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Sample records for anovulation

  1. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Neto, A; Gilbert, R O; Butler, W R; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Vercouteren, M M; Bruno, R G; Bittar, J H J; Galvão, K N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the individual and combined effect of anovulation and cytological endometritis (CTE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. A total of 1,569 cows from 3 data sets were used. In data set 1, 403 Holstein cows from 5 dairies in New York were used. In data set 2, 750 Holstein cows from 2 dairies, one in Florida and one in California were used. In data set 3, 416 dairy cows, 165 Holsteins, 36 Jerseys, and 215 Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds from a grazing dairy in Florida were used. Cyclicity and CTE was determined at 35±3 (data set 2) or 49±3 d in milk (data sets 1 and 3). A variable (VarCycCTE) containing all 4 possible permutations between cyclicity (cyclic = Cyc; anovular = Anov) and CTE (present = CTE; absent = Healthy) was created. In the combined data set (sets 1, 2, and 3), pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) diagnosed at 30 to 38 d after first AI was affected by VarCycCTE, with AnovCTE cows having decreased P/AI compared with CycHealthy cows (21.3 vs. 46.7%), whereas AnovHealthy (37.9%) and CycCTE cows (36.0%) had intermediate P/AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination for the individual data sets and for pregnancy diagnosed at 63 to 74 d after artificial insemination followed a similar pattern. Pregnancy loss was not affected by VarCycCTE. Hazard of pregnancy up to 300 d in milk was affected by VarCycCTE in the combined data sets 1 and 2, with AnovCTE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55], AnovHealthy cows (HR=0.71), and CycCTE (HR=0.8) having decreased hazard of pregnancy compared with CycHealthy cows. Median days open were 200, 159, 145, and 121 for AnovCTE, AnovHealthy, CycCTE, and CycHealthy, respectively. Hazard of pregnancy for the individual data sets followed a similar pattern. In summary, both anovulation and CTE were negatively associated with reproductive performance and, when combined, they had an additive negative effect. PMID:24996269

  2. The etiology analysis of anovulation in reproductive period%育龄期无排卵的病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 刘晓燕; 任慕兰

    2014-01-01

    Chronic anovulation in reproductive period is defined as a pathological state of the women with failure of the ovary to release ova, which is one of the most common causes of infertility. Anovulation is typically associated with amenorrhea or severe oligomenorrhea. The WHO classification divides women with anovulation into three major groups:WHO GroupⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ. The most common causes of anovulation in reproductive period are hypothalamic dysfunction,pituitary disease,and ovarian dysfunction. Other glands dysfunction such as thyroid disease and adrenal dysfunction can lead to anovulation. The common ovarian causes of anovulation are congenital ovarian dysplasia,resistant ovarian syndrome(ROS),premature ovarian failure(POF),polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), and luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome( LUFS) ,of which POF and PCOS are the most common. Systemic diseases may affect ovulation,resulting a vicious cycle. The harmful substances in environment,especially the environmental hormone,have been confirmed to induce adverse reproductive effects in human beings. The pathogenesis of anovulation is complicated,accurate evaluation and identification of the cause should be the pivotal issue of effective treatment.%育龄期无排卵是指育龄女性长期无卵子成熟排出的病理状态,是女性不孕症的主要原因之一。育龄期无排卵多伴随着闭经或严重的月经过少。世界卫生组织将无排卵分为WHOⅠ~Ⅲ类。育龄期无排卵主要病因可分为下丘脑功能紊乱、垂体疾病、卵巢功能异常;其他内分泌腺体如甲状腺和肾上腺功能异常亦可能导致无排卵。卵巢功能异常所致的无排卵病因包括:先天性卵巢发育异常、卵巢抵抗综合征(resistant ovarian syndrome,ROS)、卵巢早衰(premature ovarian failure,POF)、多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)、未破裂卵泡黄素化综合征( luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome,LUFS),最常见者为POF和PCOS。

  3. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine "Tian Gui Recipe (TGR)"on obesity and anovulation in androgen-sterilized rats (ASR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞瑾; 孙斐

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A traditional Chinese medicine “Tian Gui Recipe (TGR)” has been used to effectively treat clomiphene resistant anovulatory disease and obesity, especially in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) cases with hyperinsulinemia. The effect of TGR on obesity and anovulation was investigated in androgen-sterilized rats (ASR).Methods: Female SD rats at the age of 9 days were divided into 3 groups. Group ASR (n=15): anovulation was demonstrated at the age of 70 days by vaginal smear in rats while 1.25 mg of testosterone propionate was injected subcutaneously on its 9th neonatal day. Group A+H (n=25): TGR were administered to ASR at the age of 80 days for 3 weeks. Rats with regular estrous cycle and ovulation after herbal treatment were included in this group. Group C (n=15): normal ovulated rats were recruited. Around the age of 112 days or on proestrous day, all rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Serum leptin, testosterone (T), estrogen (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Double immunofluorescent staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscope and dual in situ hybridization were carried out on sections through areas of arcuate nucleus (ARC) to determine whether estrogen receptor (ER) immunoreactivity (IR) or long form of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA were expressed in neuropeptide Y (NPY) immuno- and mRNA-containing neurons, and their relationship to proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA-containing neurons. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to observe the levels of ER-, NPY-,gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)-IR and gene expression levels of NPY, OB-Rb, and POMC in ARC. Meanwhile, the criteria of energy state,including daily food intake, retroperitoneal fat depot pad and body weight,were measured and evaluated. Values of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were expressed in mean optic density (MOD).Results:Seventeen out of the 25 rats

  4. Willingness to pay for ovulation induction treatment in case of WHO II anovulation: a study using the contingent valuation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie; Simard, Catherine; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the willingness to pay (WTP) of women aged 18–45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction (ie, the social value of normal cycles of ovulation for a woman of childbearing age) in order to feed the debate about the funding of fertility cares. Setting An anonymous questionnaire was used over the general population of Quebec. Participants A total of 136 subjects were recruited in three medical clinics, and 191 subjects through an online questionnaire. Method The questionnaire consisted of three parts: introduction to the problematic, socioeconomic data collection to determine factors influencing the formation of WTP, and a WTP question using the simple bid price dichotomous choice elicitation technique. The econometric estimation method is based on the “random utility theory.” Each subject responding to our questionnaire could express her uncertainty about the answer to our WTP question by choosing the answer “I do not know.” Outcome measure The WTP in Canadian dollars of women aged 18–45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction. Results Results are positive and indicate an average WTP exceeding 4,800 CAD, which is much more than the drug treatment cost. There is no evidence of sample frame bias or avidity bias across the two survey modes that cannot be controlled in econometric estimates. Conclusion Medical treatment for ovulation induction is highly socially desirable in Quebec. PMID:25328385

  5. Willingness to pay for ovulation induction treatment in case of WHO II anovulation: a study using the contingent valuation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poder TG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas G Poder,1 Jie He,2 Catherine Simard,3 Jean-Charles Pasquier4 1UETMIS and CRCHUS, CHUS, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 2Department of Economics, GREDI, University of Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CH of Chicoutimi, affiliated to CHUS, QC, Canada; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHUS, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Objective: To measure the willingness to pay (WTP of women aged 18–45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction (ie, the social value of normal cycles of ovulation for a woman of childbearing age in order to feed the debate about the funding of fertility cares.Setting: An anonymous questionnaire was used over the general population of Quebec. Participants: A total of 136 subjects were recruited in three medical clinics, and 191 subjects through an online questionnaire.Method: The questionnaire consisted of three parts: introduction to the problematic, socioeconomic data collection to determine factors influencing the formation of WTP, and a WTP question using the simple bid price dichotomous choice elicitation technique. The econometric estimation method is based on the “random utility theory.” Each subject responding to our questionnaire could express her uncertainty about the answer to our WTP question by choosing the answer “I do not know.”Outcome measure: The WTP in Canadian dollars of women aged 18–45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction.Results: Results are positive and indicate an average WTP exceeding 4,800 CAD, which is much more than the drug treatment cost. There is no evidence of sample frame bias or avidity bias across the two survey modes that cannot be controlled in econometric estimates.Conclusion: Medical treatment for ovulation induction is highly socially desirable in Quebec. Keywords: WTP, fertility, drug therapy 

  6. Reproductive adaptations to a large-brained fetus open a vulnerability to anovulation similar to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Deborah K; Abbott, David H

    2003-01-01

    During the ovarian or menstrual cycle, prior to ovulation, many female primates exhibit a relatively prolonged follicular phase and terminate the postovulatory luteal phase with menstrual bleeding. The prolonged follicular phase is a trait that distinguishes primate from nonprimate species. It enables extended estrogen-induced proliferation and growth of the uterine endometrium prior to progesterone-induced maturation during the luteal phase to accommodate a potential pregnancy with a rapidly invading placenta. Progressive development of both an extended duration of estrogen-induced, preimplantation endometrial proliferation and a rapidly invading placenta across the Primate order may well have been necessary to accommodate differentiation and growth of an increasingly large fetal brain. Prolongation of the follicular phase in primates has also led to the isolation of the final stages of follicle selection (growth deviation of the dominant follicle from its contemporaries) solely within the follicular phase and thus outside the protection of luteal phase progesterone inhibition of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Such primate reproductive characteristics put the latter stages of ovarian follicle selection at risk of exposure to excessive pituitary secretion of LH. Excessive secretion of LH during follicle selection could result not only in impaired follicle development, excessive ovarian androgen secretion, and ovulation failure, but also in excessive estrogenic stimulation of the uterine endometrium without intervening menstrual periods. Such reproductive abnormalities are all found in a single, prevalent infertility syndrome afflicting women in their reproductive years: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We propose that successful female reproductive adaptations to accommodate the growth demands of large-brained primate fetuses have facilitated a particular vulnerability of higher primates to hypergonadotropic disruption of ovulatory function, as found in PCOS.

  7. PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria : change in prevalence among WHO-II anovulation and association with metabolic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, F. J.; Knauff, E. A. H.; Valkenburg, O.; Laven, J. S.; Eijkemans, M. J.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The current report aims to compare the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed according to the new Rotterdam criteria (Rott-PCOS) versus the previous criteria as formulated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (NIH-PCOS) in women with normogonadotropic (WHO-II) anov

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis on the use of rFSH + rLH for the treatment of anovulation in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaleo E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enrico Papaleo,1 Carlo Alviggi,2 Giorgio Lorenzo Colombo,3,4 Claudio Pisanelli,5,6 Claudio Ripellino,7 Salvatore Longobardi,8 Pier Luigi Canonico91Centro Scienze della Natalità, Gynecological-Obstetrics Department, San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II” of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4SAVE Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, Italy; 5ACO San Filippo Neri, Rome, Italy; 6Società Italiana Di Farmacia Ospedaliera, Milan, Italy; 7CSD Medical Research Srl, Milan, Italy; 8Medical Department, Merck Serono SpA, Rome, Italy; 9Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Background: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women are characterized by ovarian functionality deficiency, caused by low concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. To recover reproduction functionality, recommended therapies for ovarian induction involve injections of FSH and LH medications. Objective: Since important differences exist between recombinant and urinary gonadotropin therapies in terms of efficacy and cost, the objective of this study was to develop a cost-effectiveness model to compare recombinant FSH (rFSH + recombinant LH (rLH and highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin (HP-HMG. Methods: A Markov model was developed, considering three cycles of therapy; probability of pregnancy and miscarriage were considered, and the efficacy was evaluated in terms of pregnancy occurrence. The perspective of the model was that of the Italian Health Service, so only direct cost (drugs, specialist visits, patient examinations, and hospitalizations were included. Results: rFSH + rLH is associated with a higher total cost (€3,453.50 and higher efficacy (0.87 compared with HP-HMG (€2,719.70 and 0.50. rFSH + rLH generated an incremental cost effectiveness ratio equal to €2,007.30 compared to HP-HMG; the average cost per pregnancy is estimated to be €3,990.00 for recombinant strategy and €5,439.80 for urinary strategy. Results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis were consistent with the abovementioned findings. Conclusion: Despite the higher acquisition cost in comparison to HP-HMG, rFSH + rLH resulted in a higher pregnancy rate, which makes it the recommended choice when considering cost-effectiveness of LH in supporting FSH-induced follicular gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women. Keywords: HP-HMG, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadotropin

  9. Síndrome da anovulação crônica hiperandrogênica e transtornos psíquicos Hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation and psychologic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arnaldo S. Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem uma revisão da síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP com relação aos seus aspectos etiopatogênicos, clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos, dando ênfase aos transtornos de ordem psíquica que freqüentemente acompanham esse distúrbiio. Tecem considerações sobre a importância não só de um efetivo tratamento médico, mas também de uma abordagem e um apoio psicológico, no sentido de melhorar ainda mais o bem-estar e a qualidade de vida dessas mulheres.The authors have reviewed the main aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with respect to its etiopathogenic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features, highlighting the psychological distresses that frequently arise in the syndrome. They also make considerations on the importance of an effective clinical treatment as well as on the approaches and psychological support, aiming to improve women’s well-being and quality of life.

  10. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome); Padronizacao do radioimunoensaio da androstenediona e da estrona e o perfil dos esteroides sexuais, gonadotrofinas e prolactina em pacientes com anovulacao cronica por retrocontrole improprio (sindrome dos ovarios policisticos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

    1992-12-01

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E{sub 1}) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E{sub 1}. Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E{sub 1}. The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E{sub 1}. Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E{sub 1} and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E{sub 1} and T/E{sub 2} ratios were elevated and the E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E{sub 1} was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E{sub 1} standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  11. Granulosa cell cycle regulation and steroidogenesis in a high androstenedione follicular microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory infertility (either chronic or sporadic anovulation) affects up to 40% of infertile women. In fact, sporadic anovulation in humans may often go undetected. Recent literature has reported that 8-13% of normally menstruating women (250 total, two reproductive cycles) exhibit sporadic anovu...

  12. Effect of sustained released metformin therapy on phenotypic and biochemical markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome in South Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Nagendra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Six months of metformin-SR therapy favorably altered markers of IR, TT, SHBG, anovulation and hyperandrogenism in normoglycemic women with PCOS. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1026-1030

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi factorial heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism Diagnosis is based on clinical or laboratory evidence of nbsp; hyperandrogenism nbsp; For diagnosis at least two of the three Rotterdam criteria oligo anovulation clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism polycystic ovaries nbsp; should be ensured Clinical symptoms usually begin around menarche nbsp; Oligomenorrhea amenorrhea hirsutism acne alopecia can be ass...

  14. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  15. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Bouilly, Justine; Carré, Nadège; Tolle, Virginie; Caraty, Alain; Tello, Javier; Simony-Conesa, Fabian-Jesus; Millar, Robert; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25-34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinem...

  16. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Bouilly, Justine; Carré, Nadège; Tolle, Virginie; Caraty, Alain; Tello, Javier; Simony-Conesa, Fabian-Jesus; Millar, Robert; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25–34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinem...

  17. Reproductive System Outcome Among Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with different clinical patterns and the anovulatory phenotype may not be the most common. Data suggest that anovulation in PCOS is not the consequence of increased androgen ovarian secretion but rather of a severe derangement of early follicle development. Other mechanisms may be operative in subgroups of patients and may contribute to the arrest of follicle growth and anovulation. At least 50% of anovulatory patients with PCOS become ovulatory in their late reproductive age. There is also evidence that menopause may occur later in women with PCOS. Finally, a strategy for treatment of infertility in PCOS is presented.

  18. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Arentz, Susan; Abbott, Jason Anthony; Smith, Caroline Anne; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent, complex endocrine disorder characterised by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism leading to symptoms of irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne and infertility. Evidence based medical management emphasises a multidisciplinary approach for PCOS, as conventional pharmaceutical treatment addresses single symptoms, may be contra-indicated, is often associated with side effects and not effective in some cases. ...

  19. Funkcionalna androgenizacija: Functional hyperandrogenism:

    OpenAIRE

    Kocijančič, Andreja; Legan, Mateja

    2001-01-01

    Functional hyperandrogenism is common endocrinological disorder of premenopausal women characterized by hyperandrogenism, hirsutism with or without androgenic alopecia and chronic anovulation. The controversy regardingthe pathophysiological mechanism underlying the disease still persists. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism are now well recognized features of obese women with functional hyperandrogenism and accepted pathogenetic factor of disorder in obese patients. Insulin enhances lutheo...

  20. Psychological well-being and sexarche in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Niet; C.M. de Koning; H. Pastoor; H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); O. Valkenburg (Olivier); M.J. Ramakers; J. Passchier (Jan); C. de Klerk (Cora); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics

  1. The physiological basis of complementary and alternative medicines for polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wu, XiaoKe; Legro, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation leading to symptoms of hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, and infertility. Multiple metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with PCOS, including insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis. However, current treatments for PCOS are only moderately effective at controlling symptoms and preventi...

  2. Metformin-Clinical Pharmacology in PCOs

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, R.; Mehedintu, C; Briceag, I; Purcărea, VL; Hudita, D

    2015-01-01

    Oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance characterizes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs). Metformin is the oldest insulin sensitizer used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In PCOs, metformin decreases the serum lipids, androgen and insulin; induces ovulation and regular menstrual cycle; increases the pregnancy rate.

  3. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); P. Steures (Pieternel); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); P.G. Hompes (Peter); J.M. Burggraaff (Jan); G.J.E. Oosterhuis (Jur); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity

  4. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Carmen Imma; Nori, Stefania Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms an...

  5. New paradigms in PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic risk factors, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. Women with PCOS have a higher risk of insulin resistance...

  6. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycy

  7. [Hormonal regulation and hormone therapy in childhood and adolescence. Part 2: Therapeutic problems (tall stature, amenorrhea, delayed puberty, oligomenorrhea, precocious puberty, anorexia nervosa, anisomastia, hypermastia, acne etc)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, C

    1979-05-17

    The most important therapeutic problems of female puberty and adolescence are discussed, including high stature, amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhea, pubertas tarda, anovulation, anorexia, anisomastia, hypermastia. Indications for treatment are given and the possibilities for a prophylactic medicine in this age group are stressed. PMID:156144

  8. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  9. Bone morphogenetic proteins and the polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.A.F. van Houten (Leonie); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); A. McLuskey; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Visser (Jenny)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is defined by two out of the following three criteria being met: oligo- or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Affected women are often obese and insulin resistant. Although the etiology is still unknown, members of the Tran

  10. Health and fertility in World Health Organization group 2 anovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Balen, A.; Escobar-Morreale, H. F.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Franks, S.; Glasier, A.; Homburg, R.; La Vecchia, C.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Liebaers, I.; Sunde, A.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.; Evers, J. L. H.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of ovulation occurs in different types of clinical infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a classification of ovulation disorders. This review focuses on WHO group 2 anovulation. Searches were performed in Medline/PubMed and EMBASE. Each subject summary was presente

  11. Prediction of ovulation induction outcome in normogonadotropic anovulatory infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnovulation is a major cause of female reproductive dysfunction and can be identified in approximately 18-25% of couples presenting with infertility (Hull et al., 1985). Oligomenorrhea (arbitrarily defined as menstrual periods occurring at intervals betvveen 35 days to 6 months) or ameno

  12. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  13. Amenorrhea associated with carotenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmann, E; Pasquale, S A; Skaf, R

    1983-02-18

    Data are presented for ten women with anovulation, nine of them with amenorrhea, who have associated carotenemia. Classic explanations for carotenemia in amenorrheic patients have been weight loss or anorexia nervosa, yet carotenemia in our patients appeared to be diet induced. All patients consumed a pure or predominantly vegetarian diet; there was no intake of red meats. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients are presented. The amenorrhea of the patient is consistent with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic anovulation (HHA). It appeared that diet modification not only led to reduction in carotene levels, but also improved the menstrual status. The association of carotenemia and menstrual disorders is reviewed. The possibility that carotenemia is related to the development of HHA is discussed. PMID:6823046

  14. [Diagnostics of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Lazúrová, Zora

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age and the most frequent cause of menstruation cycle disorders. It is marked by a hyperandrogenic state (clinical and/or biochemical) and ovulatory dysfunction (anovulation and/or ultrasonographic finding of polycystic ovaries), which are also criteria for its diagnosis according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society. The syndrome has multiple phenotypic expressions, among them besides the above characteristics also a metabolic syndrome, primarily obesity and insulin resistance. Diagnosing of PCOS may be rather exacting in clinical practice and it remains to be a diagnosis per exclusionem, following elimination of other causes of hyperandrogenic state and chronic oligo-anovulation. It requires a close cooperation between a gynecologist and endocrinologist and with regard to frequent metabolic complications also with an internist, diabetologist and possibly cardiologist. PMID:27124971

  15. A review on treating PCOS in the integrative medicine%中西医结合对多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕症的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞湘

    2015-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是一种以高雄激素血症、排卵障碍以及卵巢呈多囊样改变为特征的病变[1]。多囊卵巢综合征是引起排卵障碍性不孕的主要原因,无排卵和稀发排卵是导致PCOS患者生殖功能障碍的关键因素。%Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a disease characterized with hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polycystic ovary-like changed. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is the main reason of ovulatory disorder infertility. Anovulation and less ovulation are the key factors of PCOS patient’s reproductive dysfunction.

  16. Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donga, Krupa R.; Donga, Shilpa B.; Dei, Laxmi Priya

    2013-01-01

    Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). In current study, efforts have been made to study the effect of Nasya and Matra Basti on anovulation (Beeja Dushti). Ovulation is under the control of Vata. Narayana Taila is attributed for its effect in Vandhyatva. 24 patients of female infertility having anovulatory factor, being diagnosed by Trans-Vaginal Sonography (TVS) for 2 consecutive cycles were divided in two groups. Patients in Group A (n = 12) administered the drug through Nasya and in Group B (n = 12) through Matra Basti. Ovulation occurred 36.36% of patients in group A and 66.16% of patients group B. Matra Basti showed better results than Nasya group on anovulation. PMID:24049410

  17. Insulin and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Catherine G.; Battista, Marie-Claude; Trottier, Andréanne; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries. But most experts consider that hyperandrogenism is the main characteristic of PCOS. Several theories propose different mechanisms to explain PCOS manifestations: (1) a primary enzymatic default in the ovarian and/or adrenal steroidogenesis; (2) an impairment in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion that pr...

  18. Identification of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Ovary of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Lin; Tao Du; Jia Huang; Li-Li Huang; Dong-Zi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. The patients often develop insulin resistance (IR) or hyperinsulinemia despite manifesting anovulation and signs of hyperandrogenism. The cause and effect relationship of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia (HA) is still debated. Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) have recently been shown to play a role in regulation of ovarian function. Our current study focused on the altered expressi...

  19. Interventional studies for polycystic ovarian syndrome in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vuguin, Patricia Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, which can be associated with altered insulin action. Symptoms usually begin around menarche, but onset after puberty may also occur as a result of environmental modifiers such as weight gain. The consequences of PCOS extend beyond the reproductive axis; there is a substantial risk for development of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities similar to the metabolic syndro...

  20. Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism....

  1. Морфология яичников андрогенизированных крыс на фоне приема экстракта из кукумарии

    OpenAIRE

    Зенкина, В.; Каредина, В.; Солодкова, О.; Слуцкая, Т.; Юферева, А.

    2007-01-01

    The authors carried out experiments on rats and studied features of ovary morphology during long-term hormonal background disorders and under the action of biologically active substances of Cucumaria japonica. Introduction of androgens in rat's early neonatal period caused long-term estrous cycle disorders and resulted in worsening processes of follicle growth and maturation, mass atresia of follicles, as well as anovulation and stromal hypertrophy of gonads with luteinization focuses. Intake...

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Amna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major cause of infertility in women. An excessive amount of androgen hormones are produced by polycystic ovaries in PCOS with irregular menstruation and anovulation as result. The most common early symptoms are infertility, hirsutism and acne. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and possibly cardiovascular disease and endometrial carcinoma are all associated as lifelong implications with t...

  3. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and its associated complications in Iranian women: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Jalilian; Faezeh Kiani; Fatemeh Sayehmiri; Kourosh Sayehmiri; Zahra Khodaee; Malihe Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation. There is no single criterion for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PCOS and its associated complications in Iranian women using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods: Prevalence of PCOS was investigated from the SID, Goggle scholar, Pu...

  4. Reproductive and Metabolic Consequences of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hudecova, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex clinical condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic oligo/anovulation. Infrequent ovulation and metabolic alterations in women with PCOS are associated with subfertility and probably increased miscarriage rates compared with normal fertile women. The overall risk of developing type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is three- to sevenfold higher in PCOS women, and the onset of glucose intolerance seems to occur at an earl...

  5. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycystic ovaries). PCOS has been associated with a variety of health complications of reproductive, metabolic, and psychological nature. Although PCOS is predominantly diagnosed in women of reproductiv...

  6. Polycystisk ovarialsyndrom og infertilitet

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and affect 6-14% of women in reproductive age. The main feature of PCOS is polycystic ovaries producing an excessive amount of androgen hormones, resulting in irregular menstruation and anovulation. Clinically it may result in infertility, hirsutisme and acne. In addition, PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity resulting in an increased frequency of Diabetes II. PCOS is the most common cause of a...

  7. Endocrinology of Hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Daisy; Wehr, Elisabeth; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism represents a primary clinical indicator of androgen excess. The most common endocrine condition causing hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Diagnosing PCOS is not easy as the signs and symptoms are heterogenous. The newest diagnostic guideline made by the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society in 2006, claims the presence of hyperandrogenism, and ovarian dysfunction (oligo / anovulation and / or polycystic ovaries). Obesity associated reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions may...

  8. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yejin; Kim, Hae Soon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those...

  9. PCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, David J.

    2009-01-01

    PCOS is characterised by an accumulation of incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries due to anovulation, and is associated with increased ovarian androgen production. Clinical manifestations of PCOS include infrequent or absent menses, obesity, and signs of androgen excess including acne or seborrhoea. PCOS is diagnosed in up to 10% of women attending gynaecology clinics, but the prevalence in the population as a whole is unclear.PCOS has been associated with hirsutism, infertility,...

  10. A Successful Live Birth Through in vitro Fertilization Program After Conservative Treatment of FIGO Grade I Endometrial Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joon-Cheol; Cho, Chi-Hum; Rhee, Jeong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Infertile women with chronic anovulation are prone to be exposed to unopposed estrogen stimulation and have the high risk of being suffering from endometrial hyperplasia or even endometrial carcinoma. A few reports have suggested that nulliparous young women (under 40 yr of age) with endometrial carcinoma could be treated conservatively to preserve fertility and succeed the live birth. We report on a 36-yr-old woman who received conservative treatment of endometrial carcinoma (stage I, grade ...

  11. Bee venom treatment reduced C-reactive protein and improved follicle quality in a rat model of estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karimzadeh, L; M Nabiuni; Sheikholeslami, A.; S Irian

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a low grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenemia and chronic anovulation. C-reactive protein (CRP), released by adipocytes, plays a key role in PCOS. Apis mellifera honeybee venom (HBV) contains a variety of biologically active components with various pharmaceutical properties. This study was designed to assess the possibility of HBV application as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent. To induce PCOS, 1 mg/100 g body weight estradiol ...

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome An Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder Throughout Life

    OpenAIRE

    Szilágyi A

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still a matter of controversies, but it is apparent that hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance (IR) are major determining factors in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. The consequences of the PCOS extend beyond the reproductive axis. Follow up studies have shown an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other elements of metabolic syndrome in PCOS and increased cardiov...

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Çakır; Erman Çakal; Mustafa Özbek; Mustafa Şahin; Tuncay Delibaşı

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease...

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary "empty" sella turcica syndrome at the stage of sanatorium-and-spa rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Akhkubekova, N K; Babiakin, A F; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the first attempt to develop the treatment strategy for patients with primary "empty" sella turcica syndrome based at a health resort facility. It is shown that combined therapy including radon baths and acupuncture at specific auricular points makes it possible to improve functioning of the pituitary-ovarian system, decrease body weight, normalize blood prolactin level, eliminate visceral obesity, enhance tissue sensitivity to insulin, reduce hyperinsulimenia and fertility problems (anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and hypoluteinism) associated with insulin resistance. PMID:21086599

  15. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  17. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  18. THYROID PATHOLOGY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Dumăchiţǎ-Şargu; Voichiţa Mogoş; Florentina Pricop

    2010-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined by a chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, in the presence of polycystic ovaries and the absence of the other causes. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of thyroid pathology in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This study is a retrospective one and was made from January 2003 to December 2009 in the Endocrinology Clinic of “Saint Spiridon” Hospital and included a number of 483 ...

  19. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi

    2015-01-01

    Women with PCOS present with signs of chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and metabolic abnormalities. The NIH recently embraced the Rotterdam criteria to broadly identify all the phenotypes of PCOS. Women with PCOS are often obese with insulin resistance and hence have an increased susceptibility to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Future research should focus on the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental determinants of PCOS to develop new therapies to address the prevention of this disorder and its long-term complications.

  20. Psychological well-being and sexarche in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Niet, J.E.; Koning, C.M.; Pastoor, H.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo; Valkenburg, Olivier; Ramakers, M.J.; Passchier, Jan; Klerk, Cora; Laven, Joop

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics and psychological well-being as well as sexarche. Methods Patients (n = 1148) underwent standardized clinical evaluation. Psychological well-being was investigated in 480 patients with the Rosenbe...

  1. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  3. Association of calpain 10 gene UCSNP-43 polymorphism (rs3792267) with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Thathapudi; Jayashankar Erukkambattu; Qurratulain Hasan; Uma Addepally; Vijayalakshmi Kodati

    2015-01-01

    Background: The principle features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism (HA), obesity (Ob), oligo/anovulation and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS is known to be associated with increased risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and genes related to T2DM may also play a role in PCOS pathogenesis. Our aim is to study the association of CAPN-10 gene UCSNP-43 (rs3792267) polymorphism with PCOS. Methods: Case-control study, involved 204 women with P...

  4. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a normal population according to the Rotterdam criteria versus revised criteria including anti-Müllerian hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, M P; Bentzen, J G; Pinborg, A;

    2014-01-01

    -anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (AFC ≥ 12 and/or ovarian volume >10 ml). However, with the advances in sonography, the relevance of the AFC threshold in the definition of polycystic ovaries has been challenged, and AMH has been proposed as a marker of polycystic ovaries...... ovaries with a significant age-related decrease from 69.0% in women .... However, future studies are needed to validate AMH threshold levels, and AMH Z-score may be appropriate to adjust for the age-related decline in the AFC. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable....

  5. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners. PMID:27483702

  6. Thiazolinedione treatment in PCOS-an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Fifty percent of patients fulfil the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of PCOS may be looked as a vicious cycle involving hyperandrogenemia, central obesity, and insulin...... treatment in patients with PCOS. Thiazolidinediones activate the transcription of genes that affect glucose and lipid metabolism mediating decreased free fatty acid levels and decreased visceral fat mass. In the present article, we give an overview of the diverse effects of glitazone treatment in patients...... with PCOS. We review the studies comparing glitazone versus metformin and oral contraceptive treatment and recommend which patients should be treated with glitazones in daily praxis....

  7. Primenenie kombinirovannykh oral'nykh kontratseptivov u zhenshchin reproduktivnogo vozrasta s ozhireniem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E N Andreeva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the problem of obesity as a risk factor for development of severe metabolic complications and different disorders of reproductive function in women of childbearing age. It is pointed that obesity is associated with high prevalence of hyperandrogenemic and hyperplastic disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Article discusses the questions of integrated treatment approach of this category of patients, which include non-drug interventions (rational nutrition, lifestyle modification as well as the use of medications which lower the insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia to restore ovary function and the possible use of combined oral contraceptives for correction of anovulation.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: symptomatology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzick, D

    1998-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome seek health care for 3 major reasons: infertility, menstrual irregularity, and androgen excess. The infertility is associated with anovulation. The menstrual irregularity is typically chronic, beginning with menarche. Although amenorrhea may sometimes occur, the more common presentation is irregular bleeding characteristic of anovulation. Androgen excess may be manifested by varying degrees of hirsutism. Patients may also report acne. The rapid development of virilizing signs, such as deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, and temporal balding, should prompt a search for a tumor and lead one away from a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Typically treatment is directed at alleviating the symptoms: ovulation induction for infertility, oral contraceptives or a progestin for menstrual irregularity, and oral contraceptives or spironolactone for hirsutism. On the basis of recent epidemiologic data suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome, such treatment might be complemented by a long-term approach that addresses the underlying pathophysiology of insulin resistance. PMID:9855614

  9. 肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征中西医治疗进展%Chinese and Western Medicine Treatment Progress of Obese - polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国华; 陈霞

    2011-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是以高雄激素血症、排卵障碍以及多囊卵巢为特征的症候群,是育龄期女性不排卵性不孕的主要原因之一,其中肥胖者约占50%,并有月经失调、不孕等近期困扰及出现多种远期并发症的风险,且患病人群日渐增多,治疗相对棘手.作者就目前从生活方式调整、中医药、西药、手术及联合治疗等方面治疗肥胖型PCOS的研究进展进行综述.%Polyeystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. It's one of the main reasons for women's anovulation infertility of reproductive age, in which obesity accounts for about 50%. And it causes menstrual disorders, infertility and other problems and a variety of long-term complications. Treatment is relatively difficult, with the increasing number of patients. This is an overview of the treatment of obese PCOS based on lifestyle adjustment, traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, surgery and combined therapy.

  10. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  11. Incorporating patient preference into the management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoroafor UC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ugochi C Okoroafor, Emily S JungheimDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Because of the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, women affected by the condition often require a customized approach for ovulation induction when trying to conceive. Treating symptoms of PCOS in overweight and obese women should always incorporate lifestyle changes with the goal of weight-loss, as many women with PCOS will ovulate after losing 5%–10% of their body weight. On the other hand, other factors must be considered including the woman’s age, age-related decline in fertility, and previous treatments she may have already tried. Fortunately, multiple options for ovulation induction exist for women with PCOS. This paper reviews specific ovulation induction options available for women with PCOS, the benefits and efficacy of these options, and the related side effects and risks women can anticipate with the various options that may affect treatment adherence. The paper also reviews the recommended evidence-based strategies for treating PCOS-related infertility that allow for incorporation of the patient’s preference. Finally, it briefly reviews emerging data and ongoing studies regarding newer agents that have shown great promise as first-line agents for the treatment of infertility in women with PCOS.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulation, clomiphene citrate, letrozole, metformin, obesity

  12. 肥胖与育龄期女性生殖功能研究进展%Association between obesity and reproductive of women in childbearing age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋荣

    2011-01-01

    The reproductive of women is dependent on many factors.Obesity is one of the most important factor which reduces the reproductive ability of women in childbearing age.Obese women of childbearing age may accompanied with menstrual disorders, oligo - anovulation or anovulation and even infertility.Obesity affects outcome of assisted reproductive technologies, higher risk of miscarriage and affects pregnancy outcome.We should appeal to avoid extra weight and improve fertility of obese women.%女性生殖功能受众多因素影响,肥胖是引起育龄期女性生殖能力降低的重要因素之一.育龄期肥胖女性可表现为月经紊乱,排卵障碍甚至不孕.肥胖与多囊卵巢综合征互为因果.肥胖影响辅助生殖技术的结局,使自然流产的风险增高,影响到妊娠的结局.避免超重及肥胖,积极控制多余体重,提高肥胖女性生育能力.

  13. Randomized clinical trial of intrauterine cephapirin infusion in dairy cows for the treatment of purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Dubuc, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of an intrauterine infusion of cephapirin on reproductive performance at first service of postpartum dairy cows affected by purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) and cytological endometritis (ENDO) using different diagnostic strategies, and to determine if the presence of prolonged anovulation would influence the magnitude of treatment benefit. In total, 2,259 Holstein cows in 28 herds were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. At 35 (± 7) days in milk (DIM), cows were diagnosed with PVD using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand), with cytological endometritis using endometrial cytology (ENDO-CYTO), and with cytological endometritis using leukocyte esterase (ENDO-LE). Regardless of reproductive tract disease status, cows were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine cephapirin infusion or to not be treated. Serum progesterone was measured at 35 and 49 (± 7) DIM (14 d apart); cows were considered to have prolonged anovulation if progesterone was <1 ng/mL at both times. Reproductive events of cows were collected until 200 DIM. Statistical analyses were conducted using multivariable mixed logistic regression models. Intrauterine cephapirin treatment was associated with an increased first-service pregnancy risk in cows diagnosed with PVD (no treatment: 15.4%; treatment: 31.4%), ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 16.2%, treatment: 24.4%), and ENDO-LE (no treatment: 15.8%; treatment: 25.1%), but not in cows unaffected by any form of reproductive tract disease (no treatment: 34.8%; treatment: 32.6%). Cephapirin treatment was also associated with an increased first-service reproductive performance in cows affected simultaneously by both PVD and ENDO-CYTO (no treatment: 8.7%; treatment: 23.4%). The effect of cephapirin treatment in anovular cows (no treatment: 21.0%; treatment: 26.4%) was numerically lower than in cyclic cows (no treatment: 22.7%; treatment: 34.1%). Overall, an intrauterine infusion of

  14. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  15. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  16. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan K Kamboj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women with a multi-factorial etiology, and presents not just a diagnostic dilemma but also a therapeutic challenge as well. The clinical features of the syndrome in adolescents result from hyperandrogenemia and oligo/anovulation. Most women presenting with non-pregnancy related secondary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhoea, acne, hirsutism, and infertility have PCOS. Consensus diagnostic criteria have been developed by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and American Society of Reproduction (Rotterdam criteria. PCOS needs to be suspected, recognized, and treated to prevent some long term complications. Treatment modalities need to be individualized to address the specific concerns of each female presenting with this entity. This article reviews the diagnosis and principles of management of PCOS.

  17. Assisted reproductive outcomes in women with different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: the predictive value of anti-Müllerian hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanali, Fariba; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Hemat, Mandana; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Jalali, Samaneh; Moini, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes (A, B, C and D) compared with a control group and the predictive values of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in PCOS phenotypes for main outcomes. This study evaluated 386 PCOS women and 350 patients with male factor infertility. Women with phenotypes A and C had significantly higher concentrations of AMH than those with phenotype B (P hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation is associated with a negative impact on the CPR in these patients. These results demonstrated that AMH concentration is related to PCO morphology but not predictive for CPR and live birth rate. PMID:26968928

  18. Restoration of Fertility after Removal of Extrauterine Mirena Coil: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti R. C. Bhatta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 27-year-old lady who was seen in the infertility clinic with a history of secondary infertility of a one-year duration. She had a hysteroscopy and Mirena insertion for heavy periods. Coil strings were not found by the GP during first coil check six weeks after insertion. A pelvic ultrasound scan did not show any coil, and it was not investigated further with a possible diagnosis of coil expulsion made. One year following that, she was seen in the infertility clinic. Initial investigations revealed anovulation, and HSG located the coil to be extrauterine. Mirena was removed laparoscopically, and a month following the removal she conceived. She is currently pregnant. This case highlights the effect of extrauterine mirena coils on fertility by possibly causing higher plasma levels of levonorgesterol and resulting suppression of ovulation. Laparoscopic removal of mirena coil can help in restoration of fertility.

  19. Ovarian Drilling in PCOS: is it really useful!?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSAM eLEBBI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a frequent disorder, affecting approximately 5 to 10 % of infertile women. It can represent more than 80% of cases of infertility due to anovulation. The main goal of treatment is the induction of mono-ovulatory cycles. A pragmatic management of infertility in PCOS will allow most patients to conceive.Weight loss and clomiphene citrate (CC are the first-line components of patients treatment before gonadotropins are used. However, during gonadotropin administration, there is a high risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation (OHSS and multiple pregnancies. So, surgery with laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD is often used before gonadotropins in order to obtain normal ovulatory cycles.

  20. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome. PMID:20041792

  1. STANDARDIZATION OF DHANVANTARI TAILA: MEDICATED OIL FOR FEMALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamidi Vijaya Kumari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dhanvantari Taila is an Ayurvedic Herbal Oil prepared from the drugs Balamoola, Dasamoola, Yava, Devadaru, Manjista, Chandana, Sariba, Shilajit, Vacha, Agaru, Punarnava, Aswagandha, Satavari, Yasti, Triphala, Tila Taila and Cow milk etc.The drugs of Dhanvantari Taila are indicated in all vatarogas in various classical Ayurvedic Literatures. This drug acts like Lekhana, Brimhana, Srotoavarodha, Vedanastapana, Sothahara, Vranaropana etc. Based on these properties, oil was prepared with this group of drugs using Tila Taila as base. This Dhanvantari Taila was selected to study through Uttaravasthi, into uterine cavity on infertility patients including tubal block, Anovulation and Gynecological problems. Before conducting the clinical trails this oil was subjected to certain chemical studies to find out the iodine value, Saponification value, acid value, total fat, weight for ml and HPTLC finger printing for standardization of the drug.

  2. Functional genomics of PCOS: from GWAS to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan M; Legro, Richard S; Modi, Bhavi P; Strauss, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy characterized by increased ovarian androgen biosynthesis, anovulation, and infertility. PCOS has a strong heritable component based on familial clustering and twin studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several PCOS candidate loci including LHCGR, FSHR, ZNF217, YAP1, INSR, RAB5B, and C9orf3. We review the functional roles of strong PCOS candidate loci focusing on FSHR, LHCGR, INSR, and DENND1A. We propose that these candidates comprise a hierarchical signaling network by which DENND1A, LHCGR, INSR, RAB5B, adapter proteins, and associated downstream signaling cascades converge to regulate theca cell androgen biosynthesis. Future elucidation of the functional gene networks predicted by the PCOS GWAS will result in new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for women with PCOS.

  3. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in polycystic ovary syndrome: an evidence-based minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Georgescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a plurifactorial endocrine disorder, affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age to result inhyperandrogenia, anovulation and infertility, metabolic syndrome and enhanced cardiovascular risk. Animal experiments unraveled that preandearly postnatal exposure of female offspring to testosterone or bisphenol A (BPA, one synthetic, organic plasticizers component may inducea PCOS-like developmental pattern in adulthood. In contrast to other endocrine-disruption chemicals, information on BPA exposure inbiological indicators and wildlife is scarce. On the other hand, the ability of BPA to alter ovarian steroidogenesis has been demonstrated in severalcell culture models. In line with that, preliminary clinical studies demonstrated elevated serum and urinary BPA levels in PCOS patients.Nonetheless, a causative role of BPA in PCOS is still under debate and further studies on the topic are warranted.

  5. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel;

    2010-01-01

    expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased......Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene...... theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number...

  6. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  7. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  8. Psychiatric disorders among women and men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Hageman, Ida; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are complex causal associations between mental disorders, fertility treatment, fertility treatment outcome and infertility per se. Eating disorders cause endocrine disturbances, anovulation and thereby infertility, and research has shown that infertility as well as unsuccessful...... assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment are potential risk factors for developing a depression on a long-term basis. Despite the fact that worldwide more than 400 000 ART treatment cycles are performed every year, the causal associations between mental disorders, use of medication for mental...... disorders and ART treatment in both sexes have only been sparsely explored. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The main objective of this national register-based cohort study is to assess women's and men's mental health before, during, and after ART treatment in comparison with the mental health in an age...

  9. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O' Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

    1989-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

  10. An Observational Study on 100 Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleda Khanam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS have chronic anovulation and androgen excess not attributable to another cause. The fundamental pathophysiologic defect is unknown. Defects in LH secretion, LH/FSH ratio, amplitude of LH pulsations have been described; but the prevalence of these defects is not still clearly determined. Objective: To review the variable clinical presentations of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Materials and Methods: This observational study was carried out in Combined Military Hospitals of Jessore, Rangpur and Ghatail during November 2008 to June 2013. One hundred patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department (GOPD having at least two of the following criteria ––hyperandrogenism, chronic oligo- or anovulation and ultrasonographic findings were selected. In all selected women LH and FSH serum levels were determined and LH/FSH ratios were calculated. Body mass index (BMI was measured and was scored to classify their state of obesity. The collected data were compiled and arranged in tables and were subjected to analysis. Results: Most of the patients (92% were 20–30 years old. Chief complaint of the patients was infertility, either primary (72% or secondary (28%. Eighty percent women had menstrual irregularities, 30% were hirsute, 71% cases were overweight and 17% were obese. On pelvic ultrasonogram polycystic ovaries were found in 20% cases and 80% had normal ovaries. Thirty percent patients had LH/FSH ratio between 2.1–2.9, 32% had >3 and it was found normal in 38% of cases. Conclusion: PCOS cannot be diagnosed by a single clinical or laboratory finding. The diagnostic approach should be based largely on history and physical examination.

  11. Identification of altered microRNAs and mRNAs in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients: miRNA-509-3p promotes oestradiol secretion by targeting MAP3K8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Liu, Chang; Hao, Cuifang; Tang, Qianqing; Liu, Riming; Lin, Shaoxia; Zhang, Luping; Yan, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women and is characterised by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Although the clinical and biochemical signs of PCOS are typically heterogeneous, abnormal folliculogenesis is considered a common characteristic of PCOS. Our aim is to identify the altered miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients to investigate their molecular function in the aetiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of the cumulus cell samples isolated from five PCOS and five control patients were determined by an miRNA microarray. At the same time, the altered mRNA profiles of the same cumulus cell samples were also identified by a cDNA microarray. From the microarray data, 17 miRNAs and 1263 mRNAs showed significantly different expression in the PCOS cumulus cells. The differentially expressed miRNA-509-3p and its potential target gene (MAP3K8) were identified from the miRNA and mRNA microarrays respectively. The expression of miRNA-509-3p was up-regulated and MAP3K8 was down-regulated in the PCOS cumulus cells. The direct interaction between miRNA-509-3p and MAP3K8 was confirmed by a luciferase activity assay in KGN cells. In addition, miRNA-509-3p mimics or inhibitor transfection tests in KGN cells further confirmed that miRNA-509-3p improved oestradiol (E2) secretion by inhibiting the expression of MAP3K8 These results help to characterise the pathogenesis of anovulation in PCOS, especially the regulation of E2 production. PMID:27001999

  12. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.Keywords: treatment, polycystic ovary

  13. Identification of altered microRNAs and mRNAs in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients: miRNA-509-3p promotes oestradiol secretion by targeting MAP3K8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Liu, Chang; Hao, Cuifang; Tang, Qianqing; Liu, Riming; Lin, Shaoxia; Zhang, Luping; Yan, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women and is characterised by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Although the clinical and biochemical signs of PCOS are typically heterogeneous, abnormal folliculogenesis is considered a common characteristic of PCOS. Our aim is to identify the altered miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the cumulus cells of PCOS patients to investigate their molecular function in the aetiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of the cumulus cell samples isolated from five PCOS and five control patients were determined by an miRNA microarray. At the same time, the altered mRNA profiles of the same cumulus cell samples were also identified by a cDNA microarray. From the microarray data, 17 miRNAs and 1263 mRNAs showed significantly different expression in the PCOS cumulus cells. The differentially expressed miRNA-509-3p and its potential target gene (MAP3K8) were identified from the miRNA and mRNA microarrays respectively. The expression of miRNA-509-3p was up-regulated and MAP3K8 was down-regulated in the PCOS cumulus cells. The direct interaction between miRNA-509-3p and MAP3K8 was confirmed by a luciferase activity assay in KGN cells. In addition, miRNA-509-3p mimics or inhibitor transfection tests in KGN cells further confirmed that miRNA-509-3p improved oestradiol (E2) secretion by inhibiting the expression of MAP3K8 These results help to characterise the pathogenesis of anovulation in PCOS, especially the regulation of E2 production.

  14. Effects of melatonin on the ovarian response to pinealectomy or continuous light in female rats: similarity with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Prata Lima

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between melatonin and chronic anovulation. Adult (3-4 months old female Wistar rats were submitted to pinealectomy: group I: pinealectomized ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 10; group II: pinealectomized ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 12; group III: pinealectomized light-treated placebo-treated(N = 10 or maintained under continuous light; group IV: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 22; group V: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 10; group VI: maintained under continuous light placebo-treated (N = 10. In order to assess ovarian modifications, unilateral ovariectomy was performed during the fourth month in groups I, II, IV, V and the other ovary was removed after 8 months. Ovariectomy was performed in groups III and VI only after eight months. Melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight dissolved in 0.02 ml absolute ethanol was injected intramuscularly daily during the last 4 months into groups I and IV. The other groups were treated with placebo (NaCl. The ovarian cysts were analyzed and their area, perimeter and maximum diameter, as well as the thickness of the ovarian capsule were measured. Daily colpocytological smears were performed throughout the study. Persistent estrous condition and ovarian cysts were observed in all groups. In pinealectomized rats the ovarian and vaginal alterations disappeared at the end of the study and in rats maintained under continuous light the vaginal and ovarian polycystic aspect was reversed only in those treated with melatonin. We conclude that melatonin may act on the ovarian response reverting chronic anovulation induced by pinealectomy or continuous light.

  15. Effect of Ubiquinol on Serum Reproductive Hormones of Amenorrhic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A S; Littaru, G P; Funahashi, I; Painkara, U S; Dange, N S; Chauhan, P

    2016-07-01

    In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Anovulation is directly linked to the neurohormonal and hormonal background of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Impairment of pulsatile Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone secretion causes the impairment of pulsatile Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion. The importance of oxidative stress in various pituitary disorders suggesting a possible clinical usefulness of antioxidant molecules like the lipophilic antioxidant Ubiquinol. Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinol is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system of mitochondria. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant, protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes from autooxidation. Due to these unique actions Ubiquinol is used in clinical practice as an antioxidants for neurodegenerative diseases. So to identify the role of Ubiquinol on reproductive hormones FSH and LH, we have included 50 infertile patients of age group of 20-40, which are mostly amenorrhic. Out of 50 only 30 patients were in continuous follow up after supplementing them with 150 mg of Ubiquinol every day for 4 months. The hormonal levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique at follicular phase. The result suggests that FSH concentration is increased up to three times (from 3.10 ± 2.70 to 10.09 ± 6.93) but remains within the normal limit (P  0.05). The supplementation of 150 mg of Ubiquinol may reduce the oxidative stress in neuroendocrine system which

  16. Treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome patients without fertility requirement%无生育要求多囊卵巢综合征患者无排卵的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    POlycystic Ovary syndrOme( PCOS)is a cOmmOn menstrual disOrder characterized by OligO - /anOvulatiOn. Patients usually cOmPlain Of menstrual disOrders Or endOmetrial PathOlOgy in the early stage. MetabOlic abnOrmalities are the main cOmPlicatiOns in the late stage,including tyPe 2 diabetes mellitus,cardiOvascular disease, metabOlic syndrOme( MS). TherefOre,it is necessary tO management anOvulatiOn in PCOS Patients withOut fertility requirement. Effective weight cOntrOl is imPOrtant. The aims in the early stage is tO cOntrOl menstrual cycles and Prevent endOmetrial PathOlOgy. Screening Of metabOlic abnOrmalities is needed tO lOwer the risk Of lOng - term cOmPlicatiOns.%多囊卵巢综合征(POlycystic Ovary syndrOme,PCOS)是一种常见的妇科内分泌疾病,稀发排卵或无排卵作为其重要的临床特征之一,在疾病早期主要引起月经异常和子宫内膜病变,在疾病后期可发生2型糖尿病、心血管疾病、代谢综合征(MetabOlic SyndrOme,MS)等,并与子宫内膜病变互为影响,形成恶性循环。因此,对于无生育要求 PCOS 患者无排卵的处理非常重要,长期有效的体重管理是 PCOS 患者最重要的基础治疗,在疾病早期阶段,主要是调整月经周期,预防子宫内膜病变,同时需要注意对患者的糖脂代谢异常进行筛查和早期治疗,预防糖尿病、心血管疾病、代谢综合征等远期并发症。

  17. The estrogen-injected female mouse: new insight into the etiology of PCOS

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    Freeh Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female mice and rats injected with estrogen perinatally become anovulatory and develop follicular cysts. The current consensus is that this adverse response to estrogen involves the hypothalamus and occurs because of an estrogen-induced alteration in the GnRH delivery system. Whether or not this is true has yet to be firmly established. The present study examined an alternate possibility in which anovulation and cyst development occurs through an estrogen-induced disruption in the immune system, achieved through the intermediation of the thymus gland. Methods, Results and Conclusion A putative role for the thymus in estrogen-induced anovulation and follicular cyst formation (a model of PCOS was examined in female mice by removing the gland prior to estrogen injection. Whereas all intact, female mice injected with 20 ug estrogen at 5–7 days of age had ovaries with follicular cysts, no cysts were observed in animals in which thymectomy at 3 days of age preceded estrogen injection. In fact, after restoring immune function by thymocyte replacement, the majority of thymectomized, estrogen-injected mice had ovaries with corpora lutea. Thus, when estrogen is unable to act on the thymus, ovulation occurs and follicular cysts do not develop. This implicates the thymus in the cysts' genesis and discounts the role of the hypothalamus. Subsequent research established that the disease is transferable by lymphocyte infusion. Transfer took place between 100-day-old estrogen-injected and 15-day-old naïve mice only when recipients were thymectomized at 3 days of age. Thus, a prerequisite for cyst formation is the absence of regulatory T cells. Their absence in donor mice was judged to be the result of an estrogen-induced increase in the thymus' vascular permeability, causing de facto circumvention of the final stages of regulatory T cell development. The human thymus has a similar vulnerability to steroid action during the fetal stage. We

  18. 深圳市女性不孕症相关因素及病因分析%Analysis of factors associated with etiologies of female infertility in Shenzhen.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超干; 郭广洲; 吴方贵; 叶萍; 蔡钦泉; 卢文深

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析深圳市女性不孕症相关因素及病因状况,为防治提供依据.方法 对2009年7月~2010年12月在我院生殖中心就诊的731例女性不孕病例的病史和诊治资料进行回顾性分析.结果 宫颈UU/MH感染、盆腔炎、输卵管病变及排卵障碍是导致的女性不孕主要危险因素;原发性不孕的主要病因是排卵障碍、内分泌因素及宫颈UU/MH感染,继发性不孕主要病因是宫颈UU/MH感染、输卵管病变及盆腔炎;盆腔炎、输卵管病变、排卵障碍三大因素占UU/MH感染总数83.24%;相关因素中,性和生殖健康知识缺乏、吸烟及常喝酒占比例小于5%. 结论 加强宫颈UU/MH感染、输卵管病变、盆腔炎及排卵障碍疾病的预防是降低女性不孕的重要措施.%Objective We study the related factors and etiologies of female infertility in Shenzhen, and provide the basis for the prevention and treatments. Methods The history and treatment records of 731 female infertile cases treated in our reproduction center from July 2009 through December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Cervical UU/ MH infection,pelvic inflammatory disease,tubal disease and ovulatory disorder are the major factors of causing female infertility. The main causes of primary infertility are anovulation,endocrine factors and cervical UU/MH infection. The main causes of secondary infertility are cervical UU/MH infection,tubal disease,and pelvic inflammatory diseases. Pelvic inflammatory disease, 1 tubal disease,anovulation are the three major causes and account for 83.24% of all UU / MH infections. Less than 3% of the total female infertility cases are related to smoking,drinking,and the lack of sexual and reproductive health knowledge. Conclusion The prevention of cervical UU/MH infection,tubal disease,pelvic inflammatory disease is an important measure in reducing the female infertility

  19. Metformin therapy in a hyperandrogenic anovulatory mutant murine model with polycystic ovarian syndrome characteristics improves oocyte maturity during superovulation

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    Sabatini Mary E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metformin, an oral biguanide traditionally used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is widely used for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-related anovulation. Because of the significant prevalence of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in PCOS patients, and their putative role in ovulatory dysfunction, the use of metformin was touted as a means to improve ovulatory function and reproductive outcomes in PCOS patients. To date, there has been inconsistent evidence to demonstrate a favorable effect of metformin on oocyte quality and competence in women with PCOS. Given the heterogeneous nature of this disorder, we hypothesized that metformin may be beneficial in mice with aberrant metabolic characteristics similar to a significant number of PCOS patients. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on oocyte development and ovulatory function. Methods We utilized metformin treatment in the transgenic ob/ob and db/db mutant murine models which demonstrate metabolic and reproductive characteristics similar to women with PCOS. Results: Metformin did not improve in vitro oocyte maturation nor did it have an appreciable effect on in vitro granulosa cell luteinization (progesterone production in any genotype studied. Although both mutant strains have evidence of hyperandrogenemia, anovulation, and hyperinsulinemia, only db/db mice treated with metformin had a greater number of mature oocytes and total overall oocytes compared to control. There was no observed impact on body mass, or serum glucose and androgens in any genotype. Conclusions Our data provide evidence to suggest that metformin may optimize ovulatory performance in mice with a specific reproductive and metabolic phenotype shared by women with PCOS. The only obvious difference between the mutant murine models is that the db/db mice have elevated leptin levels raising the questions of whether their

  20. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likelihood of associated metabolic and cardiovascular risks and leads to appropriate intervention, depending upon the woman's age, reproductive status, and her own concerns. The management of women with PCOS should include reproductive function, as well as the care of hirsutism

  1. Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

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    Dumesic Daniel A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In female mammals, including humans, deviations from normal androgenic or estrogenic exposure during fetal development are detrimental to subsequent adult ovarian function. Androgen deficiency, without accompanying estrogen deficit, has little apparent impact on ovarian development. Fetal estrogen deficiency, on the other hand, results in impaired oocyte and follicle development, immature and abnormal adult ovaries, and excessive ovarian stimulation from endogenous gonadotropins ultimately generating hemorrhagic follicles. Complete estrogen deficiency lasting into adulthood results in partial ovarian masculinization. Fetal androgen excess, on the other hand, mediated either by direct androgen action or following androgen aromatization to estrogen, reprograms ovarian development and reproductive neuroendocrinology to mimic that found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: enlarged, polyfollicular, hyperandrogenic, anovulatory ovaries with accompanying LH hypersecretion. Oocyte developmental competence is also compromised. Insulin is implicated in the mechanism of both anovulation and deficient oocyte development. Fetal estrogen excess induces somewhat similar disruption of adult ovarian function to fetal androgen excess. Understanding the quality of the fetal female sex steroid hormone environment is thus becoming increasingly important in improving our knowledge of mechanisms underlying a variety of female reproductive pathologies.

  2. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample of Iranian population: Iranian PCOS prevalence study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the heavy burden and impact of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in reproduction and public health, estimates regarding its prevalence at community levels are limited. We aimed to ascertain prevalence of PCOS in a community based sample using the National Institute of Health (NIH, the Rotterdam consensus (Rott. and the Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method, 1126 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. PCOS were diagnosed using universal assessment of ultrasonographic parameters, hormonal profiles and clinical histories. Results The mean +/- SD of age of study population was 34.4 +/- 7.6 years. Estimated prevalence of idiopathic hirsutism was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-12.9%; 8.3% of women had only oligo/anovulation and 8.0% had only polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.4-8.8% using the NIH definition, 11.7% (95% CI: 9.5-13.7% by AES criteria and 14.6% (95% CI: 12.3-16.9% using the Rott definition. Conclusions At community level, widespread screening of Rotterdam criteria will increase the estimated prevalence of PCOS over twofold. Establishing an explicit and contemporaneous method for definition and screening of each PCOS criteria has important investigational implications and increase the comparability of published research.

  3. Menstrual cycle disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome: Ultrasonographic characteristics and hormonal status

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    Radulović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The polycystic ovary syndrome is primarily characterized by an association of hyperandrogenism and anovulation. The aim was to determine the incidence of menstrual cycle disorders in patients with PCO syndrome and the relation with ultrasonographic and hormonal findings. Material and methods A retrospective study examined the ultrasonographic findings and hormonal status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the General Hospital in Subotica. The sample comprised 39 patients. Results and conclusions Most frequently age at menarche was 14 years (29% in obese and 10 years (45.5% in normal weight patients. There was not a significant difference in duration of menstrual bleeding in both groups of examined patients, whereas amenorrhoea was significantly more frequent in obese patients (29.4% than in patients with normal weight (4.7%. On the basis of presented results (increased percentage of severe disorders of menstrual cycle in all patients in subgroup C and increased percentage of menstrual disorders in patients with high stromal density in relation to those with normal echogenity of stroma it can be concluded that there is a correlation between ultrasonographic findings of ovaries (number of microcysts, volume and density of the stroma and menstrual cycle disorders, the polycystic ovary syndrome.

  4. PHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: Insulin action and lipotoxicity in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, J; Battista, M-C; Baillargeon, J-P

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting women of reproductive age. This disorder is characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulation and is frequently associated with comorbidities such as infertility, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Although the causes of PCOS are unknown, this review focuses on the most accepted theory involving insulin action but will also elaborate on a novel concept: the role of lipotoxicity in the development of androgen overproduction, in addition to its known role in insulin resistance. This review will also shed a spotlight on 2 drugs that target lipotoxicity and are, therefore, known or promising for the treatment of PCOS manifestations: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonists. This paper, therefore, emphasizes the need to further explore the pathophysiology of PCOS and particularly the role of lipotoxicity. Indeed, this new mechanism deserves attention to develop therapeutic approaches that will directly target the root of this condition and not only bandage its associated consequences. PMID:27285677

  5. “补肾健脾、祛痰化瘀”法辨治多囊卵巢综合征%Treatment of Invigorating Kidney and Spleen and Eliminating Phlegm and Removing Blood Stasis Based on Syndrome Differentiation of PCOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 陈旭

    2012-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是一种常见的女性内分泌失调性疾病,以高雄激素血症、持续无排卵和卵巢多囊性改变等一系列表现为主要特征.属于妇科疾病中最常见且较复杂的病种之一.肾脾两虚,痰瘀互结是多囊卵巢综合症发病的基本病机,而“补肾健脾、祛痰化瘀”法是治疗多囊卵巢综合征的重要方法.%Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorders,and its main features including a series of performance of hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and ovaries cystic changes and so on. And it is the most common gynecological and complicated disease. Deficiency of kidney and spleen as well as entanglement of phlegm and blood stasis is the basic pathogenesis. The method of replenishing kidney and spleen and eliminating phlegm and removing blood stasis is an important method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome.

  6. Obesity and hormonal status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Radulović Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is commonly associated with hyperandrogenism and anovulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on hormonal status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Material and methods The study was performed at the Ward of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the General Hospital in Subotica. A retrospective investigation comprised 39 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome . All patients were in the fertile age-range: 18-38 years. Following ultrasonographic examination and anamnestic data, patients underwent hormonal analyses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone, prolactin and insulin obtained from the pooled serum sample. Results Values of testosterone and insulin in the group of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in normal weight patients. Patients with normal body weight index had significantly increased levels of LH in regard to those with increased body weight index. Values of FSH, prolactin and LH/FSH ratio were not significantly different in both groups of polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Increased values of insulin were recorded in 43% of obese and 18.2% of normal weight patients. Conclusion Analysis of investigated results confirmed that obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance have been a special clinical entity, whereas an open question remains whether obesity is directly connected with polycystic ovary syndrome or it is only an additional factor interfering with metabolic and hormonal status of genetically predisposed and phenotypically indoctrinated women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

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    Anja Elaine Sørensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome.

  8. The role of vitamin D and melatonin in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome

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    J S Absatarova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on new possible mechanisms of pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. In the past years there have been a lot of studies on the effect of vitamin D on the development of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. The amount of evidence for of the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and obesity is growing. The search for genetic markers predisposing to polycystic ovary syndrome among vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms seems quite premising. Considering of detected connections, therapy with vitamin D may be an effective treatment for this disease. In addition to the influence on reproductive function vitamin D is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm, and it’s disturbance may lead to the development of anovulation. Another important factor in control of sleep and wakefulness cycles is melatonin. It’s participation in development and maturation of follicles by inhibiting of oxidative stress was proved, and the use of melatonin in women as a treatment for infertility helped to improve reproductive function. Thus, further studies of the role of vitamin D and melatonin may allow developing principally new approaches and medical guidelines for clinical practice.

  9. Can anti-Mullerian hormone replace ultrasonographic evaluation in polycystic ovary syndrome? A review of current progress

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    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies over the past decade have now consistently indicated that the serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels are at least 2–3-fold higher in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, which also corresponds to the increased number of AMH producing preantral and small antral follicles. Moreover, AMH levels have been found to be associated in direct proportion to the follicle numbers per ovary or antral follicular count, assessed by the transvaginal ultrasound (TVS. Furthermore, AMH correlates directly with the rising serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in PCOS. Hence, serum AMH in women with oligo-anovulation and/or hyperandrogenemia could indicate the presence of underlying PCOS, when reliable TVS is not feasible, or not acceptable, either due to the virginal status or psycho-social issue. In addition, the imaging quality of abdominal ultrasound is often impaired by obesity, which typically occurs in PCOS women. Indeed, PCOS occurs most commonly in young females who cannot be subjected to invasive TVS for various reasons; therefore, a desirable alternative to TVS is urgently required to diagnose the most prevalent endocrine abnormality of young women. This review will analyze the currently available evidence regarding the role of AMH in the diagnosis of PCOS.

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India

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    Iram Shabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Results: The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22 was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22, respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. Conclusion: The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS.

  11. Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota (DOGMA)--a novel theory for the development of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

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    Tremellen, Kelton; Pearce, Karma

    2012-07-01

    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for menstrual disturbance and impaired ovulation, effecting one in twenty women of reproductive age. As the majority of women with PCOS are either overweight or obese, a dietary or adipose tissue related trigger for the development of the syndrome is quite possible. It has now well established that PCOS is characterised by a chronic state of inflammation and insulin resistance, but the precise underlying triggers for these two key biochemical disturbances is presently unknown. In this paper we present support for a microbiological hypothesis for the development of PCOS. This novel paradigm in PCOS aetiology suggests that disturbances in bowel bacterial flora ("Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota") brought about by a poor diet creates an increase in gut mucosal permeability, with a resultant increase in the passage of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) from Gram negative colonic bacteria into the systemic circulation. The resultant activation of the immune system interferes with insulin receptor function, driving up serum insulin levels, which in turn increases the ovaries production of androgens and interferes with normal follicle development. Thus, the Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota (DOGMA) theory of PCOS can account for all three components of the syndrome-anovulation/menstrual irregularity, hyper-androgenism (acne, hirsutism) and the development of multiple small ovarian cysts. PMID:22543078

  12. [Hypercarotenemia, amenorrhea and a vegetarian diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Du Pan, R C; Hermann, W; Chardon, F

    1990-01-01

    In order to analyse the role of hypercarotenemia in amenorrhoea, we have studied the ovarian function of 20 patients presenting with hypercarotenemia (serum carotene greater than 5 mumol/l). 12 of these were complaining of secondary amenorrhoea (group I), 7 with a normal weight (group I A) and 5 with a weight below 85% of ideal weight (group I B). Another group of 8 patients had normal menstrual cycles and a body weight within normal limits (group II). Group I presented an ovarian insufficiency of hypothalamic origin with an increase in the FSH/LH ratio. The patients in group I A although of normal weight differed from group II by a history of important weight variations, strenuous sports activity and an essentially vegetarian diet, the most likely reason for their hypercarotenemia. The high carotene levels however do not seem to be directly responsible for the amenorrhoea, in view of the normal menstrual cycles of the patients in group II. Hypercarotenemia can be considered as a biologic marker of weight loss with fat mobilisation and low T3 levels. It can also be due to a vegetarian diet. The latter may be an aetiological factor in anovulation by increasing faecal excretion of oestrogens and thus decreasing blood levels of oestradiol particularly when associated with other compounding factors such as excessive physical activity, loss of weight or affective problems.

  13. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (arrhenoblastoma in adolescent age group

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    Swarnalata Samal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Arrhenoblastoma, also known as Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors or androblastomas, are very rare neoplasm of the ovaries, resulting in the overproduction of the male hormone testosterone. This is a rare tumour which accounts for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These tumours are found in women of all age groups, but are most common in young women. Presence of an ovarian tumour plus hormonal disturbances suggests a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. Patients present with a recent history of progressive masculinisation. Masculinisation is preceded by anovulation, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea and defeminisation. Arrhenoblastomas are generally unilateral benign tumour; do not normally spread beyond the ovary, occurring in reproductive age. This work summarizes the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this tumour in a 15-year old girl with clinical signs of virilisation. A 14 year old female admitted with abdominal distension, change in voice, male pattern balding and clitoromegaly in the dept. of Ob/Gy A.V.B.R.H. (Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi, Wardha. Investigations included Sonography C.T scan, ascetic tap, Serum testosterone was done. She was managed by exploratory Laparotomy and follow up was advised. On follow up her serum testosterone levels and sonography was done. Here we are representing the case. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 722-725

  14. Determining menstrual phase in human biobehavioral research: A review with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alicia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Carlson, Samantha; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Wetherington, Cora Lee; McKee, Sherry A; Allen, Sharon S

    2016-02-01

    Given the volume and importance of research focusing on menstrual phase, a review of the strategies being used to identify menstrual phase and recommendations that will promote methodological uniformity in the field is needed. We conducted a literature review via Ovid Medline and PsycINFO. Our goal was to review methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases in biobehavioral research studies with women who had physiologically natural menstrual cycles. Therefore, we excluded articles that focused on any of the following: use of exogenous hormones, the postpartum period, menstrual-related problems (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis), and infertility/anovulation. We also excluded articles on either younger (45 years old) study samples. We initially identified a total of 1,809 articles. After our exclusionary criteria were applied, 146 articles remained, within which our review identified 6 different methods used to identify menstrual phase and subphases. The most common method used was self-report of onset of menses (145/146 articles) followed by urine luteinizing hormone testing (50/146 articles) and measurement of hormones (estradiol and/or progesterone) in blood samples (49/146 articles). Overall, we found a lack of consistency in the methodology used to determine menstrual phase and subphases. We provide several options to improve accuracy of phase identification, as well as to minimize costs and burden. Adoption of these recommendations will decrease misclassification within individual studies, facilitate cross-study comparisons, and enhance the reproducibility of results.

  15. Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlütürk, Uğur; Sezgin, Efe; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ranging from mild hirsutism to anovulation and infertility. In addition to increased risk of reproductive disability, PCOS is associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar prevalence rates and shared genetic susceptibility of PCOS among different populations suggest that genetic risk factors were already present in the ancestors of humans. Contemporary human genetic studies inform us that the origin of human ancestors is from Africa. Sharing common susceptibility loci between Chinese and European ancestry suggests that PCOS may have persisted for more than 50,000 years, before the migration of humans out of Africa. Although PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, its high prevalence is still a paradox. From an evolutionary perspective, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PCOS might be candidate factors for survival advantage of the human being. Former compensatory advantageous factors may become pathogenic mechanisms underlying complex metabolic disease with prolonged life expectancy and transition to sedentary lifestyle. PMID:27238626

  16. Genetic Rodent Models of Obesity-Associated Ovarian Dysfunction and Subfertility: Insights into Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Franks, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women and a leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Defined clinically by the presence of hyperandrogenemia and oligomenorrhoea, PCOS represents a state of hormonal dysregulation, disrupted ovarian follicle dynamics, and subsequent oligo- or anovulation. The syndrome’s prevalence is attributed, at least partly, to a well-established association with obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Indeed, the presence of severe PCOS in human genetic obesity and IR syndromes supports a causal role for IR in the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this causality, as well as the important role of hyperandrogenemia, remain poorly elucidated. As such, treatment of PCOS is necessarily empirical, focusing on symptom alleviation. The generation of knockout and transgenic rodent models of obesity and IR offers a promising platform in which to address mechanistic questions about reproductive dysfunction in the context of metabolic disease. Similarly, the impact of primary perturbations in rodent gonadotrophin or androgen signaling has been interrogated. However, the insights gained from such models have been limited by the relatively poor fidelity of rodent models to human PCOS. In this mini review, we evaluate the ovarian phenotypes associated with rodent models of obesity and IR, including the extent of endocrine disturbance, ovarian dysmorphology, and subfertility. We compare them to both human PCOS and other animal models of the syndrome (genetic and hormonal), explore reasons for their discordance, and consider the new opportunities that are emerging to better understand and treat this important condition. PMID:27375552

  17. Uterine morphology and peristalsis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic oligo-anovulation and high circulating sex hormone levels. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. In anovulatory women with PCOS a positive relationship between endometrial thickness and endometrial hyperplasia has been observed. Uterine peristalsis, which has been suggested to be of importance for female fertility, has not previously been studied in PCOS. Purpose. To assess whether women with PCOS have altered endometrial thickness, uterine wall morphology, and peristalsis. Material and Methods. In this prospective case-control study 55 women with PCOS (mean age, 29.5 years ± 4.5 SD) and 28 controls (27.6 ± 3.2) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assessing thickness of endometrium, junctional zone (JZ), and myometrium, and evaluating the occurrence, frequency (waves/min), strength (amplitude), pattern, and direction of peristalsis. Uterine morphology was also assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS). Results. The endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea compared to controls, also after adjustments for age and BMI (adjusted P = 0.043). There was no difference in thickness of the JZ or the myometrium in cases versus controls. Uterine peristalsis was less commonly observed in women with PCOS than in controls (adjusted P = 0.014). Conclusion. There were no differences in myometrial morphology between PCOS and controls, but the endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea. Based on cine MRI, uterine peristalsis was less common in PCOS than in controls

  18. Dietary intakes in infertile women a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappi Rossella E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive axis is closely linked to nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional status in two groups of young infertile women, without clinically overt eating disorders: hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods Eighteen young infertile women (10 HA, 8 PCOS attending an outpatient gynecological endocrinology unit, underwent evaluation of anthropometry, body composition, dietary intakes by means of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and a seven-day food diary (7DD, and psychological characteristics by means of EDI2 and SCL90 tests. Results HA women had lower BMI and body fat compared to PCOS women. Habitual intake derived from FFQs showed a similar macronutrient distribution between groups (about 16% protein, 33% fat, 52% carbohydrates. The psychometric profiles of the two groups did not differ significantly. The underreporting of dietary intakes (measured as habitual energy intake by FFQs/basal metabolic rate was found to be negatively correlated with the interpersonal sensitivity SCL-90 subscale scores (r = -0.54, p = 0.02. Conclusion Our study identified differences in body composition but not in dietary habits between HA and PCOS infertile women. We documented, for the first time, a relationship between the accuracy of dietary surveys and the psychological characteristics of subjects with anovulation. This finding suggests that it may be important to be aware of the psychological terrain when planning a dietary survey in infertile women.

  19. "Incessant ovulation" and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J T; Louie, E W; Pike, M C; Roy, S; Ross, R K; Henderson, B E

    1979-07-28

    A case-control study of 150 ovarian cancer patients under the age of 50 and individually matched controls was done to study the influence of fertility and oral contraceptive use on the risk of ovarian cancer. The risk decreased with increasing numbers of live births, with increasing numbers of incomplete pregnancies, and with the use of oral contraceptives. These three factors can be amalgamated into a single index of protection--"protected time"--by considering them all as periods of anovulation. The complement of protected time--viz., "ovulatory age", the period between menarche and diagnosis of ovarian cancer (or cessation of menses) minus "protected time"--was strongly related to risk of ovarian cancer. Other factors found to be associated with increased ovarian cancer risk were obesity, cervical polyps, and gallbladder disease. Women who had an "immediate" intolerance to oral contraceptive use had a fourfold increased risk of ovarian cancer. 7 patients, but no controls, could recall a family history of ovarian cancer. PMID:89281

  20. Anorexia, bulimia, and the athletic triad: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Rebecca M; Warren, Michelle P

    2007-12-01

    Caloric restriction caused by undernutrition or over-exercise is increasingly common and has significant health consequences such as hypothalamic amenorrhea, infertility, attainment of low peak bone mass, and bone loss leading to fracture. In these patients, the pathophysiology of amenorrhea and bone loss is multifactorial, involving hormones that integrate the nutritional state with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, including leptin and possibly ghrelin. The pathophysiology of bone loss includes nutritional deficiencies, possibly estrogen deficiency, and direct and indirect effects of leptin on bone. Identifying patients at risk for low bone mineral density and fracture is important, as is screening with dual energy radiograph absorptiometry. Treatment has focused on oral contraceptive use, yet improved bone mineral density is marked by nutritional recovery and anovulation reversal. Therefore, resolving the nutrition deficiency should be the cornerstone of treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy aims for weight recovery, which can lead to reversal of amenorrhea and improvement in other associated metabolic abnormalities. During treatment, estradiol levels can be followed to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian recovery because estradiol secretion may increase well before ovulation occurs. In patients failing the above interventions, hormone replacement should be considered, but bone mineral density should be followed because patients may continue to lose bone despite treatment with oral contraceptives if nutrition is not improved.

  1. [Chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome in comparison with other signs belonging to the image of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder which concern even 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disorders with chronic anovulation. The most common clinical symptoms observed in PCOS are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients with PCOS often suffer from metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis and other abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. 35 to 60% of women with PCOS are obese and about 50% of them have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis emphasizes the role of inflammatory processes. There are a number of markers of the inflammation process. They are also observed in PCOS and may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women. More than 46% of women with PCOS can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Because of the fact that patients with PCOS are at higher risk group of the earlier development of complications such as diabetes t 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular system diseases, it is important to carry out metabolic disorders diagnosis in every patient with PCOS. It will help to estimate the risk of complications and allow for the implementation of prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases belonging to the image of PCOS.

  2. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have.

  3. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. PMID:27499648

  4. Phenotypes and enviromental factors: their influence in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Christakou, Charikleia; Marinakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by heterogeneity in phenotypic manifestations. The clinical phenotype of PCOS includes reproductive and hormonal aberrations, namely anovulation and hyperandrogenism, which coexist with metabolic disturbances. Reflecting the crosstalk between the reproductive system and metabolic tissues, obesity not only deteriorates the metabolic profile but also aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Although the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear, the syndrome appears to involve environmental and genetic components. Starting from early life and extending throughout lifecycle, environmental insults may affect susceptible women who finally demonstrate the clinical phenotype of PCOS. Diet emerges as the major environmental determinant of PCOS. Overnutrition leading to obesity is widely recognized to have an aggravating impact, while another detrimental dietary factor may be the high content of food in advanced glycated end products (AGEs). Environmental exposure to industrial products, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may also exacerbate the clinical course of PCOS. AGEs and BPA may act as endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PCOS appears to mirror the harmful influence of the modern environment on the reproductive and metabolic balance of inherently predisposed individuals. PMID:22229564

  5. The physiological basis of complementary and alternative medicines for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wu, XiaoKe; Legro, Richard S

    2011-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation leading to symptoms of hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, and infertility. Multiple metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with PCOS, including insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis. However, current treatments for PCOS are only moderately effective at controlling symptoms and preventing complications. This article describes how the physiological effects of major complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments could reduce the severity of PCOS and its complications. Acupuncture reduces hyperandrogenism and improves menstrual frequency in PCOS. Acupuncture's clinical effects are mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle, which, via modulation of the activity in the somatic and autonomic nervous system, may modulate endocrine and metabolic functions in PCOS. Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements may also exert beneficial physiological effects in PCOS, but there is minimal evidence that these CAM treatments are safe and effective. Mindfulness has not been investigated in PCOS, but it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and exert positive effects on the central and autonomic nervous systems, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune system, leading to reductions in blood pressure, glucose, and inflammation. In conclusion, CAM treatments may have beneficial endocrine, cardiometabolic, and reproductive effects in PCOS. However, most studies of CAM treatments for PCOS are small, nonrandomized, or uncontrolled. Future well-designed studies are needed to further evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and mechanisms of CAM treatments for PCOS. PMID:21487075

  6. Resveratrol Is Not as Effective as Physical Exercise for Improving Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Rats with Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive and metabolic disorder associated with obesity and insulin resistance that often precedes the development of type-2 diabetes. Rats continuously exposed to dihydrotestosterone from prepuberty display typical reproductive and metabolic PCOS characteristics including anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. Our aim was to investigate if resveratrol improves reproductive and metabolic functions in PCOS rats. The effect was compared to exercise. Control and PCOS rats were treated with vehicle or resveratrol (400 mg · kg−1 · day−1 for 5-6 weeks. Another group of PCOS rats received vehicle treatment and exercised for 5-6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The glucose infusion rate was lower in the PCOS-vehicle group compared to control-vehicle rats (P<0.05. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity compared with PCOS-vehicle rats (P<0.05, but resveratrol did not. Resveratrol treatment and exercise resulted in smaller adipocytes, upregulated estrogen-related receptor α gene expression in subcutaneous fat, and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic PCOS rats. Although resveratrol had positive effects on adiposity and cyclicity in a similar manner to exercise, resveratrol does not seem to be a good candidate for treating insulin resistance associated with PCOS because no improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in PCOS rats on normal chow.

  7. An investigation of acarbose effects in PCOS women with postprandial hyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建淮; 曹缵孙; 陈晓燕; 毛文军

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of insulin resistance on serum androgen level and ovulation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and observe clinic role of acarbose in the treatment of hyperinsulinemia, postprandial hyperglycemia and anovulation. Methods: 14 women accompanied by postprandial hyperglycemia with PCOS were administrated by acarbose for 12 weeks.14 age-matched individuals who had similar body mass index and normal menstruation were served as controls. Results: Serum T levels declined significantly from 4.09±1.04 nmol/L to 1.71±0.54 nmol/L (P<0.001), after acarbose treatment for 12 weeks. 12 out of 14 cases restored ovulation and menstrual cycles after acarbose treatment, among which 4 got pregnant. Conclusion: Acarbose may play a role on reducing postprandial hyperglycemia and HbAic levels, increase ISI and FSG/FI, indirectly reduce serum androgen levels through reducing plasma insulin level and recover ovarian ovulation in PCOS women with postprandial hyperglycemia.

  8. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI and D-chiro-inositol (DCI in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women.

  9. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea — diagnostic challenges, monitoring, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Przepiera, Elżbieta; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elżbieta; Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Walkowiak, Aleksandra; Osowicz-Korolonek, Lilianna; Syrenicz, Małgorzata; Kędzia, Witold; Syrenicz, Anhelli

    2015-01-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) is associated with functional inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Causes of FHA can be classified into the three groups: 1) stress-related factors, 2) consequences of weight loss and/or underweight, and 3) consequences of physical exercise or practicing sports. Diagnosis of FHA should be based on a history of menstrual disorders. During physical examination, patients with FHA present with secondary and tertiary sex characteristics specific for the pubertal stage preceding development of the condition and with the signs of hypoestrogenism. Laboratory results determine further management of patients with amenorrhea, and thus their correct interpretation is vital for making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Treatment of chronic anovulation, menstrual disorders, and secondary amenorrhea resulting from hypothalamic disorders should be aimed at the elimination of the primary cause, i.e. a decrease in psycho-emotional strain, avoidance of chronic stressors, reduction of physical exercise level, or optimisation of BMI in patients who lose weight. If menses do not resume after a period of six months or primary causative treatment is not possible, neutralisation of hypoestrogenism consequences, especially unfavourable effects on bone metabolism, become the main issue. Previous studies have shown that oestroprogestagen therapy is useful in both the treatment of menstrual disorders and normalisation of bone mineral density. Hormonal preparations should be introduced into therapeutic protocol on an individualised basis. PMID:26136135

  10. How to recognize PCOS: results of a web-based survey at IVF-worldwide.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ning; Balen, Adam; Brezina, Paul R; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev; Wallach, Edward E; Zhao, Yulian

    2013-05-01

    This retrospective evaluation of a web-based survey posted from 1 to 30 September 2010 was to determine which diagnostic tools physicians are currently utilizing to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Responses from 262 IVF centres in 68 countries are included in the study. Providers used various diagnostic criteria to diagnose PCOS, including the Rotterdam criteria (82%), National Institutes of Health criteria (8%), Androgen Excess Society 2006 criteria (3%) and other classification systems (7%). Many providers utilized diagnostic tools not necessarily included in traditional classification systems: 58% of respondents evaluated LH/FSH ratio in addition to androgen concentrations to define patients with PCOS; physicians also commonly obtain measurement of anti-Müllerian hormone (22%) and impaired glucose tolerance (74%) in diagnosing PCOS. Many respondents (64%) felt that polycystic-appearing ovaries on ultrasound with anovulation and a normal serum prolactin should be adequate criteria to diagnose PCOS. In conclusion, while the majority of centres (82%) uses the Rotterdam criteria to diagnose PCOS, other criteria and diagnostic tools are commonly used in evaluating patients with suspected PCOS. This study highlights the need for continual re-evaluation of PCOS diagnostic criteria with an ultimate goal of developing a consensus definition for the disorder in the future. PMID:23419796

  11. Studies on Androgen Receptor mRNA expression in Pancreas, Hypothalamus and Ovary of Androgen Sterilized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Jing-wen HOU; Li-min LU; Jin YU; Sui-qi GUI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in pancreas,hypothalamus and ovary of androgen sterilized rats (ASR)Methods ASR model was established by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate to SD female rats at the age of 9 days. Around the age of 106 days (proestrus),all rats were killed, serum △ 4-andronestedione (△ 4-A), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (Ins) and C-peptide (C-P)were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Total RNA in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary were extracted and the amount of AR mRNA was quantitatedly analyzed by RT-PCR with single base mutant template as inner standard. Results Serum concentrations of△ 4-A, TT, FT, Ins and C-P in ASR model rats were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). The expression of AR mRNA in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary increased significantly (P<0. 05,P<0. 01) of model rats as compared with control group. Conclusion The elevated serum androgen levels in ASR model could enhance the expression of AR mRNA levels in pancreas, hypothalamus and ovary, which further induce hyperinsulinemia and anovulation.

  12. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Elena; Del Ghianda, Scilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women. PMID:27493664

  13. Contributing Factors of Endometrial Receptivity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征子宫内膜容受性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许榕倩

    2011-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是引起月经失调和不孕的常见内分泌障碍性疾病.PCOS不孕的主要原因有不排卵和卵母细胞质量差等.但经药物纠正排卵后,仍存在低妊娠率、高流产率的现象.其原因之一是PCOS患者内分泌及代谢的改变使其子宫内膜容受性降低.现从形态学、分子生物学和基因学角度探讨PCOS子宫内膜容受性降低的影响因素.%Polycystic ovary syndrome( PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that causes menstrual dysregulation and irifertility. PCOS-associated infertility results mainly from anovulation and compromised oocytes.The medical treatment improves the ovulation , showing a low pregnancy rate and high abortion rate though. One of the caused underlying this problem is the reduced endometrial receptivity caused by the disruption of endocrine function and metabolism in PCOS patients. The article mainly reviews the contributing factors of reduction in endometrial receptivity in PCOS in the sense of morphology, molecular biology, and genetics.

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome – An Endocrine and Metabolic Disorder Throughout Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilágyi A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is still a matter of controversies, but it is apparent that hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance (IR are major determining factors in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. The consequences of the PCOS extend beyond the reproductive axis. Follow up studies have shown an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other elements of metabolic syndrome in PCOS and increased cardiovascular risk, too. It is possible that PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus are different clinical manifestations of the same IR syndrome, with their phenotypic differences. It is even more compound as PCOS is not a homogenous group of patients. It is reflected in the diagnostic criteria of PCOS by the Rotterdam PCOS Conference as the diagnostic criteria identify 4 phenotypes of PCOS. The PCOS phenotypes differ in the degree of hyperandrogenism, but differences in hyperinsulinism and obesity have not been studied yet. Management of PCOS depends on the principal goals of the patients (treatment of infertility, diminishing signs of hyperandrogensim, prevention of long term metabolic consequences, but the management should be individualized according to the phenotypes as well. The value of the insulin sensitizer therapy (e. g. metformin, myo-inositol, statins and/or lifestyle modification await further evaluation and it should be integrated in the spectrum of therapeutical options. A challenging task for the future is to assess the individul risk of PCOS patients according to phenotypes and to elaborate personal steps for prevention.

  15. Uterine morphology and peristalsis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Hellstroem, Mikael [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: henrik.leonhardt@vgregion.se; Gull, Berit; Nilsson, Lars; Janson, Per O. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kishimoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Kataoka, Masako [Department of Radiology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Stener-Victorin, Elisabet [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic oligo-anovulation and high circulating sex hormone levels. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. In anovulatory women with PCOS a positive relationship between endometrial thickness and endometrial hyperplasia has been observed. Uterine peristalsis, which has been suggested to be of importance for female fertility, has not previously been studied in PCOS. Purpose. To assess whether women with PCOS have altered endometrial thickness, uterine wall morphology, and peristalsis. Material and Methods. In this prospective case-control study 55 women with PCOS (mean age, 29.5 years {+-} 4.5 SD) and 28 controls (27.6 {+-} 3.2) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assessing thickness of endometrium, junctional zone (JZ), and myometrium, and evaluating the occurrence, frequency (waves/min), strength (amplitude), pattern, and direction of peristalsis. Uterine morphology was also assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS). Results. The endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea compared to controls, also after adjustments for age and BMI (adjusted P = 0.043). There was no difference in thickness of the JZ or the myometrium in cases versus controls. Uterine peristalsis was less commonly observed in women with PCOS than in controls (adjusted P = 0.014). Conclusion. There were no differences in myometrial morphology between PCOS and controls, but the endometrium was thinner in PCOS with oligo-amenorrhea. Based on cine MRI, uterine peristalsis was less common in PCOS than in controls.

  16. Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Paola; Buscema, Massimo; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Gullo, Giuseppe; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. In form of phosphoinositides, they play an important role as second messengers in several cellular biological functions. Considering the key role played by insulin-resistance and androgen excess in PCOS patients, the insulin-sensitizing effects of both MI and DCI were tested in order to ameliorate symptoms and signs of this syndrome, including the possibility to restore patients' fertility. Accumulating evidence suggests that both isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although MI showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas DCI reduced hyperandrogenism better. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on inositol signaling and correlate data on biological functions of these multifaceted molecules, in view of a rational use for the therapy in women with PCOS. PMID:27579037

  17. Ovarian Drilling Efficacy, Estradiol Levels and Pregnancy Rate in Females With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of oligoovulation and anovulation in general population and in females with infertility. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ovarian laparoscopic drilling procedure (LOD in females with PCOS, resistant to treatment with estradiol (E2 level less than 40 pg/mL versus more than 40 pg/mL. Materials and Methods Females with PCOS, resistant to drug for ovary stimulation, were grouped based on the Estradiol levels of ≤ 40 pg/mL (n = 13 and > 40 pg/mL (n = 15. To survey the ovulation, continuing spontaneous ovulation and cumulative pregnancy rate, ovarian laparoscopic drilling was carried out after the analysis of serum E2. Results There was significant difference in the average starting time of ovulation and continuing spontaneous ovulation of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL, compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.029, P = 0.05, respectively. Significant differences were also found in pregnancy rates of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that LOD in females with PCOS with a serum E2 > 40 pg/mL was sufficient and safe to trigger development of ovarian follicles followed by clinical pregnancy.

  18. Menstrual and reproductive function repair in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity by correcting of glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Lineva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sibutramine on metabolic and hormonal parameters in women with PCOS and obesity. Materials and methods. The study included 53 women aged 18 to 35 years (mean age 31,3 ± 1,1 years with PCOS and obesity. All patients received therapy with sibutramine. The total treatment duration was 6 months. The treatment was evaluated monthly nature of the menstrual cycle, anthropometric parameters (body weight, BMI, ON, ON, ON / OF. The Results. The studies found that after 3 months of treatment with weight loss was 8,1 ± 0,31 kg, after 6 months - 13,1 ± 0,78 kg (p <0,05. Results of the survey of women included in this study strongly support the negative impact of obesity on the functional state of the reproductive system, evidenced by the high incidence of anovulation, rhythm disturbances of menstruation (amenorrhea up to, infertility. Conclusions. The obtained results once again confirm the high efficacy and safety of sibutramine to reduce body mass, suggest correction of metabolic, hormonal disorders and positive impact on women's reproductive health. This allows us to consider the use of sibutramine in women with PCOS and obesity as a way to restore the endocrine function of the reproductive system.

  19. Adrenocortical steroid response to ACTH in different phenotypes of non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Cinar Nese

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal androgen excess is frequently observed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to determine whether adrenal gland function varies among PCOS phenotypes, women with hyperandrogenism (H only and healthy women. Methods The study included 119 non-obese patients with PCOS (age: 22.2 ± 4.1y, BMI:22.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2, 24 women with H only and 39 age and BMI- matched controls. Among women with PCOS, 50 had H, oligo-anovulation (O, and polycystic ovaries (P (PHO, 32 had O and H (OH, 23 had P and H (PH, and 14 had P and O (PO. Total testosterone (T, SHBG and DHEAS levels at basal and serum 17-hydroxprogesterone (17-OHP, androstenedione (A4, DHEA and cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation were measured. Results T, FAI and DHEAS, and basal and AUC values for 17-OHP and A4 were significantly and similarly higher in PCOS and H groups than controls (p  Conclusion PCOS patients and women with H only have similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen levels than controls. All three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes of PCOS exhibit similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen secretion patterns compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype.

  20. Metabolic Disturbance in PCOS: Clinical and Molecular Effects on Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Dantas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex hormonal disorder affecting the reproductive and metabolic systems with signs and symptoms related to anovulation, infertility, menstrual irregularity and hirsutism. Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in the peripheral glucose uptake. Since PCOS is associated with defects in the activation and pancreatic dysfunction of β-cell insulin, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in PCOS. Studies of muscle tissue in patients with PCOS reveal defects in insulin signaling. Muscle biopsies performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed a significant reduction in glucose uptake, and insulin-mediated IRS-2 increased significantly in skeletal muscle. It is recognized that the etiology of insulin resistance in PCOS is likely to be as complicated as in type 2 diabetes and it has an important role in metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of this syndrome. Thus, further evidence regarding the effect of nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., physical exercise in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS is required for a better therapeutic approach in the management of various metabolic and reproductive problems caused by this syndrome.

  1. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/I and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low-or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment

  2. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used. PMID:26486483

  3. Point mutation in mitochondrial tRNA gene is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Zhuo, Guangchao; Zhang, Caijuan; Leng, Jianhang

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCOS have remained to be fully elucidated. As recent studies have revealed a positive association between mitochondrial dysfunction and PCOS, current investigations focus on mutations in the mitochondrial genome of patients with POCS. The present study reported a Chinese patient with PCOS. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome showed the presence of homoplasmic ND5 T12338C and tRNASer (UCN) C7492T mutations as well as a set of polymorphisms belonging to the human mitochondrial haplogroup F2. The T12338C mutation is known to decrease the ND5 mRNA levels and to inhibit the processing of RNA precursors. The C7492T mutation, which occurred at the highly conserved nucleotide in the anticodon stem of the tRNASer (UCN) gene, is important for the tRNA steady‑state level as well as the aminoacylation ability. Therefore, the combination of the ND5 T12338C and tRNASer (UCN) C7492T mutations may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The present study provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of PCOS. PMID:26935780

  4. Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rossetti, Paola; Buscema, Massimo; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Gullo, Giuseppe; Granese, Roberta; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. In form of phosphoinositides, they play an important role as second messengers in several cellular biological functions. Considering the key role played by insulin-resistance and androgen excess in PCOS patients, the insulin-sensitizing effects of both MI and DCI were tested in order to ameliorate symptoms and signs of this syndrome, including the possibility to restore patients' fertility. Accumulating evidence suggests that both isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although MI showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas DCI reduced hyperandrogenism better. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on inositol signaling and correlate data on biological functions of these multifaceted molecules, in view of a rational use for the therapy in women with PCOS. PMID:27579037

  5. Effects of phthalic acid esters on fetal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajkin Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phthalates are synthetic industrial compounds capable of disrupting endocrine system. Effects of phthalates depend on dosage, duration of action and stage of development of the individual, thus making the fetus, newborn, and children at puberty the most vulnerable groups. Metabolism of Phthalates: Metabolism of these compounds consists of at least two steps: hydrolysis and conjugation. They are mainly excreted in urine, with a low percent being excreted through feces. Exposure to Phthalates. Exposure to the effects of phthalates begins at the intrauterine stage since the phthalates pass through the placental barrier. Phthalates may be found in plastic products, toys, medical equipment, industrial materials, food, and clothes. Determination of Phthalate Levels in Humans. Urine is the best sample for evaluating phthalate levels in humans because of rapid phthalate metabolism and high concentrations of metabolites in the urine. Fetal Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: Fetal testicular dysgenesis syndrome involves disorders of male genital tract such as shortened anogenital distance, hypospadia, cryptorchidism, malformations of seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and it results from the harmful effects of phthalates. Other Effects of Phthalates on Health. Negative effects of phthalates on female health are mostly reflected in anovulation, premature puberty, changes in duration of pregnancy. There is a possible effect on neurocognitive development, occurrence of allergies, asthma, testicular carcinoma, hepatic and renal damages, insulin resistance and obesity, thyroid dysfunction. Conclusion. Further studies are needed to establish the safe phthalate concentration in certain products and to determine more negative consequences of exposure to phthalate.

  6. [Current diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Virgilio; Espinosa, Etual; Sosa, Ernesto; Rangel, María José; Cuenca, Dalia; Ramírez, Claudia; Mercado, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent neuroendocrinological condition that should be approached in an orderly and integral fashion, starting with a complete clinical history. Once physiological causes such as pregnancy, systemic disorders such as primary hypothyroidism and the use of drugs with dopamine antagonistic actions such as metochlopramide have been ruled out, the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia is a PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma or prolactinoma. Prolactinomas are usually classified as microprolactinomas (less than 1 cm) or macroprolactinomas (larger than 1 cm), which can either be confined or invasive. The hormonal consequence of hypeprolactinemia is hypogonadism; in women, this is manifested as amenorrhea/oligomenorreha, anovulation and galactorrhea, whereas in men the main complaints are a diminished libido and erectile dysfunction. Macroprolactinomas can also present with symptoms and signs resulting form mass effect of the tumor, such as headaches and visual field defects. Other structural causes of hyperprolactinemia include non-functioning pituitary adenomas and infiltrative disorders, which can interrupt the inhibitory, descending dopaminergic tone. The primary treatment of prolactinomas is pharmacological with dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. PMID:26820213

  7. Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Diabetic Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Satta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols.

  8. Bee venom treatment reduced C-reactive protein and improved follicle quality in a rat model of estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a low grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenemia and chronic anovulation. C-reactive protein (CRP, released by adipocytes, plays a key role in PCOS. Apis mellifera honeybee venom (HBV contains a variety of biologically active components with various pharmaceutical properties. This study was designed to assess the possibility of HBV application as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent. To induce PCOS, 1 mg/100 g body weight estradiol valerate (EV was subcutaneously (SC injected into eight-week-old rats. After 60 days, 0.5 mg/kg HBV was administered SC for 14 consecutive days, and the results of PCOS treatment were investigated. Rats were then anesthetized with chloroform, and their ovaries and livers were surgically removed to determine histomorphometrical changes. Testosterone and 17-β-estradiol were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. In order to detect serum CRP, ELISA kit was used in three groups of EV-induced PCOS, HBV-treated PCOS and control animals. Thickness of the theca layer, number of cysts and the level of serum CRP significantly decreased in HBV group in comparison with PCOS group. Moreover, corpus luteum, as a sign of ovulation, was observed in HBV-treated ovaries which were absent in PCOS group. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of HBV may be mediated through its inhibitory effect on serum CRP levels.

  9. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Reshma M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties.

  10. Defective CFTR-regulated granulosa cell proliferation in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Guo, Jing Hui; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2015-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent causes of female infertility, featured by abnormal hormone profile, chronic oligo/anovulation, and presence of multiple cystic follicles in the ovary. However, the mechanism underlying the abnormal folliculogenesis remains obscure. We have previously demonstrated that CFTR, a cAMP-dependent Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) conducting anion channel, is expressed in the granulosa cells and its expression is downregulated in PCOS rat models and human patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of downregulation of CFTR in the impaired follicle development in PCOS using two rat PCOS models and primary culture of granulosa cells. Our results indicated that the downregulation of CFTR in the cystic follicles was accompanied by reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), in rat PCOS models. In addition, knockdown or inhibition of CFTR in granulosa cell culture resulted in reduced cell viability and downregulation of PCNA. We further demonstrated that CFTR regulated both basal and FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation through the HCO3 (-)/sAC/PKA pathway leading to ERK phosphorylation and its downstream target cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) upregulation. Reduced ERK phosphorylation and CCND2 were found in ovaries of rat PCOS model compared with the control. This study suggests that CFTR is required for normal follicle development and that its downregulation in PCOS may inhibit granulosa cell proliferation, resulting in abnormal follicle development in PCOS.

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a transgenerational evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L M A; Elton, S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome has a common association with anovulatory infertility, while the physical symptoms are often associated with the increased androgens that are part of the endocrine profile. There is a well-recognised association with lipid and glucose metabolism anomalies and, when undergoing ovulation induction, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This common condition is familial, but a contributory gene has yet to be found. The question of why a gene that predisposes to anovulation, diabetes and heart disease might have perpetuated so frequently is addressed. Three hypotheses for evolutionary advantage are discussed. The food deprivation hypothesis considers the role of the observed increase in ovulation when women with the condition lose weight in relation to seasonality. The refeeding hypothesis considers the androgenic and slightly enhanced anabolic metabolism in relation to periods of privation and the advantage of preferential early ovulation when refeeding after a period of privation. The transgenerational privation hypothesis considers the effect of persistent, severe, yet subfatal privation on individuals both in utero and throughout life. While an androgenic, anabolic state would improve efficiency in the use of food for protein synthesis and fat storage, benefiting the fetus both in relation to its in utero development and neonatal survival, survival and reproductive capacity as an adult benefits by a genotype expressing itself in women of successive generations.

  12. [Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A; Fernandez, H

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female hormonal disorders. Its multiple components--reproductive, metabolic, neoplasic and cardiovascular--have a major impact on the public health. Androgen excess and resistance to insulin, probably from genetic origin, are responsible for most of the clinical symptomatology. Resistance to insulin seems to be accompanied by a greater risk of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, lipidic anomalies and can involve the development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, sleep apnea syndrome is more progressively described in PCOS. Infertility, menses disorders and hirsutism often push these patients to consult their physician. A better understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms led to the emergence of new therapeutic options increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Besides the pregnancy wishes, cares aim to attenuate the marks of the hyper-androgenism (hormonal treatment and cosmetic) and to correct cardiovascular, respiratory and gynaecological risk factors. In case of infertility by anovulation, cares must be performed by trained experts to minimize the risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. A gradation from loose weight to clomiphene citrate ovulation induction, ovarian drilling, low dose gonadotropin, in vitro fertilisation, or in vitro maturation of oocytes should bring back good reproduction potential.

  13. Genome-wide association of polycystic ovary syndrome implicates alterations in gonadotropin secretion in European ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M Geoffrey; Urbanek, Margrit; Ehrmann, David A; Armstrong, Loren L; Lee, Ji Young; Sisk, Ryan; Karaderi, Tugce; Barber, Thomas M; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Stephen; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Welt, Corrine K; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Panidis, Dimitrios; Goodarzi, Mark O; Azziz, Ricardo; Zhang, Yi; James, Roland G; Olivier, Michael; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Legro, Richard S; Dunaif, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, highly heritable complex disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and defects in glucose homeostasis. Increased luteinizing hormone relative to follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, insulin resistance and developmental exposure to androgens are hypothesized to play a causal role in PCOS. Here we map common genetic susceptibility loci in European ancestry women for the National Institutes of Health PCOS phenotype, which confers the highest risk for metabolic morbidities, as well as reproductive hormone levels. Three loci reach genome-wide significance in the case-control meta-analysis, two novel loci mapping to chr 8p23.1 [Corrected] and chr 11p14.1, and a chr 9q22.32 locus previously found in Chinese PCOS. The same chr 11p14.1 SNP, rs11031006, in the region of the follicle-stimulating hormone B polypeptide (FSHB) gene strongly associates with PCOS diagnosis and luteinizing hormone levels. These findings implicate neuroendocrine changes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26284813

  14. Evaluation and treatment of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Tammy J; Vitrikas, Kristen R

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:25822387

  15. Efficacy of intrauterine insemination without ovarian hyperstimulation for male or cervical factor in women aged 40 or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Lurie, D; Peymer, M; Katsoff, D; Long, R

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male or cervical factor by age of female partner was determined in a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent IUI therapy for cervical and/or male factor (n = 281) were classified by age at first IUI cycle: or =40 years (n = 49). The indication for IUI was cervical factor if a postcoital test failed to show sperm with good forward progression at time of mature follicle; male factor was diagnosed if the semen analysis demonstrated either low count, low motility, antisperm antibodies, or subnormal hypoosmotic swelling test. Intrauterine insemination was performed in either natural cycles or following ovarian stimulation for the treatment of anovulation or follicular maturation defects. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy (viable at end of first trimester) following 3 cycles of IUI was evaluated. Cumulative probability of ongoing pregnancy following 3 cycles of IUI was 28.2% for the younger group and 0.0% for the older group. The age groups did not differ in terms of infertility history, use of ovarian stimulation, or baseline semen parameters. Thus, the treatment of male and/or cervical factor by IUI is ineffective for women > or =40 years. PMID:10864366

  16. The mechanism of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaba Aylin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common and complex endocrine disorder affecting 5-10% of women in reproductive age that is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo- or anovulation and infertility. However the pathophysiology of PCOS still remains unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a central component that regulates various processes including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and angiogenesis. mTOR signaling cascade has recently been examined in ovarian follicles where it regulates granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. mTOR functions as two complexes, mTOR complex 1 and 2. Therefore, we hypothesized that mTORC1 and/or 2 may have important role in proliferation of theca and granulosa cells in PCOS. In the present study, we sought to determine the mTOR signaling pathway in PCOS mouse ovary. We designed 3 groups: Control (C, no treatment, PCOS (P, The injection of DHEA (6 mg/100 g BW in 0.1 ml of sesame oil (s.c for 20 consecutive days, Vehicle (V, daily (s.c sesame oil alone injection. Our results showed that mTORC1 and mTORC2-mediated signaling may play a role in PCOS mouse ovary. These findings provide evidence that mTORC1 and mTORC2 may have responsibility in increased ovarian follicular cell proliferation and growth in PCOS. Consequently, these results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathways (mTORC1 and mTORC 2 may create new clinical strategies to optimize developmental competence of PCOS should target correction of the entire follicle growth, oocyte development process and anovulatory infertility in PCOS.

  17. The Impact of Androgen Excess on the Initiation and Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%雄激素过多在多囊卵巢综合征发生发展中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁涛; 郑艳华; 谢军

    2012-01-01

    Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown and the search for causative genes is elusive,androgen excess is generally thought of an important triggers of PCOS.We known that excess androgens is the root cause of PCOS starting from the female fetus, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by the excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicle,anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of excess androgen.The paper is biased in support of the hypothesis that androgen excess is the"root of all evil"'in PCOS.%目前多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)的病因仍不十分明确,尚未发现其确切致病基因,不少研究表明雄激素过多与PCOS的发生密切相关,可能是促进其发生发展的重要因素.现普遍认为高雄激素血症是PCOS发病的根本原因之一,表现为特异性症状和并发症.然而,卵巢多小卵泡、不排卵和胰岛素抵抗的生育期妇女雄激素水平较高,使症状与并发症恶化,这就导致高雄激素血症的恶性循环.就高雄激素血症导致PCOS进行综述.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

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    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovarian syndrome women in a hospital of Tehran

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    Ashraf Moini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a condition associated with chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and androgen excess. Women with this syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS in women with PCOS referred to Arash Hospital in different ages and body mass index (BMI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gynecologic Clinic at Arash Hospital affiliated with Tehran University. A total of 282 women with PCOS ages between 15-40 years were included. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its components in this population were the main outcomes. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory tests (FBS, TSH, HDL-C, serum prolactin, triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured in this population. Results: The prevalence of MBS in PCOS women was 22.7% (64 cases. The rate of central obesity, FBS more than 110 mg/dl, triglycerides more than 150 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C less than 50 mg/dl, and blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg in PCOS women was 31% (87, 3.2% (9, 33% (93, 68.8% (194, and 10.6% (30, respectively. The risk of MBS was increased in older and the obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Conclusion: The present sample showed women with PCOS have a high prevalence of MBS and its individual components, particularly decreased HDL-C.

  20. 中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征的研究进展%Recent Research Progress in Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈喜萍

    2012-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是一组病因不明,临床表现以高度异质性、无排卵和高雄激素血症为主要特征的临床综合征.其发病机制较为复杂,目前尚无有效的治疗措施,成为目前妇科内分泌的研究热点.近年来,随着中医药研究的介入,PCOS治疗方面取得一些进展.现就中医脏腑辨证、中药周期、中医古方、中西医结合治疗及中药联合针灸等治疗方法予以综述.%Polycystic ovary syndrome( PC OS ) if a group oi rliniral syndrome oi unknown etiology, high-heterogeneity rliniral symptoms, and main features with anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Due to its complex pathogenesis,there is no effertive treatment so jar,making it a research hotspot in gynecologic endocri-nologye. In recent yeai-s,the treatment oi P(X)S has made some progress with the intervention oi the study oi traditional (Chinese medicine( TCM ). Heie is to make a review on the TCM treatment from the asperts oi the syndrome differentiation,the cycles oi Chinese medicine, the ancient Chinese medicine prescription,the inte-gi'ative medicine with western medicine,and the medicine combined with acupuncture treatment.

  1. The Role of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in the Characterization of the Different Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Phenotypes.

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    Romualdi, Daniela; Di Florio, C; Tagliaferri, V; De Cicco, S; Gagliano, D; Immediata, V; Lanzone, A; Guido, M

    2016-05-01

    Rotterdam criteria identified 4 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes based on the combination of anovulation (ANOV), hyperandrogenism (HA), and polycystic ovaries (PCOs): phenotype 1 (ANOV + HA + PCO), phenotype 2 (ANOV + HA), phenotype 3 (HA + PCO), and phenotype 4 (ANOV + PCO). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was suggested to play a pathophysiologic and diagnostic role in this syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare AMH levels among the different phenotypes in relation to clinical, endocrine, and metabolic features. We enrolled 117 women with PCOS (body mass index: 25.89 ± 6.20 kg/m(2), age range: 18-37 years) and 24 controls. Anthropometric characteristics, hirsutism score, ultrasound ovarian features, and hormonal parameters, including AMH, were evaluated. Each participant also underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The prevalence of phenotypes 1 to 4 was 62.4%, 8.6%, 11.1%, and 17.9%, respectively. Body mass index and insulin resistance indexes were similar among the groups. Phenotype 1 showed the highest luteinizing hormone, androgens levels, ovarian volume, and AMH concentrations (9.27 ± 8.17 ng/mL,P< .05) versus phenotype 2 and controls. Phenotype 2 women were hirsute, showed an intermediate free androgen index value, low ovarian volume, and low AMH levels (4.05 ± 4.12 ng/mL). Phenotype 3 showed an intermediate state of HA and slightly augmented AMH levels (5.87 ± 4.35 ng/mL). The clinical and endocrine characteristics of phenotype 4 resembled those of controls, except for higher ovarian volume and AMH levels (7.62 ± 3.85 ng/mL;P< .05). Our results highlight the heterogeneity of the association between increased AMH levels, menstrual dysfunction, and HA in the different PCOS phenotypes, thus offering a key to an understanding of the current controversy on the value of AMH measurement in PCOS. PMID:26718304

  2. 刘金星教授治疗多囊卵巢综合征的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 刘金星

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a endocrinic syndrome of long-term anovulation and hyperandrogenism. The main clinical performances are menstrual less, menstruation or amenorrhea, infertility, hairy, dash boils. There is no recorded name in the history of TCM for the disease without special, but according to its symptoms, the disease can be attributed to “menstruation late”, “menopause” and “no children” category. With the basic theory of TCM and the long-term clinical observation, the main pathogenesis is Shenxu Xueyu. The Bushen Yangjing and the Huoxue decoction were developed. The Bushen Huoxue therapy can effectively treat the disease.%多囊卵巢综合征是以长期无排卵及高雄激素为特征的内分泌综合征。本病以月经稀发,或闭经、不孕、多毛、痤疮为主要临床表现。中医史籍对本病无专门记载,但根据其症状可归于“月经后期”“闭经”“无子”等范畴。导师刘金星教授在中医基础理论指导下,加上长期的临床观察,认为本病的主要病机为肾虚血瘀,以补肾活血周期治疗立法,提出治疗本病的有效方剂(补肾养精汤与活血汤)。患者周期服用,取得了满意的临床疗效。

  3. Reproductive alterations in hyperinsulinemic but normoandrogenic MSG obese female rats.

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    Gaspar, Renato Simões; Benevides, Renata Ohana Alves; Fontelles, João Lucas de Lima; Vale, Caroline Castro; França, Lucas Martins; Barros, Paulo de Tarso Silva; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are the common causes of reproductive and fertility disorders in women. In particular, polycystic ovary syndrome, which is clinically characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology, has been increasingly associated with metabolic disorders. However, given the broad interplay between metabolic and reproductive functions, this remains a field of intense research. In this study, we investigated the effect of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity on reproductive biology of female rats. Newborn female rats were subcutaneously injected with MSG (4g/kg/day) or equiosmolar saline (CTR) each 2 days up to postnatal day (pnd) 10. On pnd 60, estrous cycle was evaluated using vaginal smears twice a day for 15 days, which showed MSG rats to be oligocyclic. Thereafter, animals were killed on estrous phase for blood and tissue collection. MSG rats had increased body mass, accumulation of retroperitoneal and visceral fat pads, and visceral adipocyte hypertrophy compared with CTR rats. MSG rats were also dyslipidemic and hyperinsulinemic but were normoglycemic and normoandrogenic. Ovarian morphology analysis showed that MSG rats had a two-fold decrease in oocyte count but a six-fold increase on ovarian follicular cysts, along with a higher number of total primordial and atretic follicles. Moreover, MSG rats had a four-fold increase in anti-Müllerian hormone immunohistochemical staining on antral follicles. Taken together, data presented here characterize MSG obesity as a unique model to study the metabolic pathways underlying reproductive disorders in the absence of overactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:26952035

  4. 青春期多囊卵巢综合征的诊疗进展%The Diagnosis Criteria and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠楠

    2013-01-01

    青春期多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)的诊断标准仍存在争议,越来越多的学者赞成使用鹿特丹标准,前提是同时具备3个条件:稀发排卵或不排卵、高雄激素血症、超声下卵巢多囊样改变.对于青春期PCOS患者,如3个条件中只满足2个就做出诊断可能导致诊断过度.代谢综合征和睡眠障碍在青春期PCOS患者中发生率较高,并长期对患者健康造成影响.应采取综合治疗,包括调整生活方式,药物治疗是针对胰岛素抵抗及代谢功能障碍,常使用胰岛素增敏剂.综述青春期PCOS诊断与治疗的进展.%The diagnosis criteria of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains controversial.There is growing support for the Rotterdam criteria,to fit all three criteria:oligoovulation or anovulation,hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries on pelvic ultrasonography.The adolescent PCOS may be over-diagnosed by the standard 'two of three' criteria.The rates of metabolic syndrome and sleep disorders are higher in those patients with the adolescent PCOS,which likely have implications on long-term health.The lifestyle modification should be included in the comprehensive treatment for the adolescent PCOS,such as diet,exercise and behavioral changes.Medicines are used to treat insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction,such as insulin sensitizers.

  5. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

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    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  6. Management von Endometriumhyperplasien. Gemeinsame Stellungnahme der DGGEF und des BVF e. V.

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    Römer T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blutungsstörungen, insbesondere bei Östrogendominanz im reproduktiven Alter, z. B. bei PCO-Syndrom (durch Anovulation fehlende Gestagenwirkung und starker Adipositas bzw. in höherem Lebensalter, können durch eine Endometriumhyperplasie bzw. durch ein Endometriumkarzinom bedingt sein. Das Endometriumkarzinom ist ein östrogenabhängiger Tumor, der überwiegend im höheren Lebensalter auftritt. Endometriumkarzinome entstehen in der Regel über Vorstufen (z. B. komplexe und atypische Hyperplasie bei überwiegender oder reiner Östrogen-Exposition, z. B. durch Östrogen-Monotherapie bei Frauen in der Postmenopause mit erhaltenem Uterus. Risikofaktoren: Histologische Subtypen der Endometriumhyperplasie und Entartungsrisiko nach traditioneller Klassifikation (1994 und 2003/WHO-Klassifikation (1994/2003: glandulär-zystische Hyperplasie/einfache Hyperplasie: 1–3 %, adenomatöse Hyperplasie (Grad 1 und Grad 2/komplexe Hyperplasie: 3 % (Grad 1, 8 % (Grad 2, adenomatöse Hyperplasie (Grad 3/atypische Hyperplasie: 30 % Diagnostik: Vaginalsonographie, Hysteroskopie und fraktionierte Curettage mit histologischer Begutachtung des Abradats. Therapieoptionen: Bei abgeschlossener Familienplanung, einem höheren Lebensalter und evtl. weiteren Zusatzindikationen ist die Hysterektomie die Therapie der Wahl. Bei Wunsch nach Erhalt des Uterus kann z. B. eine hoch-dosierte Gestagentherapie über 3–6 Monate erfolgen. Anschließend ist eine Recurettage zur Diagnostik erforderlich. Alternativ kann bei Frauen mit späterem Kinderwunsch in Abhängigkeit von der Histologie die vorübergehende Einlage eines LNG-IUS sinnvoll sein (off label. Gestagentherapie: – Behandlung der Endometriumhyperplasie: Bei einfacher aber auch komplexer Endometriumhyperplasie wurden Erfolge durch Einlage eines LNG-IUS beschrieben (off-label. – Behandlung von Frühformen des Endometriumkarzinoms bei Wunsch nach Uteruserhalt: Es gibt Einzelfallberichte über die erfolgreiche Therapie

  7. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and its associated complications in Iranian women: A meta-analysis

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    Anahita Jalilian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation. There is no single criterion for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PCOS and its associated complications in Iranian women using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods: Prevalence of PCOS was investigated from the SID, Goggle scholar, PubMed, Magiran, Irandoc, and Iranmedex, and weighting of each study was calculated according to sample size and prevalence of the binomial distribution. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model meta-analysis (Random effects model and the software R and Stata Version 11.2. Results: 30 studies conducted between the years 2006 to 2011 were entered into meta-analysis. The total sample size was 19, 226 women aged between 10-45 years. The prevalence of PCOS based on National institute of child health and human disease of the U.S was, 6.8% (95 % CI: 4.11–8.5, based on Rotterdam was 19.5% (95 % CI: 2.24-8.14, and based on ultrasound was 4.41% (95% CI: 5.68-4.14. Also, the prevalence of hirsutism was estimated to be 13%, acne 26%, androgenic alopecia 9%, menstrual disorders 28%, overweight 21%, obesity 19%, and infertility 8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of PCOS in Iran is not high. However, given the risk of complications such as heart disease - cardiovascular and infertility, prevention of PCOS is important; we suggest that health officials must submit plans for the community in this respect.

  8. Reproductive seasonality in the mare: neuroendocrine basis and pharmacologic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G L; Thorson, J F; Prezotto, L D; Velez, I C; Cardoso, R C; Amstalden, M

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive seasonality in the mare is characterized by a marked decline in adenohypophyseal synthesis and secretion of LH beginning near the autumnal equinox. Thus, ovarian cycles have ceased in most mares by the time of the winter solstice. Endogenous reproductive rhythms in seasonal species are entrained or synchronized as a result of periodic environmental cues. In the horse, this cue is primarily day length. Hence, supplemental lighting schemes have been used managerially for decades to modify the annual timing of reproduction in the mare. Although a full characterization of the cellular and molecular bases of seasonal rhythms has not been realized in any species, many of their synaptic and humoral signaling pathways have been defined. In the mare, neuroendocrine-related studies have focused primarily on the roles of GnRH and interneuronal signaling pathways that subserve the GnRH system in the regulatory cascade. Recent studies have considered the role of a newly discovered neuropeptide, RF-related peptide 3 that could function to inhibit GnRH secretion or gonadotrope responsiveness. Although results that used native peptide sequences have been negative in the mare and mixed in all mammalian females, new studies that used an RFRP3 antagonist (RF9) in sheep are encouraging. Importantly, despite continuing deficits in some fundamental areas, the knowledge required to control seasonal anovulation pharmacologically has been available for >20 yr. Specifically, the continuous infusion of native GnRH is both reliable and efficient for accelerating reproductive transition and is uniquely applicable to the horse. However, its practical exploitation continues to await the development of a commercially acceptable delivery vehicle. PMID:22579068

  9. The Influence of LepR Tyrosine Site Mutations on Mouse Ovary Development and Related Gene Expression Changes.

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    Xiaoyu Tu

    Full Text Available Leptin exerts many biological functions, such as in metabolism and reproduction, through binding to and activating the leptin receptor, LepRb, which is expressed in many regions of the brain. To better understand the roles of LepR downstream signaling pathways, Y123F mice, which expressed mutant leptin receptors with phenylalanine (F substituted for three tyrosines (Y (Tyr985, Tyr1077 and Tyr1138, were generated. The body weight and abdominal fat deposits of Y123F homozygous mice (HOM were higher than those of wild-type mice (WT. HOM ovaries were atrophic and the follicles developed abnormally; however, the HOM ovaries did not exhibit polycystic phenotypes. Moreover, Y123F HOM adults had no estrous cycle and the blood estrogen concentration remained stable at a low level below detection limit of 5 pg/ml. LepR expression in HOM ovaries was higher than in WT ovaries. Using cDNA Microarrays, the mRNA expressions of 41 genes were increased, and 100 were decreased in HOM vs. WT ovaries, and many signaling pathways were evaluated to be involved significantly. The expressions of 19 genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, most of which were consistent with the microarray results. Thus, Y123F HOM mice were suggested as a new animal model of PCOS for research that mainly emphasizes metabolic disorders and anovulation, but not the polycystic phenotype. Meanwhile, using the model, we found that JAK-STAT and hormone biosynthesis pathways were involved in the follicular development and ovulation disorders caused by LepR deficiency in ovaries, although we could not exclude indirect actions from the brain.

  10. Pituitary gonadotropic hormones in women with oligo/amenorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any abnormality of menstrual cycle makes women worried and requires proper evaluation. Oligomenorhea is one of the indicators of Polycystic Disease of the Ovary (PCO) which is associated not only with reproductive failure but it also has metabolic and cardiovascular complications. The recent study was conducted to find out the role of Pituitary Gonadotropins in the diagnosis. After diagnosing and finding out the cause for menstrual irregularities and chronic anovulation one can explain the prognosis and management of these disorders. Fifty patients were studied in the year 2005-06 in the outpatient department of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. A history Performa was duly completed in all subjects. Blood sample was collected for hormonal essay during first ten days of the cycle. Hormonal essay was performed by Microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) on AXSYM system of Abbott. Age ranged from 13-45 years, 82% of the women were infertile, 60% had infrequent periods and 22% of the women had amenorrhea, 30% patients were overweight while 48% were obese. Physical examination revealed hersuitism in 24%, acne in 8% and galactorrhea in 6% of the patients. Ultrasound examination showed classical picture of PCO in 28% patients while 32% women had multiple small follicles and 16 % women were devoid of follicles. Elevated LH levels were found in 36% women. FSH level were found normal in 64% patients while in 16% women the levels were in menopausal range. LH/FSH ratio of more than two was observed in 52% women. Prolactin level was raised in 22% women. TSH level was below normal in 16% and higher in 22% women. Hormonal essays are mandatory in the evaluation of women presenting with Oligomenorhea/amenorrhea and chronic anovulatory infertility for finding out the cause and explaining the prognosis of the disease to the patient. (author)

  11. Endocrinal and autoimmune linkage: Evidences from a controlled study of subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Sheetal Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a metabolic syndrome, characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary. With serological markers of autoimmunity found elevated in PCOS, there is a possible link between autoimmunity and PCOS. AIM: The study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between autoimmune markers of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT and PCOS. SETTING AND DESIGN: This case control study was conducted at the Department of Pathology of a tertiary care academic center during a 1-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five subjects with clinical PCOS and 51 age matched control non-PCOS subjects were recruited and subjected to clinical, biochemical, and endocrinal evaluation for AIT. All subjects underwent blood glucose and serum sampling for luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, dehydroepi androsterone, thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin (Tg, and insulin. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 12 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. To compare quantitative variables between two groups, unpaired t-test was used. The Chi-square/Fischer's exact test was used to compare qualitative variables. ANOVA was used to compare the PCOS and non-PCOS groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Significantly higher prevalence of AIT (anti-Tg antibodies was noted in subjects with PCOS as compared to non-PCOS control subjects (P < 0.05. The PCOS subjects had higher insulin resistance index and also twice the level of LH: FSH ratio as compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence of AIT in PCOS subjects suggest possible role of autoimmune phenomenon in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. More data from longitudinal follow-up studies is required to clearly establish this possible link.

  12. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

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    Anjali Sathya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. Objectives :To assess the effect of women′s body mass index (BMI on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH, gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods : Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI25 30 kg/m 2 . All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. Results : There were 88 (28.6% in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7% in the overweight and 73 (23.7% in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion :Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications.

  13. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

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    Love JG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John G Love,1 John S McKenzie,2 Efsevia A Nikokavoura,3 John Broom,3 Catherine Rolland,3 Kelly L Johnston4,5 1School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 2Rowett Institute of Health & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, St Mary’s, Kings College, Aberdeen, UK; 3Centre for Obesity Research, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 4LighterLife, Harlow, Essex, UK; 5Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Kings College London, London, UK Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT, a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. Keywords: PCOS, obesity, weight loss, diet

  14. Quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Romana Pawlińska-Chmara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 5-10% of women in the developed world, making it the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. The symptoms typically associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, subfertility, anovulation and acne can lead to a significant reduction in female life quality.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome on quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction. Fifty women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified to the study as the research group. The control group consisted of fourty healthy women. A specific questionnaire was used as a research tool in this study. It included the socio-demographic part, polycystic ovary syndrome's symptomatology and validated scales: Polish version of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS. The mean age of researched women was 28.9+/-5.6 years, and in the control group - 30.5+/-5.3 years (p>0.05. Quality of life parameters for women with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than for the controls in the aspect of: general health (p<0.01, limitations due to physical health (p<0.05, limitations due to emotional problems (p<0.001, social functioning (p<0.01, energy/fatigue (p<0.001 and emotional wellbeing (p<0.01. Studied women showed worse marital sexual functioning (p<0.05. Marital sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 28.6% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and in 10.5% of healthy women (p<0.05. Polycystic ovary syndrome decreases quality of life and marital sexual functioning among women. A negative effect of hirsutism severity on general well-being and marital sexual life is also observed.

  15. [A too-early pregnancy could lead to sterility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, C T

    1990-08-01

    In traditional sub-Saharan Africa where a pronatalist culture prevails, the exclusive first vocation of a couple is procreation. Thus, a couple without children finds life very difficult. Regardless of whether infertility is primary, secondary, or recurring, it is seen as an illness, first by the couple, then by peers and society, which generally accuses the woman of being responsible for it. The infertile woman cannot achieve her status as a woman. The man refuses his responsibility and, in most cases, he seeks different partners. In a retrospective study of infertility visits among 429 couples during 1983-1989 at a gynecology clinic at Aristide Le Dantec Hospital of Dakar, Senegal, two women among all infertile women who were or blamed as the cause of infertility were adolescents (17 and 16 years old), both of whom were married. They comprised about 0.5% of infertile women, which is much higher than the infertility rate for women aged 20-30. One woman had primary infertility (anovulation for four years). The other woman had secondary infertility for two years. She delivered a stillborn at 8 months and miscarried at four months. Examinations could not determine the cause of her infertility. Adolescent pregnancy can directly cause infertility by a perforated uterus during induced abortion, pelvic infection, endometrial lesions, ruptured uterus caused by a difficult labor and/or delivery, and puerperal infection. These problems are more common and more serious in adolescents than in adult women. For the most part, infertility is a result of an unexpected genital infection during adolescence. Family planning policies can play a role in solving these problems by delaying the first pregnancy until the young woman is morphologically and psychologically mature enough to care for herself and her future child. They can also promote prevention of infections and correct treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12346451

  16. CORRELATION OF OBESITY, INSULIN RE SI S TANCE AND LIPID PROFILE IN WOMEN WITH PCOS IN KIMS HOSPITAL BANGALORE

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    Shashikala H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition associated with chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and androgen excess. Dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity are all potent cardiovascular risk factors that tend to cluster in women with PCOD. These cannot be explained by obesity alone. Thus the need arises to study the effect of insulin resistance on these factors. This will help in assessing the long term cardiovascular morbidity in PCOD patients and take necessary preventive steps. OBJECTIVES : To analyze the infuence of obesity on lipid profile of PCOS women. To analyze the influence of insulin resistance on lipid profile in PCOS women. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this prospective study done from December 2013 to September 2014, 50 women with PCOS had their body mass index and waist to hip ratio calculated. GTT, fasting and post prandial insulin, lipid profile was also done for each case. Insulin resistance was defined by fasting glucose to insulin ratio of less than or equal to 4.5. The association of obesity markers and insulin resistance with lipid markers was then studied. Statistical analysis using Student t test and ANOVA was done as indicated. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. RESULTS : Insulin resistance was seen in 56 percent of the cases. There was no correlation between markers of obesity (BMI and Waist to Hip ratio and the various lipid parameters. But in PCOS women with insulin resistance the lipid profile was significantly different (high triglycerides and lower high density lipoprotein compared to the insulin sensitive women. The difference between the two groups for triglycerides and HDL was statistically significant but that for LDL and total cholesterol was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION : Insulin resistance is associated with dyslipidemia in women with PCOS, independent of obesity.

  17. Characterization of Serum MicroRNAs Profile of PCOS and Identification of Novel Non-Invasive Biomarkers

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    Wei Long

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Despite the high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia, a definitive endocrine marker for PCOS has so far not been identified. Circulating miRNAs have recently been shown to serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in patients with cancers. Our current study focused on the altered expression of serum miRNAs and their correlation with PCOS. Method and Results: We systematically used the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by individual quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to identify and validate the expression of serum miRNAs of PCOS patients. The expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-222, miR-146a and miR-30c were significantly increased in PCOS patients with respect to the controls in our discovery evaluation and followed validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC is 0.799, 0.706, and 0.688, respectively. The combination of the three miRNAs using multiple logistic regression analysis showed a larger AUC (0.852 that was more efficient for the diagnosis of PCOS. In addition, logistic binary regression analyses show miR-222 is positively associated with serum insulin, while miR-146a is negatively associated with serum testosterone. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the predicted targets function of the three miRNAs mainly involved in the metastasis, cell cycle, apoptosis and endocrine. Conclusion: Serum miRNAs are differentially expressed between PCOS patients and controls. We identified and validated a class of three serum miRNAs that could act as novel non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis of PCOS. These miRNAs may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  18. Effect of Bumble Bee Venom in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, the Relationship Between Tissue Factor Affecting the Level of TNFα in the Wistar Rat Model

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    M Nabiuni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine failure leading to anovulation. TNFα is an effective factor in the regulation of normal functioning of the ovaries. High levels of TNFα causes PCOS is further. In this study, the effects of bumble bee venom (HBV on TNFα and other symptoms of ovarian PCOS were studied. Methods: In this experimental study, 60 female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, sham and experimental groups. The experimental group was injected with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS direction. Induced rats (PCOS were divided into two groups and treated with HBV. The treatment Group received 0.2mg of HBV for 10 consecutive days. Serum and ovarian tissue was collected from each of the four groups to compare the histological and changes in blood sugar levels. Results: A significant increase in ovarian PCOS weight was observed in the control group , whereas in the treated group with HBV rate fell (15.5 mg Glucose levels in PCOS was 256.5, the control group138, and the treatment group 158. Thickness of the theca layer of antral follicles in the treated group compared with PCOS showed a significant decrease (110 μm and 150 μm respectively. Immunohistochemical results showed increased TNFα factor in PCOS group than in the control group, whereas these levels in samples treated with HBV Reduced. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the beneficial effects of HBV in PCOS may be due to the inhibitory effect on factor TNFα. Key words: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Bumble bee venom, Tumor necrosis factor, Immunohistochemistry

  19. Expression of Leptin Long-form Receptor mRNA in Luteinized Granulosa Cells of Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jie; LIU Yi; LV Liqun; WANG Donghua; GONG Cheng; XIAO Wei; SHENG Hui

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the expression of mRNA of leptin long-form receptor (OB-Rb) in luteinized granulosa cells of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to determine the role of leptin in the physiopathology of PCOS, luteinized granulosa cells were collected from the follicle fluid of 10 obese women who met the diagnostic criteria for PCOS and their BMI was equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2, and at the same time, granulosa cells were collected from 10 normal women undergoing IVF-ET who served as the control group. Some luteinized granulosa cells were taken from normal women for in-vitro culture, into which human leptin of different concentrations was added (0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/mL). After stimulation with leptin for 48 h, RT-PCR was employed for the detection of the expression of OB-RLmRNA in the luteinized granulosa cells. Our results showed that the level of OB-RLmRNA in luteinized granulosa cells of obese PCOS women was higher than those in the control (P<0.05). In luteinized granulosa cells cultured in vitro and stimulated by human leptin for 48 h, the level of OB-RLmRNA was higher than those without leptin stimulation (P<0.01), and when leptin concentration was at 100 ng/mL, and the level of OB-RLmRNA reached a peak. It is concluded that in obese PCOS women, the level of serum leptin is increased, which promotes the expression of OB-RL in luteinized granulosa cells and increases the sensitivity of the granulosa cells to leptin. Leptin may contribute to anovulation in obese women with PCOS.

  20. Reproductive performance of indigenous cattle in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postpartum ovarian activity in indigenous Kedah-Kelantan cattle was monitored by progesterone radioimmunoassay to study the fertility of suckled cows exposed to natural mating. In the university herd, postpartum reproductive performance was monitored over two breeding periods. In one period, 34 suckled cows were bled weekly just before mating, with 70.6% showing detectable ovarian activity by 60 days postpartum. Cows bred at a mean (±SD) interval of 20.1±6.2 days (n=8) postpartum conceived at 51.1±23.7 days, with 87.5% conception, while cows bred at 49.1±7.1 days (n=17) conceived at 78.5±14.7 days, with 100% conception. In another breeding period when 37 suckled cows were bled twice weekly after calving, 21, 81.1 and 91.9% had resumed ovarian activity by 30, 60 and 90 days postpartum, respectively. The mean intervals to first oestrus and ovulation were 37.7±18.3 and 43.0±17.2 days, respectively. For animals bred at 25.8±3.7 days (n=12), the time to conception was 56.1±20.8 days, with 83.3% conception. When mated at 40.6±8.0 days (n=35), the mean interval to conception was 64.3±15.2 days postpartum, with 88% conception. In spite of calf suckling, high fertility to natural mating was observed by 90 days postpartum. Comparative studies were also conducted in a commercial herd (n=90) and smallholder cattle (n=73). Fertility after oestrus synchronization and AI was also investigated (n=70). Plasma progesterone profiles revealed that low conception to AI was associated with fertilization failure, although early embryonic mortality, anovulation and asynchrony between AI and oestrus were also detected

  1. Application of human growth hormone to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome during in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Jin-xia; Liu Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of applying human growth hormone during in vitro fertilization to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)Methods:One hundred and twenty-one cycles of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in PCOS patients with anovulation from Dec.2008 to Nov.2010 were studied retrospectively.Of these 121 cycles,48 were with treatment of growth hormone (GH group),73 without GH treatment (control group).The dose of gonadotropin (Gn),the number of retrieved oocytes,good-quality embryo rate,implantation rate,frozen embryo rate,and pregnancy rate were compared.Results:The dosage of Gn was slightly higher in GH group than that in control group (29.18±8.33 vs.23.43±8.68 ampoullas,4U/ampoulla) and the number of retrieved oocytes in GH group were slightly less than that in control group (10.73±6.0vs.14.0±8.57),but there were no significant differences (P>0.05).The good-quality embryo rate (59.1% vs.33.3%),frozen embryo rate (87.5% vs.58.9%),pregnancy rate (56.5% vs.35.3 % ) and implantation rate (35.3 % vs.20.4 % ) in GH group were all significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Early usage of GH in the ovarian hyperstimulation in PCOS patients could significantly improve good-quality embryo rate,implantation rate and pregnancy rate.

  2. Defining the Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients%减重手术在多囊卵巢综合征治疗中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaveta M. Malik; Michael L. Traub; 王恺京; 徐安安

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. To meet PCOS criteria, women must have a combination of hyperandrogenism, anovulation and ultrasound findings. Almost 10% of all reproductive age women worldwide show signs of PCOS. Although women often seek care for gynecological or body image concerns, many PCOS women are at risk for metabolic syndrome (MS). Many of the metabolic consequences are overlooked and undertreated by physicians because these patients tend to be young, reproductive age women. MS and obesity coexist commonly with PCOS. These young women are predisposed to glucose abnormalities and ultimately diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and eventually cardiovascular disease. Bariatric surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in PCOS women. Surgical techniques have become safer and less invasive over time and have been found to be effective in achieving significant weight loss. Surgical options have also increased, giving patients more choices. Bariatric surgery may prevent or reverse metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery may also have reproductive benefits in PCOS patients. Although bariatric surgery has historically been performed in older, reproductive aged women, it has recently gained favor in adolescents as well. This is of particular importance due to the prevalence of both PCOS and MS in adolescents. Treatment of PCOS and MS certainly requires a combination of medical therapy, psychological support and lifestyle modifications. These treatments are difficult and often frustrating for patients and physicians. Bariatric surgery can be effective in achieving significant weight loss, restoration of the hypothalamic pituitary axis, reduction of cardiovascular risk and even in improving pregnancy outcomes. Ultimately, bariatric surgery should be considered part of the treatment in PCOS women, especially in those with MS.

  3. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

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    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  4. Metformin-letrozole in comparison with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene-resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI

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    Mohammad Hossein Fallahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with approximately 75% of women who suffer from infertility due to anovulation. Additionally, around 20– 25% of anovulatory women with PCOS do not respond at all to clomiphene citrate and are considered to be “clomiphene– resistant”. Aromatase inhibitors have been suggested as an alternative treatment to clomiphene as the discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate has been attributed to its anti-estrogenic action and estrogen receptor depletion. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare results of Metformin-letrozole with Metformin-clomiphene citrate in clomiphene resistance PCOS patients undergoing IUI.Materials and Methods: In this single blind randomized trial, ovarian cycles were studied in 100 clomiphene- resistant patients with PCOS. The inclusion criteria were patients who received 150mg clomiphene citrate daily for 3 cycles and failed to become pregnant. The patients were matched for their age, body mass index (BMI, and infertility period. They were randomly allocated to a metformin-letrozole group (n=50 and a metformin-clomiphene citrate group (n=50. Chemical and clinical pregnancies were assessed after IUI. Abortion rates were determined in both groups. Results: Regarding pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference between the two groups. One miscarriage (2% occurred in the metformin-clomiphene citrate group, whereas none was seen in the metformin-letrozole group. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pregnancy rate between clomiphene citrate and letrozole groups although it has been 2% in the former and 5% in the latter.

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Ovary of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Hyperandrogenism and Insulin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lin; Tao Du; Jia Huang; Li-Li Huang; Dong-Zi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age.The patients often develop insulin resistance (IR) or hyperinsulinemia despite manifesting anovulation and signs of hyperandrogenism.The cause and effect relationship of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia (HA) is still debated.Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) have recently been shown to play a role in regulation of ovarian function.Our current study focused on the altered expression of miRNAs with PCOS.Methods:Ovarian theca intema tissues were obtained from 10 PCOS patients and 8 controls that were non-PCOS and had normal insulin sensitivity undergoing laparoscopy and/or ovarian wedge resection.Total RNA of all samples was extracted.We studied the repertoire of miRNAs in both PCOS and non-PCOS women by microarray hybridization.Bioinformatic analysis was performed for predicting targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs.Furthermore,selected miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).Results:A total of 27 miRNAs were differentially expressed in PCOS patients with respect to the controls in our discovery evaluationand two (miR-92a and miR-92b) of them were significantly downregulated in PCOS women in followed validation (P < 0.05).Targets prediction revealed that miR-92a targeted both GATA family of zinc finger transcription factor GATA-binding factor 6 (GATA6) and insulin receptor substrate proteins 2 (IRS-2).Conclusions:MiRNAs are differentially expressed between PCOS patients and controls.We identified and validated two miRNAs-miR-92a and miR-92b.They are significantly downregulated and may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  6. Reproductive alterations in hyperinsulinemic but normoandrogenic MSG obese female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Renato Simões; Benevides, Renata Ohana Alves; Fontelles, João Lucas de Lima; Vale, Caroline Castro; França, Lucas Martins; Barros, Paulo de Tarso Silva; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are the common causes of reproductive and fertility disorders in women. In particular, polycystic ovary syndrome, which is clinically characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology, has been increasingly associated with metabolic disorders. However, given the broad interplay between metabolic and reproductive functions, this remains a field of intense research. In this study, we investigated the effect of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity on reproductive biology of female rats. Newborn female rats were subcutaneously injected with MSG (4g/kg/day) or equiosmolar saline (CTR) each 2 days up to postnatal day (pnd) 10. On pnd 60, estrous cycle was evaluated using vaginal smears twice a day for 15 days, which showed MSG rats to be oligocyclic. Thereafter, animals were killed on estrous phase for blood and tissue collection. MSG rats had increased body mass, accumulation of retroperitoneal and visceral fat pads, and visceral adipocyte hypertrophy compared with CTR rats. MSG rats were also dyslipidemic and hyperinsulinemic but were normoglycemic and normoandrogenic. Ovarian morphology analysis showed that MSG rats had a two-fold decrease in oocyte count but a six-fold increase on ovarian follicular cysts, along with a higher number of total primordial and atretic follicles. Moreover, MSG rats had a four-fold increase in anti-Müllerian hormone immunohistochemical staining on antral follicles. Taken together, data presented here characterize MSG obesity as a unique model to study the metabolic pathways underlying reproductive disorders in the absence of overactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  7. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Adolescent (15-18 Years Old Girls in Tehran during 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Entezari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS was first introduced by Leventhal and Steinin 1935. It has a wide range of manifestations such as hyperandrogenism, irregular menstruationand central body obesity. The lack of definite diagnostic criteria has made the diagnosis a difficulttask. Moreover, the disturbing aspects of the syndrome range from hirsutism in an adolescent girlto infertility in a young woman. Based on the Rotterdam 2003 Criteria, current diagnostic criteriamust include two of the following three symptoms:1. Either oligo-ovulation or anovulation,2. Clinical or laboratory manifestations of hyperandrogenism,3. Polycystic ovaries on sonographic examination (more than 12 follicles of less than 10 mm indiameter in each ovary.In this study, we have focused on the enrollment of a large sample size to assess the prevalence andclinical features of PCOS such that a wide range of basic information can be utilized for furtherinvestigations.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with multi-stage random sampling.Subjects were selected from 15-18 years old girls from a number of high schools in Tehran. Afterinterview and clinical examination, those individuals with either menstrual irregularities, hirsutismor obesity were referred for further laboratory evaluations and abdominal sonography in order todiagnose PCOS and estimate its prevalence. We also aimed to assess the predominant features ofthis disorder among adolescents.Results: The overall prevalence of the syndrome was 3.42%. Out of the 1430 girls, 49 werediagnosed with PCOS.Conclusion: Despite its high prevalence, this syndrome has not been widely studied. Most of theconducted studies have enrolled small samples within a short time period. Thus, more accuratepolicy making in this regard can be achieved through definition of the prevalence of PCOS andaccurate estimation of its burden.

  8. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likelihood of associated metabolic and cardiovascular risks and leads to appropriate intervention, depending upon the woman's age, reproductive status, and her own concerns. The management of women with PCOS should include reproductive function, as well as the care of hirsutism

  9. Síndrome do ovário policístico: abordagem dermatológica Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach

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    Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP é uma das endocrinopatias mais freqüentes nas mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Caracteriza-se por morbidade elevada devido aos aspectos estéticos e por repercussões metabólicas importantes. Embora a sua patogênese permaneça incompletamente conhecida, acredita-se numa desordem multigênica complexa, incluindo anormalidades no eixo hipotálamohipofisário, esteroidogênese e resistência insulínica. Os achados principais para o diagnóstico são: hiperandrogenismo, anovulação crônica e ovários policísticos à ultrassonografia. As manifestações dermatológicas do hiperandrogenismo incluem: hirsutismo, acne, seborréia, alopecia e, em casos mais graves, sinais de virilização. Existe considerável heterogeneidade nos achados clínicos e também pode haver variação na mesma paciente com o passar do tempo. O tratamento visa reduzir as manifestações do hiperandrogenismo, restaurar os ciclos ovulatórios regulares e corrigir a síndrome metabólica. Este artigo apresenta revisão da fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da síndrome do ovário policístico. Enfatiza-se a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces no intuito de prevenir as complicações metabólicas e a repercussão emocional que afeta a qualidade de vida das pacientes.Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe

  10. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women

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    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1 PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O + polycystic ovaries (P + hyperandrogenism (H 2 P + O, 3 P + H, and 4 O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III 2005 guidelines and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6% followed by P + O (22.2%; H + O (11.2%; and P + H (0.9%. Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50% and P + H + O (37.04%, had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10% (P ≤ 0.001. Body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI, waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI, were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff

  11. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4,Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%骨形态蛋白4和骨形态蛋白7与多囊卵巢综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓; 金洁雯; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是育龄妇女最常见的生殖内分泌紊乱疾病之一。以稀发排卵或不排卵、高雄激素血症以及形态学上的多囊卵巢为主要表现特征。迄今为止,其病因和病理机制尚不清楚。有研究显示,PCOS的形成与卵源性的某些转录因子有关,如转化生长因子β(TGF-β)。骨形态蛋白4(BMP4)和BMP7是TGF-β超家族的重要成员,在卵泡的形成、排卵、颗粒细胞的生长成熟和凋亡中发挥重要作用。因此了解BMP4和BMP7在女性生殖系统的调节作用,对研究PCOS的病因机制以及治疗有重要价值。%Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age,and is characterized by oligo-or anovulation,hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Some findings show that the cause of PCOS has something to do with the abnormal regulation of transcription factors ,such as the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) are both important members in TGF-βsuperfamily, and play an significant role in the folliculogenesis、ovulation and the development and apotosis of granulosa cells in ovary. As a result,in order to know more about the pathogenesis and treatment of PCOS, it is necessary to make clear the regulation function of BMP4 and BMP7 in female reproductive system.

  12. Contemporary pharmacological manipulation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huirne, Judith A F; Lambalk, Cornelis B; van Loenen, Andre C D; Schats, Roel; Hompes, Peter G A; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2004-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment to induce follicular development in anovulating women and multiple follicular development for assisted conception has been incorporated in almost all reproductive treatment cycles in the form of either urinary, purified urinary or recombinant preparations. Besides improved tolerance and theoretically lower chances of infection by prions, the latter may be more effective in terms of clinical pregnancy rates, FSH requirement and cost effectiveness. The low-dose, step-up protocol to induce monofollicular development, which is applied worldwide, has to compete with the equally effective but health economically beneficial step-down protocol. The long protocol using recombinant FSH 150 IU/day is advocated when using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection treatment. However, the current paradigmatic hyperstimulation came under scrutiny after the introduction of the GnRH antagonists, which allow milder and more convenient approaches with acceptable cancellation and pregnancy rates but lower requirements for FSH. Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can be further eliminated if recombinant luteinising hormone (rLH) or GnRH agonists are used to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation; the latter require pituitary responsiveness and are therefore excluded in agonist protocols. FSH and LH are both required for appropriate folliculo- and steroidogenesis. In hypogonadotropic women, the addition of LH (human menopausal gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin or rLH) is therefore obligate to achieve appropriate follicular growth and pregnancy. The role of LH in ovulation induction is still a matter of debate, although in GnRH agonistic protocols there seems to be a 'therapeutic window'; levels that are too high or too low have detrimental effects on IVF outcome. To broaden the pharmaceutical armoury, recent efforts have been directed towards the

  13. Ovarian and hormonal responses to a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing treatment in dietary-restricted goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Fujiwara, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Seungjoon; Kamomae, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshihiro

    2004-08-01

    then decreased gradually to the basal level. The present results suggest that nutritionally induced anovulation after CIDR-G treatment is associated with a reduction in the frequency of LH pulses, and that insulin and NEFA, rather than the glucose concentration in the circulation, may be associated with the metabolic suppression of LH pulses. PMID:15302393

  14. 青春期多囊卵巢综合征的诊断%Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 马明; 侯丽辉

    2013-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)以稀发排卵或无排卵、临床和/或生化的高雄激素血症、卵巢的多囊样改变为特征.PCOS患者多于月经初潮前后出现症状,而正常青春期女孩也会出现月经变化和卵巢的多囊样改变,青春期因为环境改变如体重增加也会发生PCOS,目前国际上尚无青春期PCOS的诊断标准,这使得青春期PCOS的诊断困难,PCOS的结局既有生殖障碍,又有代谢异常,且容易发生糖尿病、心血管疾病、子宫内膜癌等远期并发症.所以早期诊断PCOS,进行相应治疗,可有效预防远期并发症的发生.文章认为应从排卵功能障碍和月经紊乱、临床的高雄激素血症、生化的高雄激素血症、卵巢的多囊样改变、促性腺激素异常、肥胖和代谢障碍、破坏性的睡眠呼吸暂停等方面考虑对PCOS的诊断.%Polycystic ovary syndrome( PCOS )is characterized as less ovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary changes. The symptoms of PCOS happen commonly around menarche.The healthy girls in puberty also have menstrual changes and polycystic ovary alternations. PCOS may also occur in puberty because of the environmental changes such as body weight gaining. Currently, the diagnostic standard on puberty PCOS has not been issued yet in the world, which brings the difficulty in the diagnosis. The consequences of PCOS include reproductive disturbance, metabolic abnormality and the long-term complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and endometrial cancer. Therefore , the early diagnosis of PCOS and treatment can effectively prevent the long-term complications. The paper believed that PCOS diagnosis should be considered in terms of ovulatory dysfunction,menstrual disorders, clinical hyperandrogenism, biochemical hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary changes, gonadotropin abnormality , obesity, metabolic disturbance, destructive sleep apnea, etc.

  15. Serum under-carboxylated osteocalcin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: weight-dependent relationships with endocrine and metabolic traits

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    Pepene Carmen E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-carboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC, the precursor substrate of bone biomarker OC is a potent regulator of energy metabolism by promoting insulin production and adiponectin synthesis and decreasing fat stores. The aim of the present study was to point out the potential role of ucOC in the physiopathology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a common disorder defined by the constellation of anovulation, insulinresistance, hyperinsulinemia, obesity and androgen excess. Methods In this prospective case–control investigation, 78 young premenopausal women, i.e. 52 PCOS patients and 26 age- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls, were successively enrolled. Recruitment of PCOS patients was performed according to Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS Society 2006 criteria. All study participants were subjected to clinical examination, whole-body composition assessment and measurements of serum ucOC, OC (1-49, glucose and lipids, insulin, total testosterone (TT, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP and β-CrossLaps. Results BMI-stratified multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ucOC levels in PCOS vs. controls in lean (p = 0.001 but not overweight and obese study participants (p = 0.456. Notably, a positive correlation between ucOC and TT (p = 0.018, calculated free testosterone (cFT, p = 0.028 and serum insulin (p = 0.036, respectively, was found to be confined to the lean analysis subgroup. Furthermore, in stepwise multiple regression models, β-CrossLaps and cFT were able to predict 46.71% of serum ucOC variability. (1-43/49OC failed to be significantly associated to any PCOS trait. Conclusions Circulating ucOC concentration is related to key endocrine PCOS characteristics in a weight-dependent manner. Within the bone-pancreas loop, high ucOC may favor insulin release in lean hyperandrogenic women to compensate for

  16. Research progress in factors related metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征患者中导致代谢综合征改变的相关因子的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴友娟; 王蔼明; 闫玲

    2012-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是常见的妇科内分泌紊乱性疾病,其发生发展不仅可以导致育龄妇女的月经紊乱、排卵障碍,而且其远期并发症,如:高血压、糖尿病等代谢紊乱也不容忽视.颈动脉内膜中层厚度(CIMT)是一种无创性早期反映动脉粥样硬化的指标;C反应蛋白(CRP)是机体或组织在损伤或炎症时,由白细胞介素(IL)-6、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-a)等细胞因子刺激肝细胞合成的急性期反应蛋白;脂联素(ANP)是一种主要由白色脂肪组织细胞分泌和释放的肽类激素;非对称性二甲基精氨酸(ADMA)为内源性的一氧化氮(NO)合酶抑制剂,其增加可能减少NO的形成,与内皮功能损伤有关.上述因子的改变在一定程度上可引起PCOS患者代谢综合征的改变,本文就上述因子的改变对代谢综合征的影响作一综述.%Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)is a common gynecological endocrine disorder. It could not only result in menstrual disorders and anovulation, but also metabolic problems, such as hypertension and diabetes. Carotid arterial intima-media thickness(CIMT) is an early and noninvasive index to reflect atherosclerosis. Oreactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. CRP correlates with inflammatory disease or injury and is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to certain cytokines, for example, IL-1 and TNF alpha during the acute phase. Adiponectin is a peptide hormone secreted and released by white adipose tissue cells. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthetase inhibitor of endogenous nitric oxide (NO). Its increase could reduce the formation of NO, which related to endothelial function injury. The changes of the factors above could lead to metabolic syndrome in PCOS. This article reviews the influence of factors mentioned above to metabolic syndrome in PCOS.

  17. Combined letrozole and clomiphene versus letrozole and clomiphene alone in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha,1 Meisam Dehghan,2 Nazila Kiarang,1 Nahideh Sadegh-Asadi,1 Seyed Navid Shayegh,3 Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad2 1Department of Gynecology, Reproductive Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 2Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 3Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%, is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods: The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results: One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9% and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%. The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to

  18. Patients’ Knowledge about Causes and Solutions of Infertility in South West Nigeria

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    Olukunmi ‘Lanre OLAITAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility inability to conceive after exposure to continuous unprotected sex for twelve months, is a major cause of marriage conflict in south west Nigeria. Knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility among selected patients were assessed in 18 hospital/fertility centre across the 6 states in south west geo-political zone of Nigeria. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge of patients about causes and solutions to infertility in south west Nigeria. Methods/study Design: A survey of a consecutive sample of 390 cases of infertility were carried out in 18 hospital/fertility centers with a total of 65 cases of infertility evaluated in each of the 6 States centers between 2009 – 2012. Chi-square statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated at α=0.05 level of significance. Results/Findings: The knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility in the patients were established in all the States; (Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti. The commonest causes of infertility among these patients were, RTIs, damaged fallopian tubes, anovulation, poor semen analysis, distorted uterus. Low libido, previous use of IUCDs and uterine fibroids representing 81%, 70%, 68.7%, 65.9%, 65.9%, 65.7%, 65.3% and 62% respectively. The least common causes were taking of psychoactive drugs and working in hot condition/wearing of tight underclothing which was seen in 33.7% and 38.5% of the patients respectively. The patients also have knowledge about solutions of infertility in this order, that ART, regular sexual intercourse, taking hormonal drugs, antibiotics of choice, multivitamins and surgical removal of fibroids as follows; 72.3%, 69.2% 69%, 66.9%, 65.4% and 64.6% respectively. However, the least common solutions according to the patients are seen thus; engaging in varieties of sexual styles/positions, adoption of a child, corrective tubal surgery and wearing of loose/free underclothing representing 25.1%, 33.6%, 33.8% and 35

  19. Schildrüse: Reproduktionsmedizinische Aspekte - Update 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen OE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Bei der Beratung von Frauen mit Fertilitätsproblemen sollte immer eine klinische und Laboratoriumsuntersuchung der Schilddrüsenfunktion erfolgen. Schilddrüsenerkrankungen sind in der Allgemeinbevölkerung häufig. Eine positive Familienanamnese oder Schilddrüsenerkrankungen in der früheren Anamnese sind stets verdächtig. 2 Das TSH sollte überprüft werden: a Bei unerfülltem Kinderwunsch als Screeninguntersuchung auch ohne konkreten Verdacht auf eine Erkrankung der Schilddrüse; b In der 4.–6. Schwangerschaftswoche, auch wenn TSH vor der Empfängnis normal war; c 4–6 Wochen nach Beginn einer Levothyroxintherapie, und nach jeder Änderung der Levothyroxindosierung; d Bei allen Frauen mit Schilddrüsenstörungen (oder Verdacht hierauf mindestens einmal im Trimenon (bei Hypo- und Hyperthyreosen können Kontrollen auch häufiger erforderlich sein. 3 TSH sollte im niedrig-normalen Bereich liegen ( 2,5 mIU/L – am besten schon vor der Konzeption. 4 Schwangere in Regionen mit grenzwertiger Jodversorgung (wie Deutschland sollten etwa 150 µg Jodid pro Tag erhalten. Autoimmunthyreoiditis ist keine Kontraindikation gegen eine Jodidsupplementation in Schwangerschaft und Stillzeit. Allerdings sollten Frauen mit Hyperthyreose unter Thyreostatika kein zusätzliches Jodid nehmen, da dies die erforderliche Dosis des Thyreostatikums erhöhen kann. 5 Da hCG die TSH-Spiegel senken kann, besonders im ersten Trimenon, ist das supprimierte TSH allein keine Indikation zur Behandlung mit einem Thyreostatikum. Manifeste Hyperthyreosen in der Schwangerschaft, auf der anderen Seite, erfordern eine Therapie, da die unkontrollierte Hyperthyreose ein Risikofaktor für Schwangerschaftskomplikationen bis hin zum Tod des Feten und zum Abort darstellt. Ausnahme ist die hCG-induzierte Hyperthyreose, die in der Regel zeitlich limitiert ist. 6 Unbehandelte Hypothyreosen – latent und manifest – sind Risikofaktoren für Anovulation; sie können in Verbindung mit dem

  20. The circadian variation in Anti-Mullerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women.

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    Leif Bungum

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: [corrected] To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH, gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women. By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated. PATIENTS: Eight normal-weighted young, anovulatory PCOS-women as study group and ten normal menstruating and ovulating women as controls. INTERVENTIONS: Observational prospective study of the circadian variation in AMH, gonadotropins, sex steroids and androgens in a study and a control group. A circadian profile was performed in each study and control subject during a 24-h period by blood sampling every second hour, starting at 8:00 a.m. and continuing until 8:00 a.m. the following day. RESULTS: Significant differences in hormonal levels were found between the groups, with higher concentrations of AMH, LH and androgens in the PCOS group and lower amounts of FSH and progesterone. A distinct difference in the circadian variation pattern of AMH and LH between PCOS patients and normal controls was seen, with PCOS patients presenting a uniform pattern in serum levels of AMH and LH throughout the study period, without significant nadir late-night values as was seen in the control group. In PCOS women, a significant positive association between LH/ FSH and testosterone was found opposite to controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian Hormone, gonadotropins and ovarian steroids and the covariation between them. CONCLUSION: A significant difference in the circadian secretion of LH and AMH in PCOS women compared to normally ovulating women indicate an increased GnRH pulse

  1. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    ewes kept with control rams stopped ovulating for some time; consequently, those ewes had a longer anovulation period than did the group exposed to treated rams (3 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 7 days, respectively; P rams induced by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants in spring extended the ovarian activity of ewes in spring, which results in an increase in estrous expression. PMID:26329664

  2. Prolactin regulation of kisspeptin neurones in the mouse brain and its role in the lactation-induced suppression of kisspeptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2014-12-01

    by the administration of bromocriptine to block elevated levels of prolactin, suggesting that, although elevated prolactin contributes to lactational anovulation, additional non-neural factors must also contribute to the lactation-induced suppression of kisspeptin neurones.

  3. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  4. A randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled and multicentre study:compare the efficacy and safety of domestic and imported human recombinant FSH in WHO group Ⅱ anovulatory infertility%国产与进口重组人FSH用于WHOⅡ类排卵功能障碍患者促排卵的多中心、盲法、随机对照Ⅲ期临床试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周远征; 赖巧红; 石红; 刘薇; 何琦; 何方方; 沈浣; 左文莉; 徐耀宏; 邓晓惠; 陈益鲁; 高颖; 王秀霞; 徐雯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of domestic human recombinant FSH (rhFSH) in women with anovulation of WHO groupⅡ. Methods A randomized, blind, parallel-controlled, non-inferiority and multicenter study was performed. A total of 534 admitted to 13 hospitals from May 2008 to August 2009. There were 531 women with ovulatory disorder was included in the statistical analysis, were randomly divided into test group (domestic rhFSH, n=352) and control group (imported rhFSH, n=179). Percentage of cycle with mature follicle, ovulation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and adverse events were observed. Results No statistical significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the two groups in terms of the efficiency on mature follicle [91.8%(323/352) versus 88.8%(159/179)], ovulation rate [91.3%(295/323) verus 90.6%(144/159)], clinical pregnancy rate [19.2%(62/323) verus 18.2%(29/159)], the number of the follicles0.05), and no other adverse events were observed in test group during treatment. Conclusion Ovarian stimulation with domestic rhFSH is effective, safe and economical in women with anovulation of WHO groupⅡ.%目的:评价国产重组人FSH(rhFSH)用于WHOⅡ类无排卵性患者促排卵的临床有效性及安全性。方法多中心、随机、盲法、平行阳性对照的非劣效试验。2008年5月—2009年8月在13家医院确诊的531例WHOⅡ类无排卵性不孕症育龄期妇女被纳入统计学分析,随机分为试验组(予国产rhFSH,n=352)和对照组(予进口rhFSH,n=179)。比较两组患者在启动周期内达到成熟卵泡(B超下卵泡直径≥18 mm)的有效率、排卵率、临床妊娠率、多胎妊娠率、卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)发生率及不良反应发生率等指标。结果启动周期内达到成熟卵泡的有效率,试验组和对照组分别为91.8%(323/352)和88.8%(159/179),两组比较,

  5. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  6. Manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome del ovario poliquístico

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    Donald Fernández-Morales

    2005-10-01

    and anovulation, but also had an associated metabolic risk. Polycystic ovary syndrome was redefined by a 2003 Holland consensus workshop. This condition is felt to be present if there are 2 of 3 possible diagnostic criteria: menstrual irregularities, biochemical o clinical signs of androgen excess and the presence of polycystic ovary morphology. The gynecologist frequentIy makes this diagnosis and has to have an adequate knowledge of the clinical signs and the possible long term risks. The evidence of a possible association with endometrial cancer and an increased cardiovascular disease risk is incomplete because the variety of definitions of polycystic ovary syndrome makes difficult the comparison of the studies. Dunaif claims that the prevalence of insulin resistance is a function of the studied population and the sensitivity and specificity of the method used to measure this parameter. She also mentions that women with polycystic ovary syndrome are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant, independentIy of obesity, compared with normal women. Legro demonstrated that 25 to 30% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome have glucose intolerance and that Diabetes Mellitus occurs in 8% each year. He says that fasting glucose concentration is not a reliable predictor of the prevalence of diabetes in comparison with the 75 grams glucose tolerance test (American Society of Diabetes. He also says that the fasting deterrnination is a berter screening method, with the same predictive value for development of micro vascular complications.

  7. Polimorfismos en los genes CYP11α y CYP17 y etiología del hiperandrogenismo en pacientes con poliquistosis ovárica Polymorphism in CYP11alpha and CYP17 genes and the etiology of hyperandrogenism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Pérez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de poliquistosis ovárica (PCOS es un desorden endocrino-metabólico de naturaleza multifactorial, con una marcada predisposición genética, que afecta al 6% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se caracteriza por la presencia de hiperandrogenismo, oligo-anovulación y ovarios poliquísticos. Entre los genes candidatos se encuentran aquellos que codifican para enzimas que actúan en la síntesis de andrógenos. Dos de los genes candidatos son el CYP17 y el CYP11alfa que codifican para la 17alfa hidroxilasa (P45017alfa y para el P450scc (colesterol side chain cleavage respectivamente. Los polimorfismos en estos genes están asociados al desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las frecuencias alélicas de los polimorfismos de los dos genes mencionados en población con PCOS, compararla con población normal y analizar la relación de cada variante alélica con el fenotipo hiperandrogénico correspondiente. Se analizaron 65 pacientes y 58 controles sanos en los que se determinaron niveles de testosterona y frecuencia de polimorfismos en los genes mencionados. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa cuando se asoció el grupo de mayor nivel de androgenemia con la presencia del genotipo A2/A2 del gen CYP17, y se hallaron mayores niveles de andrógenos circulantes en las pacientes con PCOS portadoras del alelo 216- del gen CYP11alfa. Nuestros resultados sugieren que ambos alelos juegan un rol menor en el desarrollo de PCOS y podrían ser considerados como potenciales marcadores de riesgo genético para el desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico.The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous multifactorial endocrine metabolic disorder with genetic predisposition affecting 6% of women in the reproductive age. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Several genes have been postulated as responsible for the

  8. Mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos apresentam maior frequência de síndrome metabólica independentemente do índice de massa corpóreo Women with polycystric ovary syndrome have a higher frequency of metabolic syndrome regardless of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Sanches Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de síndrome metabólica e dos seus critérios definidores em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos do Sudeste brasileiro, estratificadas de acordo com o índice de massa corpóreo e comparadas com controles ovulatórias. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com 332 mulheres em idade reprodutiva, que foram divididas em dois grupo: Controle, constituído por 186 mulheres com ciclos menstruais regulares, sintomas ovulatórios e sem diagnóstico de síndrome dos ovários policísticos ou outra anovulação crônica; e Síndrome dos ovários policísticos, composto por 146 mulheres com o diagnóstico de síndrome dos ovários policísticos - Consenso de Rotterdam ASRM/ESHRE. Cada um destes grupos foi estratificado de acordo com o índice de massa corpóreo (PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and of its defining criteria in women with polycystic ovary syndrome from the Brazilian Southeast, who were stratified according to body mass index and compared to ovulatory controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 332 women of reproductive age, who were divided into two groups: Control, consisting of 186 women with regular menstrual cycles and ovulatory symptoms and without a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome or other type of chronic anovulation, and the Polycystic ovary syndrome,Group, consisting of 146 women with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (Rotterdam Consensus ASRM/ESHRE. Each group was stratified according to the body mass index, as follows: body mass index ( < 25 ≥25 and <30, and ≥ 30 kg/m². The frequencies of metabolic syndrome and of its defining criteria and the clinical and hormonal characteristics (follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate were analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency of metabolic syndrome was six times higher in the obese Polycystic ovary syndrome Group than among control women with the

  9. 人生长激素在多囊卵巢综合征患者的体外受精超排卵中的应用价值%The application of human growth hormone during in vitro fertilization to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍; 安锦霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨人生长激素(GH)在多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者实施体外受精(IVF)超排卵中的作用.方法 2008年12月至2010年11月因PCOS排卵障碍而行体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)的患者121例,以是否使用GH分为两组:GH组48例,对照组73例.比较两组的促性腺激素(Gn)用量、获卵数、优胚率、种植率、冻胚率、妊娠率.结果 GH组和对照组的结果分别如下:Gn用量:(29.18±8.33)和(23.43±8.68)支;获卵数:(10.73±6.0)和(14.0±8.57)枚;优胚率:59.1%和33.33%;种植率:35.30%(36/102)和20.39%(31/152),冻胚率:87.5%(42/48)和58.9%(43/73);妊娠率:56.5%(26/46)和35.3%(24/68).Gn用量GH组略高于对照组,获卵数GH组略低于对照组.其余各项GH组均明显高于对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PCOS患者在超排卵早期应用GH可明显提高优胚率、种植率、冻胚率和妊娠率.值得进一步研究及应用.%Objective: To observe the effect of applying human growth hormone(GH) during in vitro fertilization to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: One hundred and twenty-one cycles of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in PCOS patients with anovulation from Dec. 2008 to Nov. 2010 were studied retrospectively. Of these 121 cycles,48 were with treatment of growth hormone (GH group), 73 without GH treatment (control group). The dose of gonadotropin (Gn), the number of retrieved oocytes, good-quality embryo rate, implantation rate,frozen embryo rate, and pregnancy rate were compared.Results: The dosage of Gn was slightly higher in GH group than that in control group (29.18±8.33 vs. 23.43±8.68 ampoullas, 4U/ampoulla) ,and the number of retrieved oocytes in GH group was slightly less than that in control group (10.73±6.0 vs. 14. 0±8. 57), but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). The good-quality embryo rate (59. 1% vs. 33.3%), frozen embryo rate (87. 5% vs.58.9%), pregnancy rate (56.5% vs. 35.3%) and implantation rate (35