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Kennedy


    Full Text Available Despite its obvious advantages, few studies have examined health outcomes of regular stariclimbing. In this study, we investigated the training effects of eight weeks of stairclimbing on recognised measures of health-related fitness in an occupational setting. Forty-five public sector employees (22 male, 23 female aged 42.3 ± 9.0 years were randomly assigned to control (n = 16 or stairclimbing (n = 29 groups. Stairclimbing training began with 1 bout 5d·wk-1 in week 1, increasing by one climb per day every two weeks until week 5, where a maintenance level of 3 climbs per day was reached. Participants climbed on staircases located within an 8 storey office block, consisting of 145 steps. The prescribed exercise intensity involved climbing the 8 flights of stairs at a rate of 75 steps·min-1. All participants agreed not to change their diet or lifestyle over the experimental period. Relative to controls, the stairclimbing group showed a significant increase of 9.4% in predicted VO2max (p < 0. 05. No significant changes in blood pressure, blood lipid concentrations or body composition were noted. These findings provide evidence that stairclimbing can enhance an important component of health-related fitness, namely cardiovascular fitness. Given that such improvement resulted from less than 30 minutes per week of moderate exercise, stairclimbing in the workplace should be promoted as a health-enhancing physical activity

  13. Physical activity and energy expenditure: findings from the Ibadan Pregnant Women's Survey. (United States)

    Adeniyi, Ade F; Ogwumike, Omoyemi O


    Physical activity, if there are no medical caveats, is beneficial to all people including pregnant women. This study examined the level of physical activity in a group of pregnant Nigerian women. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of 453 pregnant women. The mean age of participants was 30.89 +/- 4.44 years, 222 (49.0%) were sedentary, and only 46 (10.2%) presented with moderate activity level. The highest amount of energy (75.9 MET-h x wk(-1)) was expended on household activities. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy had more than three times the risk of being sedentary (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.11-4.56) but the risk reduced by 58% in gravid > or = 5 women. Most of the pregnant women recorded physical activity that was lower than the recommended level, which could lead to unfavourable health outcomes for mother and child. Efforts to promote physical activity in pregnant women in this environment are desirable.

  14. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers. (United States)

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (p<0.05), while the blood calcium content of LP was higher than that of the MP and HP groups (p<0.05), though still in the normal range. The serum contents of alkalinephosphatase, potassium, and magnesium were similar among the treatments. No differences were found in all nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficients with varied dietary P. However, with P diet decreased from HP to LP, the total fecal P and urine P concentration declined significantly, as did fecal water soluble P (p<0.05). In conclusion, reducing the dietary P from 0.42% to 0.26% did not negatively affect the heifers' growth performance but did significantly lessen manure P excretion into the environment.

  15. Phonon-drag effect in FeGa3 (United States)

    Wagner-Reetz, Maik; Kasinathan, Deepa; Schnelle, Walter; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Rosner, Helge; Grin, Yuri; Gille, Peter


    The thermoelectric properties of single-crystalline and polycrystalline FeGa3 are systematically investigated over a wide temperature range. At low temperatures, below 20 K, previously not known pronounced peaks in the thermal conductivity (400 -800 WK-1 m-1) with corresponding maxima in the thermopower (in the order of -16000 μ V K-1) were found in single-crystalline samples. Measurements in single crystals along [100] and [001] directions indicate only a slight anisotropy in both the electrical and thermal transports. From susceptibility and heat-capacity measurements, a magnetic or structural phase transition was excluded. Using density functional theory based calculations, we have revisited the electronic structure of FeGa3 and compared the magnetic (including correlations) and nonmagnetic electronic densities of states. Thermopower at fixed carrier concentrations is calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, and the calculated results match fairly with our experimental data. The inclusion of strong electron correlations treated in a mean field manner (by LSDA + U ) does not improve this comparison, rendering strong correlations as the sole explanation for the low-temperature enhancement unlikely. Eventually, after a careful review, we assign the peaks in the thermopower as a manifestation of the phonon-drag effect, which is supported by thermopower measurements in a magnetic field.

  16. Ergonomic task reduction prevents bone osteopenia in a rat model of upper extremity overuse. (United States)

    Barbe, Mary F; Jain, Nisha X; Massicotte, Vicky S; Popoff, Steven N; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E


    We evaluated the effectiveness of ergonomic workload reduction of switching rats from a high repetition high force (HRHF) lever pulling task to a reduced force and reach rate task for preventing task-induced osteopenic changes in distal forelimb bones. Distal radius and ulna trabecular structure was examined in young adult rats performing one of three handle-pulling tasks for 12 wk: (1) HRHF, (2) low repetition low force (LRLF); or (3) HRHF for 4 wk and than LRLF thereafter (HRHF-to-LRLF). Results were compared to age-matched controls rats. Distal forelimb bones of 12-wk HRHF rats showed increased trabecular resorption and decreased volume, as control rats. HRHF-to-LRLF rats had similar trabecular bone quality as control rats; and decreased bone resorption (decreased trabecular bone volume and serum CTX1), increased bone formation (increased mineral apposition, bone formation rate, and serum osteocalcin), and decreased osteoclasts and inflammatory cytokines, than HRHF rats. Thus, an ergonomic intervention of HRHF-to-LRLF prevented loss of trabecular bone volume occurring with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task. These findings support the idea of reduced workload as an effective approach to management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and begin to define reach rate and load level boundaries for such interventions.

  17. Rubber band ligation for 750 cases of symptomatic hemorrhoids out of 2200 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayman M El Nakeeb; Hisham H Abd Elmoniam; Waiel W Khafagy; Mosaad H Horshed; Ramadan E El Lithy; Mohamed E Farid; Amir A Fikry; Waleed H Omar; Elyamani M Fouda; Tito A El Metwally; Hosam E Ghazy; Sabry A Badr; Mohmed Y Abu Elkhar; Salih M Elawady


    AIM: To study the results for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids using rubber band ligation (RBL) method. METHODS: A retrospective study for 750 patients who came to the colorectal unit from June, 1998 to September, 2006, data was retrieved from archived files. RBL was performed using the Mc Gown applicator on an outpatient basis. The patients were asked to return to out-patient clinic for follow up at 2 wk, 1 mo, 6 mo and through telephone call every 6 mo for 2 years). RESULTS: After RBL, 696 patients (92.8%) were cured with no difference in outcome for second or third degree hemorrhoids (P = 0.31). Symptomatic recurrence was detected in 11.04% after 2 years. A total of 52 patients (6.93%) had 77 complications from RBL which required no hospitalization. Complications were pain, rectal bleeding and vaso-vagal symptoms (4.13%, 4.13% and 1.33% of patients, respectively). At 1 mo there were a significant improvement in mean SF-36 scores over baseline in five items, while after 2 years there were improvement in all items over baseline, but not significant. No significant manometeric changes after band ligation. CONCLUSION: RBL is a simple, safe and effective method for treating symptomatic second and third degree hemorrhoids as an out patient procedure with significant improvement in quality of life. RBL doesn't alter ano-rectal functions.

  18. Mechanism of benign biliary stricture: A morphological and immunohistochemical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Min Geng; Ying-Min Yao; Qing-Guang Liu; Xin-Jie Niu; Xiao-Gong Liu


    AIM: To explore the mechanism of benign biliary stricture.METHODS: A model of trauma of bile duct was established in 28 dogs. The anastomosed tissues were resected and examined by light and electron microscopes on day 3, in wk 1, 3 and mo 3, 6 after operation. CD68, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were examined by immunohistochemical staining, respectively.RESULTS: The mucosal epithelium of the bile duct was slowly recovered, chronic inflammation lasted for a long time,fibroblasts proliferated actively, extracellular matrix was over-deposited. Myofibroblasts functioned actively and lasted through the whole process. The expression of macrophages in lamina propria under mucosa, TGF-β1 in granulation tissue,fibroblasts and endothelial cells of blood vessels, α-SMA in myofiroblasts were rather strong from the 1st wk to the 6th mo after operation.CONCLUSION: The type of healing occurring in bile duct belongs to overhealing. Myofibroblasts are the main cause for scar contracture and stricture of bile duct. High expressions of CD68, TGF-β1 and α-SMA are closely related to the active proliferation of fibroblasts, extracellular matrix overdeposition and scar contracture of bile duct.

  19. Outcome comparison between transcanalicular and external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunay; Uludag; Baris; Yeniad; Erdinc; Ceylan; Ayse; Yildiz-Tas; Lale; Kozer-Bilgin


    AIM: To compare the outcomes achieved with external dacryocystorhinostomy(EX-DCR) and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy(TC-DCR) using a multidiode laser in patients with bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction(NLDO).METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on38 eyes of 19 patients with bilateral NLDO. Simultaneous bilateral surgery was performed on all patients. TC-DCR(Group 1) with a diode laser was used in the right eye,and EX-DCR(Group 2) was used in the left eye. All patients were placed under general anesthesia. Routine follow-ups were scheduled at 1wk; 1, 3, 6 and 12 mo postoperative intervals. Objective(lacrimal system irrigation) and subjective [tearing, irritation, pain,discharge and visual analogue scale(VAS) score]outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS: The overall objective success rate at 12 mo was 73.7%(14/19) in Group 1 and 89.5 %(17/19) in Group2. This difference was statistically significant. There were no significant between-group differences in the subjective results, such as tearing, pain and irritation.Only the discharge scores were found to be significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at the 1y followup. The average VAS score was 6.8 in Group 1 and 8.7 in Group 2, with no statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: Although TC-DCR allows surgeons to perform a minimally invasive and safe procedure, EX-DCR offers better objective and subjective outcomes than TC-DCR.

  20. Evaluation of early results of quick-chop phacoemulsification in the patients with high myopic cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Akal; Tugba; Goncu; Sevin; Soker; Cakmak; Isa; Yuvaci; Mustafa; Atas; Süleyman; Demircan; Omer; Faruk; Yilmaz


    AIM:To assess the early surgical outcomes of quickchop phacoemulsification technique in patients with high myopia.METHODS:The data of patients with high myopia who underwent quick-chop phacoemulsification were reviewed retrospectively. There were 42 eyes of 31 patients. The axial length was more than 26 mm in all eyes. All eyes underwent quick-chop phacoemulsification surgery with the placement of an intraocular lens(IOL) in the capsular bag. Postoperative visits were performed at 1, 3d; 2wk,1mo. Early postoperative best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelial cell density(ECD), central corneal thickness(CCT) and postoperative complications were assessed.Paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon tests were used to compare data between preoperative and postoperative data.· RESULTS:There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative ECD and CCT. Retinal detachment was developed in one eye at postoperative first day. There was an iris prolapsus from side port insicion.· CONCLUSION:Quick-chop phacoemulsification technique is a safe surgical technique. However we can encounter some complications in high myopic eyes due to histopathological differences. Both side port and clear corneal tunnel insicion size is crucial for preventing postoperative complications. If any persistent leakage is noticed, suture should be placed.

  1. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players. (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R


    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

  2. On the number of empty boxes in the Bernoulli sieve II

    CERN Document Server

    Iksanov, Alexander


    The Bernoulli sieve is the infinite "balls-in-boxes" occupancy scheme with random frequencies $P_k=W_1... W_{k-1}(1-W_k)$, where $(W_k)_{k\\in\\mn}$ are independent copies of a random variable $W$ taking values in $(0,1)$. Assuming that the number of balls equals $n$, let $L_n$ denote the number of empty boxes within the occupancy range. In the paper we investigate convergence in distribution of $L_n$ in the two cases which remained open after the previous studies. In particular, provided that $\\me |\\log W|=\\me |\\log (1-W)|=\\infty$ and that the law of $W$ assigns comparable masses to the neighborhoods of 0 and 1, it is shown that $L_n$ weakly converges to a geometric law. This result is derived as a corollary to a more general assertion concerning the number of zero decrements of nonincreasing Markov chains. In the case that $\\me |\\log W|<\\infty$ and $\\me |\\log (1-W)|=\\infty$ we derive several further possible modes of convergence in distribution of $L_n$. It turns out that the class of possible limiting law...

  3. A training program to improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players. (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players. We combined components from a previously published knee ligament injury prevention intervention program for jump and strength training with additional exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular indices in high school female volleyball players. Thirty-four athletes (age 14.5 years ± 1.0) participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the school's volleyball court and weight room facilities. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and sit-up test before and after training. A significant increase was found in the mean VO2max score (p volleyball programs.

  4. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting the Salmonella carrier-state in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumstead Nat


    Full Text Available Abstract Selection for increased resistance to Salmonella colonisation and excretion could reduce the risk of foodborne Salmonella infection. In order to identify potential loci affecting resistance, differences in resistance were identified between the N and 61 inbred lines and two QTL research performed. In an F2 cross, the animals were inoculated at one week of age with Salmonella enteritidis and cloacal swabs were carried out 4 and 5 wk post inoculation (thereafter called CSW4F2 and CSW4F2 and caecal contamination (CAECF2 was assessed 1 week later. The animals from the (N × 61 × N backcross were inoculated at six weeks of age with Salmonella typhimurium and cloacal swabs were studied from wk 1 to 4 (thereafter called CSW1BC to CSW4BC. A total of 33 F2 and 46 backcross progeny were selectively genotyped for 103 and 135 microsatellite markers respectively. The analysis used least-squares-based and non-parametric interval mapping. Two genome-wise significant QTL were observed on Chromosome 1 for CSW2BC and on Chromosome 2 for CSW4F2, and four suggestive QTL for CSW5F2 on Chromosome 2, for CSW5F2 and CSW2BC on chromosome 5 and for CAECF2 on chromosome 16. These results suggest new regions of interest and the putative role of SAL1.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić


    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C


    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liquid.......003)] but not in NGT. HOMA-IR decreased by 50% in both groups. ß-GS increased in T2D [Pre: 1.03 ± 0.49, 1 wk: 1.70 ± 1.2, (P = 0.012)] but did not change in NGT. The increase in DI(ß-GS) was 3-fold in T2D and 1.5-fold in NGT. After RYGB, glucagon secretion was increased in response to the meal. GIP secretion...... was unchanged, while GLP-1 secretion increased more than 10-fold in both groups. The changes induced by RYGB were sustained or further enhanced 3 mo and 1 yr after surgery. Improvement in glycemic control in T2D after RYGB occurs within days after surgery and is associated with increased insulin sensitivity...

  7. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas


    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y......; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6...... MNC and plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations were reduced in the LGI group. The change in MNC-derived TNFα (r = 0.43; P = 0.04) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.44; P = 0.04) correlated with decreases in the glycemic response. These data highlight the importance of diet composition in the treatment...

  8. Infrared sensor by inkjet printing cytochrome c on suspending aluminum electrodes of post CMOS process (United States)

    Liang, Shuo-Feng; Yen, Po-Hsien; Su, Guo-Dung John


    Cytochrome c protein thin film possesses a high temperature coefficient of resistance. In this paper, we systematically investigated the characteristics of cytochrome c, whose absorption coefficient is 65% at wavelengths of 8 12 μm. We found that the changes in resistance resulted from surface roughness. We also discovered that, while cytochrome c improves the temperature coefficient of resistance, a pure protein solution does not conduct well. It needs a buffer solution, acting as an electrolyte, to increase electrical conductance. However, the buffer solution decreases the temperature coefficient. Therefore, optimization of the ratio of cytochrome c protein to buffer solution is required. We determined the best mixing ratio of the protein solution for a sensing material. We then designed a chip for an infrared microbolometer with a MEMS structure of suspended aluminum electrodes. The protein solution was deposited on the sensing pixel using an inkjet printer. The temperature coefficient of resistance, thermal conductance, time constant and responsivity were 25.98%/K, 7.96 × 10-5 W/K, 1.094 ms and 2.57 × 105 V/W at 2 μA bias current, respectively. We experimentally demonstrated integrating cytochrome c protein with a CMOS circuit as a sensing pixel for a longwavelength infrared microbolometer. Based on our experimental results, such a microbolometer array holds promise for the future.

  9. Levels of the Novel Glycoprotein Lacritin in Human Tears After Laser Refractive Surgery (United States)


    1355 1091 P15 544 1038 343 624 1493 P16 2378 1032 2050 3355 1782 P17 650 522 1257 388 611 P18 1487 982 819 637 986 P19 1131 695 2109 1150 1322...1.281 1.280 13.1 1.066 1.080 11.5 1.408 1.360 13.8 ELISA - LASIK P15 - P16 100 ng 4/9/13 pLAC 3/20/13 = 253 ug/ml Blocking buffer= 1% BSA Primary...1.423 1.403 P15 1 WK 1.558 1.533 1.605 1.565 P15.1 MO 0.973 0.947 1.037 0.986 P15 3 MO 1.545 1.53 1.506 1.527 P15 6 MO 1.059 1.061 1.036 1.052 P16

  10. Hydrochemical data base for the Death Valley Region, California and Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfect, D.L.; Faunt, C.C.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Turner, A.K.


    Ground-water chemistry data derived from samples collected within an approximately 100,000-square-kilometer area in the Southern Great Basin have been compiled into a digital data base. The data were compiled from published reports, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS), and previously unpublished USGS files. The data are contained in two compressed files which self-expand into Lotus (.WK1) files. The first file contains 4,738 records (4.84 megabytes) and represents the basic compilation of all identified analyses. The second file is an edited version of the first and contains 3,733 records (3.84 megabytes). Editing included the removal of duplicate records and the combining of records, when appropriate. The analyses presented are of variable quality and comprehensiveness and include no isotopic data. Of the 3,733 analyses in the edited data base, 58 percent of the major ion concentrations balance to within {+-}10 percent. Most of the remaining records are not sufficiently complete for a balance to be calculated.

  11. Diet- or warfarin-induced vitamin K insufficiency elevates circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin without altering skeletal status in growing female rats. (United States)

    Haffa, A; Krueger, D; Bruner, J; Engelke, J; Gundberg, C; Akhter, M; Binkley, N


    To further characterize the skeletal role of vitamin K (K), markers of bone turnover, density, and strength were evaluated in rats with diet- or warfarin (W)-induced K insufficiency. One hundred two, 7-week-old, female rats were randomly assigned to low K (phylloquinone [K1], 20 microg/kg diet), control K (K1, 1300 microg/kg diet), low-dose W (W, 1.5 mg/kg control diet), or high-dose W plus K (W/K1, 10/100 mg/kg diet). Femur bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), plasma prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin concentration (PC), and serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP) were measured at baseline and days 20, 40, 60, and 80. Serum total osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and femur length (FL) were measured at baseline and day 80. Left femur OC was measured and biomechanical testing of the right femur and third lumbar vertebral body was performed at day 80. Low dietary K elevated circulating ucOC (17% higher than control; p diet manipulation. This does not hinder peak bone mass attainment in female rats; however, W causes less newly synthesized OC to be deposited in bone.

  12. Numerical study of unsteady flows with cavitation in a high-speed micro centrifugal pump (United States)

    Li, Yeqiang; Yuan, Shiwei; Lai, Huanxin


    The unsteady flows caused by the interaction between the impeller and the volute in a high-speed micro centrifugal pump are numerically studied. The internal flows of both with and without cavitations are analyzed using the CFX. The characteristics of unsteady pressure on the blade surfaces and the symmetric plane of the volute are presented and compared. The results show that the amplitudes of pressure fluctuations of critical cavitation on the blade pressure surface (PS) are bigger as compared with those at the non-cavitation condition, but on the suction surface (SS), the situation is on the contrary. When cavitation occurs, reduction of load in the impeller is a result. In the present study, such reduction of load is observed mainly on the first half of the blades. Pressure fluctuations at five monitoring points, denoted by WK1 to WK5 in the volute, are also analyzed. No matter at the critical cavitation or at the non-cavitation conditions, the monitored pressure fluctuations are at the same frequencies, which equal to the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its multiples. However, the amplitudes of the fluctuations at critical cavitation condition are considerably stronger, as compared with those for without cavitation.

  13. Comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in treatment of panic disorder%艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀治疗惊恐障碍对照观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝利明; 朱培俊; 方伟均; 蔡进伟; 吴素琴; 王静


    目的 对照观察艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀对惊恐障碍患者的疗效及安全性.方法 将68例惊 恐障碍患者随机分为艾司西酞普兰组(n=36)和帕罗西汀组(n=32).艾司西酞普兰wkl剂量为10 mg·d-1,wk 2剂量为15 mg·d-1,wk 3剂量加至15~20 mg·d-1;帕罗西汀wk 1剂量为20 mg·d-1,wk 2为30 mg·d-1,wk 4酌情加量至40 mg·d-1 (bid).疗程8 wk.用惊恐症状评定量表(PASS)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表17项(HAMD-17)、副反应量表(TESS)对患者治疗前后进行评估.结果 艾司西酞普兰组有33例、帕罗西汀组有31例完成了治疗.与基线相比,艾司西酞普兰组HAMD和HAMA总分分别从wk 2和wk 1末开始有明显下降(P<0.05),帕罗西汀组则分别在wk 4和wk 2末开始下降(P<0.05);治疗终点时2组总分变化均较基线有非常显著差异(P<0.01),2组PASS减分值分别为(9.6±3.8)和(9.1±3.4),较基线明显改善(均P< 0.01),而2组之间无显著差异(P>0.05).艾司西酞普兰组治愈率、有效率分别为85%、91%,帕罗西汀组分别为81%、90%,2组无显著差异(P>0.05).2组不良反应发生率无显著差异(P> 0.05).结论 艾司西酞普兰治疗惊恐障碍的疗效、安全性与帕罗西汀相当,而起效较快.%AIM To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of escitalopram in treating patients with panic disorder. METHODS Sixty-eight patients with panic disorder were randomized divided into escitalopram group (n = 36) and paroxetine group (re = 32). The dosage of escitalopram was 10 mg·d-1 (wk 1), 15 mg·d-1 (wk 2) and 15 - 20 mg·d-1 (wk 3) and the dosage of paroxetine was 20 mg·d-1 (wk 1), 30 mg·d-1 (wk 2) and 40 mg·d-1 (bid, wk 4). The course of the treatment was eight weeks for each group. All the patients were rated by PASS, HAMA, HAMD-17 and TESS before and after the treatment. RESULTS Thirty-three patients of the escitalopram group and 31 patients of the paroxetine group had

  14. A randomized controlled trial of Kung Fu training for metabolic health in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study. (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone


    Twenty overweight/obese adolescents underwent six months of Kung Fu or placebo (Tai Chi) training, 3x.wk(-1). Outcomes included fasting insulin and insulin resistance, lipids, glucose and HbA(1c), and C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP decreased significantly (p = 0.03) in both groups over time at six months. Although insulin sensitivity did not change, HbA(1c) tended to decrease over time (p = 0.09), again with no group difference (p = 0.60). Reduced CRP was related to increased upper body strength (p = 0.01). Increased lean body mass was related to reductions in HbA(1c), insulin resistance, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Improvements in lean body mass appear to have a potential role in favorable metabolic outcomes, independent of changes in fat mass. Further research in this area is warranted before definite conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of martial arts training for metabolic outcomes in this cohort.

  15. Anomia treatment platform as behavioral engine for use in research on physiological adjuvants to neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kendall, PhD


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a "behavioral treatment engine" for future use in research on physiological adjuvants in aphasia rehabilitation. We chose the behavioral target anomia, which is a feature displayed by many persons who have aphasia. Further, we wished to saturate the treatment approach with many strategies and cues that have been empirically reported to have a positive influence on aphasia outcome, with the goal being to optimize the potential for positive response in most participants. A single-subject multiple baseline design with replication across eight participants was employed. Four men and four women, with an average age of 62 yr and an average of 63.13 mo poststroke onset, served as participants. Word-retrieval treatment was administered 3 d/wk, 1 h/d for a total of 20 treatment hours (6–7 wk. Positive acquisition effects were evident in all eight participants (d effect size [ES] = 5.40. Treatment effects were maintained 3 mo after treatment termination for five participants (d ES = 2.94. Within and across semantic category, generalization was minimal (d ES = 0.43 within and 1.09 across. This study demonstrates that this behavioral treatment engine provides a solid platform on which to base future studies whereby various treatment conditions are manipulated and pharmacologic support is added.

  16. Anomia treatment platform as behavioral engine for use in research on physiological adjuvants to neurorehabilitation. (United States)

    Kendall, Diane; Raymer, Anastasia; Rose, Miranda; Gilbert, JoEllen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J


    The purpose of this study was to create a "behavioral treatment engine" for future use in research on physiological adjuvants in aphasia rehabilitation. We chose the behavioral target anomia, which is a feature displayed by many persons who have aphasia. Further, we wished to saturate the treatment approach with many strategies and cues that have been empirically reported to have a positive influence on aphasia outcome, with the goal being to optimize the potential for positive response in most participants. A single-subject multiple baseline design with replication across eight participants was employed. Four men and four women, with an average age of 62 yr and an average of 63.13 mo poststroke onset, served as participants. Word-retrieval treatment was administered 3 d/wk, 1 h/d for a total of 20 treatment hours (6-7 wk). Positive acquisition effects were evident in all eight participants (d effect size [ES] = 5.40). Treatment effects were maintained 3 mo after treatment termination for five participants (d ES = 2.94). Within and across semantic category, generalization was minimal (d ES = 0.43 within and 1.09 across). This study demonstrates that this behavioral treatment engine provides a solid platform on which to base future studies whereby various treatment conditions are manipulated and pharmacologic support is added.

  17. Olympic weightlifting training causes different knee muscle-coactivation adaptations compared with traditional weight training. (United States)

    Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an Olympic weightlifting (OL) and traditional weight (TW) training program on muscle coactivation around the knee joint during vertical jump tests. Twenty-six men were assigned randomly to 3 groups: the OL (n = 9), the TW (n = 9), and Control (C) groups (n = 8). The experimental groups trained 3 d · wk(-1) for 8 weeks. Electromyographic (EMG) activity from the rectus femoris and biceps femoris, sagittal kinematics, vertical stiffness, maximum height, and power were collected during the squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ), before and after training. Knee muscle coactivation index (CI) was calculated for different phases of each jump by dividing the antagonist EMG activity by the agonist. Analysis of variance showed that the CI recorded during the preactivation and eccentric phases of all the jumps increased in both training groups. The OL group showed a higher stiffness and jump height adaptation than the TW group did (p knee, coupled with changes of leg stiffness, differ between the 2 programs. The OL program improves jump performance via a constant CI, whereas the TW training caused an increased CI, probably to enhance joint stability.

  18. Steroids reduce local inflammatory mediator secretion and mucosal permeability in collagenous colitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesuf Taha; Yngve Raab; Marie Carlson; Anders Larsson; Mikael L(o)rdal; Lars L(oo)f; Magnus Th(o)rn


    AIM: To study the effect of oral steroids upon clinical response and rectal mucosa secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and albumin in patients with collagenous colitis (CC).METHODS: A segmental perfusion technique was used to collect perfusates from rectum of CC patients once before and twice (one and four weeks) after the start of steroid treatment. Clinical data was monitored and ECP, MPO, bFGF, VEGF and albumin concentrations were analyzed by immunochemical methods in perfusates and in serum.RESULTS: Steroids reduced the number of bowel movements by more than five times within one week and all patients reported improved subjective wellbeing at wk 1 and 4. At the same time, the median concentrations of ECP, bFGF, VEGF and albumin in rectal perfusates decreased significantly. MPO values were above the detection limit in only 3 patients before treatment and in none during treatment. VEGF, bFGF,ECP and albumin concentrations correlated with each other with the exception of ECP and albumin. A decrease of serum ECP and VEGF concentrations was also seen even if the overtime reduction was not significant.CONCLUSION: Oral steroid treatment in CC patients induced a simultaneous reduction of bowel movements and rectal release of ECP, bFGF, VEGF and albumin,suggesting that these polypeptides and increased mucosal permeability are important components of the pathophysiology in collagenous colitis.

  19. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers. (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J


    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  20. Study on effect of phacoemulsification combined with goniosynechialysis on corneal endothelial cells for the treatment of angle closure glaucoma%超声乳化联合前房角分离术对伴有白内障的闭角型青光眼角膜内皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 颜华


    AIM:To observe the effect of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens ( IOL ) implantation combined with goniosynechialysis on corneal endothelial cells for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma ( PACG ) combined cataract, and to analyze the relative factors.METHODS: Ninety-five eyes of 95 patients with PACG combined cataract were documented in this study. Twenty-two patients were male, and 73 were female. The age ranged from 46 to 85y old with a mean of(66±7) y. All patients were examined for endothelial cell count ( ECC ) , intraocular pressure ( IOP ) and best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA ) 1wk, 1, 2, 3 and 6mo after operation. Meanwhile, the range of anterior chamber closure and anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) were recorded before operation and postoperative 6mo. RESULTS: The mean IOP was 36. 1±4. 3mmHg ( 28-42mmHg) preoperatively and 15. 8±3. 5mmHg ( 8-28 mmHg)(1mmHg=0. 133kPa) 6mo after operation. There was a decreasing trend in IOP after operation( t=17. 173, P CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification and IOL -implantation combined with goniosynechialysis is an effective method to treat PACG combined cataract. It can increase BCVA and decrease IOP. ECC decreases after operation, but it is in the normal range. It is a safe and effective operation mode.%目的:探讨伴有白内障的原发性闭角型青光眼( primary angle closure glaucoma ,PACG)采用超声乳化白内障吸出(phacoemulsification,Phaco)人工晶状体(IOL)植入联合前房角分离术治疗后角膜内皮细胞的变化,并分析相关影响因素。  方法:回顾分析接受Phaco+IOL联合前房角分离术治疗的PACG合并白内障患者95例95眼,其中女73例,男22例,年龄46~85(平均66±7)岁。记录并分析术前及术后1wk,1、2、3、6mo 最佳矫正视力( BCVA)、眼内压( IOP)及角膜内皮细胞计数( endothelial cell count,ECC),同时记录术前及术后6 mo 前房深度( anterior chamber depth,ACD)以及前房角关闭范围。随访8mo~2a。 

  1. 同轴2.2mm与2.8mm 切口白内障超声乳化术后眼表和泪膜的变化%Changes of the ocular surface and tear film after the coaxial micro incision 2 . 2 mm and 2 . 8 mm in the phacoemulsification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海平; 邓德勇; 谢美娜


    AIM:To study the changes of tear film and ocular surface after the coaxial micro incision 2. 2mm and 2. 8mm in the phacoemulsification. METHODS:Eighty-six patients ( One hundred and six eyes ) from 2014/06 to 2016/01 in our hospital were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Forty-four patients ( Fifty-three eyes) in group A: coaxial 2. 2mm micro- incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens(IOL) implantation;Forty-two patients ( Fifty-three eyes ) in group B: the conventional coaxial 2. 8mm small incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and IOL implantation. The break up time ( BUT) , dry eye symptom ( DES) score, Schirmer's I test ( SⅠt ) and lid-wiper epitheliopathy ( LWE ) score were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS:At 1wk, 1 and 2mo postoperatively, the BUT in two groups decreased after operations, and the BUT of group B was significantly lower than those of group A, the differences were statistically significant ( t = 3. 098, 4.512, 4.329; all P 0. 05). The BUT, DES score, SⅠt and LWE score in group B showed statistically significant differences (t=-4. 063, 7. 306, 3. 621, 4. 208;all P  方法:选取2014-06/2016-01我院接受超声乳化术的白内障患者86例106眼。采取随机分组的方式,将其分为两组,分别为A组和B组,每组各53眼。 A组采用2.2 mm同轴超声乳化白内障术(44例53眼),B组采用2.8mm同轴超声乳化白内障术(42例53眼)。观察两组患者的主观干燥异物感( dry eye symptom,DES)评分、泪膜破裂时间( break-up time,BUT)、泪液分泌试验( Schirmer's I test, SIt)和眼睑刷上皮病变(lid-wiper epitheliopathy,LWE),比较各项结果对患者影响程度的差异。  结果:两组患者术后1wk,1、3mo时的BUT与术前相比,均低于术前,其差异具有统计学意义( t=3.098、4.512、4.329,均P0.05);B组患者的BUT、DES评分、SIt和LWE与术前比较,差异具有统计学意义( t=-4.063

  2. 超声乳化术不同切口对白内障患者泪膜稳定性的影响%Effects of different phacoemulsification incisions on the tear film stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察超声乳化手术不同切口对白内障患者泪膜稳定性的影响。  方法:随机抽取2014-01/2015-09我院行白内障超声乳化手术的患者108例144眼,分成两组:A 组行透明角膜切口(52例74眼);B 组行巩膜隧道切口(56例70眼)。两组患者保持相同的切口宽度。观察手术前1d,手术后1d,1、3wk,1、3mo 眼部情况,记录患者干眼症状和泪膜破裂时间(break-up time,BUT)。  结果:白内障患者在进行超声乳化手术后1d、1wk,A 组干眼症状评分要小于 B 组,差异有显著统计学意义( t =-6.199、-2.871,P0.05);术后1d、术后1wk、术后3wk B 组的 BUT 较 A 组长,对比有统计学差异(t =-3.718、-2.342、-2.506,P0.05)。  结论:白内障超声乳化手术的两种不同切口对泪膜稳定性的影响仅在术后短期内存在差异;而术后1mo 后无明显差异。另外行透明角膜切口对泪膜稳定性的影响要大于行巩膜隧道切口,但干眼症状评分要明显小于行巩膜隧道切口。%AIM: To investigate the effects of different phacoemulsification incision for tear film stability in cataract patients. METHODS: From January 2014 to September 2015, 108 patients (144 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery were divided into two groups: group A with clear corneal incision ( 52 cases with 74 eyes), group B with scleral tunnel incision (56 cases with 70 eye). Two groups of patients were taken the same incision width. Symptoms of dry eye and tear film break - up time ( BUT) were observed 1d before and 1d, 1, 3wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively. RESULTS:After performing cataract phacoemulsification 1d, 1wk, symptoms score of dry eye of group A was less than that of group B, the difference was statistically significant (t = -6. 199, -2. 871, P0. 05); at postoperative 1d, 1 and 3wk, BUT of group B was better than those of group A, there were a statistically significant differences ( t = - 3. 718, -2. 342,-2. 506, P0. 05).CONCLUSION

  3. Effectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using copper sulfate in the control of digital dermatitis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Speijers, M H M; Finney, G A; McBride, J; Watson, S; Logue, D N; O'Connell, N E


    Two experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of different footbathing frequencies using CuSO₄ in the control of digital dermatitis (DD) in groups of dairy cows with low and high DD prevalence in an endemically infected herd. During the study, groups of cows walked through allocated footbath solutions after milking on 4 consecutive milkings each week, 2 wk, or monthly, depending on treatment. The footbath solutions were changed either after 200 cows had passed through the footbath or within 24 h. All cows were scored weekly during milking for DD lesion stage on the hind feet using a 5-point nominal scale. A transition grade was assigned based on whether the DD lesions improved (1) or deteriorated or did not improve (0) from week to week, and was averaged for all cows in the group. Furthermore, from the longitudinal study data, all transitions between different DD lesion stages between the different time points were used in a discrete, first-order Markov chain (state transition matrix) model. In experiment 1, 70 Holstein-Friesian cows with DD lesions present on at least one of their hind feet were allocated to 1 of 2 footbath treatments for 14 wk: (1) 5% CuSO₄ each week or (2) 5% CuSO₄ every 2 wk. At the end of the study, no active DD lesions were observed in cows in either treatment group, but significantly more cows had no DD lesions (0.48 ± 0.097 vs. 0.24 ± 0.094) and fewer cows had lesions in the healing stage (0.52 ± 0.104 vs. 0.77 ± 0.090) for the weekly compared with the 2-wk footbathing regimen. The number of active DD lesions that the transition matrix model predicted over time was 3 and 8% for weekly and every 2 wk footbathing treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, 64 cows with no DD lesions on either of their hind feet were allocated to 1 of 2 footbath treatment regimens for 14 wk: (1) 5% CuSO₄ every 2 wk or (2) 5% CuSO₄ each month. At the end of the trial, significantly more cows had no DD (0.80 ± 0.088 vs. 0.65 ± 0

  4. Performance and Meat Quality of Local Sheep Administered with Feed Additive Containing Probiotic and Organic Mineral Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herdian


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic and organic mineral complex (POMC administration on performance and meat quality of local sheep. In this study, 6 sheep with an average initial body weight of 12.67±0.81 kg were arranged in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were T0: basal diet (control and T1: basal diet + POMC. The basal diet consisted of forage and concentrate (60:40 with dry matter of feed intake as much as 5% of body weight. Dose of POMC used in this study was 15 g/d/head. The POMC contained lactic acid bacteria, i.e. Lactobacillus sp. (1x108 cfu/g and S. cereviseae incorporated with micromineral Co (2 ppm, Cu (100 ppm, Fe (2.5 ppm, I (110 ppm and Mn (100 ppm. The experimental period lasted for 11 wk (1 wk for adaptation and 10 wk for data collection. Data were analyzed using t-Student statistical test to compare the treatments. The results showed that POMC administration did not affect the body weight gain (BWG (7.46 kg compared to control (7.13 kg while concentrate consumption (26.9 kg of POMC was lower than the control (28.6 kg. Meanwhile POMC administration did not affect the meat quality (pH, moisture, cooking loss and tenderness, whereas the meat cholesterol was lower (34.25 mg/100g than the control (38.87 mg/100g. It is concluded that administration of probiotic lactic acid bacteria combined with organic minerals decreases concentrate consumption and thereby potentially increases the animals energy utilization efficiency. In addition, the treatment also decreases the meat cholesterol content of local sheep.

  5. Effect of suction on macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness during LASIK used femtosecond laser and Moria M2 microkeratome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Zhang; Yue-Hua; Zhou


    ·AIM: To compare the effect of suction on the macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness during laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) used Ziemer FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser(Ziemer group) and Moria M2 automated microkeratome(Moria group) for flap creation.· METHODS: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCT) was used to measure macular thickness, ganglion cell complex thickness and RNFL thickness of 204 eyes of 102 patients with the Ziemer femtosecond laser(102 eyes) and the Moria M2microkeratome(102 eyes) before surgery and 30min; 1,3d; 1wk; 1, 3mo; 1y after surgery.· RESULTS: The average foveal thickness and parafoveal retinal thickness 30 min after the surgery were statistically more than that before surgery(Ziemer P <0.001,P =0.003 and Moria P=0.001, P=0.006) and the effect was less in the Ziemer group than that in the Moria group(P all <0.05). The ganglion cell complex thickness was not significantly changed in both groups(P all >0.05). The RNFL thickness was statistically less 30 min after surgery in both groups(P=0.014, P <0.001), but the influence was less in Ziemer group than that in Moria group(P =0.038).However, the RNFL thickness had recovered to the preoperative level only 1d after surgery.·CONCLUSION: The suction of femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome led to the increase in macular central fovea thickness and the decrease in RNFL thickness values at the early stage after LASIK. The effect of suction on macular and the RNFL thicknesses in Ziemer group is smaller than that in Moria group.

  6. Effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on performances in pubescent swimmers. (United States)

    Potdevin, François J; Alberty, Morgan E; Chevutschi, Alain; Pelayo, Patrick; Sidney, Michel C


    This study examined in pubescent swimmers the effects on front crawl performances of a 6-week plyometric training (PT) in addition to the habitual swimming program. Swimmers were assigned to a control group (n = 11, age: 14.1 ± 0.2 years; G(CONT)) and a combined swimming and plyometric group (n = 12, age: 14.3 ± 0.2 years; GSP), both groups swimming 5.5 h · wk(-1) during a 6-week preseason training block. In the GSP, PT consisted of long, lateral high and depth jumps before swimming training 2 times per week. Pre and posttests were performed by jump tests (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ]) and swim tests: a gliding task, 400- and 50-m front crawl with a diving start (V400 and V50, m · s(-1)), and 2 tests with a water start without push-off on the wall (25 m in front crawl and 25 m only with kicks). Results showed improvement only for GSP for jump tests (Δ = 4.67 ± 3.49 cm; Δ = 3.24 ± 3.17 cm; for CMJ and SJ, respectively; p V50 and V400, respectively; p V50 (R = 0.73, p < 0.05). Results suggested a positive effect of PT on specific swimming tasks such as dive or turn but not in kicking propulsion. Because of the practical setup of the PT and the relevancy of successful starts and turns in swimming performances, it is strongly suggested to incorporate PT in pubescent swimmers' training and control it by jump performances.

  7. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week. (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil


    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  9. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.


    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  10. Effect of omeprazole and domperidone on adult asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhavneesh Sharma; Manisha Sharma; Mradul Kumar Daga; Gopal Krishan Sachdev; Elliott Bondi


    AIM: To study the effect of combined omeprazole(Ome) and domperidone(Dom) therapy on asthma symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics with gastroesoph ageal reflux.METHODS: We selected 198 asthmatics with gastro esophageal reflux diagnosed by 24-h esophageal pH moni toring to receive Ome 20 mg twice daily and Dom 10 mg three times daily or placebo for 16 wk (1:1 double-blind randomization). Spirometry was done at baseline and af ter 16 wk of treatment. The primary outcome measures were: mean daily daytime and nighttime asthma symp tom scores. Mean daily reflux symptom scores, albuterol use as rescue medication (number of puffs), daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), postbroncho dilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and postbronchodilator forced vital capacity (FVC) were sec ondary outcome measures.RESULTS: Comparison of mean change from baseline between antireflux therapy and placebo groups revealed significant reduction in daytime asthma symptom score (17.4% vs 8.9 %), nighttime asthma symptom score (19.6% vs 5.4%), reflux symptom score (8.7% vs 1.6%) and rescue medication use (23.2% vs 3.1%) after antire flux therapy compared to mean change in placebo group (P < 0.001). There was significant improvement in morn ing PEFR (7.9% vs 0.2%), evening PEFR (9.8% vs 0.5%), FEV1 (11.1% vs 3.78%) and FVC (9.3% vs 1.52%) in the antireflux therapy group compared to placebo on comparing the mean change from baseline after 16 wk (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Combined therapy with Ome and Dom in adult asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux may be beneficial by reducing asthma symptoms, rescuing medi cation use, and improving pulmonary function.

  11. Consumption of purple sweet potato leaves modulates human immune response: T-lymphocyte functions, lytic activity of natural killer cell and antibody production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiao-Ming Chen; Sing-Chung Li; Ya-Ling Lin; Ching-Yun Hsu; Ming-Jer Shieh; Jen-Fang Liu


    AIM: To study the immunological effects of physiological doses of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL).METHODS: The randomized crossover study (two periods,each lasting for 2 wk) involved 16 healthy non-smoking adults of normal weight. The 6-wk study consisted of a run-in (wk 1) PSPL diet (daily consumption of 200 g PSPL) or a control diet (low polyphenols, with the amount of carotenoids adjusted to the same level as that of PSPL) (wk 2-3), washout diet (wk 4), and switched diet (wk 5-6). Fasting blood was collected weekly in the morning. T-lymphocyte function was assessed via the proliferation and secretion of immunoreactive cytokines.Salivary IgA secretion and the specific cytotoxic activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells were determined.RESULTS: The plasma β-carotene level increased with time in both groups, while the plasma polyphenol level decreased in the control group, and no significant difference was detected between the two groups.Although plasma polyphenol levels did not significantly increase in the PSPL group at the end of the study, they were significantly elevated in urine. PSPL consumption produced a significant increase in proliferation responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their secretion of immunoreactive IL-2 and IL-4. As well, lytic activity in NK cells was elevated in a time-dependent fashion. Salivary TgA secretion significantly decreased in control group after 2 wk, and returned to baseline following dietary switch to PSPL.CONCLUSION: Consumption of PSPL modulates various immune functions including increased proliferation responsiveness of PBMC, secretion of cytokines IL-2 and IL-4, and the lytic activity of NK cells. The responsible determinants of PSPL remain to be elucidated, as does the biological significance of the present observations.

  12. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Sanders


    Full Text Available Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age self- selected to a water exercise (WEX group (n = 48 or control (C group (n = 18. The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1 supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05 flexibility (8%, sit- to-stand (31%, walking speed (16% and stride length (10%, agility (20%, stair climb (22%, arm curl (39%, and static (42-48% balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance.


    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P


    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  14. Effect of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs. (United States)

    Stewart, L L; Kim, B G; Gramm, B R; Nimmo, R D; Stein, H H


    The objective of this experiment was to measure the influence of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by growing pigs. Fifteen barrows were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used in the experiment (initial BW = 35.0 +/- 2.7 kg). Animals were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per treatment during a 6-wk experiment. Dietary treatments included 1) a basal corn-soybean meal diet, 2) the basal diet supplemented with 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, and 3) the basal diet supplemented with 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin. Pigs were fed their respective treatment diets during wk 2, 3, and 4, but during wk 1, 5, and 6, all pigs were fed the basal diet. Ileal samples were collected on d 6 and 7 of each week. Results showed that the AID of all indispensable AA, except Arg, His, and Ile, increased (P virginiamycin. Pigs fed 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin during wk 2, 3, and 4 had increased (P virginiamycin was withdrawn from the diet, regardless of the inclusion rate. In pooled data from wk 2, 3, and 4, the AID of CP, the mean of all indispensable AA, and Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, and Val increased (linear, P virginiamycin was added to the diets, whereas a tendency (P virginiamycin to corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs increases the AID of AA, but this effect is not maintained after the removal of virginiamycin from the diet.

  15. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake. (United States)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O; Hesselink, M K; Koninckx, E; Rose, A J; Schrauwen, P; Bonen, A; Richter, E A; Hespel, P


    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed.

  16. Cardiopulmonary responses of intratracheally instilled tire particles and constituent metal components (United States)

    Gottipolu, R.R.; Landa, E.R.; Schladweiler, M.C.; McGee, J.K.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Richards, J.H.; Wallenborn, G.J.; Kodavanti, U.P.


    Tire and brake wear particles contain transition metals, and contribute to near-road PM. We hypothesized that acute cardiopulmonary injury from respirable tire particles (TP) will depend on the amount of soluble metals. Respirable fractions of two types of TP (TP1 and TP2) were analyzed for water and acid-leachable metals using ICP-AES. Both TP types contained a variety of transition metals, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminum, and iron. Zn and Cu were detected at high levels in water-soluble fractions (TP2 > TP1). Male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-14 wk) were intratracheally instilled, in the first study, with saline, TP1 or TP2 (5 mg/kg), and in the second study, with soluble Zn, Cu (0.5 ??mol/kg), or both. Pulmonary toxicity and cardiac mitochondrial enzymes were analyzed 1 d, 1 wk, or 4 wk later for TP and 4 or 24 h later for metals. Increases in lavage fluid markers of inflammation and injury were observed at d 1 (TP2 > TP1), but these changes reversed by wk 1. No effects on cardiac enzymes were noted with either TP. Exposure of rats to soluble Zn and Cu caused marked pulmonary inflammation and injury but temporal differences were apparent (Cu effects peaked at 4 h and Zn at 24 h). Instillation of Zn, Cu, and Zn+ Cu decreased the activity of cardiac aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome-c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase suggesting mitochondrial oxidative stress. The observed acute pulmonary toxicity of TP could be due to the presence of water soluble Zn and Cu. At high concentrations these metals may induce cardiac oxidative stress. Copyright ?? Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  17. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W


    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH inflammation within the rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had a 2.3-fold increase in Streptococcus bovis and a 12-fold reduction in Megasphaera elsdenii. The reduction in M. elsdenii may reflect lower concentration of lactic acid within the rumen for ADSC cows. In conclusion, ADSC supplementation to dairy cows was demonstrated to alleviate the condition of SARA caused by abrupt dietary changes from HF to HG, and can potentially improve rumen function, as indicated by greater numbers of cellulolytic microorganisms within the rumen.

  18. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults. (United States)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Patrick-Melin, Aimee J; Cook, Marc; Rocco, Michael; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P


    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6) secretion using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated overnight with LPS. Glycemic response was determined following ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution. Fasting blood samples were collected for additional cytokine [TNFα, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)] analysis. Both interventions decreased BMI (P glycemic response was reduced only in the LGI group (P = 0.04). Plasma and MNC-derived TNFα secretion were reduced in the LGI group (P = 0.02) but increased in the HGI group (P = 0.02). Secretion of IL-6 from MNC and plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations were reduced in the LGI group. The change in MNC-derived TNFα (r = 0.43; P = 0.04) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.44; P = 0.04) correlated with decreases in the glycemic response. These data highlight the importance of diet composition in the treatment and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics.

  19. Effects of dietary pH and phosphorus source on performance, gastrointestinal tract digesta, and bone measurements of weanling pigs. (United States)

    Straw, M L; Kornegay, E T; Evans, J L; Wood, C M


    Crossbred pigs (n = 144, average age and weight = 28 +/- 3 d, 7.5 kg) were used in two 6-wk trials to assess the effects of dietary pH and P source on growth performance, gastrointestinal digesta pH and chloride ion concentration (Cl-), and bone characteristics. Treatments were randomly allotted within blocks (based on weight within gender) to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three dietary pH levels (5.4, 6.0, and 6.7) and two P sources: dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP). Pigs fed the pH 6.7 diet had reduced ADG (P less than .01) and average daily feed intakes (ADFI; P less than .001) during wk 1 to 3 and overall compared with pigs fed the pH 6.0 diet, but ADG and ADFI were not affected when the pH 5.4 diet was fed. There was a dietary pH x P source interaction (P less than .05) for ADFI. Pigs had decreased ADFI as dietary pH was increased from 6.0 to 6.7 for both DCP and DFP, but ADFI was similar for the pH 6.0 and 5.4 diets with DFP, whereas ADFI was greater for the pH 5.4 diet with DCP. Dietary pH did not influence ADFI:ADG ratio (F:G; P greater than .05), and P source had no effect (P greater than .05) on either ADG, ADFI, or F:G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. An examination of current practices and gender differences in strength and conditioning in a sample of varsity high school athletic programs. (United States)

    Reynolds, Monica L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Petlichkoff, Linda M; Gao, Yong


    Currently, little is known about strength and conditioning programs at the high school level. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore current practices in strength and conditioning for varsity high school athletes in selected sports. The following were specifically examined: who administers programs for these athletes, what kinds of training activities are done, and whether the responsible party or emphasis changes depending on the gender of the athletes. Coaches of varsity soccer, basketball, softball, and baseball in 3 large Idaho school districts were asked to complete an online survey. Sixty-seven percent (32/48) of the questionnaires were completed and used for the study. The majority of coaches (84%) provided strength and conditioning opportunities for their athletes, although only 37% required participation. Strength training programs were designed and implemented primarily by either physical education teachers or head coaches. Compared with coaches of male athletes, coaches of female athletes were less likely to know the credentials of their strength coaches, and they were less likely to use certified coaches to plan and implement their strength and conditioning programs. Most programs included dynamic warm-ups and cool-downs, plyometrics, agility training, speed training, and conditioning, and most programs were conducted 3 d·wk(-1) (76%) for sessions lasting between 30 and 59 minutes (63%). Compared with their female counterparts, male athletes were more likely to have required training, participate in strength training year round, and train using more sessions per week. This study provides additional information related to the practice of strength and conditioning in a sample of high school athletic teams.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey W. Tsang


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8; 60% girls were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC control group 3 d.wk-1 for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD, percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents

  2. The effects of ractopamine on the behavior and physiology of finishing pigs. (United States)

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Pajor, E A; Richert, B T; Schinckel, A P


    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on the behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of three gilts were randomly assigned to one of two treatments 4 wk before slaughter: finishing feed plus RAC (10 ppm) or finishing feed alone. Pigs were housed in the same building in adjacent pens with fully slatted floors and ad libitum access to feed and water. Behavioral time budgets were determined in six pens per treatment over a single 24-h period during each week. Behavioral responses of these pigs to routine handling and weighing were determined at the start of the trial and at the end of each week. Heart-rate responses to unfamiliar human presence were measured in all pigs and blood samples were taken from a single pig in each pen on different days during wk 4. At the end of wk 4, all pigs were transported for 22 min to processing. Heart rate was recorded from at least one pig per pen during transport and a postmortem blood sample was taken from those pigs that were previously sampled. During wk 1 and 2, RAC pigs spent more time active (P pigs exited the home pen voluntarily, they took longer to remove from the home pen, longer to handle into the weighing scale and needed more pats, slaps, and pushes from the handler to enter the scales. At the end of wk 4, RAC pigs had higher heart rates in the presence of an unfamiliar human (P pigs had higher circulating catecholamine concentrations (P pigs. Circulating cortisol concentrations and cortisol responses to transport did not differ between treatments. The results show that ractopamine affected behavior, heart rate, and catecholamine profile of finishing pigs and made them more difficult to handle and potentially more susceptible to handling and transport stress.

  3. Motivation, goal orientation, coaching, and training habits of women ultrarunners. (United States)

    Krouse, Rhonna Z; Ransdell, Lynda B; Lucas, Shelley M; Pritchard, Mary E


    Ultrarunners participate in running events that exceed the 26.2-mile marathon distance (e.g., 50k, 50-100 miles). Very little research exists on ultrarunners, especially women. This study is a descriptive study detailing the motivation, goal orientation, demographic characteristics (e.g., age, job demands, family structure), training habits (e.g., hours per week of training), and coach utilization of women ultrarunners. Participants (N = 344) were recruited via the Ultra List serve and 4 popular ultrarunning websites, and they completed a questionnaire on motivation, goal orientation, training, and coaching using Survey Monkey. General health orientation (mean ± SD) (4.71 ± 1.06) and psychological coping (4.71 ± 1.03) were the 2 strongest motivational factors. Participants were higher in task orientation (1.38 ± 0.68) (e.g., finishing the race or accomplishing various goals) than ego orientation (3.38 ± 1.01) (e.g., placing in the top 3 overall or beating an opponent). Women trained an average of 12.49 h·wk(-1) and spent 64% of their time training alone. Training information came from their own experience, blogs, websites, and the Ultra List Serve. Over three-fourths of the participants (80%) did not use a coach because of cost and a perceived lack of necessity. Women ultrarunners in this study were task oriented, internally motivated, health, and financially conscious individuals. With additional information about women ultrarunners, coaches will be better prepared to work with this population and ultrarunners can improve their performance by learning about current participants' practices.

  4. Quantitative changes of anterior segment before and after implantable collamer lens implantation for high myopia with Pentacam anterior segment system%Pentacam评估高度近视有晶状体眼人工晶状体植入术前后眼前节形态的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)量化分析高度近视患者行ICL植入术手术前后眼前节形态的改变,评估手术的安全性、有效性。  方法:收集我院2011-09/2013-02高度近视眼行ICL植入手术的患者21例39眼,术后随访6~12mo。通过Pentacam分别测量术前;术后1wk;1,6mo的中央前房深度( ACD)、前房角度(ACA)、前房容积(ACV);记录术后1wk;1,6mo的ICL拱高(ICL-vault);记录术前裸眼视力(pre-UCVA)、最佳矫正视力( BCVA)、术后裸眼视力( post-UCVA)以及眼压值。使用SPSS18.0统计软件分析各项指标,术前、术后的资料均采用配对t检验进行统计学分析。  结果:术前;术后1wk;1,6mo 的ACD分别是3.27±0.22,3.02±0.33,2.98±0.31,2.98±0.32mm, ACA分别是(40.39±5.40)°,(26.70±4.47)°,(26.96±4.48)°,(26.95±4.45)°, ACV分别是207.74±25.43,122.87±17.58,128.05±17.84, ;128.64±17.50mm 3。术后1wk;1,6mo的拱高分别是0.49±0.13,0.46±0.13,0.46±0.14mm。术前与术后3个不同时段的ACD,ACA,ACV的值相比,其均存在统计学差异( P  结论:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)分析发现ICL术后前房变浅,房角变窄,前房容积变小,但人工晶状体与透明晶状体之间仍拥有安全的间隙,ICL植入术治疗高度近视眼安全、有效,但远期疗效有待进一步观察。%•AlM: To analyze the quantitative changes of anterior segment by Pentacam anterior segment system and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness after implantable collamer lens ( lCL) implantation for high myopia. •METHODS:Twenty- one patients with 39 eyes were implanted lCL in our hospital from September 2011 to February 2013. The follow-up was 6 ~ 12mo. Central anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) , anterior chamber angle ( ACA) , anterior chamber volume ( ACV) were measured by Pentacam preoperatively, 1wk, 1 and 6mo postoperatively. The distance between crystal lens and lOL ( lCL- vault ) were measured at

  5. Comparison of four proton pump inhibitors for the short-term treatment of esophagitis in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Pilotto; Francesco Di Mario; Marilisa Franceschi; Gioacchino Leandro; Carlo Scarcelli; Luigi Piero D'Ambrosio; Francesco Paris; Vito Annese; Davide Seripa; Angelo Andriulli


    AIM: To compare efficacy and tolerability of four proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) commonly used in the short-term therapy of esophagitis in elderly patients.METHODS: A total of 320 patients over 65 years with endoscopically diagnosed esophagitis were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments for 8 wk:(1) omeprazole 20 mg/d; (2) lansoprazole 30 mg/d;(3) pantoprazole 40 mg/d, or (4) rabeprazole 20 mg/d.Major symptoms, compliance, and adverse events were recorded. After 8 wk, endoscopy and clinical evaluation were repeated.RESULTS: Per protocol and intention to treat healing rates of esophagitis were: omeprazole = 81.0% and 75.0%, lansoprazole = 90.7% (P = 0.143 vs omeprazole) and 85.0%, pantoprazole=93.5% (P = 0.04vs omeprazole) and 90.0% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole),rabeprazole = 94.6% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole) and 88.8% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole). Dividing patients according to the grades of esophagitis, omeprazole was significantly less effective than the three other PPIs in healing grade 1 esophagitis (healing rates:81.8% vs 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, P =0.012). Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (100%) were more effective vs omeprazole (89.6%, P = 0.0001)and lansoprazole (82.4%, P = 0.0001) in decreasing heartburn. Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (92.2% and 90.1%, respectively) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (75.0%, P < 0.05) in decreasing acid regurgitation. Finally, pantoprazole and rabeprazole (95.2% and 100%) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (82.6%, P < 0.05) in decreasing epigastric pain.CONCLUSION: In elderly patients, pantoprazole and rabeprazole were significantly more effective than omeprazole in healing esophagitis and than omeprazole or lansoprazole in improving symptoms.H pylori infection did not influence the healing rates of esophagitis after a short-term treatment with PPI.

  6. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows. (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R


    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  7. In utero exposure to heat stress during late gestation has prolonged effects on the activity patterns and growth of dairy calves. (United States)

    Laporta, J; Fabris, T F; Skibiel, A L; Powell, J L; Hayen, M J; Horvath, K; Miller-Cushon, E K; Dahl, G E


    Exposure to heat stress during late gestation exerts negative carryover effects on the postnatal performance of the calf. In this study, we evaluated the health, growth, and activity patterns of calves born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT, provided only shade, n = 31) or cooling (CL, fans, soakers, and shade, n = 29) during late gestation (∼46 d, maternal dry period). Calves' body weight, rectal temperature, suckling reflex, and movement scores were recorded at birth, and calves were fed 6.6 L of maternal colostrum in 2 meals. Blood samples were collected at birth (before feeding), 24 h after birth, and at d 10 and 28 of age. Calves were housed in individual pens, fed pasteurized milk (6 L/d), and had ad libitum access to grain and water until weaning (49 d). Activity was assessed during the first week of life (wk 1), at weaning (wk 7), and in the first week postweaning (wk 8) using electronic data loggers. Health and body weight were monitored weekly. At birth, calves born to CL cows were heavier (41.9 vs. 39.1 ± 0.8 kg), their temperature was lower (38.9 vs. 39.3 ± 0.08°C), and they were more efficient at absorbing IgG than HT calves. Suckling reflex and movement score at birth were not different between groups, but calves born to CL cows spent more time (50 min/d) standing in the first week of life as a result of longer standing bouts. In wk 7 and 8, calves born to CL cows had less frequent standing bouts than HT heifers, but CL heifers maintained greater total daily standing time (36 min/d) due to longer (7 min/bout) standing bouts. All calves were healthy, but HT heifers tended to have higher (looser) fecal scores on d 10. Heifers born from CL cows gained 0.2 kg/d more from birth to weaning, weighed 4 kg more at weaning, and had greater concentrations of IGF-1 than HT calves, particularly on d 28. In utero heat stress during late gestation had immediate and prolonged effects on passive immunity, growth, and activity patterns in dairy calves.

  8. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K


    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  9. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  10. Rationale and design of the Exercise Intensity Trial (EXCITE: A randomized trial comparing the effects of moderate versus moderate to high-intensity aerobic training in women with operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herndon James E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise Intensity Trial (EXcITe is a randomized trial to compare the efficacy of supervised moderate-intensity aerobic training to moderate to high-intensity aerobic training, relative to attention control, on aerobic capacity, physiologic mechanisms, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers in women with operable breast cancer following the completion of definitive adjuvant therapy. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 174 postmenopausal women (58 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed, operable breast cancer presenting to Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be enrolled in this trial following completion of primary therapy (including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. After baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomized to one of two supervised aerobic training interventions (moderate-intensity or moderate/high-intensity aerobic training or an attention-control group (progressive stretching. The aerobic training interventions will include 150 mins.wk-1 of supervised treadmill walking per week at an intensity of 60%-70% (moderate-intensity or 60% to 100% (moderate to high-intensity of the individually determined peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak between 20-45 minutes/session for 16 weeks. The progressive stretching program will be consistent with the exercise interventions in terms of program length (16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (20-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak, as measured by an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test. Secondary endpoints include physiologic determinants that govern VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence/mortality. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and after the intervention (16 weeks. Discussion EXCITE is designed to investigate the intensity of aerobic training required to induce optimal

  11. Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in schoolchildren in Indonesia. (United States)

    de Pee, S; West, C E; Permaesih, D; Martuti, S; Muhilal; Hautvast, J G


    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of dietary retinol sources, orange fruit, and dark-green, leafy vegetables in improving vitamin A status, and to test whether orange fruit is a better source of vitamin A and carotenoids than are leafy vegetables. Anemic schoolchildren aged 7-11 y (n = 238) in West Java, Indonesia, were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups to consume 2 complete meals/d, 6 d/wk, for 9 wk: 1) 556 retinol equivalents (RE)/d from retinol-rich food (n = 48); 2) 509 RE/d from fruit (n = 49); 3) 684 RE/d from dark-green, leafy vegetables and carrots (n = 45); and 4) 44 RE/d from low-retinol, low-carotene food (n = 46). Mean changes in serum retinol concentrations of the retinol-rich, fruit, vegetable, and low-retinol, low-carotene groups were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28), 0.12 (0.06, 0.18), 0.07 (0.03,0.11), and 0.00 (-0.06, 0.05) micromol/L, respectively. Mean changes in serum beta-carotene concentrations in the vegetable and fruit groups were 0.14 (0.12, 0.17) and 0.52 (0.43, 0.60) micromol/L, respectively. Until now, it has been assumed that 6 microg dietary beta-carotene is equivalent to 1 RE. On the basis of this study, however, the equivalent of 1 RE would be 12 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 6 microg, 29 microg) for fruit and 26 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 13 microg, 76 microg) for leafy vegetables and carrots. Thus, the apparent mean vitamin A activity of carotenoids in fruit and in leafy vegetables and carrots was 50% (95% CI: 21%, 100%) and 23% (95% CI: 8%, 46%) of that assumed, respectively. This has important implications for choosing strategies for controlling vitamin A deficiency. Research should be directed toward ways of improving bioavailability and bioconversion of dietary carotenoids, focusing on factors such as intestinal parasites, absorption inhibitors, and food matrixes.

  12. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.


    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  13. Growth performance of calves fed microbially enhanced soy protein in pelleted starters. (United States)

    Senevirathne, N D; Anderson, J L; Gibbons, W R; Clapper, J A


    Our objective was to determine effects of feeding calves pelleted starters with microbially enhanced (fungi-treated) soy protein (MSP) in replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with different milk replacers (MR). Thirty-six Holstein calves (2 d old; 24 females, 12 males) in individual hutches were used in a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. Treatments were (1) MSP pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (28% crude protein, 18% fat; MSPA), (2) SBM pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (SBMA), and (3) MSP pellets with conventional MR (20% crude protein, 20% fat; MSPC). Pellets were similar except for 23% MSP or 23% SBM (dry matter basis). Pellets and water were fed ad libitum throughout the study. Feeding rates of MR on a dry matter basis were 0.37kg twice daily during wk 1, 0.45kg twice daily during wk 2 to 5, and 0.45kg once daily during wk 6. Intakes were recorded daily. Body weights, frame size measurements, and jugular blood samples were collected 2 d every 2 wk at 3 h after the morning feeding. Fecal grab samples were collected 5 times per d for 3 d during wk 12 and then composited by calf for analysis of apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients using acid detergent insoluble ash as an internal marker. Total and starter pellet dry matter intake were greatest for calves fed SBMA and least for MSPC. Calves had similar average daily gain among treatments, but there was a treatment by week interaction and during the last few weeks of the study calves on MSPC had less body weight compared with MSPA or SBMA. Gain-to-feed ratio was similar among treatments; however, there was a treatment by week interaction. Serum glucose was similar among treatments. Plasma urea nitrogen was greatest for calves fed MSPA and least for MSPC. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were greatest for calves fed SBMA. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were greatest for calves fed MSPC. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate had a treatment by time

  14. 盐酸氟西汀配合中成药治疗孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁的研究%The treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester with fluoxetine hydrochloride and Chinese traditional patent medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹钰荣; 吴莉娜; 张淼


    目的 探讨盐酸氟西汀联合中成药治疗中孕引产产妇产后抑郁的临床疗效和不良反应.方法 将46例孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁患者随机分为研究组(氟西汀20 mg/d配合中成药组)和对照组(单用氟西汀20 mg/d组),每组各23例,共治疗6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,用药物不良反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 治疗6周后,研究组与对照组总有效率分别为95.6%和95.6%,两组比较差异无显著性.研究组起效快,与对照组比较,在治疗的第1周末及出现显著差异(P0.05).结论 盐酸氟西汀联合中成药治疗孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁比单用盐酸氟西汀起效快,药物副作用小.%Objective To investigate the curative effect and adverse reaction of fluoxetine hydrochloride in combination with Chinese traditional patent medicine in the treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester. Methods Forty - six patients with postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester were randomly divided into fluoxetine - Chinese traditional patent medicine treatment group ( 23 patients ) and fluoxetine treatment group ( 23 patients ), Patients in both groups were treated for 6 wks. The efficacy and the adverse effect of the treatment were evaluated with Hamilton depression rating scale ( HAMD ) and adverse drug reactions scale ( TESS ) respectively. Results after 6 wks treatment, the total effective rate in both groups was 95. 6%. Compared with fluoxetine treatment group, rapid effect was observed in fluoxetine - Chinese traditional patent medicine treatment group at wk 1 ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Fluoxetine hydrochloride combined with Chinese traditional patent medicine effects quickly and presents less adverse effect for the treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester.

  15. American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand. Physical activity, physical fitness, and hypertension. (United States)


    Hypertension is present in epidemic proportions in adults of industrialized societies and is associated with a markedly increased risk of developing numerous cardiovascular pathologies. There is a continuing debate as to the efficacy of aggressive pharmacological therapy in individuals with mild to moderate elevations in blood pressure. This has led to a search for nonpharmacological therapies, such as exercise training, for these individuals. The available evidence indicates that endurance exercise training by individuals at high risk for developing hypertension will reduce the rise in blood pressure that occurs with time. Thus, it is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that endurance exercise training is recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension in susceptible individuals. A large number of studies indicate that endurance exercise training will elicit a 10 mm Hg average reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in individuals with mild essential hypertension (blood pressures 140-180/90-105 mm Hg). Endurance exercise training also has the capacity to improve other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals. Endurance exercise training appears to elicit even greater reductions in blood pressure in patients with secondary hypertension due to renal dysfunction. The mode (large muscle activities), frequency (3-5 d.wk-1), duration (20-60 min), and intensity (50-85% of maximal oxygen uptake) of the exercise recommended to achieve this effect are generally the same as those prescribed for developing and maintaining cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults. Exercise training at somewhat lower intensities (40-70% VO2max) appears to lower blood pressure as much, or more, than exercise at higher intensities, which may be important in specific hypertensive populations. Physically active and fit individuals with hypertension have markedly lower rates of mortality than

  16. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol. (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G


    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  17. Contemporary proglacial aeolian sediment transport in West Greenland (United States)

    Bullard, J. E.; Austin, M. J.


    Glacial erosion processes produce significance quantities of fine sediments that are washed out from beneath glaciers by meltwater. When deposited on the glacier floodplain they dessicate and strong ice-driven winds can entrain and transport them across the landscape resulting in the formation of sand dunes and loess, and adding very fine particles (dust) to the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that locally-generated dust can play an important role in regulating albedo and the melting rate of glaciers. Very few field process studies have examined the relationship between sediment-delivery to the proglacial floodplain by meltwater and the subsequent aeolian erosion and deposition of these fine sediments. This research reports the use of semi-isokinetic directional sediment samplers to make an initial assessment of the rates of transport of dust and sand in Sandflugtdalen, a valley adjacent to the West Greenland ice sheet. Vertical arrays (z(m) = 0.18, 0.43, 0.85, 1.4) of samplers were deployed in a down valley transect over a distance of 4 km. Trapped sediments were retrieved after intervals of 1 week and 9 weeks. The mass of sediment collected in the traps varied from 0.002-3.62 g cm2 wk-1. As expected, near surface traps collected more, and coarser, sediment than those deployed at 1.4 m height but the decrease in mass of sediment with height was highly variable. The array closest to the glacier trapped the greatest quantity of suspended sediment and the density of suspended sediment decreased with distance down valley. The flux of aeolian sediment comprises clays, silts and sand-sized particles. Areas of aeolian entrainment, transport and deposition are closely linked to the development and distribution of sediments on the proglacial floodplain which varies considerably in terms of surface roughness. At the east end of the valley, close to the ice sheet, aeolian sediment flux is controlled by sediment supply and topography rather than wind speed. Further down

  18. The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women. (United States)

    Poole, Chris N; Roberts, Michael D; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Sunderland, Kyle L; DeBolt, Nick D; Billbe, Brett W; Kerksick, Chad M


    This study was performed to evaluate the combined effect of a meal replacement and an alleged weight loss supplement (WLS) on body composition, fitness parameters, and clinical health in moderately overweight college-aged men and women. Body mass, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM, body composition, V(O2)max, fasting glucose (GLU), and lipid panels were evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) 8 weeks of combined resistance training (RT) and cardiovascular training (CVT). After T1, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the WLS (6 men, 7 women; 21 ± 5 years, 168 ± 8 cm, 75.4 ± 12.7 kg, 31.6 ± 7.7%BFAT) or placebo (PLA: 6 men, 6 women; 22 ± 4 years, 174 ± 9 cm, 84.1 ± 8.8 kg, 30.2 ± 5.6%BFAT) group. Both groups performed 3 d · wk(-1) of combined progressive RT (2 × 12 reps of 8 exercises at 75-80% 1RM) and CVT (30 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 70-85% heart rate reserve). Subjects consumed 4 capsules per day and a once-daily meal replacement throughout the protocol. Percent body fat, bench press 1RM, and leg press 1RM significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both groups. Blood GLU (G × T; p = 0.048) improved in WLS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) approached significance (G × T; p = 0.06) in the WLS group. Follow-up analysis of SBP revealed a significant within-group decrease in the WLS group, whereas no within-group changes were found for either group for GLU. Practically speaking, daily supplementation with a meal replacement and a thrice weekly exercise program can increase fitness levels and improve body composition, whereas adding a thermogenic substance provides no additional benefit over fitness or body composition changes but may favorably alter serum markers of clinical health.

  19. Branched-chain amino acid treatment before transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroki Nishikawa; Yukio Osaki; Tadashi Inuzuka; Haruhiko Takeda; Jun Nakajima; Fumihiro Matsuda; Shin-ichiro Henmi


    AIM:To examine the significance of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) treatment before transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:This study included 99 patients who underwent TACE therapy for HCC at our hospital and were followed up without treatment for at least 6 mo between January 2004 and January 2010.They were divided into 2 groups:those receiving BCAA granules (n =40) or regular diet (n =59,control).Data obtained were retrospectively analyzed (prior to TACE,and 1 wk,1,3,and 6 mo after TACE) in terms of nutritional condition and clinical laboratory parameters (serum albumin level and Child-Pugh score),both of which are determinants of hepatic functional reserve.RESULTS:The BCAA group comprised 27 males and 13 females with a mean age of 69.9 ± 8.8 years.The patients of the BCAA group were classified as follows:Child-Pugh A/B/C in 22/15/3 patients,and Stage Ⅱ/Ⅲ/IVA HCC in 12/23/5 patients,respectively.The control group comprised 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 73.2 ± 10.1 years.In the control group,9 patients had chronic hepatitis,Child-Pugh A/B/C in 39/10/1 patients,and Stage I/Ⅱ /Ⅲ/IVA HCC in 1/11/35/12 patients,respectively.Overall,both serum albumin level and Child-Pugh score improved significantly in the BCAA group as compared with the control 3 and 6 mo after TACE (P < 0.05).Further analysis was performed by the following categorization:(1) child-Pugh classification; (2) liver cirrhosis subgroup with a serum albumin level > 3.5 g/dL; and (3) epirubicin dose.A similar trend indicating a significant improvement of all variables in the BCAA group was noted (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Treatment with BCAA granules in patients who have undergone TACE for HCC is considered useful to maintain their hepatic functional reserve.

  20. Rugby-specific small-sided games training is an effective alternative to stationary cycling at reducing clinical risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Mendham

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether rugby small-sided games (SSG could be an effective alternative to continuous stationary cycling (CYC training at reducing clinical risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Thirty-three middle-aged (48.6±6.6y, inactive men were randomized into a CYC (n=11, SSG (n=11, or control (CON, n=11 group. Participants trained 3d·wk(-1 for 8 weeks, while control participants maintained normal activity and dietary patterns. Exercise duration was matched between groups, which involved CYC or SSG (four quarters, interspersed with 2-min passive recovery. Both training programs were designed to induce similar internal loads of maximal heart rate (~80-85%HRmax and rating of perceived exertion. Pre- and post-intervention testing included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, graded exercise test, fasting 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and resting muscle biopsy. Western blotting was used to assess the content of skeletal muscle proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose regulation.Both CYC and SSG increased VO2 at 80%HRmax, and reduced glycated haemoglobin, glucose area under the curve (AUC; SSG, -2.3±2.4; CYC -2.2±1.6 mmol·L(1(120 min(1; p0.05. There were no differences within or between conditions for protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, sirtuin-1, p53, glucose transporter-4, protein kinase AKT/PKB, myocyte enhancer factor 2A, mitochondrial transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor (NRF-1, NRF-2 or mitochondrial complexes I-V (p>0.05.Rugby small-sided games is an effective alternative to continuous cycling for improving metabolic risk-factors associated with the prevention of T2DM. Despite such positive adaptations in clinical risk factors, there were no changes in the content of skeletal muscle proteins associated with glucose regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial

  1. Keratograph 5M眼表综合分析仪观察小梁切除术后泪膜的早期变化%Observation of the early tear film changes after trabeculectomy with Keratograph 5 M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖钟祺; 李维娜; 李惠娜


    AlM: To observe the early tear film changes after trabeculectomy using Keratograph 5M.METHODS:Fourty-one patients (46 eyes) of glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy were involved. First tear break up time ( FTBUT ) , average tear break up time (ATBUT), non-invasive tear meniscus height (NlTMH), lipid layer thickness and meibomian gland scores were measured at 1d preoperatively and at 1d, 1wk, 1mo postoperatively.RESULTS:At 1d, 1wk and 1mo postoperatively, FTBUT and ATBUT decreased greatly (P0. 05). CONCLUSlON: Keratograph 5M could be used to evaluate tear film function rapidly and accurately. Trabeculectomy significantly alters tear film stability and tear secretion in the short term after operation.%目的:运用Keratograph 5 M眼表综合分析仪观察小梁切除术后泪膜的早期变化。方法:收集青光眼患者41例46眼,分别于小梁切除术前1d,术后1d;1wk;1mo 行第一次泪膜破裂时间( first tear break up time,FTBUT)、平均泪膜破裂时间( average tear break up time,ATBUT)、非侵入式泪河高度( non-invasive tear meniscus height,NITMH)、脂质层厚度分级及睑板腺完整度评分检查。结果:与术前1 d 相比,术后1 d;1 wk;1 mo 的 FTBUT、ATBUT缩短(P0.05)。结论:Keratograph 5 M眼表综合分析仪可以快速、精确地评估泪膜的功能。青光眼小梁切除术在术后短期内可对泪膜的稳定性及泪液的分泌量产生不良影响。

  2. Analysis on tear film after LASIK by femtosecond laser with Oculus corneal topography%Oculus角膜地形图仪对飞秒激光LASIK术后泪膜的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 贾冰冰; 张岩; 高冬梅; 庞玉珍


    AIM:To observe the changes of tear film on the patients after laser in situ keratomileusis ( LASIK) with corneal flap created by femtosecond laser with Oculus corneal topography. METHODS:Totally 120 myopic patients (240 eyes) were collected who underwent femtosecond laser surgery LASIK from August to September 2013, and these patients can be followed up for 3mo. Tear break-up time ( BUT) and tear meniscus height ( TMH ) with Oculus corneal topography were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively at 1wk;1, 2 and 3mo. RESULTS: Oculus BUT: there existed obvious differences (P=0. 012, 0. 000, 0. 023 0. 05 ) existed in 3mo compared with the preoperative level. TMH:there existed obvious differences (P=0. 025, 0. 019, 0. 0260. 05 ) existed in 3mo compared with the preoperative level. CONCLUSION: Femtosecond laser surgery affects the stability of the tear film at a certain time and a certain extent. The mechanism related to many factors. It is temporary and lighted.%目的:观察Oculus角膜地形图仪检查飞秒激光制瓣准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术( laser in situ keratomileusis, LASIK)术后泪膜的变化。  方法:收集2013-08/09于我院行飞秒激光制瓣LASIK并随访3 mo的患者120例240眼,观察术前、术后1 wk;1,2,3 mo患者的 Oculus 角膜地形图仪检查的泪膜破裂时间( tear break-up time,BUT)、Oculus角膜地形图仪检查的泪河高度( tear meniscus height,TMH)。  结果:Oculus BUT:术后1 wk;1,2 mo与术前相比有显著差异( P=0.012,0.000,0.0230.05)。泪河高度:术后1wk;1,2mo与术前相比有显著差异( P=0.025,0.019,0.0260-05)。  结论:飞秒激光制瓣准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术在一定时间和一定程度上影响泪膜的稳定性,发生机制与多种因素有关,持续时间比较短,症状比较轻。

  3. Electronic bolus design impacts on administration. (United States)

    Hentz, F; Umstätter, C; Gilaverte, S; Prado, O R; Silva, C J A; Monteiro, A L G


    Electronic identification of animals has become increasingly important worldwide to improve and ensure traceability. In warm and hot climates, such as Brazil, boluses can have advantages over ear tags as the internal devices reduce the risks of ear tag losses, tissue damage, and lesions on the ear. Electronic boluses, however, are often perceived as having negative characteristics, including reported difficulties of administration in small ruminants. This paper describes the factors associated with bolus design that affect the swallowing of a bolus in sheep. Other factors that might influence bolus swallowing time have also been considered. In addition, the effect of bolus design on its performance was evaluated. A total of 56 Suffolk ewes were used to assess the ease of administration and retention of 3 types of electronic ruminal boluses (mini, 11.5 × 58.0 mm and 21.7 g; small, 14.8 × 48.5 mm and 29.5 g; standard, 19.3 × 69.8 mm and 74.4 g) during a whole productive year, including pregnancy and lamb suckling. Ewe age (5.6 ± 2.3 yr) and weight (85.07 ± 8.2 kg BW) were recorded, as well as time for bolus swallowing. The deglutition of the bolus and any resulting blockages in the esophagus were monitored by visual observations. Retention and readability of the boluses were regularly monitored for d 1, wk 1, mo 1, and every mo until 1 yr. Time for bolus swallowing differed substantially with bolus type and was greater (P 0.05). The bolus o.d. and length were positively correlated with swallowing time (P electronic boluses showed 100% retention rate, and at 12 mo, bolus retention was 100%, 94.5%, and 100% for mini, small, and standard boluses, respectively (P > 0.05). At 12 mo, all boluses showed 100% readability, except for small boluses, which had a readability of 94.5%. In conclusion, bolus design affected swallowing time and bolus readability. A reduction in boluses length and o.d. needs to be carried out to provide ease of administration and for boluses to

  4. Yeast product supplementation modulated humoral and mucosal immunity and uterine inflammatory signals in transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Yuan, K; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Mamedova, L K; Muckey, M B; Shen, Y; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J


    The transition from late gestation to early lactation is characterized by substantial metabolic stress and altered immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on immunity and uterine inflammation in transition cows. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected parturition date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21d before expected parturition to 42d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a product containing yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR, Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Cows were injected subcutaneously with ovalbumin on d -21, -7, and 14 to assess their humoral response. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Concentrations of colostrum IgG were unaffected by treatments. A treatment × week interaction was observed for somatic cell linear score, reflecting a tendency for a quadratic dose effect on wk 1 (2.34, 2.85, 1.47, and 4.06±0.59 for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) and a quadratic dose effect on wk 5 (1.36, -0.15, -1.07, and 0.35±0.64 for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively). Platelet count was increased by YC-EHY. Increasing YC-EHY dose linearly increased plasma anti-ovalbumin IgG levels following 3 ovalbumin challenges, suggesting that treatments enhanced humoral immunity. Increasing YC-EHY dose also quadratically increased fecal IgA concentrations in early lactation, suggesting that 30 and 60g/d doses enhanced mucosal immunity. Uterine neutrophil populations were much greater in samples collected on d 7 compared with those on d 42 (32.1 vs. 7.6±3.5% of cells), reflecting neutrophil infiltration immediately after calving, but no treatment effect was detected. Significant day effects were detected for mRNA of IL-6, IL-8, neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO), and neutrophil elastase (ELANE

  5. Surgical outcomes for unilateral superior oblique palsy in Chinese population: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon; Shing; Kin; Yau; Victor; Tak; Yau; Tam; Jacky; Wai; Yip; Lee; Theo; Tak; Kwong; Chan; Can; Yin; Fun; Yuen


    AIM: To evaluate the outcome after surgery for unilateral superior oblique(SO) palsy in Chinese.METHODS: The medical records of 39 patients that underwent surgery for unilateral SO palsy between January 2003 and December 2012 at Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, were retrospectively reviewed. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. Pre-operative assessments for vertical deviation, cyclo-deviation, and Knapp’s classification were obtained to determine the nature and degree of surgical correction.Vertical deviation was measured at 1wk; 1, 6mo and on last follow-up day post-operatively. Cyclo-deviation was measured on last follow-up day post-operatively.RESULTS: During the 10 y period, 39 subjects were recruited. The most common etiology was congenital(94.9%). Knapp’s Type III(66.7%) and Type I(12.8%)classifications were the most common subtypes. To treat SO palsy, the most common surgical procedures were:isolated inferior oblique(IO) anteriorization(41.0%),isolated IO myectomy(10.3%), and isolated IO recession(10.3%). At 3.5 ±2.1y post-operatively, the vertical deviation was significantly reduced(15.1 ±6.2 PD versus0.5±1.4 PD, P <0.0001) without significant improvement in cyclo-deviation(P =0.5). Initial vertical deviation was correlated with cyclo-torsion(r =0.4, P =0.007). Those with over-correction had greater initial vertical deviation(19.4±7.2 PD versus 13.2±4.3 PD, P =0.003). After a single operation, 84.6% of subjects achieved a vertical deviation within ±3 PD.· CONCLUSION: The majority of subjects achieved corrected vertical deviation after a single surgery although there was no improvement in cyclo-deviation.Those with over-correction of primary position deviation had greater preoperative vertical deviation and it may be related to simultaneous multiple muscle surgery.

  6. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the “Martial Fitness” study (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone


    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk-1 for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key points Participation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group. All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  7. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study. (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone


    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  8. A new non-exercise-based Vo2max prediction equation for aerobically trained men. (United States)

    Malek, Moh H; Housh, Terry J; Berger, Dale E; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W


    The purposes of the present study were to (a) modify previously published Vo(2)max equations using the constant error (CE = mean difference between actual and predicted Vo(2)max) values from Malek et al. (28); (b) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men; (c) derive a new non- exercise-based equation for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men if the modified equations are not found to be accurate; and (d) cross-validate the new Vo(2)max equation using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained men. One hundred and fifty-two aerobically trained men (Vo(2)max mean +/- SD = 4,154 +/- 629 ml.min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine actual Vo(2)max. An aerobically trained man was defined as someone who had participated in continuous aerobic exercise 3 or more sessions per week for a minimum of 1 hour per session for at least the past 18 months. Nine previously published Vo(2)max equations were modified for use with aerobically trained men. The predicted Vo(2)max values from the 9 modified equations were compared to actual Vo(2)max by examining the CE, standard error of estimate (SEE), validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified non-exercise-based equations on a random subsample of 50 subjects resulted in a %TE > or = 13% of the mean of actual Vo(2)max. Therefore, the following non-exercise-based Vo(2)max equation was derived from a random subsample of 112 subjects: Vo(2)max (ml.min(-1)) = 27.387(weight in kg) + 26.634(height in cm) - 27.572(age in years) + 26.161(h.wk(-1) of training) + 114.904(intensity of training using the Borg 6-20 scale) + 506.752(natural log of years of training) - 4,609.791 (R = 0.82, R(2) adjusted = 0.65, and SEE = 378 ml.min(-1)). Cross-validation of this equation on the remaining sample of 40 subjects resulted in a %TE of 10

  9. Comparison of the femtosecond Laser and mechanical microkeratome for flap cutting in LASIK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Kun; Xia; Jie; Yu; Guang-Rui; Chai; Dang; Wang; Yang; Li


    · AIM: To compare refractive results, higher-order aberrations(HOAs), contrast sensitivity and dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) performed with a femtosecond laser versus a mechanical microkeratome for myopia and astigmatism.·METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized study,120 eyes with myopia received a LASIK surgery with the Visu Max femtosecond laser for flap cutting, and 120 eyes received a conventional LASIK surgery with a mechanical microkeratome. Flap thickness, visual acuity, manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity function(CSF) curves,HOAs and dry-eye were measured at 1wk; 1, 3, 6mo after surgery.·RESULTS: At 6mo postoperatively, the mean central flap thickness in femtosecond laser procedure was113.05 ±5.89 μm(attempted thickness 110 μm), and148.36 ±21.24 μm(attempted thickness 140 μm) in mechanical microkeratome procedure. An uncorrected distance visual acuity(UDVA) of 4.9 or better was obtained in more than 98% of eyes treated by both methods, a gain in log MAR lines of corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA) occurred in more than 70% of eyes treated by both methods, and no eye lost ≥1 lines of CDVA in both groups. The difference of the mean UDVA and CDVA between two groups at any time post-surgery were not statistically significant(P >0.05). The postoperative changes of spherical equivalent occurred markedly during the first month in both groups. The total root mean square values of HOAs and spherical aberrations in the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly less than those in the microkeratome treated eyes during 6mo visit after surgery(P <0.01). The CSF values of the femtosecond treated eyes were also higherthan those of the microkeratome treated eyes at all space frequency(P <0.01). The mean ocular surface disease index scores in both groups were increased at 1wk, and recovered to preoperative level at 1mo after surgery. The mean tear breakup time(TBUT) of the femtosecond treated eyes were markedly longer than those of

  10. Effects of soy isoflavones on bone density and estrogen activity in ovariectomized rats%大豆异黄酮对去卵巢大鼠骨密度和雌激素活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐霞; 贡沁燕; 鲁映青; 姚明辉


    目的: 研究大豆异黄酮对去卵巢大鼠骨密度以及雌激素活性的影响. 方法: 将10~12月龄的雌性Wistar大鼠随机分为6组:假手术组(SHAM)、切卵巢模型组(OVX)、尼尔雌醇组(OVX-E)、小剂量异黄酮组(L-ISO)、中剂量异黄酮组(M-ISO)、大剂量异黄酮组(H-ISO),每组8只.后5组大鼠被切除双侧卵巢,SHAM组只被切除卵巢附近脂肪组织. L-ISO,M-ISO,H-ISO分别灌胃给予30,60,120 mgkg-1的大豆异黄酮,OVX-E组大鼠灌胃给予0.2 mg*kg-1*wk-1的尼尔雌醇,SHAM与OVX组以等剂量的溶剂灌胃,15 wk 后股动脉放血处死动物,收集血液用于血清碱性磷酸酶活性、血清雌二醇水平、血钙、血磷测定,分离出右侧股骨、第2腰椎用于骨密度测量,测定双侧子宫重量. 结果: 与SHAM组相比,OVX组股骨骨密度和椎骨骨密度均可见不同程度降低(P0.05),尼尔雌醇与异黄酮120mg*kg-1能明显升高去卵巢大鼠的股骨和椎骨骨密度(P<0.05).OVX组的血清碱性磷酸酶水平高于SHAM组(P<0.05),异黄酮60 mg*kg-1可降低去卵巢大鼠的血清碱性磷酸酶水平(P<0.05).OVX组的血清雌二醇水平与子宫系数明显低于SHAM组(P<0.01),异黄酮的不同剂量组与OVX-E组的血清雌二醇水平、子宫系数都明显高于OVX组.虽然异黄酮的不同剂量组的血清雌二醇水平都比OVX-E组高(P<0.01),但它们的子宫系数都明显低于OVX-E组(P<0.01).各组的血钙、血磷值无显著性差异.结论:大豆异黄酮可在去卵巢大鼠体内发挥雌激素样作用,大豆异黄酮120mg*kg-1能提高去卵巢大鼠的骨密度,此作用除与雌激素样作用有关外还可能有其他机制参与.%AIM: To study effects of soy isoflavones on estrogen-like activity and bone density in ovariectomized adult rats. METHODS: Forty-eight female Wistar rats (10-12 mo old) were randomly divided into six groups. Ovariectomies were performed in the OVX (ovariectomy), OVX-E(OVX+nilestriol), L-ISO (OVX

  11. Flap-free LASEK联合MMC与LASEK治疗中低度近视临床观察%Clinical observation of flap-free LASEK combined mitomycin C and LASEK on the treatment of moderate and low myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔诗凝; 张斌; 梁桂玲; 屈淑娥; 张勇军


    目的:观察比较Flap-free(去瓣) LASEK 加丝裂霉素C(MMC)与LASEK手术治疗中、低度近视临床效果,评估FLAP-free LASEK联合丝裂霉素C的安全性和有效性.方法:将患者44例86眼(-2.00~-7.00)D,随机分为两组,A组行Flap-free LASEK联合丝裂霉素C,B组行普通LASEK手术.观察两组术后1wk;1,3mo裸眼视力,术后1wk;10d;1,3,6mo角膜haze情况,术后眼球疼痛程度评分,角膜上皮愈合时间.结果:两组术后1wk;1,3mo时裸眼视力比较无统计学意义.术后1wk;10d;3,6mo角膜haze无统计学意义.但是角膜haze在1mo时(χ2=5.185,P<0.05),差异有统计学意义,其中0.5级haze在1mo时两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.135,P<0.05),3mo时两组比较差异无统计学意义.1级haze在1,3mo两组比较差异均无统计学意义.2级haze只在B组术后3mo时出现1例,A组无2级haze出现.眼球疼痛程度评分术后1d(χ2=38.78,P<0.05),4d(χ2=34.624,P<0.05)两组比较差异有统计学意义,术后7d两组比较差异无统计学意义.角膜上皮愈合时间术后4,7d内愈合两组比较均无统计学意义.结论:Flap-free LASEK联合丝裂霉素C与普通LASEK治疗中、低度近视相比较,术后1mo时0.5级haze发生更少,程度更轻.术后第1,4d时眼球疼痛程度更小,视力恢复和角膜上皮愈合时间无明显差异.%AIM: To compare the clinical effectivity of flap-free LASEK combined mitomycin C(MMC) and LASEK for moderate and low myopia, to assess the safety and effectiveness of flap - free LASEK combined MMC surgery.METHODS: Forty-four patients eighty-six eyes(-2.00--7.00D) were divided randomly into two groups, group A and group B. Group A underwent flap-free LASEK combined MMC, group B underwent common LASEK. The uncorrected visual acuity ( UCVA) scores were detected in 1 week,1 month, 3 months after surgery, the haze scores were detected in 1 week,10 days,1 month, 3, 6 months after surgery. All subjective pain scores were evaluated in 1 day, 4 days, 7 days after

  12. Effects of botulin A on 22 patients with congenital nystagmus%肉毒杆菌毒素A治疗先天性眼球震颤22例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宏伟; 杨景存; 曹木荣


    AIM: To investigate the effect of botulin A (BTA) on patients with congenital nystagmus (CN).METHODS: Twenty-two CN patients (44 eyes, including5 females and 17 males) were treated with BTA of the lowest effective dosage injected directly into the patients'correlative extrocular muscles. The changes in ocular nystagmus were measured by electronystagmography (ENG)before the BTA injection and one week, one month, three months, and half a year afterwards. Meanwhile the changes in visual acuity and three-degree visual function were also measured.RESULTS: Visual acuity at different time before and after the injection did not show significant changes (P>0.05). Compared with the nystagmus data in the near-and far-distance primary positions before the injection, they all decreased significantly 1 month after the injection (P<0.05). Compared with the nystagmus amplitude in the near-and far-distance primary positions before the injection, it decreased significantly three months and half a year after injection (<0.05). The lowest intensity position, which reflected the changes of compensatory head postures, did not change obviously after injection, although it showed the tendency of becoming closer to the primary eye position. As for three-degree binocular vision, the fusion range amplified significantly 3 and 6months after injection (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: This treatment of CN is proved effectivein reducing nystagmus at the primary eye position, improving the compensatory head postures, visual acuity and three-degree binocular vision to some extent. The most effective period occurs at one month after injection.The effect begins to reduce six months after the injection when compared with that at one month.%目的:观察肉毒杆菌毒素A(BTA)治疗先天性眼球震颤(CN)的效果.方法:先天性眼球震颤患者22例,男17例,女5例.用眼震图(ENG)检查BTA注射相应眼外肌前与注射后1wk,1,3,6mo的近、远距离眼震,视力,3级视功能情况,各组


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红华; 王玮; 常远; 周祖翼


    In response to the India-Asia collision during Cenozoic times,the Tian Shan range has been tectonically reactivated and intensely uplifted.Many previous studies have focused on the history of uplift and exhumation of the Tian Shan during the Cenozoic based on low-temperature thermochronology,magnetostratigraphy and syntectonic deposits,sedimentology,and rock magnetism.However,the divergent opinions still exist.Here we also employ apatite fission-track analysis on rock samples from a transect along the Urüimqi-Korla road crossing the eastern part of the Tian Shan in order to better understand the spatial difference in the exhumation history of the Tian Shah range.In the field,we selected sixteen rock samples (WK1 ~ WK16) along the Road.The samples WK6 ~ WK10 and WK12 ~ WK15 were performed for all the analytical procedures of apatite fission track,which were mainly from the segment of the Road south of Shenglidaban.The other samples(WK1 ~ WK5,WK11,and WK16)were not further analyzed due to the following reasons:(1) there are not enough apatite grains for sample preparation,or(2) there is any suitable apatite grains for fission track statistics.In the lab,we obtained the AFT data such as confined track length,Dpar(diameter of etched spontaneous fission tracks measured parallel to the crystallographic C-axis),track angle to the crystallographic C-axis.Our fission-track data show that confined track length ranges from 12.8 ~ 14.1 μm with standard deviation of 1.41 ~ 1.75 μm,and that Dpar is 1.57 μm to 2.03 μm.AFT ages span 90 ~ 50Ma except for sample WK6 with the age of ca.158Ma.The positive correlation exists between these AFT age data and the corresponding elevations.The thermal modeling results show that the sampled part of the Tian Shan range has experienced two stages of exhumation during Cenozoic times,i.e.,slow exhumation before ca.20±5Ma followed by subsequent rapid exhumation,with the exhumation rates of ca.10 ~30m/Ma and ca.70 ~160m

  14. Energy dissipation in biomolecular machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lervik, Anders


    The operation of a molecular pump, the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum is studied using mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics and molecular dynamics. The mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the pump is compared to the description obtained in the framework of Hill for kinetic enzyme cycles. By comparing these two descriptions at isothermal conditions, they are found to be equivalent. This supports the validity of the mesoscopic approach. An extension of the mesoscopic non-equilibrium framework to also include a heat flux and the corresponding temperature difference is proposed. This can be used to model phenomena such as non-shivering thermogenesis, a process which lack a theoretical description in the kinetic cycle picture. Further, the heat transfer in the calcium pump is studied using molecular dynamics. This is done in order to obtain phenomenological parameters that can be used for the modeling of thermogenesis. A non-stationary non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach is developed, which may be used to study heat transfer between a small object and the surrounding solvent. This methodology is applied to the calcium pump solvated in water. It is found that the thermal conductivity of the protein is low (0.2 W K-1 m-1) compared to water (0.6 WK-1 m-1). This means that the protein may sustain a large temperature gradient across its structure. The simulations also show that the protein-water surface is important for the heat transfer. The time scale for vibrational energy relaxation is found to be of order 10/100 ps which strengthens the local equilibrium assumption of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is also applied to calculate the thermodynamic efficiency of the calcium pump embedded in lipid bilayers of varying length and from different tissues. This is done in order to show the applicability of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics to interpret experimental data. The

  15. Clinical study of silicone oil removal via 23-gauge pars plana incision%23G 微创睫状体平坦部巩膜切口硅油取出的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬君; 韩晓霞


    目的:观察23G 微创睫状体平坦部巩膜切口硅油取出的有效性和安全性。方法选取2015年3月到2016年03月在我院眼科住院的23例(23眼)玻璃体切除术后硅油眼患者,行23G 微创睫状体平坦部巩膜切口硅油取出,观察术后1wk 、1mo 、3mo 最佳矫正视力、眼压、眼前节炎症、并发症等情况。结果术后1wk 视力提高11眼,视力稳定9眼,视力降低3眼,眼压9.1±3.7mmhg ,未见视网膜脱离、脉络膜脱离等并发症。术后1mo 随访时视力提高13眼,视力稳定8眼,视力降低2眼,眼压15.1±4.3mmhg 。术后3mo 随访时视力提高14眼,视力稳定7眼,视力降低2眼,眼压13.9±3.8mmhg ,1眼发生视网膜脱离,2眼发生脉络膜脱离。结论23G 微创睫状体平坦部巩膜切口硅油取出手术具有手术损伤小、手术步骤少、舒适度高、术后并发症少等优点,是一种安全有效的手术方式,值得临床推广。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of silicone oil removal via 23‐gauge(23G) pars plana incision .Methods From March 2015 to March 2016 ,23 patients (23 eyes ) with silicone oil intraocular tamponade after vitrectomy were treated in the department of ophthalmology in our hospital .All patients underwent silicone oil removal via 23G pars plana incision ,the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) , intraocular pressure(IOP) ,anterior segment inflammation and postoperative complications were observed in 1wk ,1mo and 3mo after surgery .Results At postoperative 1 week ,1month ,3 months ,BCVA was improved obviously in 11 eyes ,13 eyes ,14 eyes ,respectively ,and was stabled in 9 eyes ,8 eyes ,7 eyes ,respectively ,and was decreased in 3 eyes ,2 eye ,2eyes ,respectively .The average IOP after surgery was 9 .1 ± 3 .7 mm Hg ,15 . 1 ± 4 .3 mm Hg ,and 13 .9 ± 3 .8 mm Hg after one week ,one month and three months ,respectively .There was no occurrence of retinal detachment ,choroidal

  16. Increasing dietary sugar concentration may improve dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, and productivity of dairy cows in the postpartum phase of the transition period. (United States)

    Penner, G B; Oba, M


    The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of feeding diets varying in sugar concentration to postpartum transition cows on productivity, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. We hypothesized that the high-sugar diet would increase dry matter intake and lactation performance. The secondary objective was to characterize changes in ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility over the first 4 wk of lactation. Fifty-two Holstein cows, including 28 primiparous and 24 multiparous cows, 10 of which were previously fitted with a ruminal cannula, were assigned to the experimental diets containing either high sugar (HS = 8.4%) or low sugar (LS = 4.7%) immediately after calving, based on their expected calving date. Data and samples were collected on d 5.2 +/- 0.3, 12.2 +/- 0.3, 19.2 +/- 0.3, and 26.1 +/- 0.3 relative to parturition for wk 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Cows fed HS had increased dry matter intake compared with those fed LS (18.3. vs. 17.2 kg/d). Further, cows fed HS sorted for particles retained on the pan of the Penn State Particle Size Separator to a greater extent than cows fed LS. Feeding HS tended to increase nadir (5.62 vs. 5.42), mean (6.21 vs. 6.06), and maximum pH (6.83 vs. 6.65). The duration (h/d) and area (pH x min/d) that ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 were not affected by treatment. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were not affected by treatment, averaging 63.3, 65.2, 43.2, and 93.5%, respectively. Feeding HS decreased plasma glucose concentration compared with feeding LS (51.3 vs. 54.0 mg/dL), but concentration of plasma insulin was not affected by treatment, averaging 4.17 microIU/mL. Cows fed HS had higher concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutrate (17.5 vs. 10.5 mg/dL) and nonesterified fatty acids (344 vs. 280 microEq/L). Milk yield

  17. GM-CSF对MUC1基因疫苗抑制乳腺癌生长的增强作用%Enhanced inhibitory effect of MUC1 gene vaccine on breast cancer growth by GM-CSF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁时芳; 李开宗; 王岭; 颜真; 韩苇; 张英起


    目的: 观察GM-CSF有无增强MUC1基因疫苗对EMT6乳腺癌生长的特异性抑制作用. 方法: 采用股四头肌肌肉注射法, 将构建的MUC1基因疫苗pcDNA3.1-MUC1免疫雌性BALB/c小鼠, 每3 wk 1次, 共3次.每次基因免疫后1、 3、 5 d, 皮下注射GM-CSF 100 μL(1 μg/100 μL).最后1次基因免疫后第3周, 接种表达MUC1的EMT6小鼠乳腺癌细胞.两周后观察、记录肿瘤的生长情况.于肿瘤细胞接种后第43天, 处死全部动物, 称量肿瘤的质量.用4 h 51Cr释放法检测小鼠脾特异性CTL的杀伤活性. 结果: 接种肿瘤细胞后43 d, MUC1基因疫苗加GM-CSF组、 MUC1基因疫苗组、 pcDNA3.1加GM-CSF组及pcDNA3.1组, EMT6肿瘤的大小依次为(135±33.8)mm3、 (250±34.3)mm3、 (568±43.6)mm3和(596±48.2)mm3; 平均瘤质量(g) 依次为(0.81±0.42)g、 (1.23±0.41)g、 (2.30±0.48)g及(2.28±0.58)g .与对照组相比较, MUC1基因疫苗组EMT6肿瘤的生长受到明显抑制(P<0.05); 与单独MUC1基因疫苗组相比较, MUC1基因疫苗加GM-CSF组抗肿瘤生长的作用有显著差异(P<0.05).在效靶比为100∶ 1、 50∶ 1、 25∶ 1和12.5∶ 1时, MUC1基因疫苗加GM-CSF组特异性CTL对EMT6靶细胞的杀伤率, 依次为68.5%、 53.4%、 35.9% 和28.5%; MUC1基因免疫组依次为54.1%、 39.8%、 26.4%和20.1%, pcDNA3.1加GM-CSF及pcDNA3.1两个对照组分别为13.2%、 10%、 8.2%、 7.2% 和11.7%、 9.8%、 7.7%、 7.0%, MUC1加GM-CSF组与单独MUC1基因免疫组相比较差异显著(P<0.05).结论: GM-CSF可显著增强MUC1基因疫苗对EMT6乳腺癌生长的特异性抑制作用.

  18. MUC1基因疫苗抑制EMT6乳癌生长的实验%Suppressing effect of MUC1 gene vaccine on EMT6 breast cancer growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁时芳; 李开宗; 颜真; 韩苇; 张英起


    目的: 观察MUC1基因疫苗对EMT6乳癌生长的特异性抑制作用. 方法: 采用股四头肌肌肉注射法将构建的MUC1基因疫苗pcDNA3.1-MUC1免疫雌性BALB/c小鼠,3 wk 1次,共3次.最后一次基因免疫后第3周,接种表达MUC1的EMT6小鼠乳腺癌细胞.2 wk后观察、记录肿瘤的生长情况.于肿瘤细胞接种后第45 日,处死全部动物,称量肿瘤的质量.荷瘤小鼠的瘤组织常规HE染色.结果: 肿瘤细胞接种后45 d, MUC1预防组、质粒pcDNA3.1对照组及生理盐水阴性对照组EMT6肿瘤大小分别为(250±24.3),(596±28.2)及 (618±35.6) mm3(P<0.01);平均瘤质量为(1.23±0.41),(2.28±0.66)及2.36±0.72) g(P<0.01);MUC1基因疫苗预防组仅见40%(4/10)的小鼠有瘤体形成,而pcDNA3.1对照组及生理盐水阴性对照组100%(10/10)可见瘤体形成、肿瘤生长.结果表明,与pcDNA3.1对照组相比,MUC1预防组EMT6肿瘤生长受到明显抑制(P<0.01);MUC1预防组小鼠免疫保护有显著差异(P<0.05).病理学检查结果显示,与pcDNA3.1对照组相比,MUC1 DNA疫苗预防组鼠EMT6肿瘤组织大量坏死.结论: MUC1基因疫苗显著抑制EMT6乳癌生长,为临床应用研究奠定了基础.

  19. Contrast sensitivity after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia%近视眼准分子激光角膜切削术后的对比敏感度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud; Jabbarvand; Javad; Bakhshi; Mohammad; Taher; Rajabi


    · AIM: To evaluate contrast sensitivity in patients who had undergone uncomplicated excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia.· METHODS: Monocular contrast sensitivity function was measured with the CSV-I000E chart in 41 patients who had received PRK by the Nidek EC-5000 excimer laser system.Mean preoperative refractive error was -2.62±1.33 D (range,-0.75 to -4.00 D). Contrast sensitivity function was measured preoperatively, 1week, 1, 3 and 6months after surgery through the CSV-1000E contrast sensitivity unit (VectorVision).· RESULTS: Logarithmic values of contrast sensitivity at each spatial frequency were used for statistical analysis and normalized values were used for graphical representation.Contrast sensitivity decreased 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. Starting from the first month, there was rapid recovery of contrast sensitivity especially at low spatial frequencies, and at the third month, only at 6 and 12 cycles per degree (cpd) statistically significant decrease was seen.Six months after surgery, there was an increase in contrast sensitivity values at ail spatial frequencies.· CONCLUSION: Photorefractive keratectomy can induce significant reductions in contrast sensitivity in the first month after surgery; these values returned to the preopereative values at 6 months after surgery.%目的:评价近视患者PRK术后的对比敏感度变化.方法:应用CSV-1000E图表对41例接受Nidek EC-5000型准分子激光仪行PRK手术的患者,行单眼对比敏感度测量.患者术前平均屈光度为-2.62±1.33D(范围从-0.75至-4.00D).应用CSV-1000E对比敏感度仪分别在术前,术后1wk;1,3,6mo行对比敏感度检查.结果:将每个空间频率的对比敏感度对数值进行统计学分析,并应用图表与正常值进行比较.结果显示对比敏感度在术后1wk及术后1 mo时明显降低,从第1 mo开始,对比敏感度尤其是低空间频率的对比敏感度快速恢复,在第3mo,只有6和12cpd两种空间

  20. Liver lipid content and inflammometabolic indices in peripartal dairy cows are altered in response to prepartal energy intake and postpartal intramammary inflammatory challenge. (United States)

    Graugnard, D E; Moyes, K M; Trevisi, E; Khan, M J; Keisler, D; Drackley, J K; Bertoni, G; Loor, J J


    This study evaluated the effect of feeding a control diet (CON) or a moderate energy diet (overfed, OVE) during the dry period (∼45d) and a postpartum intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on blood metabolic and inflammatory indices, milk production, and hepatic gene expression. A subset of cows (n=9/diet) in CON (1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter) and OVE (1.62 Mcal/kg of dry matter) received an intramammary LPS challenge (200 μg; CON-LPS, OVE-LPS, respectively). Liver biopsies were harvested at -14 d from calving, and postpartum at 2.5h post-LPS on d 7, 14, and 30. Prepartum, the OVE group was in more positive energy balance (EB) and had greater body condition score compared with CON. In contrast, during wk 1 postpartum and before the LPS challenge, the OVE group was in greater negative EB than CON. Prepartal diet did not affect postpartal milk production or dry matter intake. At 2h postchallenge on d 7, we observed an increase in serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and bilirubin and a decrease in hydroxybutyrate, regardless of diet. That was coupled with greater haptoglobin in OVE-LPS compared with CON-LPS. In addition, OVE-LPS cows versus CON nonchallenged, OVE nonchallenged, and CON-LPS had greater liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration 2.5h postchallenge on d 7. The concentration of TAG in liver of OVE-LPS remained elevated by 30d postpartum. The liver TAG concentration in OVE-LPS compared with CON-LPS cows was associated with greater serum concentration of NEFA and reactive oxygen metabolites on d 10 and 14 postpartum. Cows in OVE-LPS also had greater concentrations of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and vitamin E from d 10 through 21. Among 28 genes associated with fatty acid oxidation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and gluconeogenesis, only SAA3 (which encodes an acute phase protein) was greater in CON-LPS compared with OVE-LPS at 2.5h postchallenge. Expression of HP, which encodes another acute phase protein, was greater in OVE-LPS than in CON

  1. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages. (United States)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B


    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest

  2. 英夫利西治疗重度溃疡性结肠炎2例%Treatment of ulcerative colitis with infliximab: an analysis of 2 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽珍; 王思平; 李红


    目的:探讨英夫利西治疗重度溃疡性结肠炎(UC)的安全性和有效性.方法:报道2例重度UC治疗中英夫利西的用法、疗效及安全性,并复习近年国内外相关文献,结果:1例患者在接受3次英夫利西5 mg/kg诱导缓解后并以相同剂量每8wk 1次维持治疗,输注5次后达到黏膜愈合.另l例患者应用英夫利西5 mg/kg效果欠佳,加量至10 mg/kg后效果明显好转,输注5次后达到黏膜愈合.2例患者均未发生英夫利西相关的副反应,文献复习显示英夫利西可诱导中重度UC的临床缓解,治疗效果衰减的患者增加剂量可重新建立疗效反应,英夫利西有诱发机会性感染等多种副反应的风险,治疗期间应严密监测、积极预防.结论:英夫利西治疗重度UC是安全和可行的,可作为治疗重度UC的选择方案之一.%AIM: To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of infliximab in patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Two patients with severe UC were treated with infliximab. The safety and efficacy of infliximab were evaluated, and relevant literature was reviewed.RESULTS: The first patient underwent induction therapy with infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6 and maintenance therapy with infliximab every 8 weeks. Complete bowel healing was achieved after five infliximab infusions. The second patient, who initially did not respond to infusions with infliximab 5 mg/kg, was subsequently treated with a higher dose (10 mg/kg) of infliximab. Mucosal healing was achieved after five times of infliximab treatment. No inflix-imab-associated adverse events occurred in both patients. It has been reported in recent years that infliximab is effective for the induction andmaintenance of clinical remission in patients with moderate to severe UC. If attenuation of the response to 5 mg/kg dose occurs, increasing the dose of infliximab can get re-achievement of response. However, serious side effects of infliximab including opportunistic

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt vs endoscopic therapy in preventing variceal rebleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xue; Meng Zhang; Jack XQ Pang; Fei Yan; Ying-Chao Li; Liang-Shan Lv; Jia Yuan


    AIM:To compare early use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with endoscopic treatment (ET) for the prophylaxis of recurrent variceal bleeding.METHODS:In-patient data were collected from 190 patients between January 2007 and June 2010 who suffured from variceal bleeding.Patients who were older than 75 years; previously received surgical treatment or endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding; and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy or hepatic cancer,were excluded from this research.Thirty-five cases lost to follow-up were also excluded.Retrospective analysis was done in 126 eligible cases.Among them,64 patients received TIPS (TIPS group) while 62 patients received endoscopic therapy (ET group).The relevant data were collected by patient review or telephone calls.The occurrence of rebleeding,hepatic encephalopathy or other complications,survival rate and cost of treatment were compared between the two groups.RESULTS:During the follow-up period (median,20.7and 18.7 mo in TIPS and ET groups,respectively),rebleeding from any source occurred in 11 patients in the TIPS group as compared with 31 patients in the ET group (Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test,P=0.000).Rebleeding rates at any time point (6 wk,1year and 2 year) in the TIPS group were lower than in the ET group (Bonferroni correction o' =o/3).Eight patients in the TIPS group and 16 in the ET group died with the cumulative survival rates of 80.6% and 64.9%(Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test x2=4.864,P =0.02),respectively.There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to 6-wk survival rates (Bonferroni correction a' =a/3).However,significant differences were observed between the two groups in the 1-year survival rates (92% and 79%) and the 2-year survival rates (89% and 64.9%)(Bonferroni correction a' =o/3).No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups in the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (12 patients in TIPS

  4. A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation. (United States)

    Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C


    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the peripheral circulation, acute phase proteins in blood and milk, feed intake, milk production and composition, and blood metabolites were determined in 8 lactating Holstein cows. Between wk 1 and 5 of 2 successive 6-wk periods, cows received a total mixed ration ad libitum with a forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio of 50:50. In wk 6 of both periods, the SARA challenge was conducted by replacing 21% of the dry matter of the total mixed ration with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley. Rumen pH was monitored continuously using indwelling pH probes in 4 rumen cannulated cows. Rumen fluid samples were collected 15 min before feed delivery and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 24 h after feed delivery for 2 d during wk 5 (control) and wk 6 (SARA). Peripheral blood samples were collected using jugular catheters 15 min before feeding and at 6 and 12 h after feeding at the same days of the rumen fluid collections. The SARA challenge significantly reduced average daily pH from 6.17 to 5.97 and increased the duration of rumen pH below pH 5.6 from 118 to 279 min/d. The challenge reduced dry matter intake (16.5 vs. 19 kg/d), milk yield (28.3 vs. 31.6 kg/d), and milk fat (2.93 vs. 3.30%, 0.85 vs. 0.97 kg/d), and tended to increase milk protein percentage (3.42 vs. 3.29%), without affecting milk protein yield (1.00 vs. 0.98 kg/d). The challenge also increased the concentration of free LPS in rumen fluid from 28,184 to 107,152 endotoxin units (EU)/mL. This was accompanied by an increase in LPS in peripheral blood plasma (0.52 vs. <0.05 EU/mL) with a peak at 12 h after feeding (0.81 EU/mL). Concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) in peripheral blood as well as LBP concentration in milk increased (438.5 vs. 167.4, 475.6 vs. 0, 53.1 vs. 18.2, and 6.94 vs. 3.02 microg/mL, respectively) during

  5. 硬性透气性角膜接触镜矫正高度近视和散光的疗效%Clinical effects of rigid gas permeable contact lens in correcting high myopia and astigmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽红; 赵炜; 王雨生; 鱼晓妮; 任玉凤; 冯洁


    AlM: To evaluate the effect of rigid gas permeable contact lens ( RGP ) in correcting high myopia and astigmatism.METHODS: Forty-one patients ( 65 eyes ) with myopia (-9. 03 ± 6. 19DS, maximum -23. 00DS) and astigmatism (-1. 41 ± 1. 32DC, maximum -5. 50DC) were fitted with RGP after strict routine ophthalmological examination, objective refraction and subjective refraction. All these patients were followed after 1wk, 1, 3mo and half one year.RESULTS:Sixty-five eyes were fitted with RGP (-9. 92± 5. 96DS). RGP base curve ( BC) was majorly located within the range 7. 20 ~8. 25mm. 46. 2% eyes with RGP achieved 1. 0 ( BCVA ) and 80. 1% achieved above 0. 6 ( BCVA) . However, with spectacles, the percent was 28%(1. 0) and 60% (>0. 6), respectively. BCVA of RGP was 0. 81 ± 0. 22, but BCVA with spectacles was 0. 66 ± 0. 28, there was statistical significance (P<0. 01). There were 40 eyes (62%) fitted with RGP whose vision were enhanced more than 1 line, 24 eyes ( 37%) whose vision were not changed and 1 eye (2%) whose vision were dropped 1 line.CONCLUSlON:RGP effectively improves visual acuity of high myopia and astigmatism compared with spectacles.%目的::评价硬性透气性角膜接触镜( rigid gas permeable contact lens, RGP)矫正高度近视及散光的效果。方法:采用自身对照方法,对41例近视(平均屈光度-9.03±6.19DS,最大值-23.00DS)、散光(平均-1.41±1.32DC,最大值-5.50DC)患者,共计65眼,用RGP进行矫正,并与患者自身使用框架眼镜,在自然瞳孔下验光的最佳矫正视力进行对比。结果:近视、散光65眼配制了RGP,RGP基弧( BC)绝大多数位于7.20~8.25mm区间内,度数-9.92±5.96DS。 RGP矫正视力达到1.0的占46.2%,0.6以上的占80.1%,框架眼镜矫正视力达到1.0的占28%,0.6以上的占60%。RGP最佳矫正视力为0.81±0.22,框架眼镜的最佳矫正视力为0.66 ± 0.28。 RGP的最佳矫正视力优于框架眼镜( P<0.01)。 RGP比较框架眼镜最佳矫正视力提高1

  6. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Fyfe


    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  7. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals. (United States)

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than

  8. True digestible phosphorus requirement for twenty- to forty-kilogram pigs. (United States)

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O


    The objective of this study was to determine the true digestible P requirements of 20- to 40-kg pigs by the broken-line regression analysis of growth performance using 6 levels of true total-tract digestible P. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (initial BW=25.2±1.0 kg) were used to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in monocalcium phosphate using the regression method. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (2.96 g total P/kg) and 3 additional dietary treatments with incremental addition of 0.50 g P/kg through monocalcium phosphate. Limestone (37.2% Ca) was added to maintain a constant Ca to P ratio of 1.25 to 1 across all diets. A 5-d adjustment period preceded a 5-d total collection of feces. Ferric oxide was used as a marker to time the initiation and termination of fecal collection. In Exp. 2, 108 barrows and gilts (initial BW=20.1±1.2 kg) were used in a 3-wk growth performance trial. Monocalcium phosphate was added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet to set up 6 levels of TTTD-based digestible P, ranging from 1.31 to 4.64 g/kg of diet with increments of 0.67 g/kg digestible P. Limestone was added to maintain a constant Ca level across all diets. The results of Exp.1 showed that dietary P intake, fecal P output, digested P, and apparent total-tract digestibility of P increased linearly (P<0.05) with the increasing supplementation of monocalcium phosphate. Regressing daily digested P against daily P intake resulted in TTTD of 84.3% for P in monocalcium phosphate. In Exp. 2, ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased both linearly (P<0.01) and quadratically (P<0.05) with increasing P level in wk 1 and 3 and for the overall 3-wk duration. In wk 2, both linear and quadratic effects of P level were observed for ADG and ADFI (P<0.05) whereas the G:F only showed linear improvement (P<0.01). The true digestible P requirement, defined as the breakpoint using the overall 3-wk G:F as the response variable, was estimated to be 3.03, 2.98, and 3.08 g

  9. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance. (United States)

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M


    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  10. Performance and metabolic profile of dairy cows during a lactational and deliberately induced negative energy balance with subsequent realimentation. (United States)

    Gross, J; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M; Schwarz, F J


    Homeorhetic and homeostatic controls in dairy cows are essential for adapting to alterations in physiological and environmental conditions. To study the different mechanisms during adaptation processes, effects of a deliberately induced negative energy balance (NEB) by feed restriction near 100 d in milk (DIM) on performance and metabolic measures were compared with lactation energy deficiency after parturition. Fifty multiparous cows were studied in 3 periods (1=early lactation up to 12 wk postpartum; 2=feed restriction for 3 wk beginning at 98±7 DIM with a feed-restricted and control group; and 3=a subsequent realimentation period for the feed-restricted group for 8 wk). In period 1, despite NEB in early lactation [-42 MJ of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/d, wk 1 to 3] up to wk 9, milk yield increased from 27.5±0.7 kg to a maximum of 39.5±0.8 kg (wk 6). For period 2, the NEB was induced by individual limitation of feed quantity and reduction of dietary energy density. Feed-restricted cows experienced a greater NEB (-63 MJ of NEL/d) than did cows in early lactation. Feed-restricted cows in period 2 showed only a small decline in milk yield of -3.1±1.1 kg and milk protein content of -0.2±0.1% compared with control cows (30.5±1.1 kg and 3.8±0.1%, respectively). In feed-restricted cows (period 2), plasma glucose was lower (-0.2±0.0 mmol/L) and nonesterified fatty acids higher (+0.1±0.1 mmol/L) compared with control cows. Compared with the NEB in period 1, the decreases in body weight due to the deliberately induced NEB (period 2) were greater (56±4 vs. 23±3 kg), but decreases in body condition score (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.34±0.04) and muscle diameter (2.0±0.4 vs. 3.5±0.4 mm) were lesser. The changes in metabolic measures in period 2 were marginal compared with the adjustments directly after parturition in period 1. Despite the greater induced energy deficiency at 100 DIM than the early lactation NEB, the metabolic load experienced by the dairy cows was not

  11. Effect of Chinese medicine Qidengmingmu capsule on the STZ induced hyperglycemia rat's blood-retinal barrier%芪灯明目胶囊对高血糖大鼠血视网膜屏障影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富文; 段俊国; 赵凌; 路雪婧; 李强


    目的:观察链脲佐菌素(STZ)诱发糖尿病大鼠在造模后血-视网膜屏障(blood-retina barrier,BRB)变化情况,并以阳性药为对照研究中药芪灯明目胶囊对STZ诱发糖尿病大鼠的视网膜血管渗漏影响.方法:采用STZ腹腔注射制作糖尿病大鼠模型,在造模后6mo内各时点(2wk;1,2,3,4,5,6mo)采用伊文思蓝灌注示踪显示血-视网膜的渗漏情况,在造模后3mo开始用中药芪灯明目胶囊(低中高剂量组分别给予125,250,500mg/kg体质量剂量的胶囊内容物灌胃),对照组用安多明胶囊(200mg/kg体质量剂量,相当于10倍成人剂量),灌胃3mo,观察药物对 BRB的影响.结果:STZ糖尿病大鼠在2wk即可出现BRB的损害,并随着高血糖状态的持续而不断加重.对造模3mo STZ糖尿病模型大鼠连续灌胃中药芪灯治疗3mo,结果提示:中药芪灯对STZ糖尿病BRB有保护作用,可明显减少视网膜血管的渗漏.结论:STZ糖尿病模型大鼠在早期即可出现BRB损害,并随着高血糖的持续而加重,中药芪灯明目胶囊可减少高血糖导致的BRB损害.%AIM: To observe retinal vessel leakage of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat, and the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on it.METHODS: We induced diabetic rat model by peritoneal injection of STZ, after the blood glucose raised, we used Evans blue to trace the leakage of blood - retina barrier (BRB) every month. After blood glucose rose three months later, we treated the Chinese medicine group diabetic rat with Qidengmingmu capsule. There were three groups of different dose, low dose group of 125mg/kg, middle dose group of 250mg/kg, high dose group of 500mg/kg. The control group was treated with calcium dobesilate (200mg/kg). After three months treated by medicine, the leakage of rat blood - retina barrier was evaluated.RESULTS: The damage of BRB and visual function occurred at two week after the blood glucose rose, and the damage aggravated with the continuing of high diabetic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gomes De Araujo


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. The Wistar were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT. The lactate minimum (LM was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP (baseline, 6 and 12 wk. The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw: 1 30 s of effort; 2 30 s of passive recovery; 3 exercise until exhaustion (AP. Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 wk (5.2±0.2 % bw in relation to baseline (4.4±0.2 % bw, but not after 6 wk (4.5±0.3 % bw. The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT= 58±5 s; CT=40±7 s and 12 wk (HIIT=62±7 s; CT=49±3 s. Glycogen (mg/100mg increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 wk (0.757±0.076 and 12 wk (1.014±0.157 in comparison to baseline (0.358±0.024. In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 wk (0.738±0.057 and 12 wk (0.709±0.085 in comparison to baseline (0.417±0.035. The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 wk (4.079±0.319 in relation to baseline (2.400±0.416. The corticosterone (ng/mL in HIIT increased after 6 wk (529.0±30.5 and reduced after 12 wk (153.6±14.5 in comparison to baseline (370.0±18.3. In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term (6wk was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the glycogen super-compensantion increased after short and long term HIIT in comparison to

  13. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  14. Intravaginal probiotics modulated metabolic status and improved milk production and composition of transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Deng, Q; Odhiambo, J F; Farooq, U; Lam, T; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N


    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of probiotics (a lactic acid bacteria cocktail) around parturition would influence metabolic status and increase milk production of transition dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups receiving intravaginal infusion of probiotics or carrier (i.e., sterile skim milk) once a week at wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving as follows: 2 consecutive probiotics before parturition and 1 carrier dose after parturition (TRT1), 3 consecutive probiotics doses around parturition (TRT2), and 3 consecutive carrier doses around parturition (CTR). The probiotics were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of FUA3089 and FUA3138 and FUA3140 with a cell count of 10 to 10 cfu/dose. Blood was sampled from wk -2 to +3 and milk was sampled on the third day in milk (DIM) and from wk +1 to +5 on a weekly basis. Feed intake and milk production was monitored until wk +8. Results showed that the TRT2 group (366.12 ± 49.77 μmol/L) had a lower ( = 0.01) concentration of NEFA in the serum than the CTR group (550.85 ± 47.16 μmol/L). The concentrations of IgG in the milk were 32.71 ± 3.00 mg/mL in the TRT1 group, 17.47 ± 4.54 mg/mL in the TRT2 group, and 6.73 ± 3.43 mg/mL in the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). Meanwhile, both the TRT1 and the TRT2 group had lower haptoglobin in the milk compared with the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). The TRT1 group had greater milk protein content than the CTR group (2.99 ± 0.04 vs. 2.82 ± 0.04%; = 0.02), whereas the TRT2 group tended to have greater lactose content compared with the CTR group (4.53 ± 0.03 vs. 4.44 ± 0.03%; = 0.05). The effect of treatment interacted with parity with regards to milk production and feed efficiency. Multiparous cows in the TRT1 and TRT2 groups had greater milk production and feed efficiency than those in the CTR group ( < 0.01 and = 0.02, respectively). Among primiparous cows, those

  15. 艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀治疗首发广泛性焦虑对照研究%Study on the clinic efficacy of escitalopram and paroxetine in treating patients with first episode generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶百平; 耿松; 夏青春; 严韬


    Objective To investigate the clinic efficacy and side effects of escitalopram and paroxetine in treating patients withfirst episode generalized anxiety disorder.Methods Forty - eight patients meeting CCMD - 3 criteria of first episode generalized anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups.Patients in study group were treated with escitalopram and the control group were treated with paroxetine.The treatment course was 6 weeks.All the subjects were rated by Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiet (HAMA) and TESS at the baseline and the end of week 1,2,4,6,respectively.Results The effective rates of escitalopram group and paroxetine group were 92% and 91.3% in treating first episode generalized anxiety disorder, with no significant difference between two groups(P>0.05), but significant difference in the HAMA score by the end of wk 1 (P <0.05).There were no significant difference between two groups for the adverse reactions.Conclusion Escitalopram and paroxetine are safe and effective for the treatment of first episode generalized anxiety disorder,but escitalopram possesses more quick response.%目的 比较艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀治疗首发广泛性焦虑的疗效及不良反应.方法 对符合CCMD-3首发广泛性焦虑诊断标准的48例患者随机分为两组,并分别给予艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀治疗6周,对所有患者于治疗前,治疗后1、2、4、6周末用Hamilton焦虑量表(HAMA)及不良反应量表(TESS)进行疗效及不良反应评定.结果 对首发广泛性焦虑的治疗,艾司西酞普兰组有效率92%,帕罗西汀组有效率91.3%;两组疗效比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).一周末艾司西酞普兰组HAMA评分与帕罗西汀组HAMA评分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不良反应两组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 艾司西酞普兰与帕罗西汀疗效相当,艾司西酞普兰起效快,不良反应轻,值得临床推广.

  16. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows. (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J


    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  17. An Analysis of the Causes of the Emerging Tricuspid Regurgitation after Minimally Invasive Transthoracic Closure of the Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defects%膜周部室间隔缺损微创封堵术后新发三尖瓣反流程度变化的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万浩; 段书华; 周彩萍; 邢泉生


    Objective To analyze the cause of changes of emerging tricuspid regurgitation after minimally invasive transthoracic device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSD).Methods 281 patients with pmVSD were selected to assess for tricuspid regurgitation with transesophageal echocardiography during preoperative and postoperative periods. Transthoracic echocardiography was used postoperatively during the 1-wk, 1-mo, 3-mo, 6-mo, 12-mo, 24-mo, 48-mo, 60-mo follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness and to assess for any complication emerging after the surgery.ResultsThere were 19 cases with tricuspid regurgitation with varying degrees of aggravation emerging immediately after closure. During the follow-ups, in the mild-relfux group, 12 patients’ relfux symptom mitigated;one case aggravated to mild to moderate relfux. In the mild to moderate relfux group, 2 cases alleviated to mild relfux; the other case aggravated to moderate relfux.Conclusion The aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation after minimally invasive transthoracic device closure of pmVSD may be caused by the occluder oppression on the tricuspid chordae or lealfets, tendons damage resulted fromdelivery sheath, and abnormal origin of part of the anterior tricuspid valve chordate. Mitigation of tricuspid regurgitation after surgery may be caused by remodeling of the occluder, which leads to oppressed chordae or lealfets to restore to the physiological state. Preoperative and postoperative ultrasound allows precise assessment of the position of tricuspid valve chordae and helps with understanding of the construction of the structure of defect edge tissues, which provides guidance for selecting the appropriate occluder and thus reduce or mitigate tricuspid regurgitation and other complications.%目的:分析经胸微创封堵膜周部室间隔缺损(pmVSD)术后三尖瓣反流程度的变化原因。方法对经胸微创封堵成功的281例pmVSD患儿进行术前、术后即用食道超声心

  18. 前列地尔联合糖皮质激素治疗急性视神经炎的临床观察%Clinical observation of alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids on acute optic neuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范可顺; 邵新香; 周雷


    AIM:To study the clinical effect of alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis( AON) . METHODS: Seventy patients (70 eyes) with AON from January, 2012 to June, 2014 were randomly divided into two groups. 35 patients in observation group were used 10ug alprostadil with 10mL normal saline ( NS ) by intravenous injection, once/d for 7d/one treatment course, and 10mL NS was used by intravenous injection in 35 patients of control group. Besides, the two groups were treated with the combined therapy as follows:20mg methylprednisolone was injected periglomerularly beside the eyeballs, once /3d for 3 times; 800 ~ 1 000mg of methylprednisolone through intravenous drip for 3d, once/d; after 3d, oral administration of prednisone acetate for 1wk, 1mg/( kg · d ); after 1wk, the dose decreased to 5mg/wk until withdraw. Simultaneously, oral administration of ranitidine capsules, calcium carbonate and vitamin D3 tablets were combined in the supportive treament. The differences of curative effect between two groups were comparatively analyzed. RESULTS:In the observation group, 25 eyes (71. 4%) were markedly effective, 7 eyes (20. 0%) were valid and 3 eyes (8. 6%) were invalid, and the total effective rate was 91. 4%. In the control group, 15 eyes ( 42. 9%) were markedly effective, 14 eyes ( 40. 0%) were valid and 6 eyes ( 17. 1%) were invalid, and the total effective rate was 82. 9%. The difference of total effective rate between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0. 477), but there was a significant difference in markedly effective rate between the two groups (χ2=5. 833, P=0. 016). CONCLUSION:Alprostadil combined with glucocorticoids is effective for AON, and it is worth of advocation.%目的:探讨前列地尔联合糖皮质激素综合治疗急性视神经炎的临床疗效。  方法:将我院2012-01/2014-06急性视神经炎住院患者70例70眼随机分组,观察组35例给予前列地尔10μg入10m

  19. Optical coherence tomography changes on age - related macular degeneration patients after photodynamic therapy%光动力学疗法治疗AMD后OCT检查的特征性改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀梅; 高宗银; 张柳; 朱远军; 匡丽晖


    verteporfin was calculated according to manufacturer's instruction. All participants got FFA, ICG, OCT scan and best corrected visual acuity before and followed up for 2wk, 1, 2, 3mo after PDT. The standard five lines combined with 6 lines OCT scan covered key parts of lesion and the scan locations before and after were kept the same. The bilaminar foveal thickness (BFT), outer high reflectivity band thickness ( OHRBT ) , and the total area of intraretinal fluid ( IRF ) and subretinal fluid ( SRF ) were measured at different time points. The relationship between the changes and follow up time was analyzed. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS for windows version 13. 0. RESULTS: There months after treatment, an improvement of 2 lines or better on the Snellen chart was achieved on 22 eyes, visual acuity of 3 eyes without significant change, 3 eyes got decreased, 2 cases lost follow up. The average macular thickness of improved 22 eyes before treatment was 722. 5±55. 6μm, 2wk after treatment, 708. 3±45. 3μm, 1mo, 584. 4±49. 3μm, 2mo, 430. 7±50. 2μm and 180. 6 ±36. 3μm at 3mo. The OHRBT before and after treatment respectively were 302. 3 ±50-2μm, 277. 5±42. 3μm, 202. 7±40. 1μm, 180. 6±35. 7μm, 100. 8±22. 9μm. The total area of both IRF and SRF was estimated as 0. 34±0. 12mm2 , 0. 25±0. 07mm2 , 0. 10±0-05mm2 , 0. 08±0. 04mm2 , 0. 05±0. 01mm2 . CONCLUSION:SRF and retinal edema of patients with AMD were absorbed 1mo after PDT, and the BFT, OHRBT were significantly tend to be thin.

  20. Effects of overnight orthokeratology on correction and control of myopia in adolescents%青少年近视患者配戴夜戴型角膜塑形镜的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宏; 柯新


    AlM:To evaluate the long-term efficiency and safety of overnight orthokeratology in myopia correction and control in adolescents.METHODS: Sixty-five myopia adolescents treated in our hospital from August 2011 to February 2012 were retrospectively analyzed and followed up to 2a. Among them, 35 cases ( 67 eyes ) wearing overnight orthokeatology were included as trial group, and 30 cases ( 60 eyes ) wearing spectacles were included as control group. The trial group were divided into 2 subgroup according the myopic grading in the initial visit:subgroup A(35 eyes,≤-3. 00D), B subgroup (32 eyes,>-3. 00D and ≤-6. 00D). ln the trial group, slit lamp, visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, corneal tomography were collected before wearing overnight orthokeratology, 1d, 1wk, 1month, 3mo, and every 6mo after wearing overnight orthokeratology , with axial length, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, corneal endothelial cell count, abjective refraction and tear film were also collected before and 2a after wearing overnight orthokeratology. ln the control group, slit lamp, visual acuity, refraction and intraocular pressure were collected before wearing and 2a after wearing spectacles. Paired t test were used to compare the intragroup difference. One-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA) was used to compare the differences among the groups. P<0. 05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: The uncorrected visual acuity of the trial group was improved obviously after wearing Orthokeratology Lens 1d, the visual acuity of a group patients improved more significantly. The corneal curvature ( including vertical curvature and horizontal curvature ) of the trial group became more flat after wearing Orthokeratology Lens 2a and stopped 2 wk; The length of ocular axis was also increased, the growth rate of B group (0.33±0.31)mm was lower than that of group A (0. 43±0. 25)mm; Subjective refraction of myopia was increased 0.68±0.49D than wearing Orthokeratology

  1. 度洛西汀对抑郁症患者认知功能与神经内分泌的影响%Effect of duloxetine on cognitive function and neuroendocrine in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳滨; 徐贵云; 李淑仪; 欧阳惠怡; 党亚梅


    and the decrease rate in the HAMD-17 scores. After the treatment, the total effective rate was 78% (21/27) and the recovery rate was 56% (15/27). CONCLUSION A twelve-week treatment with duloxetine may treat paitents effectively and improve their memory and cognitive functions, which may be associated with the effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.%目的 评估度洛西汀治疗抑郁症患者12 wk后,对认知功能及神经内分泌的影响.方法 27例成年抑郁患者(男性10例,女性17例),进行度洛西汀治疗,剂量60~120 mg,治疗12 wk.分别于基线和度洛西汀治疗12 wk后检测血清促甲状腺素(TSH)、总三碘甲状腺原氨酸(TT3)、游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、总甲状腺素(TT4)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)和血清皮质醇水平.同时进行认知功能检查:威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)、连线测验(TMT)、词语流畅性测验(VFT)、中国修订韦克斯勒成人智力量表(WAIS-RC)的数字广度及数字符号、汉诺塔(TOH)测验,并在治疗前及药物治疗后wk 1、2、4、8、12采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表17项(HAMD-17)因子分、总分进行疗效评定.结果度洛西汀治疗12 wk与治疗前认知功能比较,WAIS-RC的数字广度(14.35±3.21)及数字符号(49.50±15.36)较治疗前(13.50±3.15,46.50±14.91)评分显著增高(P<0.05),WCST、TMT、VFT及TOH测验数值比较未见显著差异(P>0.05).内分泌检查FT4较治疗前显著下降[(11.89±4.02) pmol·L-1 vs.( 13.59±4.55) pmol·L-1,P< 0.05];FT3、TT3、TT4、TSH、ACTH及皮质醇与治疗前比较未见显著差异(P>0.05).相关分析研究发现治疗前后HAMD-17总分的减分率与治疗前后FT3(相关系数为-0.420,P=0.036)和TT4(相关系数为- 0.513,P=0.029)的改变呈负相关,与其他内分泌指标不存在相关性.治疗前后HAMD-17总分的减分率与治疗前后完成TOH测试总时间呈正相关(相关系数为0.441,P=0.027),与其他神经认知功能