Sample records for anorthosites

  1. Origin of Archean anorthosites - Evidence from the Bad Vermilion Lake anorthosite complex, Ontario (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Morrison, D. A.; Phinney, W. C.; Wood, J.


    Studies of the petrology and geochemistry of the anorthosite complex at Bad Vermillion Lake, Canada, based on 400 samples collected in summer, 1979, are presented. Petrographic, microprobe, X-ray-fluorescence, and instrumental-neutron-activation analyses were performed. Major and trace-element abundances of the anorthositic rocks and surrounding mafic and felsic rocks are reported in tables, chondrite-normalized rare-earth-element patterns are shown, and the anorthositic, intrusive, and metavolcanic formations are characterized in detail. The anothrositic plagioclases are found to have a coarse porphyritic texture and calcic composition (80 normative mol percent An) similar to those of other Archean anorthosite complexes. Chemical similarities indicate that the gabbro and mafic to felsic metavolcanic formations associated with the anorthosite complex may be comagmatic with it, while the absence of ultramafic material and the bulk composition of the comagmatic basalt (about 20 wt percent Al2O3) suggest that much of the original comagmatic material has been separated.

  2. Lunar ferroan anorthosites - Mineralogy, compositional variations, and petrogenesis (United States)

    Mcgee, J. J.


    Results of a study of 16 samples from the anorthositic ferroan subgroup, or 'typical' ferroan anorthosites, are reported. The presence of heterogeneous, bimodal, and/or trimodal pyroxene compositions suggests that some of the anorthosites are polymict rocks; however, they are composed entirely of ferroan-anorthosite-suite lithologies. It is suggested that complex processes operated during the formation of the ferroan anorthosites. It is argued that original igneous compositional characteristics were altered during and/or after crystallization. Processes operative during anorthosite formation may have included some mixing of different melts, trapping of variable amounts of intercumulus liquid, postcrystallization redistribution of elements, or perturbations both during adcumulus growth and subsequent to crystallization by impact events.

  3. Partition coefficients for calcic plagioclase - Implications for Archean anorthosites (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.


    In most Archean cratons, cumulates of equant plagioclase megacrysts form anorthositic complexes, including those at Bad Vermilion Lake (Ontario). In this paper, partition coefficients (Ds) of REEs between natural high-Ca plagioclase megacrysts and their basaltic matrices were determined, using a multiple aliquot techique, and megacrystic plagioclases occurring in anorthosites were analyzed for the same components which, in conjunction with their Ds, were applied to calculations of melts in equilibrium with anorthosites. The REE's Ds were found to agree well with experimentally determined values and to predict equilibrium melts for Archean anorthosites that agree well with coeval basaltic flows and dikes. The Ds also appear to be valid for both the tholeiitic and alkali basalts over a wide range of mg numbers and REE concentrations. It is suggested that the moderately Fe-rich tholeiites that are hosts to plagioclase megacrysts in greenstone belts form the parental melts for megacrysts which make up the Bad Vermilion Lake Archean anorthositic complex.

  4. The temporality of anorthosites and insights into Earth evolution (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.


    Several types of anorthosite can be recognized, some of which show distinct age restrictions in Earth and planetary history. Primordial, Archean and Proterozoic anorthosites are distinctly different and are restricted in time and space. Those of layered mafic intrusions and ophiolites show no apparent time restrictions. Primordial anorthosites form the bulk of the lunar crust, and have been provisionally detected on Mars; these probably formed in response to planetary accretion. No surviving crust of this nature has yet been found on Earth. Calcic (>An80) megacrystic anorthosites are restricted to the Archean, are associated with mafic volcanics of greenstone belts, and may have formed by accumulation of An-rich plagioclase from mafic to ultramafic magmas; high H2O content of parental melts may explain the calcic compositions, and the temporality might be linked to that of komatiitic magmatism, for which many tectonic settings, including subduction, have been proposed. Massif-type anorthosite is the most abundant of terrestrial types, and occurs as small plutons to huge composite batholiths that are entirely restricted to the Proterozoic. Compositions (An50 ± 10 vs. >An80), textures (lathy vs. equant plagioclase) and size (massifs to ~15,000 km2 vs. Archean bodies to ~560 km2) effectively distinguish Proterozoic from Archean anorthosites. An arc environment for massifs is suggested by the long, linear belts of coalescent anorthositic plutons, some of which have been emplaced into continental crust over extensive time periods (>100 m.y.). Magma derivation was from depleted mantle (not mafic lower crust), although there is evidence for substantial crustal contamination. Plagioclase-rich mushes formed by flotation in deep crustal chambers, and ascended diapirically to the mid-crust. Massif anorthosites have not yet been found in Phanerozoic continental arcs, although anorthositic layers are present as parts of layered gabbros in some deep crustal sections (e

  5. Spinel troctolite and anorthosite in Apollo 16 samples. (United States)

    Prinz, M.; Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Bunch, T. E.


    Review of the examination results on two Apollo 16 rocks recovered from the lunar highlands which probably represent contrasting types of 'primitive' lunar cumulates. One is a microbreccia containing a large lithic fragment of spinel troctolite, while the other is a shock-brecciated anorthosite. The reviewed results suggest that, if the two rock groups formed from the same parent magma type, the spinel troctolite must have formed early in the differentiation sequence as the result of crystal settling in the melt, whereas the anorthosite must have formed as a later cumulate, possibly by flotation.

  6. Lunar anorthosite 15415 - Texture, mineralogy, and metamorphic history. (United States)

    James, O. B.


    Lunar anorthosite 15415 consists almost entirely of anorthite (homogeneous anorthite 96.6 molecule percent), with accessory diopsidic augite and traces of hypersthene, ilmenite, and a silica mineral. The rock has had a complex metamorphic history. The texture reflects at least two episodes of shearing (followed by intense and partial recrystallization, respectively), one episode of cataclastic deformation, and one or more episodes of shattering and fragmentation.

  7. Lunar anorthosite 15415: Texture, mineralogy, and metamorphic history (United States)

    James, O.B.


    Lunar anorthosite 15415 consists almost entirely of anorthite (homogeneous anorthite 96.6 molecule percent), with accessory diopsidic augite and traces of hypersthene, ilmenite, and a silica mineral. The rock has had a complex metamorphic history. The texture reflects at least two episodes of shearing (followed by intense and partial recrystallization, respectively), one episode of cataclastic deformation, and one or more episodes of shattering and fragmentation.

  8. Are Ferroan Anorthosites Direct Products of the Lunar Magma Ocean? (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Draper, D. S.


    According to Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) theory, lunar samples that fall into the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) category represent the only samples we have of of the primordial crust of the Moon. Modeling indicates that plagioclase crystallizes after >70% LMO crystallization and formed a flotation crust, depending upon starting composition. The FAN group of highlands materials has been subdivided into mafic-magnesian, mafic-ferroan, anorthositic- sodic, and anorthositic-ferroan, although it is not clear how these subgroups are related. Recent radiogenic isotope work has suggested the range in FAN ages and isotopic systematics are inconsistent with formation of all FANs from the LMO. While an insulating lid could have theoretically extend the life of the LMO to explain the range of the published ages, are the FAN compositions consistent with crystallization from the LMO? As part of a funded Emerging Worlds proposal (NNX15AH76G), we examine this question through analysis of FAN samples. We compare the results with various LMO crystallization models, including those that incorporate the influence of garnet.

  9. Crystallization and emplacement of the Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif (Quebec, Canada) (United States)

    Woussen, G.; Dimroth, E.; Corriveau, L.; Archer, P.


    The Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif underlies an area of over 20,000 km2 and has been emplaced into migmatitic gneisses of the central granulite terrain of the Grenville Province of the Canadian shield. Field data and petrography in an area straddling the anorthosite-gneiss contact, close to Chicoutimi (Quebec) permits an outline of its tecto-magmatic evolution. Depositional magmatic textures in the massif reveals that it crystallized from a magma in a relatively calm tectonic environment. The absence of fusion in pelitic gneisses at the contact proves that the crystallization did not take place at the level presently exposed. The parallelism of subvertical foliation in the enveloping gneisses and the anorthosite indicates that both were deformed together. It is suggested that the deformation results from a diapiric ascent of the anorthosite massif after its consolidation at depth. The depth of consolidation of the anorthosite is estimated at ˜ 25 30 km from subsolidus reaction between plagioclase and olivine. The diapiric ascent is further substantiated by the fact that three sets of mafic dykes of different ages, intrusive into the anorthosite, have a mineralogy which indicates successively decreasing P, T conditions of emplacement from granulite fades to amphibolite facies. An evolution of the basement gneisses and the anorthosite is proposed as a working hypothesis; it relies on the fact that metabasite dyke swarms in the basement gneisses represent a period of major crustal extension and could be used as a stratigraphic subdivision of the Grenville Province.

  10. An overview on geochemistry of Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and associated rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Maji; A Patra; P Ghosh


    A critical study of 311 published WR chemical analyses,isotopic and mineral chemistry of anorthosites and associated rocks from eight Proterozoic massif anorthosite complexes of India, North America and Norway indicates marked similarities in mineralogy and chemistry among similar rock types.The anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks (e.g.,leuconorite,leucogabbro, leucotroctolite,anorthositic gabbro,gabbroic anorthosite,etc.)constituting the major part of the massifs are characterized by higher Na2O + K2O, Al2O3, SiO2 Mg#and Sr contents,low in plagioclase incompatible elements and REE with positive Eu anomalies. Their 18O %0 (5.7 –7.5), initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034–0.7066)and Nd values (+1.14 to +5.5)suggest a depleted mantle origin. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks occurring at the margin of massifs have isotopic, chemical and mineral composition more close to anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic rocks. However, there is a gradual decrease in plagioclase content, An content of plagioclase and XMg of orthopyroxene, and an increase in mafic silicates, oxide minerals content, plagioclase incompatible elements and REE from anorthosite – mafic-leucomafic rocks to Fe-rich dioritic rocks. The Fe-rich dioritic rocks are interpreted as residual melt from mantle derived high-Al gabbro melt, which produced the anorthosite and mafic-leucomafic rocks. Mineralogically and chemically, the K-rich felsic rocks are distinct from anorthosite –mafic-leucomafic-Fe-rich dioritic suite. They have higher 18O values (6.8 –10.8%) and initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7067-0.7104). By contrast, the K-rich felsic suites are products of melting of crustal precursors.

  11. Some Remarks on Terrestrial and Lunar Anorthosite Textures and Their Petrogenetic Significance (United States)

    San-Miguel-Arribas, A.


    The significance of textural analysis in anorthosite research has been emphasized by some petrologists. Textural features of anorthositic rocks can provide important information about their petrogenesis and subsequent evolution. In this work, preliminary results on a petrographic study of terrestrial anorthositic rocks from Canada, SW Angola and Greenland are presented, and discussed in a comparative context with their lunar analogs. Terrestrial anorthositic masses show evidence of anorogenic emplacements. These emplacements are estimated to have occurred at depths of at least 7 km and, possibly, up to 27 km. Geological and geophysical evidences suggest that large slabs of norite-gabbro composition are associated with tectonic thrusts. On the other hand, their ^87Sr/^86Sr ratios are generally lower than 0.703, in agreement with being derived from a noritic mantle source. The noritic intrusions interlayered in granitic gneisses are highly deformed and recrystallized in their Archean and Proterozoic occurrences. These intrusions have undergone extensive petrologic changes resulting in the progressive transformation of primitive norites into anorthositic norites, gabbroic norites, gabbroic anorthosites and white anorthosites. Thus, under high dynamic pressure conditions in large tectonic thrusts, gabbroic norites may be transformed into black, coarse-grained anorthosites. These anorthosites, in turn, may evolve into white, fine-grained granulitic anorthosites at higher levels of the crust, under lower-pressure, regional metamorphism. Despite the high degree of recrystallization experienced by some of these rocks, some relicts of fold structures are preserved. These observations suggest that most terrestrial anorthosites have not formed by processes of magmatic differentiation (e.g., crystal settling and segregation), but during long, retrograde metamorphic conditions producing deformation, cataclasis, grain comminution and recrystallization throughout several orogenic

  12. Magnesian anorthosites from the western highlands of the Moon: Isotope geochemistry and petrogenesis (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.


    Breccias from the Apollo 14 landing site have provided a wealth of information on the genesis of the lunar highlands. Various pristine rock-types have been discovered in relative abundance including rare ferroan anorthosites and alkali-suite and magnesian-suite rocks. Mineral-chemical and radiogenic isotopic data are reported here for a newly discovered Mg-suite anorthosite from Apollo 14, sample 14303,347. Meyer et al. reported U-Pb zircon analyses of Mg-suite highlands rocks from the western limb of the Moon. We have compiled these ages and generated a weighted average age of 4211 = 6 Ma; some 200 Ma younger than ferroan anorthosites. Utilizing this age for Mg-anorthosite 14303,347, our data results in an initial epsilon(sub Nd) value of -1.0 and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of 0.69915. Based on trace-element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data, the western highlands Mg-suite is interpreted to be crustal precipitates of a picritic magma, which assimilated KREEPy trapped liquid from upper-mantle cumulates during its transport to the crust.

  13. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands (United States)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.


    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  14. Geomagnetic Intensity Record from the 1.43 Ga Laramie Anorthosite Complex (United States)

    Gee, J. S.; Selkin, P. A.; Meurer, W. P.


    Models of core and mantle evolution with a basal magma ocean suggest that vigorous convection in the outer core may have begun in the Proterozoic, but that inner core crystallization did not drive the geodynamo until ~0.5 Ga. Published paleointensity data suggest that Earth's magnetic field may have been relatively weak during the Proterozoic due to geodynamo activity generated by superadiabatic cooling of the fluid core. The Laramie Anorthosite Complex (LAC; Wyoming, USA) crystallized at 1.43 Ga, during the hypothesized Proterozoic weak-field interval. The LAC consists of several genetically related plutons, including (from oldest to youngest) the Poe Mountain and Snow Creek Anorthosites, and the Sybille Monzosyenite. Anorthositic, leucogabbroic, and monzosyenitic rocks from these units formed under a range of fO2 and contain different magnetic carriers, but likely retain a thermoremanent magnetization from at or close to their crystallization age. Initial IZZI Thellier experiments were conducted on oriented cores from 22 sites. Additional paleointensity analyses utilized smaller chips, selected for high Königsberger ratios to minimize the influence of larger discrete magnetic grains. Over 60% of these high Q specimens yielded reliable results, using strict criteria (FRAC > 0.80; beta ancient field by as much as 50%. Nonetheless, the range of intensity values recorded in the LAC is similar to that in the Phanerozoic and does not appear compatible with the proposed weak Proterozoic field.

  15. Isotopic disequilibrium and lower crustal contamination in slowly ascending magmas: Insights from Proterozoic anorthosites (United States)

    Bybee, G. M.; Ashwal, L. D.


    Many Proterozoic anorthosite massifs show crustal isotopic signatures that have, for decades, fuelled debate regarding the source of these temporally-restricted magmas. Are these signatures indicative of lower crustal melting or of significant assimilation of crustal material into mantle-derived magmas? Traditional whole rock isotopic tracers (Sr, Nd, Pb and Os), like other geochemical, petrological and experimental tools, have failed to identify unambiguously the origins of the crust-like signature and resolve the source controversies for these feldspathic, cumulate intrusives. We make use of high precision Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mineral phases (plag, opx, mag) and comagmatic, high-pressure orthopyroxene megacrysts as well as whole rock anorthosites/leuconorites from the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite (MMIS) and the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) to probe the origin of the crustal isotopic signatures and assess the importance of differentiation at lower crustal depths. This selection of samples represents fragments from various stages of the polybaric ascent of the magmas, while the study of the Mealy Mountains Intrusive Suite and the Nain Plutonic Suite is instructive as each is intruded into crust of significantly different age and isotopic composition. We observe marked differences in the whole-rock isotopic composition of Proterozoic anorthosites and high-pressure megacrysts (e.g. εNd;T = +2 to -10) intruded into crustal terranes of different ages and isotopic compositions. Evidence for varying degrees of internal isotopic disequilibrium (ΔNd, ΔSr, ΔPb) in anorthosites from these different terranes reinforces the notion that crustal contamination, and more importantly, the nature of the crustal assimilant, has a profound influence on the chemical signature of Proterozoic anorthosites. While most samples from the MMIS and NPS show significant and measurable ΔNd and ΔPb disequilibrium, ΔSr compositions cluster around zero. This decoupling in

  16. Lunar ferroan anorthosite petrogenesis: clues from trace element distributions in FAN subgroups (United States)

    Floss, C.; James, O.B.; McGee, J.J.; Crozaz, G.


    The rare earth elements (REE) and selected other trace elements were measured in plagioclase and pyroxene from nine samples of the lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of rocks. Samples were selected from each of four FAN subgroups previously defined by James et al. (1989). Plagioclase compositions are homogeneous within each sample, but high- and low-Ca pyroxenes from lithic clasts typically have different REE abundances from their counterparts in the surrounding granulated matrices. Measured plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene concentration ratios for the REE have steeper patterns than experimentally determined plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene partition coefficients in most samples. Textural and trace element evidence suggest that, although subsolidus equilibration may be responsible for some of the discrepancy, plagioclase compositions in most samples have been largely unaffected by intermineral redistribution of the REE. The REE systematics of plagioclase from the four subgroups are broadly consistent with their deviation through crystallization from a single evolving magma. However, samples from some of the subgroups exhibit a decoupling of plagioclase and pyroxene compositions that probably reflects the complexities inherent in crystallization from a large-scale magmatic system. For example, two anorthosites with very magnesian mafic minerals have highly evolved trace element compositions; major element compositions in plagioclase also do not reflect the evolutionary sequence recorded by their REE compositions. Finally, a noritic anorthosite breccia with relatively ferroan mafic minerals contains several clasts with high and variable REE and other trace element abundances. Although plagioclase REE compositions are consistent with their derivation from a magma with a KREEPy trace element signature, very shallow REE patterns in the pyroxenes suggest the addition of a component enriched in the light REE.

  17. Petrology and chemistry of hyperferroan anorthosites and other clasts from lunar meteorite ALHA81005 (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.


    The results of petrographic and chemical studies of 11 previously undescribed clasts from the lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005 are reported. The majority of lithic clasts in this regolith breccia are granular to cataclastic polymict breccias that are mixtures of ferroan anorthosites and troctolitic Mg-suite plutonic rocks with mg' greater than 84, An 97, and REE abundances consistent with those of known Mg-suite rocks. Clasts of appropriate Mg-suite end members have not been found in 81005, although magnesian olivine fragments are present. Impact-melt clasts similar in composition to bulk 81005 also occur. AH81005 is low in KREEP.

  18. Characterizing the Effect of Shock on Isotopic Ages I: Ferroan Anorthosite Major Elements (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Cohen, B. A.; Spilde, M. N.


    A study underway at Marshall Space Flight Center is further characterizing the effects of shock on isotopic ages. The study was inspired by the work of L. Nyquist et al. [1, 2], but goes beyond their work by investigating the spatial distribution of elements in lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) and magnesium-suite (Mg-suite) rocks in order to understand the processes that may influence the radioisotope ages obtained on early lunar samples. This paper discusses the first data set (major elements) obtained on FANs 62236 and 67075.

  19. Anorthosite Magma Revisited: Field and Petrographic Evidence From the CRUML Belt, Grenville Province, Quebec (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.


    The "CRUML belt" comprises a series of relatively small (each Chicoutimi, a distance of >400 km. The dominant lithology in each pluton is andesine anorthosite (AA) of exceptional purity (typical outcrops contain >95% plag), with minor leuconorite, oxide-rich norite, and ilmenitite (locally ore bodies) also present. Northern CRUML plutons (Labrieville and Mattawa) contain a leucogabbroic border facies in addition, and are more sodic and potassic (with higher Ba and Sr) than the southern ones (Chateau Richer=CR, St. Urbain, Lac Chaudiere, Lac a Jack, and Lac Piche). Each pluton is dome-shaped (concentric, outward-dipping foliations), and displays a subtle yet persistent pluton-scale, core-to-margin increase in plag An-content that is suggestive of a pressure decrease during crystallization. It thus appears that the CRUML-belt plutons were emplaced as magmatic diapirs. Strong reverse zoning in individual plag crystals, however, has a different origin (see below). Excepting CR, the CRUML-belt plutons also contain enclaves of labradorite anorthosite (LA) that range in size from dm to km. Contacts between the AA and LA typically are very sharp, with no obvious evidence of interaction between the two lithologies. However, rare outcrops having plag compositions intermediate between AA and LA may represent examples of modified rock. Most LA outcrops are invaded by dikes and veins (even anastomosing veinlets and net-veins) of the AA, and some dikes contain LA xenoliths as well. Locally, lit-par-lit injection of AA into LA is accompanied by disruption and rotation of the latter. Thus, field relations provide compelling evidence for the mobile nature of AA and its emplacement as "magma" into the LA. Plag grain boundaries in many AA samples (all dike samples) are decorated by fine-grained vermicular intergrowths of ~An80 + quartz, termed "calcic myrmekite" by Dymek & Schiffries (Can. Min., 1987, p. 291), which formed by corrosion of early formed plag by late-stage aqueous fluid

  20. The ferroan-anorthositic suite, the extent of primordial lunar melting, and the bulk composition of the moon (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.


    A major component of the moon's crust is fundamentally unrelated to the plagioclase flotation crust that is believed to have accumulated over the primordial magma ocean, as evidenced by the geochemical bimodality of pristine lunar rocks. This bimodality and the apparent ratio of ferroan-anorthositic suite rocks to non-ferroan-anorthositic suite rocks in the lunar crust are used to determine the proportion of the moon that was melted during the development of the primordial magma ocean. Models of the origin of the earth-moon system are constrained by this proportion. Another constraint, suggesting that the bulk-moon pyroxene/(pyroxene + olivine) ratio is higher than generally estimated, is also derived.

  1. The Position of Fennoscandia in the Late Proterozoic: Paleomagnetic Data from the Egersund-Ogna Anorthosite, Rogaland, Norway (United States)

    Brown, L.; McEnroe, S.; Smethurst, M.


    Apparent polar wander paths for Rodinia are ambiguous for Laurentia and Baltica with both clockwise or counter-clockwise loops proposed. A detailed magnetic study has been undertaken on the Egersund-Ogna anorthosite body of the Rogaland Igneous Complex, southeastern Norway to provide pole data for southern Fennoscandia. The anorthosite, with published U-Pb ages of 930 Ma, is part of a larger complex of massif-type anorthosites and layered intrusions. Thirteen paleomagnetic sites were collected distributed throughout the body. Average susceptibilities range from 0.03 to 2.24 x 10-3 SI and NRM intensities range from 0.004 to 1.54 A/m. Corresponding Q values range from 3 to 148 with a mean value of 36, indicating remanent-controlled magnetic anomalies. NRM directions from all samples are characterized by steep negative inclinations with southwest to northeast variable declinations. Thermal demagnetization reveals square shouldered demagnetization curves, with little or no loss of intensity until 550 or 575C. Alternating field demagnetization produces a wide range of demagnetization behaviors with mean destructive fields varying from less than 5 mT to greater than 80 mT. There is little evidence of overprinting or secondary components, and all information points to a remanence gained during initial cooling of the anorthosite. Mean directional data for the 13 sites are I = -81.7 and D = 326.8, a95 = 6.0. Assuming this mean direction represents normal polarity, paleolatitude for southern Fennoscandia at this time is 70 deg S. The magnetic pole calculated for Egersund-Ogna is at -45 S latitude and 200 E longitude, in good agreement with earlier published poles determined from other southern Scandinavian rocks of similar age. This work supports reconstructions that place Baltica in high (southern) latitude at approximately 900 Ma.

  2. Sm-Nd systematics of lunar ferroan anorthositic suite rocks: Constraints on lunar crust formation (United States)

    Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Borg, Lars E.; Horan, Mary


    We have measured Sm-Nd systematics, including the short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometer, in lunar ferroan anorthositic suite (FAS) whole rocks (15415, 62236, 62255, 65315, 60025). At least some members of the suite are thought to be primary crystallization products formed by plagioclase flotation during crystallization of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). Most of these samples, except 62236, have not been exposed to galactic cosmic rays for a long period and thus require minimal correction to their 142Nd isotope composition. These samples all have measured deficits in 142Nd relative to the JNdi-1 terrestrial standard in the range -45 to -21 ppm. The range is -45 to -15 ppm once the 62236 142Nd/144Nd ratio is corrected from neutron-capture effects. Analyzed FAS samples do not define a single isochron in either 146Sm-142Nd or 147Sm-143Nd systematics, suggesting that they either do not have the same crystallization age, come from different sources, or have suffered isotopic disturbance. Because the age is not known for some samples, we explore the implications of their initial isotopic compositions for crystallization ages in the first 400 Ma of solar system history, a timing interval that covers all the ages determined for the ferroan anorthositic suite whole rocks as well as different estimates for the crystallization of the LMO. 62255 has the largest deficit in initial 142Nd and does not appear to have followed the same differentiation path as the other FAS samples. The large deficit in 142Nd of FAN 62255 may suggest a crystallization age around 60-125 Ma after the beginning of solar system accretion. This result provides essential information about the age of the giant impact forming the Moon. The initial Nd isotopic compositions of FAS samples can be matched either with a bulk-Moon with chondritic Sm/Nd ratio but enstatite-chondrite-like initial 142Nd/144Nd (e.g. 10 ppm below modern terrestrial), or a bulk-Moon with superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio and initial 142Nd/144Nd

  3. Sm-Nd Ages of Two Meta-Anorthosite Complexes Around Holenarsipur: Constraints on the Antiquity of Archean Supracrustal Rocks of the Dharwar Craton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y J Bhaskar Rao; Anil Kumar; A B Vrevsky; R Srinivasan; G V Anantha Iyer


    Whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron ages are reported for two stratiform meta-anorthosite complexes emplaced into the Archean supracrustal-gneiss association in the amphibolite facies terrain around Holenarsipur, in the Dharwar carton, South India. While these metaperidotite-pyroxenite-gabbro-anorthosite complexes are petrologically and geochemically similar, they differ in the intensity of tectonic fabric developed during the late Archean (c.2.5Ga) deformation. They also differ in their whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron ages and initial Nd isotopic compositions: 3.285 ± 0.17 Ga, Nd = 0.82 ± 0.78 for the Honnavalli meta-anorthosite complex from a supracrustal enclave in the low-strain zone, and 2.495 ± 0.033 Ga, Nd = -2.2+-0.3 for the Dodkadnur meta-anorthosites from the high-strain southern arm of the Holenarsipur Supracrustal Belt (HSB). We interpret these results as indicating that the magmatic protoliths of both meta-anorthosite complexes were derived from a marginally depleted mantle at c.3.29 Ga but only the Dodkadnur rocks were isotopically reequilibrated on a cm-scake about 800 Ma later presumably due to the development of strong penetrative fabrics in them during Late Archean thermotectonic event around 2.5Ga. Our results set a younger age limit at c.3.29Ga for the supracrustal rocks of the HSB in the Dharwar craton.

  4. Geology and geochemistry of the Redrock Granite and anorthosite xenoliths (Proterozoic in the northern Burro Mountains, Grant County, New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore


    Full Text Available Mineral ages from the A-type granites and anorthosite xenoliths in the Redrock area in the northwestern Burro Mountains in southwestern New Mexico cluster around ~1220–1225 Ma and provide yet another example of bimodal igneous activity during this time period in the southwestern United States. The metaluminous to peraluminous, marginally alkaline to subalkaline Redrock Granite exhibits the textural, mineralogical, and geochemical features of A-type granitethat was emplaced at a relatively high crustal level. Field relationships, whole rock and mineral geochemical and isotopic trends suggest that the four phases of the Redrock Granite are genetically related, with the miarolitic biotite/alkali feldspar granite being the youngest phase. Spatial relationships and geochemical data suggest that the anorthosite xenoliths were coeval with the RedrockGranite, which is consistent with the anorthosite being derived from the upper mantle, possibly due to deep mantle upwellings, and the Redrock Granite from the lower crust. The process involved melting in the upper mantle, emplacement of anorthosite in the crust resulting in partial crustal melting and thinning, and, finally, intrusion of shallow silicic plutons, the Redrock Granite. The Redrock Granite and anorthosite were presumably derived from sources characterized by subtle, long-term LREE depletion, with εNd (at 1220 Ma values on theorder of +1 to +2.

  5. The crystal structure and thermal history of orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite 15415 (United States)

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Konnert, J.A.


    A single crystal of untwinned orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite sample 15415, with composition (Mg1.14Fe0.80Mn0.02Ca0.04)(Si1.97Al0.03)O6, has a unit cell in space group Pbca with a = 18.310(15) A ??, b = 8.904(10) A ??, c = 5.214(7) A ??, containing 2 formula units. A set of 742 counter-measured intensity data made with MoK?? radiation has been used to refine the crystal structure in isotropic thermal mode to R = 0.116. Anisotropic refinement led to R = 0.092, but thermal parameters are distorted by non-random errors resulting from poor crystal texture. The resulting structure is in close agreement with that obtained by Ghose [9] for a hypersthene from Greenland. A parameter q, which gives (MgqFe1-q) for cation site M(1) and (Mg1.14-qFeq-0.18Ca0.04) for site M(2), was included in the least-squares analysis, yielding q = 0.90(1). This orthopyroxene has the high degree of cation order expected of pyroxenes subjected to Apollonian metamorphism at lower than 500-600??C. No evidence exists for a subsequent thermal event of sufficient intensity to disorder the pyroxene. On the basis of previous laboratory studies of argon-release patterns of lunar plagioclase and order-disorder kinetics of terrestrial pyroxenes, we attribute the reported isotopic age (3.9-4.1 AE) to cessation of metamorphism, perhaps caused by impact excavation. ?? 1978.

  6. Palaeomagnetism of the Egersund-Ogna anorthosite, Rogaland, Norway, and the position of Fennoscandia in the Late Proterozoic (United States)

    Brown, Laurie L.; McEnroe, Suzanne A.


    The 930-Ma Egersund-Ogna anorthosite is part of the Rogaland igneous complex of massif-type anorthosites intruded into Sveconorwegian basement of southwestern Norway. Average susceptibilities on samples from 13 sites range from 0.03 to 2.24 × 10-3 SI and natural remanent intensities range from 0.004 to 1.54 A m-1. Corresponding Koenigsberger ratios range from 3 to 148 with a mean value of 36, indicating that magnetic field surveys will observe remanent-controlled magnetic anomalies. Optical observations indicate that haemo-ilmenite is the major oxide phase present, with lesser amounts of ilmeno-haematite and rare magnetite. Remanent directions from all samples are characterized by steeply negative inclinations with variable northwest declinations. Thermal demagnetization reveals square-shouldered demagnetization curves with little or no loss of intensity until 550 or 575 °C. Alternating field demagnetization produces a wide range of demagnetization behaviours with mean destructive fields varying from less than 5 mT to greater than 80 mT. There is little evidence for overprinting or secondary components, and all information points to a remanence acquired during initial cooling of the anorthosite at ~ 900 Ma. Mean directional data for the 13 sites are and . The magnetic pole calculated for Egersund-Ogna is at latitude and longitude , in excellent agreement with an earlier pole determined from Egersund, and similar to other poles from Rogaland igneous complex rocks. This work supports Rodinia reconstructions that place Baltica at high (southern) latitude, ~ 70°, at about 900 Ma. Apparent polar wander paths for Baltica at this time are ambiguous and it is difficult to discriminate between proposed clockwise or counter-clockwise loops.

  7. Cryogenian U-Pb (SHRIMP I) zircon ages of anorthosites from the upper sequences of Niquelandia and Barro Alto Complexes, Central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Ciro Teixeira Vicente; Girardi, Antonio Vitorio; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp, E-mail: ccorrei@usp.b, E-mail: girardi@usp.b, E-mail: baseimas@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Nutman, Allen, E-mail: [Australian National University, Camberra (Canada). Research School of Earth Science


    The Niquelandia Complex comprises two main superposed sequences dipping westward: the lower (LS), at the eastern, and the upper (US), at the western part of the body. The Complex is either interpreted as a single body, or as two distinct unrelated layered massifs. New SHRIMP U-Pb determinations on igneous zircon grains of anorthosites from Niquelandia US and from the upper portion of the Barro Alto Complex indicate crystallization ages of 833 {+-} 21 Ma and 733 {+-} 25 Ma, respectively, thus supporting Cryogenian Neoproterozoic ages for the igneous crystallization of the US unit of Niquelandia and for the Barro Alto anorthosites. (author)

  8. The experimental studies on electrical conductivities and P-wave velocities of anorthosite at high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利平; 杜建国; 刘巍; 周文戈


    Results of P-wave velocity (vP) and electrical conductivity measurements on anorthosite are presented from room temperature to 880 (C at 1.0 GPa using ultrasonic transmission technique and impedance spectra technique respectively. The experiments show that the P-wave velocities in anorthosite decrease markedly above 680 (C following the dehydration of hydrous minerals in the rock, and the complex impedances collected from 12 Hz to 105 Hz only indicate the grain interior conduction mechanism at 1.0 GPa, from 410 (C to 750 (C. Because the fluids in the rock have not formed an interconnected network, the dehydration will not pronouncedly enhance the electrical conductivity and change the electrical conduction mechanism. It is concluded that the formation and evolution of the low-velocity zones and high-conductivity layers in the crust may have no correlations, and the dehydration can result in the formation of the low-velocity zones, but cannot simultaneously result in the high-conductivity layers.

  9. Properties of the Hermean Regolith. 5; New Optical Reflectance Spectra, Comparison with Lunar Anorthosites and Mineralogical Modelling (United States)

    Warell, J.; Blewett, D. T.


    We present new optical (0.4-0.65 micron) spectra of Mercury and lunar pure anorthosite locations, obtained quasi-simultaneously with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in 2002. A comparative study is performed with the model of Lucey et al. between iron-poor, mature, pure anorthosite (less than 90% plagioclase feldspar) Clementine spectra from the lunar farside and a combined 0.4-1.0 micron mercurian spectrum, obtained with the NOT, calculated for standard photometric geometry. Mercury is located at more extreme locations in the Lucey ratio-reflectance diagrams than any known lunar soil, specifically with respect to the extremely iron-poor mature anorthosites. Though quantitative prediction of FeO and TiO2 abundances cannot be made without a more generally applicable model, we find qualitatively that the abundances of both these oxides must be near zero for Mercury. We utilize the theory of Hapke, with realistic photometric parameters, to model laboratory spectra of matured mineral powders and lunar soils, and remotely sensed spectra of lunar anorthosites and Mercury. An important difference between fabricated and natural powders is the high value for the internal scattering parameter necessary to interpret the spectra for the former, and the requirement of rough and non-isotropically scattering surfaces in the modelling of the latter. The mature lunar anorthosite spectra were well modelled with binary mixtures of calcic feldspars and olivines, grain sizes of 25-30 micron and a concentration of submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) of 0.12-0.15% in grain coatings. The mercurian spectrum is not possible to interpret from terrestrial mineral powder spectra without introducing an average particle scattering function for the bulk soil that increases in backscattering efficiency with wavelength. The observed spectrum is somewhat better predicted with binary mixture models of feldspars and pyroxenes, that single-component regoliths consisting of either albite or diopside

  10. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico (United States)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.


    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (1000 ppm Sr, and positive europium anomalies. The anorthosites probably represent the exhumed roots of a deep-seated and differentiated mafic body of late Permian age as part of the Chiapas batholith, apparently precluding major displacements across the Polochic fault.

  11. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.


    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  12. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites (United States)

    James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.


    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE

  13. New age (ca. 2970 Ma), mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the Archean Fiskenæsset anorthosite complex, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A; Frei, Robert; Scherstén, Anders;


    and recrystallization taking place between ca. 3200 and 2650 Ma. Zircon ages peak at about 3200, 3100, 3000, 2950, 2820, and 2750 Ma. The 3200–3000 Ma zircon cores are interpreted as inherited xenocrysts from older reworked crustal rocks. 2950 Ma is considered as an approximate intrusion age of sampled TTGs. The 2940......The Archean Fiskenæsset Complex, SW Greenland, consists of an association of ca. 550-meter-thick layered anorthosite, leucogabbro, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks (peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite, hornblendite). The complex was intruded by tonalite, trondhjemite, and granodiorite (TTG) sheets (now...... orthogneisses) during thrusting that was followed by several phases of isoclinal folding. The trace element systematics of the Fiskenæsset Complex and associated volcanic rocks are consistent with a supra-subduction zone geodynamic setting. The Fiskenæsset anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and ultramafic...

  14. The roles of melt infiltration and cumulate assimilation in the formation of anorthosite and a Cr-spinel seam in the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, NW Scotland (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Brian; Donaldson, Colin H.; Daly, J. Stephen; Emeleus, C. Henry


    Thin (~ 2 mm) Cr-spinel seams are present at the bases of several of the coupled peridotite-troctolite units that comprise the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion. In some cases, 'subsidiary' Cr-spinel seams have also developed at between 6 and 12 cm below the unit boundaries. The subsidiary seams are thinner than the normal seams (approx. 1 mm), discontinuous, and occur within and at the base of a thin (~ 10 cm) layer of anorthosite, which is sandwiched between peridotite and troctolite. The troctolite contains cumulus olivine, but in the Cr-spinel seam and anorthosite, olivine is intercumulus only. Cr-spinel is scarce in the troctolite, but common in the anorthosite, where it has a different composition (more Fe-and Cr-rich) and crystal size distribution (CSD) profile to the Cr-spinel in the subsidiary seam, suggesting that it represents a different crystal population. A model involving downward infiltration of hot picrite and resulting troctolitic cumulate assimilation is developed here to explain the subsidiary seams. This is based on petrographic observation, quantitative textural measurement and mineral chemical analyses. It is suggested that as the picritic magma was emplaced, downward percolation of this melt occurred into a troctolite mush. The anorthosite represents a layer of almost completely melted troctolite, formed by growth of high-anorthite zones from the contaminated picrite onto residual cumulus plagioclase. Assimilation of large amounts of the troctolite cumulate mush forced the contaminated picrite onto the olivine-spinel cotectic, leading to Cr-spinel crystallisation. Subsequently, the Cr-spinel crystals in the anorthosite have reacted with intercumulus melt over a wider temperature interval and have gained a more Fe 3+-rich composition than the subsidiary seam Mg- and Al-rich Cr-spinels. It is suggested that the separation of a small fraction of immiscible sulphide liquid in the Cr-spinel seams is the result of locally changing SiO 2 and oxygen

  15. Partition coefficients for iron between plagioclase and basalt as a function of oxygen fugacity - Implications for Archean and lunar anorthosites (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.


    As a prelude to determinations of the content of total iron as FeO(T) in melts in equilibrium with calcic anorthosites, the partition coefficients (Ds) for FeO(T) between calcic plagioclase and basaltic melt were determined, as a function of oxygen fugacity (f(O2)), for a basaltic composition that occurs as matrices for plagioclase megacrysts. Results showed that, at the liquidus conditions, the value of D for FeO(T) between calcic plagioclase and tholeiitic basalt changed little (from 0.030 to 0.044) between the very low f(O2) of the iron-wustite buffer and that of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. At fugacities above QFM, the value for D increased rapidly to 0.14 at the magnetite-hematite buffer and to 0.33 in air. The increase in D results from the fact that, at f(O2) below QFM, nearly all of the Fe is in the Fe(2+) state; above QFM, the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio in the melt increases rapidly, causing more Fe to enter the plagioclase which accepts Fe(3+) more readily than Fe(2+).

  16. CO2 sequestration using waste concrete and anorthosite tailings by direct mineral carbonation in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes. (United States)

    Ben Ghacham, Alia; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy


    Mineral carbonation (MC) represents a promising alternative for sequestering CO2. In this work, the CO2 sequestration capacity of the available calcium-bearing materials waste concrete and anorthosite tailings is assessed in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes using 18.2% flue CO2 gas. The objective is to screen for a better potential residue and phase route and as the ultimate purpose to develop a cost-effective process. The results indicate the possibility of removing 66% from inlet CO2 using waste concrete for the aqueous route. However, the results that were obtained with the carbonation of anorthosite were less significant, with 34% as the maximal percentage of CO2 removal. The difference in terms of reactivity could be explained by the accessibility to calcium. In fact, anorthosite presents a framework structure wherein the calcium is trapped, which could slow the calcium dissolution into the aqueous phase compared to the concrete sample, where calcium can more easily leach. In the other part of the study concerning gas-solid carbonation, the results of CO2 removal did not exceed 15%, which is not economically interesting for scaling up the process. The results obtained with waste concrete samples in aqueous phase are interesting. In fact, 34.6% of the introduced CO2 is converted into carbonate after 15 min of contact with the gas without chemical additives and at a relatively low gas pressure. Research on the optimization of the aqueous process using waste concrete should be performed to enhance the reaction rate and to develop a cost-effective process. PMID:26292776

  17. CO2 sequestration using waste concrete and anorthosite tailings by direct mineral carbonation in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes. (United States)

    Ben Ghacham, Alia; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy


    Mineral carbonation (MC) represents a promising alternative for sequestering CO2. In this work, the CO2 sequestration capacity of the available calcium-bearing materials waste concrete and anorthosite tailings is assessed in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes using 18.2% flue CO2 gas. The objective is to screen for a better potential residue and phase route and as the ultimate purpose to develop a cost-effective process. The results indicate the possibility of removing 66% from inlet CO2 using waste concrete for the aqueous route. However, the results that were obtained with the carbonation of anorthosite were less significant, with 34% as the maximal percentage of CO2 removal. The difference in terms of reactivity could be explained by the accessibility to calcium. In fact, anorthosite presents a framework structure wherein the calcium is trapped, which could slow the calcium dissolution into the aqueous phase compared to the concrete sample, where calcium can more easily leach. In the other part of the study concerning gas-solid carbonation, the results of CO2 removal did not exceed 15%, which is not economically interesting for scaling up the process. The results obtained with waste concrete samples in aqueous phase are interesting. In fact, 34.6% of the introduced CO2 is converted into carbonate after 15 min of contact with the gas without chemical additives and at a relatively low gas pressure. Research on the optimization of the aqueous process using waste concrete should be performed to enhance the reaction rate and to develop a cost-effective process.

  18. High-temperature hydrothermal activities around suboceanic Moho: An example from diopsidite and anorthosite in Wadi Fizh, Oman ophiolite (United States)

    Akizawa, Norikatsu; Tamura, Akihiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Junji; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Python, Marie; Arai, Shoji


    Reaction products between hydrothermal fluids and uppermost mantle harzburgite-lowermost crustal gabbro have been reported along Wadi Fizh, northern Oman ophiolite. They are named mantle diopsidite (MD) or crustal diopsidite (CD) depending on the stratigraphic level. They construct network-like dikes crosscutting structures of the surrounding harzburgite or gabbro. The MD is mainly composed of diopsidic clinopyroxene, whereas the CD is of diopsidic clinopyroxene and anorthitic plagioclase. Here, we report a new reaction product, crustal anorthosite (CA), from the lowermost crustal section. The CA is always placed in the center of the CD network, and mainly consists of anorthitic plagioclase with minor titanite and chromian minerals such as chromite and uvarovite. Aqueous fluid inclusions forming negative crystals are evenly distributed in minerals of the CA. The fluid inclusions contain angular-shaped or rounded daughter minerals as calcite or calcite-anhydrite composite, which were identified by Raman spectroscopic analysis. We estimated their captured temperature at 530 °C at least by conducting microthermometric analysis of the fluid inclusions. Furthermore, we examined their chemical characteristics by direct laser-shot sampling conducted by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicate that the trapped aqueous fluids contain an appreciable amount of Na, but no K and Cr. Hydrothermal fluids involved in the CA formation transported Cr, which was probably taken up from chromite seams in the uppermost mantle section. Cr got soluble by forming complexes with anions as SO42-, CO32- and Cl-. In addition, these hydrothermal fluids transported Fe, Mg and trace elements (Ti, Sr, Y, Zr and rare-earth elements) governing whole-rock chemical compositions of the MDs, CDs and CAs. Our estimation for the condition of CA formation yielded rather low temperatures (530-600 °C), which indicates a later stage production of the CA

  19. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite (United States)

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.


    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine

  20. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope data of the age of formation and metamorphic alteration of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex (Baltic Shield) (United States)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Chashchin, Viktor


    The aim of this research was to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) in Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex. Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate metamorphism. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic and geochronological data for the rocks of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa Paleoproterozoic gabbro-anorthosite complex is presented. For the first time single zircon grains from metagabbros of Kolvitsa massif were dated 2448±5 Ma, using U-Pb method with an artificial 205Pb tracer. Sm-Nd isotopic age of the metamorphic minerals apatite, garnet and sulphide WR Kolvitsa array is 1985 ± 17 Ma, which is interpreted granulite metamorphism. Two fractions of single zircons from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif gave U-Pb age 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite (Kandalaksha massif) were dated by U-Pb on single zircon, with age up to 2230±10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of [1]. Two fractions of rutile from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile 400-450 ° C [2], thus cooling of the massif to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data suggested two stages of metamorphic transformations of the massif. Sm-Nd research Kandalaksha massif reflected the age of the high-temperature metasomatic transformations -1887 ± 37 Ma. Time of regional fluid processing - 1692 ± 71 Ma. A model Sm-Nd age metagabbros Kolvitsa massif is 3.3 Ga with a negative value ɛNd = -4.6, which corresponds to the most likely primary enriched mantle reservoir of

  1. Experimental approach to form anorthositic melts: phase relations in the system CaAl2Si2O8 - CaMgSi2O6 - Mg2SiO4 at 6 wt.% H2O (United States)

    Zirner, Aurelia Lucretia Katharina; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl; Müncker, Carsten


    Massive anorthosite dykes are documented for the first time from the Limassol Forest Complex (LFC) of Cyprus, the LFC being a deformed equivalent of the Troodos ultramafic massif. Both the Troodos and LFC complexes are part of the Tethyan realm consisting of Cretaceous oceanic crust that formed within a backarc basin 90 Ma ago and was obduced during late Miocene. From crosscutting relations with the sheeted dyke complex, it follows that the anorthosites belong to one of the latest magmatic events on Cyprus. In hand specimen, the rocks appear massive and unaltered, although in thin section magmatic plagioclase (An93) is partially replaced by albite and thomsonite (zeolite). Where magmatic textures are preserved, plagioclase forms cm-sized, acicular, radially arranged crystal aggregates that remind of spinifex textures. Six major types of anorthosite occurrences have previously been described, none of them matching with the above described anorthosite dykes [1]. The origin of these anorthosite dykes remains poorly understood. Even though they occur as intrusive dykes, it is evident that they cannot represent liquidus compositions, at least under dry conditions. Whole-sale melting of pure An93 would require temperatures in excess of 1450 °C, which is a quite unrealistic temperature of the modern Earth's crust. The working hypothesis is that boninitic melts with approximately 4 wt.% H2O, as found in the cyprian upper pillow lavas (UPL), could produce such rocks by olivine-pyroxene fractionation. Indeed, experiments indicate that such lithologies can be generated by medium-pressure fractional crystallization of hydrous basaltic melts followed by decompression-degassing. High pH2O stabilizes olivine but tends to suppress plagioclase as the highest polymerized phase. Hence the An component is accumulated in the (late-stage) melt. When such a system experiences sudden decompression, the aqueous phase will exsolve and will trigger massive precipitation of anorthite

  2. How Rich is Rich? Placing Constraints on the Abundance of Spinel in the Pink Spinel Anorthosite Lithology on the Moon Through Space Weathering (United States)

    Gross, J.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Isaacson, P. J.; Le, L.


    previously unknown lunar rock was recently recognized in the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra. The rock type is rich in Mg-Al spinel (approximately 30%) and plagioclase and contains less than 5% mafic silicate minerals (olivine and pyroxene). The identification of this pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) at the Moscoviense basin has sparked new interest in lunar spinel. Pieters et al. suggested that these PSA deposits might be an important component of the lunar crust. However, Mg-Al spinel is rare in the Apollo and meteorite sample collections (only up to a few wt%), and occurs mostly in troctolites and troctolitic cataclastites. In this study, we are conducting a series of experiments (petrologic and space weathering) to investigate whether deposits of spinel identified by remote sensing are in high concentration (e.g. 30%) or whether the concentrations of spinel in these deposits are more like lunar samples, which contain only a few wt%. To examine the possibility of an impact-melt origin for PSA, conducted 1-bar crystallization experiments on rock compositions similar to pink spinel troctolite 65785. The VNIR spectral reflectance analyses of the low-temperature experiments yield absorption features similar to those of the PSA lithology detected at Moscoviense Basin. The experimental run products at these temperatures contain approximately 5 wt% spinel, which suggests that the spinel-rich deposits detected by M(sup 3) might not be as spinel-rich as previously thought. However, the effect of space weathering on spinel is unknown and could significantly alter its spectral properties including potential weakening of its diagnostic 2-micrometers absorption feature. Thus, weathered lunar rocks could contain more spinel than a comparison with the unweathered experimental charges would suggest. In this study, we have initiated space weathering experiments on 1) pure pink spinel, 2) spinel-anorthite mixtures, and 3) the low

  3. Preliminary Sr-Nd isotope study of the Hadong-Sanchung anorthositic rocks in Korea: Implication for their origin and for the Precambrian tectonics%韩国Hadong-Sanchung地区斜长岩Sr-Nd同位素初步研究--成因和前寒武纪构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    斜长岩呈长条带出露于朝鲜半岛南部,侵入到年代约为2.0 Ga的Yeongnam前寒武纪基底岩石中,虽然岩石类型简单(斜长岩和辉长岩质斜长岩),但可以同世界已知块状类型斜长岩相对比.这些斜长岩具有几个重要的差别,例如呈层状构造,镁铁相成分是角闪石而不是辉石,并且不具斜方辉石巨晶.应用Rb-Sr和Sm-Nd同位素系统研究这些岩石的年龄和成因,测定出一种页理化辉长岩质斜长岩矿物的Sm-Nd等时线年龄为1 678±90 Ma,推断其为侵位年龄,因为中生代绿岩相变质期间这些岩石的Sm-Nd同位素体系呈封闭状态.这一年龄和过去曾报道的元古宙块状斜长岩的年龄范围(1.1~1.7 Ga)相吻合.认为斜长岩成因可以用所谓元古宙斜长岩事件来解释.斜长岩的岩浆活动对朝鲜半岛南部前寒武纪基底岩石的构造历史有重要意义.全岩εNd(t)值范围-1.6~-5.2,而87Sr/86Sr初始值变化于0.704~0.706之间,据此可解释地幔成因的斜长岩岩浆是在其结晶作用期间吸收了地壳物质的结果.然而不能排除是下地壳源的可能性.%The anorthositic rocks in southern part of Korean peninsula occur as a long belt, intruding the ca. 2.0 Ga old Precambrianbasement rocks of the Yeongnam massif. Although they have simple rock types (anorthosite and gabbroic anorthosite) comparable towell known massif-type anorthosites worldwide, they possess several important differences such as layered structure, amphibole ratherthan pyroxene as a mafic phase, and no orthopyroxene megacrysts. The age of intrusion was not available previously. We have appliedRb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systematics to investigate the age and origin of these rocks. One foliated gabbroic anorthosite defines a Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 1678 ± 90 Ma. This age is tentatively interpreted as the emplacement age because of apparently closed-sys-tem behavior of Sm-Nd system in these rocks during greenschist

  4. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.


    lithosphere or subducted with oceanic crust and recycled through the mantle by plate tectonics. Insulation products have a chemical composition similar to average crustal rocks and participate in the natural rock cycle. However, these products need not accumulate in nature, inasmuch as old insulation...

  5. Mineralogy of Dhofar 309, 489, and Yamato-86032 and Varieties of Lithologies of the Lunar Farside Crust (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Arai, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Otuki, M.; Ishii, T.


    Dhofar 489 and Yamato(Y)-86032 are keys to understanding the lunar farside crust. Mg-rich anorthosites were found in Dhofar 309, as well as Dhofar 489. Fe-rich anorthosite with negative epsilon Nd in Y-86032 requires the crustal formation process of farsi

  6. Rock types present in lunar highland soils (United States)

    Reid, A. M.


    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  7. Reflectance Spectral Characteristics of Lunar Surface Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liao Zou; Jian-Zhong Liu; Jian-Jun Liu; Tao Xu


    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mineral composition of major lunar rocks (highland anorthosite, lunar mare basalt and KREEP rock), we investigate the reflectance spectral characteristics of the lunar rock-forming minerals, including feldspar, pyroxene and olivine. The affecting factors, the variation of the intensity of solar radiation with wavelength and the reflectance spectra of the lunar rocks are studied. We also calculate the reflectivity of lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite at 300 nm, 415 nm, 750 nm, 900 nm, 950 nm and 1000 nm.It is considered that the difference in composition between lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite is so large that separate analyses are needed in the study of the reflectivity of lunar surface materials in the two regions covered by mare basalt and highland anorthosite, and especially in the region with high Th contents, which may be the KREEP-distributed region.

  8. The cordierite- to spinel-cataclasite transition - Structure of the lunar crust (United States)

    Herzberg, C. T.; Baker, M. B.


    A two-layer lunar crust model is proposed in light of geochemical relationships between spinel cataclasites and anorthosites, discussing the relative abundances of these rocks. The uppermost stratigraphic unit of this model consists of members of the anorthositic series, and is estimated to be 12-20 km thick. The lower, Mg-rich unit consists of rocks with cotectic mineralogical proportions, and may constitute the greatest volume of the crust.

  9. Pristine rocks (8th Foray) - 'Plagiophile' element ratios, crustal genesis, and the bulk composition of the moon (United States)

    Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.


    Eu/Al, Sr/Al, Eu/Sr, and similar ratios among pristine lunar nonmare lithologies with implications for nonmare petrogenesis and for the bulk composition of the moon are examined. On a plot of Eu/Al versus mg, ferroan anorthosites are separated from all other pristine nonmare rocks by a considerable gap. A nonrandom process must be invoked to account for the gap in the spectrum of ratios. A single magma probably cannot account for even the Mg-rich pristine rocks subset, based on diversity of plagiophile ratios among samples with similar mg ratios. Plagiophile ratios also constrain the bulk composition of the moon. Plagiophile ratios among ferroan anorthosites exactly match those expected under a model in which ferroan anorthosites formed by flotation of plagioclase cumulates over a primordial 'magmasphere'. Ratios among nonvolatile elements confirm that the moon formed out of materials akin to chondritic meteorites.

  10. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.


    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  11. Microbial community in a precursory scenario of growing Tagetes patula in a lunar greenhouse (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Lytvynenko, T. L.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Estrella-Liopis, V. R.; Borodinova, T. I.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A confined prototype plant-microbial system is elaborated for demonstration of growing pioneer plants in a lunar greenhouse. A precursory scenario of growing Tagetes patula L. in a substrate anorthosite which is similar mineralogically and chemically to lunar silicate rocks includes the use of a microbial community. Microorganisms served for preventive substrate colonization to avoid infection by deleterious microorganisms as well as for bioleaching and delivering of nutritional elements from anorthosite to plants. A model consortium of a siliceous bacterium, biocontrol agents, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided an acceptable growth and blossoming of Tagetes patula L. under growth limiting factors in terrestrial conditions.

  12. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.


    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  13. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation. (United States)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.


    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  14. Metamorphism of siliceous dolomites in the high-grade Precambrian of Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, P.C.C.


    In the Precambrian granulite facies terrain of Rogaland, SW Norway, some small occurrences of marbles are present. They are mainly exposed at three locations A, Band C, at increasing distance from the anorthositic and monzonitic intrusions. The Precambrian basement in Rogaland has undergone several

  15. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.


    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  16. Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar Studies of DHO 908 and 489: Implications for Lunar Crustal History (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Yamaguchi, A.


    It is widely assumed that ferroan anorthosites (FANs) formed as flotation cumulates on a global lunar magma ocean (LMO). A corollary is that all FANs are approximately contemporaneous and formed with the same initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio. Indeed, a whole rock isochron for selected FANs (and An93 anorthosite) yields an isochron age of 4.42 +/- 0.13 Ga and initial Nd-143/Nd-144, expressed in epsilon-units, of epsilon(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.3 relative to the CHondritic Uniform Reservoir , or epsilon(sub Nd,HEDPB)=-0.6+/-0.3 relative to the HED Parent Body. These values are in good agreement with the age (T) = 4.47+/-0.07 Ga, and epsilon(sub Nd,HEDPB) =-0.6 +/- 0.5 for FAN 67075. We also have studied anorthositic clasts in the Dhofar 908 and 489 lunar highland meteorites containing clasts of magnesian anorthosites (MAN) with Mg# approximately 75. Because of their relatively high Mg#, magnesian anorthosites should have preceded most FANs in crystallization from the LMO if both are LMO products. Thus, it is important to determine whether the Nd-isotopic data of MAN and FAN are consistent with a co-magmatic origin. We previously reported Sm-Nd data for white clast Dho 908 WC. Mafic minerals in this clast were too small to be physically separated for an isochron. However, we estimated initial Nd-143/Nd-144 for the clast by combining its bulk ("whole rock") Sm-Nd data with an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-.04 Ga. Here we report additional Sm-Nd data for bulk samples of Dho 908 and its pair Dho 489.

  17. Petrography and mineralogy of new lunar meteorite MIL090036

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Lanfang; CHEN Hongyi; MIAO Bingkui; XIA Zhipeng; YAO Jie


    MIL090036 is a previously unknown meteorite (a feldspathic lunar breccia) that was discovered in Antarctica. The detailed petrography and mineralogy of this meteorite forms the subject of this paper. It has a typical clastic texture that consists of various types of rock debris (e.g. anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, gabbro, regolith breccia, troctolite, microporphyritic crystalline impact melt and compound clasts), mineral crystal fragments (e.g. pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and ilmenite) and feldspathic glass clasts. The ifne-grained recrystallized minerals and mineral clasts are cemented together in a glassy groundmass. The anorthite content of plagioclase in the gabbro (An81-83) and anorthosite (An88-93) both have relatively low calcium content compared to those from other breccias (An90-98). The pyroxene composition (Fs12-35 Wo3-44 En22-79) in the rock debris, crystal mineral clasts and anorthositic glass clasts are relatively iron-deifcient compared to those from gabbro debris with melt glass (Fs37-65 Wo10-29 En21-49) and groundmass (Fs18-69 Wo3-45 En14-50). In contrast, the pyroxene grains in the gabbroic anorthosite display a narrow compositional range (Fs24-27 Wo7-14 En59-69). Olivine grains in mineral fragments and the groundmass have a wider compositional range (Fo57-79) than those in the rock debris (Fo67-77). The Fe/Mn ratio in olivine is in the range of 47 to 83 (average 76) and 76 to 112 (average 73) in pyroxenes, and hence classify within the lunar ifeld. The characteristics of texture, mineral assemblage and compositions suggest that MIL090036 possibly originated from a region beyond that of the Apollo and Luna samples. Further study of MIL090036 is therefore likely to lead to a better understanding of the geological processes on the Moon and the chemical composition of the lunar crust.

  18. Drive tube 60009 - A chemical study of magnetic separates of size fractions from five strata. [lunar soil analysis (United States)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Brown, R. W.


    Each bulk soil and both the magnetic and nonmagnetic components of the 90-150 micron and below 20 micron fractions of five soils from drive tube 60009 were analyzed. Samples were analyzed for FeO, Na2O, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Hf, Ta, Th, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation analysis. Several samples were fused and analyzed for major elements by electron microprobe analysis. Compositional variations are not systematically related to depth. The compositions of the five soils studied are well explained by a two-component mixing model whose end members are a submature Apollo 16-type soil and an extremely immature anorthositic material similar to 60025. There is evidence that the anorthositic component had received a small amount of exposure before these soils were mixed. After mixing, the soils received little exposure suggesting mixing and deposition on a rapid time scale.

  19. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  20. Characterization of crust formation on a parent body of achondrites and the moon by pyroxene crystallography and chemistry (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.; Reid, A. M.


    Single crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques were used to study lunar crustal pyroxenes in a cataclastic norite, a pyroxene-rich clast, and anorthosite lunar samples, and also in meteorites including diogenites, eucrites, and the Yamoto (1) howardite. The crystallographic and chemical characteristics of pyroxenes in these materials are compared and are discussed in terms of the lower stability limit of pigeonite. A mechanical mixing model of howardite is proposed.

  1. Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The current paradigm for lunar evolution is of crystallization of a global scale magma ocean, giving rise to the anorthositic crust and mafic cumulate interior. It is thought that all other lunar rocks have arisen from this differentiated interior. However, until recently this paradigm has remained untested experimentally. Presented here are the first experimental results of fractional crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) using the Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) bulk lunar composition [1].

  2. Gold Deposition by Boiling or Cooling Without Boiling: Genesis of the Sangchon Gold Deposits, Hadong Area, South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maeng - Eon PARK; Kyu - Youl SUNG; Seong - Taek YUN


    In order to understand the mechanism(s) of gold precipitation in the anorthosite- hosted Sangchon gold deposits in the Hadong area, Korea, chemical speciation and reaction path calculations were accomplished by geochemical modeling.The modeling consisted of three- step procedures: reaction with anorthosite, then the simple cooling of the reacted fluid,and finally the boiling of metalliferous fluid. The principal vein minerals of the Sangchon deposits consist of quartz, sericite,kaolinite, pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and acanthite. The sulfide mineralization is typically zoned from pyrite (preferentially at vein margins) to galena and sphalerite (toward vein center). Electrum is intimately associated with pyrite + chalcopyrite and sphalerite. By comparing the results of modeling with the observed mineral assemblages and paragenesis,the most appropriate evolution path of ore fluids was suggested as follow: reaction of a single fluid with anorthosite at 300℃,then the isobaric cooling of the fluid at temperatures from 2500° to 100℃3 , and then the boiling and cooling of the fluid due to the decrease of pressure and temperature. Calculations also show that all of the observed alteration minerals formed due to fluid - anorthosite interaction at early period, whereas most of sulfides and electrum were precipitated mainly due to cooling.The abundance of gold in veins depends critically on the ratio of total base metals plus iron to sulfide in the aqueous phase,because gold is transported as Au(HS)2- whose solubility is very sensitive to the sulfide activity. Our results of geochemical modeling generally fit to the observed mineral assemblages and mineral composition, indicating the usefulness of numerical simulation for elucidating the genesis of gold deposits.

  3. Comparisons of Mineralogy Between Cumulate Eucrites and Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside Anorsothitic Crust (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ohtake, M.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.


    Anorthosites composed of nearly pure anorthite (PAN) at many locations in the farside highlands have been observed by the Kaguya multiband imager and spectral profiler [1]. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites of the Dhofar 489 group [2,3] and Yamato (Y-) 86032 [4], all possibly from the farside highlands, showed some aspects of the farside crust. Nyquist et al. [5] performed Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar studies of pristine ferroan anorthosites (FANs) of the returned Apollo samples and of Dhofar 908 and 489, and discussed implications for lunar crustal history. Nyquist et al. [6] reported initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato (Y-) 980318 cumulate eucrite with a conventional Sm-Nd age of 4567 24 Ma and suggested that all eucrites, including cumulate eucrites, crystallized from parental magmas within a short interval following differentiation of their parent body, and most eucrites participated in an event or events in the time interval 4400- 4560 Ma in which many isotopic systems were partially reset. During the foregoing studies, we recognized that variations in mineralogy and chronology of lunar anorthosites are more complex than those of the crustal materials of the HED parent body. In this study, we compared the mineralogies and reflectance spectra of the cumulate eucrites, Y-980433 and 980318, to those of the Dhofar 307 lunar meteorite of the Dhofar 489 group [2]. Here we consider information from these samples to gain a better understanding of the feldspathic farside highlands and the Vesta-like body.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Middle Proterozoic Laramie anorthsite complex and Sherman Granite, southern Laramie Range, Wyoming and Colorado (United States)

    Harlan, Steve S.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Geissman, John W.; Brearley, Adrian J.


    We present the results of a combined paleomagnetic and Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronologic investigation of the Middle Proterozoic Laramie anorthosite complex and Sherman Granite in the southern Laramie Range of Wyoming and Colorado. Anorthosites and monzosyenites of the Laramie anorthosite complex yield a well-defined characteristic magnetization of northeast declination (D) and moderate negative inclination (I), although antipodal normal and reverse polarity magnetizations are present at three sites. A grand mean direction from 29 of 35 sites in the complex is D = 44.6 deg, I = -48.7 (k = 77.4, alpha(sub 95) = 3.1). Alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization behavior and rock magnetic experiments indicate that magnetization is carried by low-Ti titanomagnetite of single or pseudo-single domain character that occurs as elongate to rod-shaped inclusions in plaglioclase and potassium feldspar. The Sherman Granite contains a dual polarity magnetization that is less well defined than that of the Laramie anorthosite complex but similar in declination and inclination (D = 53.1 deg, I = -48.1, k = 46.5, alpha(sub 95) = 7.6, n = 8/14 sites); rock magnetic data indicate the primary carrier of remanence in Sherman Granite is magnetite. The Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronologic data from Sherman Granite hornblende, biotite, and microline indicate that subsolidus cooling was moderate to relatively rapid through the range of temperatures over which magnetization was blocked and that the age of remanence is about 1415 Ma. Microline data indicate that the Laramie anorthosite complex and Sherman Granite have probably not been thermally remagnetized. Paleomagnetic poles from the Laramie anothosite complex and Sherman Granite are indistinguish- able at the 95% confidence level, and individual virtual geomegnetic poles (VGPs) from both units are combined to provide a mean pole at 215.0 deg E, 6.7 deg S (K = 46.9, Alpha(sub 95) = 3.5 deg, N = 37 VGPs) The location of this pole is similar to

  5. The apollo 16 lunar samples: petrographic and chemical description. (United States)


    The preliminary characterization of the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site has substantiated the inference that the lunar terra are commonly underlain by plagioclase-rich or anorthositic rocks. No evidence has been found for volcanic rocks underlying the regolith in the Apollo 16 region. In their place, we have found anorthositic rocks that are thoroughly modified by crushing and partial melting. The textural and chemical variations in these rocks provide some evidence for the existence of anorthositic complexes that have differentiated on a scale of tens to hundreds of meters. The occurrence of deep-seated or plutonic rocks in place of volcanic or pyroclastic materials at this site suggests that the inference from physiographic evidence that the latter materials are widespread in terra regions may be incorrect. Several additional, more specific conclusions derived from this preliminary examination are: 1) The combination of data from the Descartes region with data from the orbital x-ray fluorescence experiment indicates that some backside, highland regions are underlain by materials that consist of more than 80 percent plagioclase. 2) The soil or upper regolith between North Ray and South Ray has not been completely homogenized since the time of formation of these craters. 3) The chemistry of the soil indicates that rocks rich in potassium, uranium, and thorium, similar to those that prevail at the Fra Mauro site, are relatively abundant (10 to 20 percent) in the Descartes region. 4) The K/U ratio of the lunar crust is similar to that of the KREEP basalts. 5) The carbon content of the premare lunar crust is even lower than that of the mare volcanic rocks. PMID:17731624

  6. The Moon: Determining Minerals and their Abundances with Mid-IR Spectral Deconvolution II (United States)

    Kozlowski, Richard W.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Sprague, A. L.; Grosse, F. A.; Boop, T. S.; Warell, J.; Boccafola, K.


    We determine the mineral compositions and abundances at three locations on the lunar surface using an established spectral deconvolution algorithm (Ramsey 1996, Ph.D. Dissertation, ASU; Ramsey and Christiansen 1998, JGR 103, 577-596) for mid-infrared spectral libraries of mineral separates of varying grain sizes. Spectral measurements of the lunar surface were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI with Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI). Our chosen locations, Aristarchus, Grimaldi and Mersenius C, have been previously observed in the VIS near-IR from ground-based telescopes and spacecraft (Zisk et al. 1977, The Moon 17, 59-99; Hawke et al. 1993, GRL 20, 419-422; McEwen et al. 1994, Science 266, 1858-1862; Peterson et al. 1995, 22, 3055-3058; Warell et al. 2006, Icarus 180, 281-291), however there are no sample returns for analysis. Surface mineral deconvolutions of the Grimaldi Basin infill are suggestive of anorthosite, labradorite, orthopyroxene, olivine, garnet and phosphate. Peterson et al. (1995) indicated the infill of Grimaldi Basin has a noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite composition. Our spectral deconvolution supports these results. Modeling of other lunar locations is underway. We have also successfully modeled laboratory spectra of HED meteorites, Vesta, and Mercury (see meteorites and mercurian abstracts this meeting). These results demonstrate the spectral deconvolution method to be robust for making mineral identifications on remotely observed objects, in particular main-belt asteroids, the Moon, and Mercury. This work was funded by NSF AST406796.

  7. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon (United States)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)


    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  8. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等


    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  9. Metamorphism of siliceous dolomites in the high-grade Precambrian of Rogaland, SW Norway


    Sauter, P.C.C.


    In the Precambrian granulite facies terrain of Rogaland, SW Norway, some small occurrences of marbles are present. They are mainly exposed at three locations A, Band C, at increasing distance from the anorthositic and monzonitic intrusions. The Precambrian basement in Rogaland has undergone several high-grade metamorphic events: MI around 1200 Ma, the granulite facies M2 around 1050 Ma and M3 around 950 Ma. Late retrogressive events M4a and M4b have a Caledonian age. The marbles belong to the...

  10. Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the moon (United States)

    Clark, R.N.


    Data from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIAAS) on Cassini during its flyby of the AAoon in 1999 show a broad absorption at 3 micrometers due to adsorbed water and near 2.8 micrometers attributed to hydroxyl in the sunlit surface on the AAoon. The amounts of water indicated in the spectra depend on the type of mixing and the grain sizes in the rocks and soils but could be 10 to 1000 parts per million and locally higher. Water in the polar regions may be water that has migrated to the colder environments there. Trace hydroxyl is observed in the anorthositic highlands at lower latitudes.

  11. Recalibrated mariner 10 color mosaics: Implications for mercurian volcanism (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Lucey, P.G.


    Recalibration of Mariner 10 color image data allows the identification of distinct color units on the mercurian surface. We analyze these data in terms of opaque mineral abundance, iron content, and soil maturity and find color units consistent with the presence of volcanic deposits on Mercury's surface. Additionally, materials associated with some impact craters have been excavated from a layer interpreted to be deficient in opaque minerals within the crust, possibly analogous to the lunar anorthosite crust. These observations suggest that Mercury has undergone complex differentiation like the other terrestrial planets and the Earth's moon.

  12. Pyroxene-spinel intergrowths in lunar and terrestrial pyroxenes (United States)

    Okamura, F. P.; Mccallum, I. S.; Stroh, J. M.; Ghose, S.


    The paper describes the oriented intergrowth of spinel and pyroxene in a pigeonite from Luna 20, an augite from Apollo 16 anorthosite 67075, and an orthopyroxene from a spinel lherzolite nodule from the San Quintin volcanic field, Mexico. Using Mo K alpha radiation, photographs were taken of small, hand-picked single-crystals. A mechanism of exsolution is suggested in which the oxygen framework remains intact and spinel nuclei are formed by the migration of cations from interstitial sites and tetrahedral sites in the original non-stoichiometric pyroxene.

  13. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  14. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  15. The Lunar Magma Ocean: Sharpening the Focus on Process and Composition (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted model for the formation of the lunar anorthositic crust is by flotation from a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) shortly following lunar accretion. Anorthositic crust is globally distributed and old, whereas the mare basalts are younger and derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made [e.g. 1, 2], but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. This abstract presents results from our ongoing ex-periments simulating LMO crystallization and address-ing a range of variables. We investigate two bulk com-positions, which span most of the range of suggested lunar bulk compositions, from the refractory element enriched Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [3] to the more Earth-like Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [4]. We also investigate two potential crystallization mod-els: Fully fractional, where crystallizing phases are separated from the magma as they form and sink (or float in the case of plagioclase) throughout magma ocean solidification; and a two-step process suggested by [1, 5] with an initial stage of equilibrium crystalliza-tion, where crystals remain entrained in the magma before the crystal burden increases viscosity enough that convection slows and the crystals settle, followed by fractional crystallization. Here we consider the frac-tional crystallization part of this process; the equilibri-um cumulates having been determined by [6].

  16. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon (United States)

    Wood, J. A.


    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  17. Moonage Daydream: Reassessing the Simple Model for Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    Details of the differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) remain enigmatic, as the Moon is not simply composed of highlands anorthosite and a suite of mare basalts as inferred from early studies. Results from recent orbital missions, and the increasingly detailed study of lunar samples, have revealed a much larger range of lithologies, from relatively MgO-rich and "purest anorthosite" discovered on the lunar far side by the M3 instrument on Chandraayan-1 to more exotic lithologies such as Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts distributed globally. To understand this increasingly complex geology, we must understand the initial formation and evolution of the LMO, and the composition of the cumulates this differentiation could have produced. Several attempts at modelling such a crystallization sequence have been made, and have raised as many questions as they have answered. We present results from our ongoing experimental simulations of magma ocean crystallization, investigating two end-member bulk compositions (TWM and LPUM) under fully fractional crystallization conditions. These simulations represent melting of the entire silicate portion of the Moon, as an end-member starting point from which to begin assessing the evolution of the lunar interior and formation of the lunar crust.

  18. Bacterial cellulose may provide the microbial-life biosignature in the rock records (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Podolich, O.; Kukharenko, O.; Reshetnyak, G.; Shpylova, S.; Sosnin, M.; Khirunenko, L.; Kozyrovska, N.; de Vera, J.-P.


    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a matrix for a biofilm formation, which is critical for survival and persistence of microbes in harsh environments. BC could play a significant role in the formation of microbial mats in pristine ecosystems on Earth. The prime objective of this study was to measure to what extent spectral and other characteristics of BC were changed under the performance of BC interaction with the earthly rock - anorthosite - via microorganisms. The spectral analyses (Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR, spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy) showed unprecedented accumulation of chemical elements in the BC-based biofilm. The absorption capacity of IR by BC was shielded a little by mineral crust formed by microorganisms on the BC-based biofilm surface, especially clearly seen in the range of 1200-900 cm-1 in FT-IR spectra. Confocal scanning laser microscopy analysis revealed that elements bioleached from anorthosite created surface coats on the BC nanofibril web. At the same time, the vibrational spectra bands showed the presence of the characteristic region of anomeric carbons (960-730 cm-1), wherein a band at 897 cm-1 confirmed the presence of β-1, 4-linkages, which may serve as the cellulose fingerprint region. Results show that BC may be a biosignature for search signs of living organisms in rock records.

  19. Ancient selenophysical structure over the Grimaldi cater: Constraints from GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography (United States)

    Zhong, Zhen


    The Grimaldi impact crater is located near the western limb of the moon and lies to the southwest of the Oceanus Procellarum. A clearly visible positive gravity anomaly exists in its low-lying inner wall, implying a subsurface mass concentration beneath the crater. Exploration of this crater could extend our meaningful and fundamental understanding of giant impact processes as well as the structure of mare basins/craters. Limited by the low-resolution of previous gravity field models, it was once impossible to explore the structure beneath Grimaldi. The recent high-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission (GRAIL) make it possible to break through this barrier. Prior to our investigation of the selenophysical structure of the Grimaldi crater, we developed a flexure model that includes surface and subsurface loads. An admittance analysis was performed by combining high-resolution gravity data with the high-resolution topography data obtained from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Within 1σ _{STD} error constraints, we estimated the best-fit parameters over the crater Grimaldi as well as two other locations in its neighborhood. All the predicted admittance spectra closely matched their corresponding observations, indicating the feasibility of our model. The large load ratio (˜ 2.0) found at the Grimaldi crater site is an indirect mirror of the dominant subsurface load, consistent with its large positive gravity anomaly in its low-lying floor. All the locations observed have a crustal thickness around the minimum value (34 km) found in the recent highland crust; while the crustal density (2820 kg/m ^{3}) of Grimaldi lies between the densities of anorthosite and norite, implying that a possible ancient anorthositic highland crust existed around Grimaldi. It also suggests a mixed crust from the anorthositic upper and noritic lower crusts, revealing an excavated upper crust during the cratering impact process. All the

  20. Molybdenite Re-Os dating of biotite dehydration melting in the Rogaland high-temperature granulites, S Norway (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly


    The ability of the Re-Os system in molybdenite to record and preserve the age of granulite-facies metamorphism in polymetamorphic belts is tested using the Ørsdalen W-Mo district, Rogaland, S Norway. A low-pressure high-temperature granulite-facies domain, displaying osumilite and pigeonite isograds, is exposed around the 931±2 Ma Rogaland anorthosite complex. Available U-Pb monazite and zircon data show that a 0.93 Ga contact metamorphism overprints a 1.03-0.97 Ga regional Sveconorwegian metamorphism in the gneiss basement. Molybdenite and scheelite in the Ørsdalen district occur in orthopyroxene-bearing leucocratic veins parallel to the regional foliation. The veins are interpreted as migmatic leucosomes formed by fluid-absent incongruent melting of the biotite-rich host rock above ca. 800°C, producing a granulite-facies orthopyroxene±garnet residual assemblage. Molybdenite is interpreted as a product of the melting reaction, crystallized from trace amounts of Mo released from biotite in the host rock during partial melting. Four Re-Os analyses of molybdenite from three samples representing two mines yield an isochron age of 973±4 Ma. The isochroneity of the data indicates that the precipitation of molybdenite and the partial melting event are recorded on the district scale. The Re-Os system in molybdenite was not affected by subsequent 0.93 Ga contact metamorphism, corresponding to formation of garnet+quartz coronitic textures around molybdenite and other minerals in the deposits. The results indicate that granulite-facies conditions prevailed at 973±4 Ma, near the end of a protracted event of regional metamorphism (1.03-0.97 Ga). Biotite dehydration melting recorded in Ørsdalen took place at a pressure of ca. 5.5 kbar (orthopyroxene-garnet-plagioclase-quartz thermobarometry), possibly in association with regional decompression. The study shows that granulite-facies metamorphism (0.97 Ga) took place before intrusion of massif-type anorthosites in

  1. The Effect of Thermal Cycling on Crystal-Liquid Separation During Lunar Magma Ocean Differentiation (United States)

    Mills, Ryan D.


    Differentiation of magma oceans likely involves a mixture of fractional and equilibrium crystallization [1]. The existence of: 1) large volumes of anorthosite in the lunar highlands and 2) the incompatible- rich (KREEP) reservoir suggests that fractional crystallization may have dominated during differentiation of the Moon. For this to have occurred, crystal fractionation must have been remarkably efficient. Several authors [e.g. 2, 3] have hypothesized that equilibrium crystallization would have dominated early in differentiation of magma oceans because of crystal entrainment during turbulent convection. However, recent numerical modeling [4] suggests that crystal settling could have occurred throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean if crystals were large and crystal fraction was low. These results indicate that the crystal size distribution could have played an important role in differentiation of the lunar magma ocean. Here, I suggest that thermal cycling from tidal heating during lunar magma ocean crystallization caused crystals to coarsen, leading to efficient crystal-liquid separation.

  2. Experimental validation of XRF inversion code for Chandrayaan-1

    CERN Document Server

    Athiray, P S; Tiwari, M K; Narendranath, S; Lodha, G S; Deb, S K; Sreekumar, P; Dash, S K


    We have developed an algorithm (x2abundance) to derive the lunar surface chemistry from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data for the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) experiment. The algorithm converts the observed XRF line fluxes to elemental abundances with uncertainties. We validated the algorithm in the laboratory using high Z elements (20 < Z < 30) published in Athiray et al. (2013). In this paper, we complete the exercise of validation using samples containing low Z elements, which are also analogous to the lunar surface composition (ie., contains major elements between 11 < Z < 30). The paper summarizes results from XRF experiments performed on Lunar simulant (JSC-1A) and anorthosite using a synchrotron beam excitation. We also discuss results from the validation of x2abundance using Monte Carlo simulation (GEANT4 XRF simulation).

  3. Asymmetrical magnetic fabrics in the Egersund doleritic dike swarm (SW Norway) reveal sinistral oblique rifting before the opening of the Iapetus (United States)

    Montalbano, Salvatrice; Diot, Hervé; Bolle, Olivier


    The 616 ± 3 Ma (Ediacaran) Egersund doleritic dike swarm cuts across the Rogaland anorthosite province and its granulitic country rocks, in SW Norway. The structure of eight out of eleven main dikes of the swarm was investigated using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. Thermomagnetic data and values of the bulk magnetic susceptibility reveal a magnetic mineralogy dominated by Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Magnetic fabric and global petrofabric are coaxial, except in sites strongly affected by hydrothermal alteration, as demonstrated through image analysis. Asymmetrical dispositions of the magnetic foliation and lineation support the existence of a syn-emplacement, sinistral strike-slip shearing resolved on dike walls. Such asymmetrical fabrics are attributed to a transtension tectonic regime, in a context of oblique extension during the continental rifting phase which preceded the opening of the Iapetus Ocean along the SW margin (present-day orientation) of Baltica.

  4. New evidence for chemical fractionation of radioactive xenon precursors in fission chains (United States)

    Meshik, A. P.; Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.


    Mass-spectrometric analyses of Xe released from acid-treated U ore reveal that apparent Xe fission yields significantly deviate from the normal values. The anomalous Xe structure is attributed to chemically fractionated fission (CFF), previously observed only in materials experienced neutron bursts. The least retentive CFF-Xe isotopes, 136Xe and 134Xe, typically escape in 2:1 proportion. Xe retained in the sample is complimentarily depleted in these isotopes. This nucleochemical process allows understanding of unexplained Xe isotopic structures in several geophysical environments, which include well gasses, ancient anorthosite, some mantle rocks, as well as terrestrial atmosphere. CFF is likely responsible for the isotopic difference in Xe in the Earth's and Martian atmospheres and it is capable of explaining the relationship between two major solar system Xe carriers: the Sun and phase-Q, found in meteorites.

  5. Mesoarchean Gabbroanorthosite Magmatism of the Kola Region (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Mokrushin, A.


    The Kola peninsula is the region marked with development of anorthosite magmatism in the NE Baltic Shield. The Archaean gabbroanorthosites intrusions - Tsaginsky, Achinsky and Medvezhe-Schucheozersky - have the age of 2.7-2.6 Ga (Bayanova, 2004). The Patchemvarek and Severny gabbroanorthosites intrusions are located in the junction zone of the Kolmozero-Voronja greenstone belt and the Murmansk domain. Age data for sedimentaryvolcanogenic rocks of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt and Murmansk domain granitoids are 2.8-2.7 Ga. The gabbroanorthosites intrusions have more calcic composition (70-85% An) of normative plagioclase, and low contents of TiO2, FeO, and Fe2O3. In terms of chemical composition, the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs are close to the rocks of the Fiskenesset Complex (Greenland) and to the anorthosites of the Vermillion Lake Complex (Canada). U-Pb zircon dating established Mesoarchean ages of 29257 and 29358 Ma for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs, respectively. It was shown that the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs have fairly low REE contents (Cen = 2.2-4.2, Ybn = 1.6-2.6) and distinct positive Eu anomaly. Comagmatic ultrabasic differentiates have practically unfractionated REE pattern, low total REE contents (Cen = 1.2, Ybn = 1.1, La/Ybn = 1.32), and no Eu anomaly. The studied samples of the Archean gabbroanorthosites are characterized by positive "Nd= + 2.68 for the gabbroanorthosites of the Severny Massif and from + 2.77 to + 1.66 for the Patchemvarek Massif. The rocks of the Severny and Patchemvarek massifs has 87Sr/86Sri = 0.702048 and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70258_8, respectively. The oldest U-Pb zircon ages for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs marking the Mesoarchean stage in the evolution of region. The differences in the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios between the Neoarchean and the Mesoarchean gabbroanorthosites suggest the existence of two mantle sources. One of them produced

  6. Method, instruments, and results of the determination of elements contained in Venusian rock by the Vega-2 interplanetary probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, Y.A.; Dudin, A.D.; Kharyukova, V.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.


    With an x-ray fluorescent spectrometer installed in the lander of the Vega-2 interplanetary station, elements contained in Venusian rock were determined for the northern part of Terra Aphroditae. The composition proved to be most similar to that of rocks of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite (ANT) group which constitute the basis of the moon's continental crust. The determination of the abundance of basic rock-forming elements from Mg to Fe, and also of some heavier rare elements, was carried out by x-ray-radiometry with the use of instruments installed in the lander. The measuring element included three radioisotope sources (one source of plutonium-238 and two sources of iron-55), four gas-discharge proportional counters, and soil collectors in which was placed the rock material to be analyzed.

  7. Experimental Simulations of Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: The Plot (But Not the Crust) Thickens (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Rapp, J. F.; Elardo, S. M.; Shearer, C. K., Jr.; Neal, C. R.


    Numerical models of differentiation of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) have raised as many questions as they have answered. Recent orbital missions and sample studies have provided new context for a large range of lithologies, from the comparatively magnesian "purest anorthosite" reported by to Si-rich domes and spinel-rich clasts with widespread areal distributions. In addition, the GRAIL mission provided strong constraints on lunar crustal density and average thickness. Can this increasingly complex geology be accounted for via the formation and evolution of the LMO? We have in recent years been conducting extensive sets of petrologic experiments designed to fully simulate LMO crystallization, which had not been attempted previously. Here we review the key results from these experiments, which show that LMO differentiation is more complex than initial models suggested. Several important features expected from LMO crystallization models have yet to be reproduced experimentally; combined modelling and experimental work by our group is ongoing.

  8. Identification of a New Spinel-Rich Lunar Rock Type by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M (sup 3)) (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J. P.; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L. A.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.


    The canonical characterization of the lunar crust is based principally on available Apollo, Luna, and meteorite samples. The crust is described as an anorthosite-rich cumulate produced by the lunar magma ocean that has been infused with a mix of Mgsuite components. These have been mixed and redistributed during the late heavy bombardment and basin forming events. We report a new rock-type detected on the farside of the Moon by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 that does not easily fit with current crustal evolution models. The rock-type is dominated by Mg-spinel with no detectible pyroxene or olivine present (<5%). It occurs along the western inner ring of Moscoviense Basin as one of several discrete areas that exhibit unusual compositions relative to their surroundings but without morphological evidence for separate processes leading to exposure.

  9. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Chronology of surface history of the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Leake, M. A.


    The sequence of events is described that occurred from the time that the ancient lunar crust solidified (about 4.4. billion years ago) and anorthositic high lands dominated the surface, until the global contraction (cooling) that began around 3.3 billion years ago when late stage basalts were emplaced at basin margins where fractures penetrated to subsurface tensional zones. The lunar intercrater plains may be linked with early KREEP volcanism, the LKFM basalt source region, and the first stages of mare volcanism. Ages of KREEP bracket the possible ages of the pre-Imbrian plains, and overlap the initial stages of mare basalt emplacement. Both plains are extruded under the same tensional tectonic regime.

  10. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  11. The Dongcaohe ophiolite from the North Qilian Mountains: A fossil oceanic crust of the Paleo-Qilian ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Dongcaohe ophiolite, located at the south of the North Qilian subduction complexes, is a tectonic block with an exposed area of about 3 km×6 km. It consists of an intrusive section overlain by an extrusive section. The lower part of the intrusive section consists of cyclic layers of cumulate dunites, troctolites, anorthosites, anorthositic gabbros, and gabbros with small discordant dunite and troctolite bodies. This layered sequence grades upward to isotropic gabbros and gabbronorites, which are overlain by the extrusive sequence of diabasic sheeted dikes and basaltic lavas. The overall mineral crystallization sequence was olivine±Cr-spinel, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides. The Cr-spinel (Mg#: 42-66, Cr#: 41-57) in these layered cumulates and present-day abyssal peridotites have similar compositions. Also, the compositional variations of the plagioclase and clinopyroxene in the intrusive section reflect crystallization from melts compositionally similar to the present-day ocean basalts. Moreover, the rare earth element (REE) and multi-element distribution patterns of the intrusive and extrusive lithologies in the Dongcaohe ophiolite are consistent with crystallization of mid-ocean ridge basalts. The zircon grains separated from the gabbronorite have an SHRIMP average 206Pb/238U weighted age of 497 ± 7 Ma, which is considered as the tectonic emplacement age of the Dongcaohe ophiolite. The field occurrence, mineral and whole-rock compositions indicate that the Dongcaohe ophiolite represents a well-persevered oceanic crustal fragment composed of a complete oceanic crustal section of layered cumulates at bottom upgrading through isotropic cumulates to sheeted dikes and lava flows.

  12. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.


    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  13. The origin of the 1.73-1.70 Ga anorogenic Ulkan volcano-plutonic complex, Siberian platform, Russia: inferences from geochronological, geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic data (United States)

    Larin, A.M.; Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Krymsky, R. Sh


    The Ulkan volcano-plutonic complex, a part of a 750 km Bilyakchian-Ulkan anorogenic belt, is located in the eastern part of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Aldan shield. The tectonic position and geochemistry indicate that the Ulkan Complex is a typical A-type or intraplate magmatic association. The felsic volcanics of the Uian Group and granitoids of the North Uchur Massif, the major igneous components of the Ulkan Complex, have U-Pb zircon and monazite ages between 1721±1 Ma and 1703±18 Ma. Together with the spatially associated 1736±6 Ma Dzhugdzhur anorthosite massif, the Ulkan Complex forms a typical Proterozoic anorthosite-granite-volcanic association with the minimum duration of formation of 12 m.y. Initial εNd values between 0 and 1.1, similar for the Uian felsic volcanics, early granitoid phases of the North Uchur Massif and high-grade metamorphic basement rocks, indicate, along with geochemical data, that the crustal source of the Ulkan parental magmas may be similar to the basement rocks. The higher εNd(T) values of -0.3 to +1.9 in the later North Uchur granitoids and associated ore-bearing metasomatites, and relatively low time-integrated Rb/Sr, U/Pb, and Th/U estimated for their sources, may demonstrate involvement of variable amounts of a depleted mantle-derived component in the generation of later phases of the North Uchur Massif. The preferred model of formation of magmas parental to the Ulkan Complex involves thermal interaction of an uprising mantle diapir with Paleoproterozoic lower crust, which was accompanied by chemical interaction between a fluid derived from the diapir, with the lower crustal rocks.

  14. Rodinia: Supercontinent's poster child or problem child? (United States)

    Cawood, Peter; Hawkesworth, Chris


    Earth's rock record extending from 1.7 to 0.75 Ga, that period encompassing the entire Rodinian supercontinent cycle and the latter part of Nuna cycle, and corresponding with Earth's Middle Age, is characterized by environmental, evolutionary and lithospheric stability that contrasts with the dramatic changes in preceding and succeeding eras. The period is marked by a paucity of passive margins, an absence of a significant Sr anomaly in the paleoseawater record or in the epsilon Hf(t) in detrital zircon, a lack of orogenic gold and volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits, and an absence of glacial deposits and of iron formations. In contrast, anorthosites and kindred bodies are well developed and major pulses of Mo and Cu mineralization, including the world's largest examples of these deposits, are features of this period. These trends are attributed to the combined effects of lithospheric behavior related to secular cooling of the mantle and a relatively stable continental assemblage that was initiated during assembly of the Nuna supercontinent by ~1.7 Ga and continued until breakup of its closely related successor, Rodinia, around 0.75 Ga. The overall low abundance of passive margins within this timeframe is consistent with a stable continental configuration, which also provided a framework for environmental and evolutionary stability. A series of convergent margin accretionary orogens developed along the margin of the supercontinent as evidenced by rock sequences preserved in dispersed fragments in Australia, Antarctica, Amazonia, Baltica and Laurentia. Abundant anorthosites and related rocks developed inboard of the plate margin. Their temporal distribution appears to link with the secular cooling of the mantle in which the overlying continental lithosphere was then strong enough to be thickened, during either low angle subduction or post-subduction collision, and to support the emplacement of large plutons into the crust, yet the underlying mantle was still

  15. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts (United States)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard


    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  16. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.


    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  17. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  18. Origin of the giant Allard Lake ilmenite ore deposit (Canada) by fractional crystallization, multiple magma pulses and mixing (United States)

    Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Malpas, Simon; de Marneffe, Cédric; Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Bolle, Olivier


    The late-Proterozoic Allard Lake ilmenite deposit is located in the Havre-Saint-Pierre anorthosite complex, part of the allochtonous polycyclic belt of the Grenville Province. Presently the world's largest Fe-Ti oxide deposit, it had a pre-mining amount in excess of 200 Mt at grades over 60 wt.% hemo-ilmenite. The main ore body is a funnel-shaped intrusion, measuring 1.03 × 1.10 km and 100-300 m-thick. Two smaller bodies are separated by faults and anorthosite. The ore is an ilmenite-rich norite (or ilmenitite) made up of hemo-ilmenite (Hem 22.6-29.4, 66.2 wt.% on average), andesine plagioclase (An 45-50), aluminous spinel and locally orthopyroxene. Whole-rock chemical compositions are controlled by the proportions of ilmenite and plagioclase ± orthopyroxene which supports the cumulate origin of the deposit. Ore-forming processes are further constrained by normal and reverse fractionation trends of Cr concentration in cumulus ilmenite that reveal multiple magma emplacements and alternating periods of fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Mixing of magmas produced hybrids located in the stability field of ilmenite resulted in periodic crystallization of ilmenite alone. The unsystematic differentiation trends in the Allard Lake deposit, arising from a succession of magma pulses, hybridisation, and the fractionation of hemo-ilmenite alone or together with plagioclase suggest that the deposit formed within a magma conduit. This dynamic emplacement mechanism associated with continuous gravity driven accumulation of Fe-Ti oxides and possibly plagioclase buoyancy in a fractionating ferrobasalt explains the huge concentration of hemo-ilmenite. The occurrence of sapphirine associated with aluminous spinel and high-alumina orthopyroxene (7.6-9.1 wt.% Al 2O 3) lacking exsolved plagioclase supports the involvement of a metamorphic overprint during the synchronous Ottawan orogeny, which is also responsible for strong textural equilibration and external granule of

  19. A review of structural patterns and melting processes in the Archean craton of West Greenland: Evidence for crustal growth at convergent plate margins as opposed to non-uniformitarian models (United States)

    Polat, Ali; Wang, Lu; Appel, Peter W. U.


    The Archean craton of West Greenland consists of many fault-bounded Eoarchean to Neoarchean tectonic terranes (crustal blocks). These tectonic terranes are composed mainly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, granitic gneisses, metavolcanic-dominated supracrustal belts, layered anorthositic complexes, and late- to post-tectonic granites. Rock assemblages and geochemical signatures in these terranes suggest that they represent fragments of dismembered oceanic island arcs, consisting mainly of TTG plutons, tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts, boninites, picrites, and cumulate layers of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, leucogabbros and anorthosites, with minor sedimentary rocks. The structural characteristics of the terrane boundaries are consistent with the assembly of these island arcs through modern style of horizontal tectonics, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland grew at convergent plate margins. Several supracrustal belts that occur at or near the terrane boundaries are interpreted as relict accretionary prisms. The terranes display fold and thrust structures and contain numerous 10 cm to 20 m wide bifurcating, ductile shear zones that are characterized by a variety of structures including transposed and redistributed isoclinal folds. Geometrically these structures are similar to those occurring on regional scales, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland can be interpreted as a continental scale accretionary complex, such as the Paleozoic Altaids. Melting of metavolcanic rocks during tectonic thickening in the arcs played an important role in the generation of TTGs. Non-uniformitarian models proposed for the origin of Archean terranes have no analogs in the geologic record and are inconsistent with structural, lithological, petrological and geochemical data collected from Archean terranes over the last four decades. The style of deformation and generation of felsic rocks on outcrop scales in the Archean craton of West

  20. The Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.


    The Apollo 16 regolith consists of a large amount of material derived from the prebasin crust, i.e., (1) plutonic ferroan anorthosite and brecciated derivatives (>90% plagioclase), (2) a variety of noritic anor-thosites (plutonic, feldspathic fragmental breccias [FFBs], granulitic breccias [GrBs], feldspathic impact-melt breccias), and (3) a minor amount of gabbronorites of highland affinity. However, the site is sufficiently close to nearside mare basins that the regolith also contains a substantial fraction of basin ejecta as well as some mare-derived materials (MDMs) delivered to the site by volcanism and impacts since filling of the basins with mare basalt. These syn- and postbasin products include (4) mafic impact-melt breccias [MIMBs, i.e., "LKFM" and "VHA"], (5) MDMS, i.e., glasses and some crystalline mare basalt, and (6) meteoritic material (largely from micrometeorites) accumulated in the regolith since basin for-ma-tion ~3.9 Ga ago. The MIMBs, which are rich in incompatible trace elements, were formed during the time of basin formation by impacts large enough to penetrate the outer feldspathic crust and melt mafic underlying material, although not all of the several known varieties at the Apollo 16 site may actually have been formed by impacts that produced basins. The Central Highlands, as sampled by the Apollo 16 mission, differs from highlands regions distant from mare basins in its high abundance of mafic syn- and postbasin material. For example, some feldspathic lunar meteorites (ALHA81005, Yamato-86032, MAC 88104/5, QUE93069) contain virtually no MDMSor MIMBs.

  1. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.


    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  2. Connecting Lunar Meteorites to Source Terrains on the Moon (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Carpenter, P. K.; Korotev, R. L.; North-Valencia, S. N.; Wittmann, A.; Zeigler, R. A.


    The number of named stones found on Earth that have proven to be meteorites from the Moon is approx. 180 so far. Since the Moon has been mapped globally in composition and mineralogy from orbit, it has become possible to speculate broadly on the region of origin on the basis of distinctive compositional characteristics of some of the lunar meteorites. In particular, Lunar Prospector in 1998 [1,2] mapped Fe and Th at 0.5 degree/pixel and major elements at 5 degree/pixel using gamma ray spectroscopy. Also, various multispectral datasets have been used to derive FeO and TiO2 concentrations at 100 m/pixel spatial resolution or better using UV-VIS spectral features [e.g., 3]. Using these data, several lunar meteorite bulk compositions can be related to regions of the Moon that share their distinctive compositional characteristics. We then use EPMA to characterize the petrographic characteristics, including lithic clast components of the meteorites, which typically are breccias. In this way, we can extend knowledge of the Moon's crust to regions beyond the Apollo and Luna sample-return sites, including sites on the lunar farside. Feldspathic Regolith Breccias. One of the most distinctive general characteristics of many lunar meteorites is that they have highly feldspathic compositions (Al2O3 approx. 28% wt.%, FeO Moon's farside highlands, the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, which are characterized by low Fe and Th in remotely sensed data [4]. The meteorites provide a perspective on the lithologic makeup of this part of the Moon, specifically, how anorthositic is the surface and what, if any, are the mafic lithic components? These meteorites are mostly regolith breccias dominated by anorthositic lithic clasts and feldspathic glasses, but they do also contain a variety of more mafic clasts. On the basis of textures, we infer these clasts to have formed by large impacts that excavated and mixed rocks from depth within the lunar crust and possibly the upper mantle. One of the

  3. Monzonitoids as indicator of intrachamber fractionation exemplified by Nui Chua complex (Nothern Vietnam) (United States)

    Shelepaev, R. A.; Polyakov, G. V.; Hung, T. Q.; Hoa, T. T.; Phuong, N. T.; Izokh, A. E.; Nien, B. A.


    A characteristic feature of various geodynamic settings is the presence genetically related basic, intermediate and acid intrusive rocks. Our investigations have focused on the study of intermediate and basic rocks with increased alkali content. These rocks are known as monzogabbro, monzonite, monzodiorite, mangerite or syenodiorite among the Precambrian anorthositic complexes, of the Caledonian fold structures (Siberia, Norway), among the intrusions associated with subduction zones, as well as in the intrusions associated with Permian and Triassic large igneous provinces (LIP), (Siberian and Emeyshan LIP). We focused on the study of complex Nui Chua (NC), which have the same age with the mafic magmatism associated with Emeyshan LIP. The structure of the N intrusion was traditionally determinate as lherzolite-wehrlite-troctolitic layered rocks, anorthosite-leicogabbronorit pegmatoid, mezogabbronorite, rocks of the marginal series. The small (up to 10 sq. km) intrusions consist of biotite gabbros, monzogabbro, monzogabbronorite and monzodiorite. These rocks are composed of the western part of the NC intrusion. The material composition of these intrusions has not been adequately studied. NC layered series is accompanied by sulphide PGE-Cu-Ni mineralization in rocks. Marginal rocks are accompanied by ilmenite mineralization (Kay Cham deposit in NE contact of the NC intrusion). Disseminated ilmenite is also observed in the rocks of the western part of the NC intrusion and Co Lam and Son Dau intrusions. To date, one of the questions about of the complex is the relationship between NC layered series rocks with monzodiorite of small intrusions. What is kind of this relationship: petrogenetic or they are two independent magmatic events? Thus, the petrographic data show the differences between the layered series of the NC intrusion and monzonitoids of satellite intrusions. However, mineralogical, petrochemical and geochemical data show that monzonitoids may be genetically

  4. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants (United States)

    Street, Kenneth; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug


    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Themo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with mass spectrometric (MS) determination of evolved gas species yields chemical information on various oxygenated volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus oxides) and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGAMS studies included JSC-1A fine, NU-LHT-2M and its proposed feed stocks: anorthosite; dunite; HQ (high quality) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. Fig 1 is a data profile for anorthosite. The DTA (Fig 1a) indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water (Molecular Weight, MW, 18 in Fig 1c) is lost accounting for approximately 0.1% mass loss due to water removal (Fig 1b). Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals. Between 490 and the 970 transition other volatile oxides are lost including those of hydrogen (third water type), carbon (MW = 44), sulfur (MW = 64 and 80), nitrogen (MW 30 and 46) and possibly phosphorus (MW = 79, 95 or 142). Peaks at MW = 35 and 19 may be attributable to loss of chlorine and fluorine respectively. Negative peaks in the NO (MW = 30) and oxygen (MW = 32) MS profiles may indicate the production of NO2 (MW = 46). Because so many compounds are volatilized in this temperature range quantification of

  5. Absolute calibration of the Chans'E-1 IIM camera and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YunZhao; XU XiSheng; XIE ZhiDong; TANG ZeSheng


    The interference imaging spectroradiometer (IIM) onboard the first lunar satellite of China "Chang'E-l" can now provide approximately global high spectral and spatial resolution reflectance spectra of the Moon. It is the essential instrument with which to accomplish one of the four missions of the first lunar satellite of China. As the current data provided by the Lunar Exploration Program Center and National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC) are not reflectance and the sensor response is inhomogeneous in the line direction, users can not use the current data directly. Moreover, due to the narrow band range,IIM data cannot cover the absorption peak of the mafic minerals of the Moon completely, which limits its ability for identifying minerals. The main objective of this study is to describe the methods for absolute calibration, correction and acquiring the absorption center of minerals for IIM data. The results from our study show that in the space domain the sensor response decreases toward the left, and in the spectral domain the response of the longer bands is more inhomogeneous than that of the shorter bands. After the calibration and correction, the reflectance of IIM matches the earth-based telescopic spectra well,which suggests the possible use of the processed data in the geological research. A high correlation was found between the absorption center and the wavelength at which the first derivative equals 0, i.e.,the so-called Stagnation Point in the mathematical sense. In the end, we show a preliminary applied study of the two craters with diameter larger than 35 km using the calibrated data. The spectra of IIM data show that the lunar crust has compositional diversity within the km scale. Pure anorthosite may be found on the wall and floor of the Aristarchus crater with the map of absorption center, which indicates that anorthosite is ubiquitously present within the lunar crust. IIM, with its capacity to acquire lunar composition at the regional and

  6. Absolute calibration of the Chang’E-1 IIM camera and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interference imaging spectroradiometer (IIM) onboard the first lunar satellite of China "Chang’E-1" can now provide approximately global high spectral and spatial resolution reflectance spectra of the Moon. It is the essential instrument with which to accomplish one of the four missions of the first lunar satellite of China. As the current data provided by the Lunar Exploration Program Center and National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC) are not reflectance and the sensor response is inhomogeneous in the line direction,users can not use the current data directly. Moreover,due to the narrow band range,IIM data cannot cover the absorption peak of the mafic minerals of the Moon completely,which limits its ability for identifying minerals. The main objective of this study is to describe the methods for absolute calibration,correction and acquiring the absorption center of minerals for IIM data. The results from our study show that in the space domain the sensor response decreases toward the left,and in the spectral domain the response of the longer bands is more inhomogeneous than that of the shorter bands. After the calibration and correction,the reflectance of IIM matches the earth-based telescopic spectra well,which suggests the possible use of the processed data in the geological research. A high correlation was found between the absorption center and the wavelength at which the first derivative equals 0,i.e.,the so-called Stagnation Point in the mathematical sense. In the end,we show a preliminary applied study of the two craters with diameter larger than 35 km using the calibrated data. The spectra of IIM data show that the lunar crust has compositional diversity within the km scale. Pure anorthosite may be found on the wall and floor of the Aristarchus crater with the map of absorption center,which indicates that anorthosite is ubiquitously present within the lunar crust. IIM,with its capacity to acquire lunar composition at the regional and global scale

  7. UHT granulite-facies metamorphism in Rogaland, S Norway, is polyphase in nature (United States)

    Laurent, Antonin; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bingen, Bernard; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Bosse, Valérie


    Propensity of metamorphic assemblages to remain metastable after melt extraction complicates singularly the petrologist's task to discriminate between a single granulite-facies P-T path and a polyphase one. Using an integrated petrological and in-situ geochronological approach in key rock-samples, we reconstruct the pressure-temperature-time path of Sveconorwegian metamorphism across a 30 km-wide metamorphic gradient ranging from upper amphibolite facies to ultra-high temperature (UHT) granulite-facies in Rogaland, S. Norway. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-Ti2O-O2 chemical system (PerpleX code) are carried out with an emphasis on moderately oxidized, spinel-bearing assemblages resulting from either garnet or sapphirine breakdown. Geochronological U-(Th)-Pb data acquired on both monazite (LA-ICP-MS) and zircon (SIMS) are complemented by minor- and trace-elements signatures of both minerals, to monitor REE distribution through time and to evaluate garnet apparition or demise. Coupling field, petrological and geochronological data lead to a polyphase metamorphic history, lasting about 100 My. The onset of regional granulite facies metamorphism at 1035 Ma is associated with the emplacement of large volumes of granitic magmas in the amphibolite to granulite facies transition zone. In the deeper part of the crustal section, localized sapphirine-bearing restitic lithologies testify to UHT temperatures (900‑920 °C). These conditions were reached at ca. 1010 Ma following a tight clockwise P-T path associated with minor exhumation (7 to 5.5 kbar) and subsequent cooling to 700 °C. A distinct thermal episode, initiated at ca. 950 Ma, reached UHT granulite-facies conditions with the intrusion of massif-type anorthosite plutons at ca. 930 Ma producing a 5-km wide aureole. The aureole is delimited by the presence of osumilite in high Fe-Al rocks yielding quantitative estimates of 900-950 °C at a maximum pressure of 5

  8. 1.3-0.9 Ga Oaxaquia (Mexico): Remnant of an arc/backarc on the northern margin of Amazonia (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando


    Rocks with ages of ca. 1 Ga occur in central and southern Mexico as inliers surrounded by ubiquitous Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. They appear to share a common history consisting of: (i) ca. 1300-1200 Ma arc magmatism and deposition of sediments including evaporites; (ii) ca.1160-1100 Ma intrusion of syenite, granite and anorthosite, the later part of which is synchronous with migmatization; (iii) intrusion of a ca. 1035-1010 Ma anorthosite-gabbro-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite; (iv) a 1000-980 Ma granulite facies tectonothermal event with a stretching axis parallel to the long axis of Oaxaquia; (v) gradual exhumation at 750 and/or 545 Ma; and (vi) 517 Ma intrusion of an isolated calcalkaline granitoid pluton. The common Precambrian geological record of these outcrops suggests that they belonged to a single terrane (Oaxaquia) and formed a juvenile arc/backarc bordering a continent that underwent collision with, and overthrusting of, the Avalonian arc at 1000-980 Ma. This buried Oaxaquia to 25-30 km and was followed by further supra-subduction zone magmatism at ca. 917 Ma. These Precambrian rocks are unconformably overlain by uppermost Cambrian and Silurian platform rocks containing Gondwanan fauna and ca. 1 detrital zircons of Oaxacan provenance. The neighbouring Mixteca terrane includes lower Paleozoic, rift-passive margin sedimentary rocks that also contain 900-750 Ma detrital zircons probably derived from the Goiás arc in eastern Amazonia. The arc-backarc tectonic setting inferred for the 1300-900 Ma rocks also suggests that Oaxaquia lay on an active periphery of Amazonia until ca. 900 Ma, well after the amalgamation of Rodinia. This precludes a location for Oaxaquia off southern and western Amazonia that are inferred to have been juxtaposed against eastern Laurentia; contiguity with eastern Amazonia is also unlikely given the absence of the 900-750 Ma convergent tectonics in the Goiás arc. This leaves northern Amazonia as the most likely position, a

  9. Molybdenite Re Os dating constrains gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen, SW Scandinavia (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly J.; Bogaerts, Michel; Bolle, Olivier; Mansfeld, Joakim


    Re-Os dating of molybdenite from small deposits is used to define crustal domains exhibiting ductile versus brittle behaviour during gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Scandinavia. A 1019 ± 3 Ma planar quartz vein defines a minimum age for brittle behaviour in central Telemark. In Rogaland-Vest Agder, molybdenite associated with deformed quartz and pegmatite veins formed between 982 ± 3 and 947 ± 3 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain (three deposits) and between 953 ± 3 and 931 ± 3 Ma west of the clinopyroxene-in isograd (two deposits) in the vicinity of the 0.93-0.92 Ga Rogaland anorthosite complex. The data constrain the last increment of ductile deformation to be younger than 0.95 and 0.93 Ga in these two metamorphic zones, respectively. Molybdenite is the product of an equilibrium between biotite, oxide and sulfide minerals and a fluid or hydrated melt phase, after the peak of 1.03-0.97 Ga regional metamorphism. Molybdenite precipitation is locally episodic. A model for gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen controlled by lithospheric extension after 0.97 Ga is proposed. In the west of the orogen, the Rogaland-Vest Agder sector is interpreted as a large shallow gneiss dome, formed slowly in two stages in a warm and structurally weak crust. The first stage at 0.96-0.93 Ga was associated with intrusion of the post-collisional hornblende-biotite granite suite. The second stage at 0.93-0.92 Ga, restricted to the southwesternmost area, was associated with intrusion of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite. Most of the central part of the orogen was already situated in the brittle upper crust well before 0.97 Ga, and did not undergo significant exhumation during collapse. In the east of the orogen, situated against the colder cratonic foreland, exhumation of high-grade rocks of the Eastern Segment occurred between 0.97 and 0.95 Ga, and included preservation of high-pressure rocks but no plutonism.

  10. Lunar highland melt rocks - Chemistry, petrology and silicate mineralogy (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.


    A selected suite containing several of the largest samples of lunar highland melt rocks includes impact melt specimens (anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro) and volcanic specimens (intermediate-K Fra Mauro). Although previous assumptions of LKFM volcanism have fallen into disfavor, no fatal arguments against this hypothesis have been presented, and the evidence of a possibly 'inherited igneous' olivine-plagioclase cosaturation provides cause for keeping a volcanic LKFM hypothesis viable. Comparisons of silicate mineralogy with melt rock compositions provide information on the specimen's composition and cooling history. Plagioclase-rock compositions can be matched to the experimentally determined equilibria for appropriate samples to identify melt rocks with refractory anorthitic clasts. Olivine-rock compositions indicate that melt rock vitrophyres precipitate anomalously Fe-rich olivine; the cause of this anomaly is not immediately evident. The Al-Ti and Ca-Fe-Mg zonation in pyroxene provide information on relative cooling rates of highland melt rocks, but Cr- and Al-content (where Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene cores are preserved in rapidly cooled samples) can be correlated with composition of the host rock.

  11. The Italian Mission MAĜIA for the study of the Altimetry, Gravimetry and Geochemistry of the Moon (United States)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    The scientific objective of the Italian mission MAGIA is the study of the internal structure and of polar/subpolar regions of the Moon. These objectives are identified in order to avoid overlapping with ongoing and future lunar missions. The mission has been developed in the framework of "Small Italian Missions" that foresee a limited economical budget. Therefore the choice has been a to propose a small and innovative satellite (MIOSAT heritage) developed by Rheinmetall S.p.a. and a small relay subsatellite. The scientific payload is based on a reliable heritage developed for other missions (BepiColombo, JUNO, Chandrayaan). This payload and the selected polar orbit (optimized for the measurement of the gravity field)- allows to complete important measurement of fundamental physics, such as an improvement of the G measure and a test of general relativity. The planetological part of the mission includes measurements relevant for origin and evolution of the Moon, the depth of the anorthositic crust (magma ocean theory), crater distribution and age, surface composition, polar regions and exosphere characterization, gravity field and ionizing radiations measurements.

  12. Ultrasonic P and S wave Velocity Measurements at Mid-to-Lower Crustal Conditions of Pressure and Temperature in a Piston Cylinder Apparatus (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Arima, M.


    In order to interpret seismic structures in terms of rock type, temperature anomaly, degree of partial melting and distribution of fluids, we have carried out research on the elastic properties of the crustal rocks using ultrasonic measurements. We have developed techniques to perform ultrasonic velocity measurements at mid-to-lower crustal conditions of pressure and temperature. These techniques are now been applied to study the rock physics of exposed deep crustal sections and crustal xenoliths, including gabbro, tonalite, granite, anorthosite, granulite and amphibolite, which were collected from the Tanzawa Mountain of central Japan, Kohistan area of Pakistan, Ichinomegata of NE Japan, Takashima and Kurose of SW Japan, and granulite-facies complex of East Antarctica. Compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities for these rock specimens are measured in piston cylinder apparatus. In order to compare directly to seismic velocities at the deep island arc pressures and temperatures, we developed ultrasonic velocity measurements using buffer rod technique. Pt buffer rod is used to isolate the piezoelectric transducer from the high-temperature condition. Travel times through the rock sample were determined with the pulse reflection technique. We are developing a method for simultaneous P-wave and S-wave velocity measurements using dual-mode piezoelectric transducer which generates P-waves and S-waves simultaneously. Using these techniques, we can determine Vp/Vs ratio and Poisson's ratio precisely.

  13. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.


    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  14. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks (United States)

    Valley, J. W.


    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  15. Effects of fractional crystallization and cumulus processes on mineral composition trends of some lunar and terrestrial rock series (United States)

    Longhi, J.


    A plot of Mg of mafic minerals versus An of plagioclase in cumulate rocks from various lunar and terrestrial rock series shows each series to have a distinct curvilinear trend. The slopes of these trends vary from nearly vertical in the case of lunar anorthosites and Mg-norites to nearly horizontal in the case of gabbros from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Calculations based upon known major element partitioning between mafic minerals, plagioclase and subalkaline basaltic liquids indicate that fractional crystallization coupled with cotectic accumulation of mafic minerals and plagioclase will produce mineral composition trends on the Mg versus An diagram with slopes greater than 1 for cases where An is approximately greater than Mg. Furthermore, fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with alkali concentrations approaching zero will produce near vertical Mg versus An trends. Therefore, the steep slopes of the lunar rock series are consistent with relatively simple fractionation processes. The relatively flat slope of mineral compositions from gabbros collected from the mid-Atlantic ridge at 26 deg N is inconsistent with simple fractionation processes, and calculations show that periodic refilling of a fractionating magma chamber with picritic magma cannot simply explain this flat slope either.

  16. Geochemistry of apollo 15 basalt 15555 and soil 15531. (United States)

    Schnetzler, C C; Philpotts, J A; Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Thomas, H H


    Major and trace element concentrations have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare basalt 15555 from the Hadley Rille area; trace element concentrations have also been determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from basalt 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Basalt 15555 most closely resembles in composition the Apollo 12 olivine-rich basalts. The concentrations of lithium, potassium, rubidium, barium, rare-earth elements, and zirconium in basalt 15555 are the lowest, and the negative europium anomaly is the smallest, reported for lunar basalts; this basalt might be the least differentiated material yet returned from the moon. Crystallization and removal of about 6 percent of plagioclase similar to that contained in the basalt would account for the observed europium anomaly; if plagioclase is not on the liquidus of this basalt, a multistage origin is indicated. Mineral data indicate that plagioclase and pyroxene approached quasi-equilibrium. Most of the chemical differences between basalt 15555 and soil 15531 would be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88 percent basalt, 6 percent KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus) and 6 percent plagioclase (anorthosite?).

  17. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold


    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  18. Late-orogenic, post-orogenic, and anorogenic granites: Distinction by major-element and trace-element chemistry and possible origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))


    Granites classified into four categories based solely on tectonics of occurrence and associated rock types also have compositional characteristics that are consistent within groups and different among groups. Orogenically related granites include late-orogenic varieties (LO) associated with calc-alkaline batholiths, and post-orogenic varieties (PO), which occur in broad zones of isolated diapiric plutons in recently deformed orogenic belts. Inclined REE patterns, moderate Sr contents, and K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} relationships show that late-orogenic granites formed by fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and amphibole from calcalkaline magmas. Flatter REE patterns and K{sub 2}O contents near 5%, plus the absence of associated magmatic rocks, indicate that the post-orogenic granites developed by partial melting of subduction-produced mafic/intermediate magmatic rocks. Both the late- and post-orogenic granites can be part of material newly added to continental crust as a result of orogeny. Anorogenic granites in anorthosite/rapakivi complexes (AR) or alkaline ring complexes (RC) have LIL contents too high to have been equilibrated with a mafic mineral assemblage. These anorogenic rocks probably formed by partial melting of preexisting sialic crust and do not represent new crustal increment.

  19. Lead isotope evidence for a young formation age of the Earth-Moon system (United States)

    Connelly, J. N.; Bizzarro, M.


    A model of a giant impact between two planetary bodies is widely accepted to account for the Earth-Moon system. Despite the importance of this event for understanding early Earth evolution and the inventory of Earth's volatiles critical to life, the timing of the impact is poorly constrained. We explore a data-based, two-stage Pb isotope evolution model in which the timing of the loss of volatile Pb relative to refractory U in the aftermath of the giant impact is faithfully recorded in the Pb isotopes of bulk silicate Earth. Constraining the first stage Pb isotopic evolution permits calculating an age range of 4.426-4.417 Ga for the inflection in the U/Pb ratio related to the giant impact. This model is supported by Pb isotope data for angrite meteorites that we use to demonstrate volatility-driven, planetary-scale Pb loss was an efficient process during the early Solar System. The revised age is ∼100 Myr younger than most current estimates for the age of the Moon but fully consistent with recent ages for lunar ferroan anorthosite and the timing of Earth's first crust inferred from the terrestrial zircon record. The estimated loss of ∼98% of terrestrial Pb relative to the Solar System bulk composition by the end of the Moon-forming process implies that the current inventory of Earth's most volatile elements, including water, arrived during post-impact veneering by volatile-rich bodies.

  20. Fossil content and structural relationships of the San Luis zone and the Caborca zone of NW Sonora, Mexico, suppression of the precambrian Z of Caborca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Caborca region of western Sonora a Precambrian Z does not cover a unique Precambrian socle as previously believed. Two tectonic zones occur there instead: the San Luis Zone and the Caborca Zone. The first is comprised of the Precambrian San Luis socle of gneiss and granite, crossed by 1.1 Ga old anorthosites, the San Luis sedimentary cover, and, above it, a Lower Jurassic volcano-sedimentary sequence. The Caborca Zone consists of the Precambrian Bamori socle of parametamorphic rocks crossed by 1.1 Ga old Aibo granite, and of the Gamuza sedimentary cover. 1.1 Ga ago the two zones were far away from each other. They have been brought together by the Nevadian orogeny. Both zones are allochthonous, and the Caborca Zone is a nappe upon the San Luis Zone. The lowermost units of the Gamuza cover furnished psammocorals and a possible Pterophyllum jageri (?). Accordingly, its geological age is either Palaeozoic or Triassic.The San Luis cover furnished Nematophites [Prototaxites (?) and Nematothallus] from its lower part; Calcispongiae, Cardaicarpus' seeds, and Artisia from its upper part Thus, it is a Devono-Carboniferous unit. The study area belongs in the Baja-Borderland block, which underwent, an Eocene northwards drifting of about 900 - 1000 km, and a 30 celsius degrade to 40 celsius degrade clockwise rotation relative to the main part of Sonora.

  1. Estimation of trace element concentrations in the lunar magma ocean using mineral- and metal-silicate melt partition coefficients (United States)

    Sharp, Miriam; Righter, Kevin; Walker, Richard J.


    This study uses experimentally determined plagioclase-melt D values to estimate the trace element concentrations of Sr, Hf, Ga, W, Mo, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co in a crystallizing lunar magma ocean at the point of plagioclase flotation. Similarly, experimentally determined metal-silicate partition experiments combined with a composition model for the Moon are used to constrain the concentrations of W, Mo, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co in the lunar magma ocean at the time of core formation. The metal-silicate derived lunar mantle estimates are generally consistent with previous estimates for the concentration of these elements in the lunar mantle. Plagioclase-melt derived concentrations for Sr, Ga, Ru, Pd, Au, Ni, and Co are also consistent with prior estimates. Estimates for Hf, W, and Mo, however, are higher. These elements may be concentrated in the residual liquid during fractional crystallization due to their incompatibility. Alternatively, the apparent enrichment could reflect the inappropriate use of bulk anorthosite data, rather than data for plagioclase separates.

  2. Estimate of neutral atoms contribution to the Mercury exosphere due to a new flux of micrometeoroids (United States)

    Borin, Patrizia; Bruno, Marco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco


    Meteoroid impacts are an important source of neutral atoms in the exosphere of Mercury. Recent papers attribute to impacting particles smaller than 1 cm most of the contribution to exospheric gases. In this work we calculate the vapour and neutral atoms production rates on Mercury, as due to the impacts of micrometeoroids in the size range between 5-100 μm according to the new dynamical model of Borin et al. (2009). The calculations have been performed taking into account two different calibration sources for the meteoroid flux provided by Love and Brownlee (1993) (as for Borin et al., 2009) and by Grun et al. (1985). Moreover, we give different values of the vapour production rates assuming both asteroidal and cometary sources of the dust particles (Wiegert, 2009; Dermott et al., 2002). Following the assumption that the surface of the planet is spatially homogeneous and made up of regolith with anorthositic composition (Cremonese et al., 2005) we provide the production rate for different neutral atoms.

  3. Water in evolved lunar rocks: Evidence for multiple reservoirs (United States)

    Robinson, Katharine L.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Thomen, Aurélien; Franchi, Ian A.; Huss, Gary R.; Anand, Mahesh; Taylor, G. Jeffrey


    We have measured the abundance and isotopic composition of water in apatites from several lunar rocks representing Potassium (K), Rare Earth Elements (REE), and Phosphorus (P) - KREEP - rich lithologies, including felsites, quartz monzodiorites (QMDs), a troctolite, and an alkali anorthosite. The H-isotope data from apatite provide evidence for multiple reservoirs in the lunar interior. Apatite measurements from some KREEP-rich intrusive rocks display moderately elevated δD signatures, while other samples show δD signatures similar to the range known for the terrestrial upper mantle. Apatite grains in Apollo 15 quartz monzodiorites have the lowest δD values measured from the Moon so far (as low as -749‰), and could potentially represent a D-depleted reservoir in the lunar interior that had not been identified until now. Apatite in all of these intrusive rocks contains 6500 ppm H2O). Complexities in partitioning of volatiles into apatite make this comparison uncertain, but measurements of residual glass in KREEP basalt fragments in breccia 15358 independently show that the KREEP basaltic magmas were low in water. The source of 15358 contained ∼10 ppm H2O, about an order of magnitude lower than the source of the Apollo 17 pyroclastic glass beads, suggesting potential variations in the distribution of water in the lunar interior.

  4. Genesis of the Precambrian copper-rich Caraiba hypersthenite-norite complex, Brazil (United States)

    Oliveira, E. P.; Tarney, J.


    Caraiba, the largest Brazilian copper deposit under exploitation, consists mostly of disseminated and remobilised bornite and chalcopyrite hosted in early Proterozoic norite and hypersthenite. The mafic igneous complex comprises multiple intrusions of dykes, veins and breccias of norites and hypersthenites, with minor proportions of amphibolised gabbronorite and peridotite xenoliths transported by the magma from deeper levels in the lithosphere. The country rocks are high-grade gneisses, granulites and metasediments. Compositions of plagioclase(An60-40) and orthopyroxene(En70-60) fall in a narrow range similar to the Koperberg Suite from the Okiep copper district, South Africa, and to that in many massif-type anorthosites. Whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry indicate a parental magma enriched in Fe, LREE, P, K, and Cu. Negative Nb anomalies on multi-element plots and fractionated REE patterns, along with sulphide sulphur isotopes in the range δ34S = -1.495 to + 0.643‰, suggest a primary mantle lithosphere source, although a lower crustal source for the gabbronorite and peridotite xenoliths cannot be excluded. Geochronological and field evidence indicate that both norite and hypersthenite are likely to have been emplaced during a major sinistral transcurrent (partly transpressional) shearing event associated with the waning stage of evolution of the early Proterozoic Salvador-Curaçá orogen.

  5. A Systematic Spectroscopic Study of Four Apollo Lunar Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongcheng Ling; Alian Wang; Bradley L Jolliff


    A systematic spectroscopic study including Raman,Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR,is used to investigate four endmember lunar soils.Apollo soils (<45 μm) 14163,15271,67511,and 71501 were selected as endmembers to study,based on their soil chemistry,maturity against space weathering,and the sampling locations.These endmembers include an anorthositic highlands soil (67511),a low-Ti basaltic soil (15271),a high-Ti basaltic soil (71501),and a mafic,KREEPy,impact-melt-rich soil (14163).We used a laser Raman point-counting procedure to derive mineral modes of the soils and the compositional distributions of major mineral phases,which in turn reflect characteristics of the main source materials for these soils.The Mid-lR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopic properties also yield distinct information on mineralogy,geochemistry,and maturity among the four soils.Knowledge of the mineralogy resulting from the Raman point-counting procedure corresponds well with bulk mineralogy and soil properties based on Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopy.The future synergistic application of these spectroscopy methods on the Moon will provide a linkage between the results from in situ surface exploration and those from orbital remote- sensing observations.

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Subba


    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  7. Estimate of DTM Degradation due to Image Compression for the Stereo Camera of the Bepicolombo Mission (United States)

    Re, C.; Simioni, E.; Cremonese, G.; Roncella, R.; Forlani, G.; Langevin, Y.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Salemi, G.


    The great amount of data that will be produced during the imaging of Mercury by the stereo camera (STC) of the BepiColombo mission needs a compromise with the restrictions imposed by the band downlink that could drastically reduce the duration and frequency of the observations. The implementation of an on-board real time data compression strategy preserving as much information as possible is therefore mandatory. The degradation that image compression might cause to the DTM accuracy is worth to be investigated. During the stereo-validation procedure of the innovative STC imaging system, several image pairs of an anorthosite sample and a modelled piece of concrete have been acquired under different illumination angles. This set of images has been used to test the effects of the compression algorithm (Langevin and Forni, 2000) on the accuracy of the DTM produced by dense image matching. Different configurations taking in account at the same time both the illumination of the surface and the compression ratio, have been considered. The accuracy of the DTMs is evaluated by comparison with a high resolution laser-scan acquisition of the same targets. The error assessment included also an analysis on the image plane indicating the influence of the compression procedure on the image measurements.

  8. Changing Perspectives on Mercury and the Moon (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.


    Airless, cratered, and not so different in size, the Moon and Mercury form a natural pair in the inner Solar System. For decades after the 1974 and 1975 Mariner 10 flybys of Mercury, with little compositional information, no concrete evidence for volcanism, and images of less than half of the planet, it was thought that Mercury’s surface may be similar to the lunar highlands: an ancient anorthositic flotation crust subsequently shaped mainly by impact cratering. However, observations from the recently completed MESSENGER mission to Mercury have upended our view of the innermost planet, revealing, for example, a crust that may be rich in graphite and that has been extensively resurfaced by volcanic activity, and geologic activity that may continue today to produce enigmatic “hollows” - a crust very different from that of the Moon. Meanwhile, the Moon has undergone its own revolution, as data from recent spacecraft such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal sites of silicic volcanism indicative of complex differentiation in the mantle, tectonic activity that may be ongoing, recent volcanic activity that alters the paradigm that volcanism died on the Moon over a billion years ago, and evidence that the early chronology of the inner Solar System may not be as well known as once thought. As our views of these two bodies evolve, a new understanding of their differences informs our knowledge of the variety of processes and styles of planetary evolution, and their similarities point to commonalities among all airless bodies.

  9. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of pyroxene-bearing rocks: New constraints for understanding planetary surface compositions (United States)

    Pompilio, Loredana; Sgavetti, Maria; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe

    Laboratory visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of solid rock slabs, mineral separates and systematic mixtures were simultaneously investigated. We apply an empirical approach to evaluate spectra, in order to achieve qualitative and quantitative information. We use cumulates (mostly norites, leuconorites, melanorites and anorthosites) belonging to the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion, a sequence of genetically related rocks with simple textures. Laboratory spectra are measured on slightly polished rock slabs in the 350- to 2500-nm interval and directional-hemispherical reflectance geometry. Composition is determined using traditional techniques other than reflectance spectroscopy. We find that: (1) band minima measured on rock spectra are strongly influenced by the concurrent effects due to modal abundance of the spectroscopically active mineral and mineral chemistry; (2) band depths can be used for semiquantitative analyses, limited to the set of rocks investigated; (3) the spectral parameters derived from powdered pyroxene are in agreement with previously published calibrations; (4) the mineral mixture systematics can be reasonably considered as linear, when pyroxene is mixed with neutral components; and (5) the empirical evaluation of solid rock surface spectra needs further insights to give a great improvement to planetary researches. In addition, genetic sequences of rocks should be investigated in detail to help the geological interpretation of planetary evolution. Therefore more laboratory and analytical studies are required in order to understand the influence of composition and petrographic textures on the spectral analysis.

  10. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.


    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  11. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue cover methods for Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses; 40Ar-39Ar ages for the New Quebec Crater and for basaltic rocks; U-Pb ages for a differentiated mafic sill in the Ogilvie Mountains, plutonic rocks in the Contwoyto-Nose Lakes are, zircons from the Anton Complex, the Clinton-Colden gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, the Himag plutonic suite, the Campbell granite, the Central Gneiss Belt, Silurian granites, a metarhyolite, plagiogranite and gabbro, and the Wage shear zone; Rb-Sr ages for granitic rocks; K-Ar and Rb-Sr geochronology of granites; a compilation of K-Ar ages; ages of archean and proterozoic mylonites and pre-Misi granitoid domes; and reconnaissance geochronology of Baffin Island

  12. Geochemical stratigraphy of two regolith cores from the Central Highlands of the moon (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.


    High-resolution concentration profiles are presented for 20-22 chemical elements in the under 1-mm grain-size fractions of 60001-7 and 60009/10. Emphasis is placed on the stratigraphic features of the cores, and the fresh results are compared with those of previous petrographic and geochemical studies. For elements associated with major mineral phases, the variations in concentration in both cores exceed that observed in some 40 samples of surface and trench soils. Most of the variation in lithophile element concentrations at depths of 18 to 21 cm results from the mixing of two components - oil that is relatively mafic and rich in incompatible trace elements (ITEs), and coarse-grained anorthosite. The linearity of mixing lines on two-element concentration plots argues that the relative abundances of these various subcomponents are sufficiently uniform from sample to sample and from region to region in the core that the mixture behaves effectively as a single component. Soils at depths of 52-55 cm exhibit very low concentrations of ITEs.

  13. Timing of Crystallisation of the Lunar Magma Ocean Constrained by the Oldest Zircon (United States)

    Nemchin, A.; Timms, N.; Pidgeon, R.; Geisler, T.; Reddy, S.; Meyer, C.


    The presently favoured concept for the early evolution of the Moon involves consolidation of debris from a giant impact of a Mars sized body with Earth forming a primitive Moon with a thick global layer of melt referred to as the Lunar Magma Ocean1 . It is widely accepted that many significant features observed on the Moon today are the result of crystallisation of this magma ocean. However, controversy exists over the precise timing and duration of the crystallisation process. Resolution of this problem depends on the establishment of precise and robust key crystallisation time points. We report a 4417 6 Myr old zircon in lunar breccia sample 72215,195, which provides a precisely determined younger limit for the solidification of the Lunar Magma Ocean. A model based on these data, together with the age of the Moon forming giant impact, defines an exponential time frame for crystallisation and suggests formation of anorthositic crust after about 80-85% of the magma ocean was solidified. In combination with other zircon ages the 4417 +/- 6 Myr age also suggests that the very small (less than a few per cent) residual portion of the magma ocean continued to solidify during the following 300-500 m.y.

  14. Raman spectra of probably shock-metamorphosed zircon in structures of the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Kaulina, Tatiana; Nerovich, Luidmila; Lialina, Luidmila; Il'chenko, Vadim; Bocharov, Vladimir; Kunakkuzin, Evgeny


    Zircon crystals were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy from certain structures of the Kola Peninsula, for which impact events are expected according to geological and geochemical data: circular structure in Javrozersky area of the Tanaelv belt and granophyres of Jarva-Varaka layered massif of the Monchegorsky ore district. Zircons from anorthosites of the Javrozersky area showed some features of impact zircons: wavy extinction, blurred "aurora-like" CL image and a presence of additional bands in the Raman spectrum, which may indicate the presence of ZrSiO4 with the scheelite-type structure (reidite) surrounded by zircon material. Zircon crystals of Yavra-Varaka granophyres showed variation of Raman spectra from the core part of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. There was also a transition zone between cores and marginal parts of crystals, where the Raman spectrum is "blurred". Such pattern may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, since the Jarva-Varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data is compared with the Sudbury structure, for which impact origin is assumed. The work is supported by RSF grant N 16-17-10051.

  15. In-situ stress measurements of rock mass: dome effect of the Peribonka project; Mesure des contraintes en rocher : effet de dome, project Peribonka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin, D.; Bouchard, R. [Techmat Inc., Jonquiere, PQ (Canada); Whalen, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Geology and Rock Mechanics


    In order to determine the state of stress that exists perpendicular to natural planes found within the anorthositic rock mass at the site of the future Peribonka project, 43 hydrojacking tests were conducted in 2003 and 2004. The future project is currently under construction 200 km north of the town of Saguenay, Quebec. The primary objective was to determine the minimum stress field near the proposed headrace tunnels in order to calculate the required length of steel lining. Rock mass in-situ stress measurements were determined from geotechnical studies of boreholes. They were used to validate the optimal location of the headrace tunnels and the underground powerhouse. Seven different methods were used measure the state of stress. The rock mass, being dome shaped, affected the results in as they were consistently below the expected value. However, the value was sufficient to sustain the water pressure generated inside the headrace tunnels for the future powerhouse. Due to the topographical effects of the land, values were affected by the presence of two major shear zones, along the Peribonka and Manouane rivers. Therefore, the minimum stress field decreased significantly towards these structures. The results of the preliminary testing identified the ideal location of the future hydroelectric powerhouse. The results will also help reduce costs of future construction and minimize risks. 11 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  16. The geochemistry, age, and origin of groundwater in a mafic pluton, East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is conducting geoscience investigations of several plutons in Canada's Precambrian Shield as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, to determine whether such rock masses are suitable for the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The East Bull Lake (EBL) gabbro-anorthosite layered complex is unique in this program as it is the only mafic pluton in which hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been conducted. These results can be compared with those of similar studies of granitic rocks which have been investigated more extensively. During the period, 1983-85, hydrogeological testing and hydrochemical sampling were conducted by the National Hydrology Research Institute of Environment Canada and AECL in boreholes drilled to depths of up to 850 m into the EBL pluton (Raven et al., 1987). This paper discusses the hydrogeochemistry of the pluton and identifies the major rock-water interactions controlling the chemistry. The spatial variability in chemistry will be shown to be related to the nature of the groundwater flow systems present at this site. The ages and origins of the groundwaters and their solutes are inferred from isotopic analyses

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Proterozoic granitic rocks from northern margin of the Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupendra S Yadav; Nishchal Wanjari; Talat Ahmad; Rajesh Chaturvedi


    This study presents the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks located on the northern margin of Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC), exposed in parts of Gaya district, Bihar and discusses thepossible petrogenetic process and source characteristics. These granites are associated with BarabarAnorthosite Complex and Neo-proterozoic Munger–Rajgir group of rocks. The granitic litho-units identifiedin the field are grey, pink and porphyritic granites. On the basis of geochemical and petrographiccharacteristics, the grey and pink granites were grouped together as GPG while the porphyritic graniteswere named as PG. Both GPG and PG are enriched in SiO_2, K_2O, Na_2O, REE (except Eu), Rb,Ba, HFSE (Nb, Y, Zr), depleted in MgO, CaO, Sr and are characterised by high Fe^* values, Ga/Alratios and high Zr saturation temperatures (GPG_{avg} ∼ 861^◦C and PG_{avg} ∼ 835^◦C). The REE patternsfor GPG are moderately fractionated with an average (La/Yb)_N ∼ 4.55 and Eu/Eu^* ∼0.58, than PGwhich are strongly fractionated with an average (La/Yb)_N ∼ 31.86 and Eu/Eu^* ∼0.75. These featuresindicate that the granites have an A-type character. On the basis of geochemical data, we conclude that the granites are probably derived from a predominant crustal source with variable mantle involvementin a post-collisional setting.

  18. Mg-spinel lithology: A new rock type on the lunar farside (United States)

    Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Cheek, L.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Dhingra, D.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.O.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Whitten, J.


    High-resolution compositional data from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) for the Moscoviense region on the lunar farside reveal three unusual, but distinctive, rock types along the inner basin ring. These are designated "OOS" since they are dominated by high concentrations of orthopyroxene, olivine, and Mg-rich spinel, respectively. The OOS occur as small areas, each a few kilometers in size, that are widely separated within the highly feldspathic setting of the basin rim. Although the abundance of plagioclase is not well constrained within the OOS, the mafic mineral content is exceptionally high, and two of the rock types could approach pyroxenite and harzburgite in composition. The third is a new rock type identified on the Moon that is dominated by Mg-rich spinel with no other mafic minerals detectable (<5% pyroxene, olivine). All OOS surfaces are old and undisturbed since basin formation. They are effectively invisible in image data and are only recognized by their distinctive composition identified spectroscopically. The origin of these unusual lithologies appears to be linked to one or more magmatic intrusions into the lower crust, perhaps near the crust-mantle interface. Processes such as fractional crystallization and gravity settling within such intrusions may provide a mechanism for concentrating the mafic components within zones several kilometers in dimension. The OOS are embedded within highly anorthositic material from the lunar crust; they may thus be near contemporaneous with crustal products from the cooling magma ocean. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.


    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  20. Contribution of metapelitic sediments to the composition, heat production, and seismic velocity of the lower crust of southern New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.R.; Hart, S.R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Padovani, E.R.; Wandless, G.A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))


    Granulite xenoliths erupted at Kilbourne Hole maar were recently extracted from the lower crust of southern New Mexico. Garnet- and silimanite-bearing quartzofeldspathic xenoliths had pelitic protoliths and were probably emplaced in the lower crust by tectonic underplating at a lower Proterozoic subduction zone. Thus the Kilbourne Hole metapelitic xenoliths illustrate the potential role of tectonosedimentary processes at convergent margins in determining the ultimate composition of the crust. Average P-wave velocities for metapelitic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole are {approx equal} 7 km/s at 6 kbar, like those of mafic metagabbros and anorthosites. However, in contrast to mafic lithologies, the major element composition of the representative pelitic paragneiss (RPP) described in this paper is relatively siliceous and like that of average upper crust. Except for depletions of U and Cs, the trace element characteristics of the RPP are like those of pelitic sediments and are 3-10 times higher than those typically estimated for the lower crust. The heat production of the RPP is high (1.0 {mu}W/m{sup 3}) as are those of many granulite- and amphibolite-grade metapelites. In general, portions of the lower crust in which sediments are present may be high in light ion lithophile and rare earth element abundances, heat production, {delta}{sup 18}O, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr. Moreover, the high Pb contents and unradiogenic Pb isotope signatures of metapelites provide an important reservoir for unradiogenic Pb in the earth as a whole. (orig.).

  1. Contribution of metapelitic sediments to the composition, heat production, and seismic velocity of the lower crust of southern New Mexico, U.S.A. (United States)

    Reid, M.R.; Hart, S.R.; Padovani, E.R.; Wandless, G.A.


    Granulite xenoliths erupted at Kilbourne Hole maar were recently extracted from the lower crust of southern New Mexico. Garnet- and sillimanite-bearing quartzofeldspathic xenoliths had pelitic protoliths and were probably emplaced in the lower crust by tectonic underplating at a lower Proterozoic subduction zone. Thus the Kilbourne Hole metapelitic xenoliths illustrate the potential role of tectonosedimentary processes at convergent margins in determining the ultimate composition of the crust. Average P-wave velocities for metapelitic xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole are ??? 7 km/s at 6 kbar, like those of mafic metagabbros and anorthosites. However, in contrast to mafic lithologies, the major element composition of the representative pelitic paragneiss (RPP) described in this paper is relatively siliceous and like that of average upper crust. Except for depletions of U and Cs, the trace element characteristics of the RPP are like those of pelitic sediments and are 3-10 times higher than those typically estimated for the lower crust. The heat production of the RPP is high (1.0 ??W/m3) as are those of many granulite- and amphibolite-grade metapelites. In general, portions of the lower crust in which sediments are present may be high in light ion lithophile and rare earth element abundances, heat production, ??18O, and 87Sr 86Sr. Moreover, the high Pb contents and unradiogenic Pb isotope signatures of metapelites provide an important reservoir for unradiogenic Pb in the earth as a whole. ?? 1989.

  2. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.


    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  3. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Schiller-Schickard Region of the Moon (United States)

    Blewett, David T.; Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, Paul G.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jaumann, Ralf; Spudis, Paul D.


    Near-infrared reflectance spectra, multispectral images, and photogeologic data for the Schiller-Schickard (SS) region were obtained and analyzed in order to determine the composition and origin of a variety of geologic units. These include light plains deposits, Orientale-related deposits, mare units, and dark-haloed impact craters (DHCs). Spectral data indicate that the pre-Orientale highland surface was dominated by noritic anorthosite. Near-IR spectra show that DHCs in the region have excavated ancient (greater than 3.8 Ga) mare basalts from beneath highland-bearing material emplaced by the Orientale impact. Ancient mare basalts were widespread in the SS region prior to the Orientale event, and their distribution appears to have been controlled by the presence of several old impact basins, including the Schiller-Zucchius basin and a basin previously unrecognized. Both near-IR spectra and multispectral images indicate that light plains and other Orientale-related units in the SS region contain major amounts of local, pre-Orientale mare basalt. The amounts of local material in these deposits approach, but seldom exceed, the maximum values predicted by the local mixing hypothesis of Oberbeck and co-workers.

  4. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [Apollo 15 breccias and Russian tektites (United States)

    Winzer, S. R.


    Clasts, rind glass, matrix glass, and matrix minerals from five Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias (15255, 15286, 15465, 15466, and 15505) were studied optically and with the SEM/microprobe. Rind glass compositions differ from sample to sample, but are identical, or nearly so, to the local soil, suggesting their origin by fusion of that soil. Most breccia samples contain green or colorless glass spheres identical to the Apollo 15 green glasses. These glasses, along with other glass shards and fragments, indicate a large soil component is present in the breccias. Clast populations include basalts and gabbros containing phases highly enriched in iron, indicative of extreme differentiation or fractional crystallization. Impact melts, anorthosites, and minor amounts of ANT suite material are also present among the clasts. Tektite glasses, impact melts, and breccias from the Zhamanshin structure, USSR, were also studied. Basic tektite glasses were found to be identical in composition to impact melts from the structure, but no satisfactory parent material has been identified in the limited suite of samples available.

  5. Global Mapping of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data. (United States)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Gillis, J. J.; Steutel, D.


    The global mapping of the lunar surface using the petrological parameter Mg-number (Mg*) was undertaken because Mg*, or the ratio of Mg to the sum of Mg and Fe on an atomic basis, is an important disciminator in defining and understanding lunar rocks. The dominant lunar rock types, ferroan anorthosites (FAN), high-magnisium suite (HMS), and high-alkali suite (HAS) rocks all vary in Mg* depending upon the petrologic scenario that formed them. Of particular interest are FAN mineralogy and chemistry, which varies from high-Mg# (~70) troctolites to low-Mg# norites (~50) and for some time has been considered to represent a single magma frac-tionation trend. However, recent studies have also shown that the crystallization of FAN rocks may have been more complicated than originally thought. James et al. [1] found that instead of one simple fractionation trend for ferroan anorthosites, there may have been four. Studies by [2], [3], and [4] using Apollo and lunar meteorites for analysis have also eluded to the possibility that FAN rocks may have evolved from a more complex source or process. Therefore a global assessment of lithologies and corresponding Mg* is of great value for lunar petrology. In a remote sensing context, Mg* is the most important control on the spectral properties of lunar mafic silicates. For stoichiometric orthopyroxene and olivine, Mg* is mathematically linked to the Fe content that controls the overall reflectance and intensity of absorption. The changes in band centers and shape that accompany the structural changes as Fe substitutes for Mg along the solid solution series have long been recognized; these changes are highly correlated with Mg*. In clinopyroxene, the strong effect of Ca on structure makes this element important, but Mg* has the dominant effect on reflectance and a comparable effect on spectral shape. In this study, the lunar surface is quantitatively mapped using a theoretical treatment of mineralogic spectra and the effect of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin


    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  7. Caulins brasileiros: alguns aspectos da geologia e da mineralogia Brazilian kaolins: some aspects of the geology and mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Richard Wilson


    , kaolin derived from pegmatite, from granitic rocks, from volcanic rocks and kaolin derived from anorthosite. The sedimentary clays are mainly found in the Amazon basin and those adjacent to the Jari River are being exploited commercially for export as a paper coating clay. Amazon kaolin is characterised by high iron and titania (lattice-held with low levels of alkali and exhibiting euhedral kaolinite crystals. The South-eastern pegmatite, when not iron stained, are extremely low in iron and titania and a mixture of kaolinite 7Å/10Å-halloysite occurs in all deposits. The North-eastern pegmatite produces kaolin constituted only by euhedral kaolinites with an absence of halloysite. Kaolin from granites generally has higher iron levels when compared with pegmatite and deposits constituted only by kaolinite are rare, a mixture of kaolinite/7Å-halloysite being common. Both the pegmatite and granite derived kaolin are utilised as a paper filler and in general ceramics. Volcanic rocks on alteration produce a fine siliceous clay with titania levels higher than other types and are generally mixtures of kaolinite-7Å. Volcanic derived clays are utilized locally in ceramics. Kaolins derived from anorthosite are similar in iron and titania levels to those from granitic kaolins. Assemblages of kaolinite and small quantities of 7Å-halloysite are found. These clays are used in both whiteware ceramics and paper filler.

  8. Exploration: New Treasures in the Old World (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Dhingra, D.; Cheek, L.; Prissel, T. C.; Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Taylor, L. A.


    The last decade has seen a renewed effort in the exploration of the Moon by modern spacecraft sent from Japan, China, India, and the US. These missions have resulted in remarkable discoveries and have inspired a new understanding of the early solar system shared by the Earth and the Moon. Although invaluable samples were brought to Earth from the Apollo and Luna landing sites more than four decades ago, the modern orbital measurements have demonstrated that key components of crustal compositions were missed. Small exposures of one lithology in particular, a Mg-rich 'pink' spinel anorthosite (PSA) has been confirmed at several sites around the globe, implying that its origin is linked to wide-spread crustal-evolution processes. We now believe this new lithology is deep-seated in origin [1] and possibly associated with early (Mg-suite) magma interactions with the primordial anorthositic crust [2]. In addition to the higher water (and sulfur) contents now recognized for the lunar interior [3], the recognition of PSA reopens a question as to whether ancient lunar processes may have concentrated valuable minerals/resources in small zones of the crust, as often occurs for layered magmatic complexes on Earth. We ask the question 'Where on the Moon should humans/robots go to obtain samples to address such wide-ranging science/exploration issues?' We focus on four areas with discrete outcrops of Mg-spinel lithology exposed from depth, and rank them in terms of science/exploration potential (1 - 4), and in terms of ease of access (A - D). THOMSON CRATER in SPA (1D): Multiple Mg-spinel exposures are found around Thomson (diameter 117 km); pure crystalline plagioclase and norite occur nearby. Thomson is within Ingenii (diameter 318 km), both of which are mare filled, facilitating access to the crater walls. Ingenii also contains enigmatic ';swirls' and magnetic anomalies, as well as a small mascon. Stratigraphic relations imply deep crust from the inner ring of SPA basin at

  9. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the younger Gardar southern rift, South Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G.J. Upton


    oblate plans reflecting ductile, fault-related strain. The Tugtutôqcomplex comprises quartz syenites and alkali granites. The Ilímaussaq complex mainly consists of nepheline syenite crystallised from highly reduced, Fe-rich phonolitic peralkaline (agpaitic magma,and resulted in rocks with very high incompatible element concentrations.Abundant anorthositic xenoliths in the mafic and intermediate intrusions point to a large anorthosite protolith at depth which is considered of critical importance in the petrogenesis of the salicrocks. Small intrusions of aillikite and carbonatite may represent remobilised mantle metasomites. The petrological similarity between Older and Younger Gardar suites implies strong lithospheric control of their petrogenesis. The parental magmas are inferred to have been derived from restitic Ketilidian lithospheric mantle, metasomatised by melts from subducting Ketilidian oceanic crust and by small-scale melt fractions associated with Gardar rifting.There are numerous analogies between the southern Gardar rift and the Palaeogene East Africanrift.

  10. Mush Column Magma Chambers (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    of the system, coupled with these processes, define the fundamental compositional and dynamic diversity of the Mush Column. In some ways it functions like a complex musical instrument. Entrainment, transport, and sorting of cumulate crystals as a function of repose time and the local flux intensity also contribute to the basic compositional diversity of the system. In the Ferrar dolerite system, about 104 km3 of dolerite is distributed throughout a fir-tree like stack of 4 or 5 extensive 300-750 m thick sills. The lowest sill contains a vast tongue of entrained orthopyroxene (opx) cumulates emplaced with the sill itself. The bulk sill composition varies from 20 pc MgO in the tongue center to 7 pc in the leading tip and margins of the sill, which itself defines the compositional spectrum of the whole complex and is remarkably similar to that exhibited by Hawaii. Relative sorting of large (1-50 mm) opx and small (1-3 mm) plagioclase due to kinetic sieving in the tongue produces pervasive anorthosite stringers. Through local ponding this has culminated in the formation of a small, well-formed layered intrusion consisting of alternating layers of orthopyroxenite and anorthosite. Upwards in the system the sills become progressively depleted in MgO and temporally and spatially contiguous flood basalts are low MgO tholeiites with no sign of opx cumulates. The size, extent, number of sills, and the internal structure of individual sills suggest a rhythm of injection similar to that of volcanic episodes. The continued horizontal stretching of a system of this type would lead to processes as recorded by ophiolites, and the repeated injection into a single reservoir would undoubtedly lead to a massive layered intrusion or to a series of high-level nested plutons.

  11. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey


    rocks do not contribute significantly to the fragment population. Nor do ferroan anorthosites contribute more than a tiny part of even the plagiociase fragment population. A few mineral fragments that are consistent with the cryptic low-K Fra Mauro chemical component were found, and these appear to be from gabbroic sources. The mineral fragment populations cannot be mixed in their observed proportions to produce the whole rock composition, because the fragments are more refractory and deficient in Ti, P, and alkalis. A preferential contribution to the melt from a rock similar to sodic ferrogabbro can partly resolve the discrepancy. The population of mineral fragments requires a very diverse population of igenous rocks that are not all related to each other, demonstrating the existence of a complex crust built of numerous separate igneous plutons. Many of these plutons may have crystallized at shallow depths. The chemical composition of the melt breccias, in combination with the mineral fragment data and an understanding of the cratering process, suggests that the deepest crust sampled by the Serenitatis impace (not necessarily the deepest crust) was basaltic in composition, including KREEP and gabbroic rocks like sodic ferrogabbro, and lacking abundant olivine-rich material. These were overlain by Mg-suite rocks of varied types, including norites and troctolites that supplied most of the olivine mineral fragments. Granulities, which are metamorphosed and more feldspathic breccias, were abundant near the surface. Remote sensing indicates that the entire Serenitatis region lacks ferroan anorthosite, consistent with the results of our study.

  12. Melt segregation in the Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion, Cape Muroto - Japan (United States)

    Floess, David; Caricchi, Luca; Wallis, Simon


    Melt segregation is a crucial process in igneous petrology and is commonly used to explain characteristic geochemical trends of magmatic rocks (e.g. Brophy 1991), as well as the accumulation of large amounts of eruptible magma (e.g. Bachmann & Bergantz, 2008). In order to gain further insight into the physical processes behind melt segregation we investigated a small-scale, natural setting. The Miocene Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion (MGI) is a 230m thick, layered sill located at Cape Muroto (Shikoku Island - Japan; Yoshizawa, 1953). It was rotated into a near-vertical (~70°) orientation after horizontal emplacement, allowing for easy sampling of the entire sill from bottom to top. We collected ~70 oriented samples for petrographic and geochemical analysis, as well as for structural analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). A well-defined horizon (zone I) between 50 and 125m from the bottom shows spectacular evidence for the segregation of felsic melts from the mafic mush (Hoshide et al. 2006). Individual, cm- to m-sized, anorthositic melt lenses mainly consist of plagioclase laths with minor cpx. Small diapirs emanate from the melt lenses and clearly indicate the paleo-upward direction of the sill. Zone I is overlaid by a coarse-grained gabbro (zone II) with cm-sized crystals of plag+cpx and no anorthositic segregations can be found. The MGI grades into fine-grained dolerite towards the top and bottom margins of the sill. We modeled the phase relations of a representative MGI gabbro composition (chilled margin) upon cooling using MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012). Extracted physical parameters (i.e. melt and solid densities, melt viscosity) were used as a proxy for melt mobility (Sakamaki et al. 2013). The temporal and spatial evolution of melt mobility within the sill was investigated using the temperature-time curve obtained through a thermal model for the MGI. We observed several peaks for the melt mobility, implying zones of melt drainage (when mobility

  13. Feldspathic Clasts in Yamato 86032: Remnants of the Lunar Crust with Implications for its Formation and Impact History (United States)

    Nyquist, L.; Bogard, D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Ebihara, M.; Reese, Y.; Garrison, D.; Takeda, H.


    Yamato (Y)-86032 is a relatively large, feldspathic lunar highlands meteorite composed of a variety of highland lithologies. Low bulk contents of Th and Fe indicated that it came from a region of the moon far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT) and the Apollo landing sites, perhaps from the farside. A large (5.2 x 3.6 cm) slab was cut from Y-86032 . We report results from coordinated textural, mineralogical-petrological, chemical, and isotopic studies of lithologies identified in the slab, emphasizing the results of Ar-39/Ar-40, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd chronological studies as well as Sm-isotopic studies. These studies characterize the history of Y-86032 and its precursors in the farside mega-regolith, leading to inferences about the formation and evolution of the lunar crust. Textural studies establish that the Y-86032 breccia is composed of a variety of highland components including feldspathic breccias, and other components, such as possible VLT mare basalts. Impact melt veins smoothly abut the other lithologies. Thus, Y-86032 experienced at least two impact events. These impacts occurred on a predominantly feldspathic protolith, which formed 4.43+/-0.03 Ga ago as determined from a Sm-Nd isochron for mineral clasts separated from the two dominant lithologies. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 in the protolith at that time was -0.64+/-0.13 epsilon-units below Nd-143/Nd-144 in reservoirs having chondritic Sm/Nd ratios, consistent with prior fractionation of mafic cumulates from the LMO. Although the mineral chemistry of these clasts differs in detail from that of minerals in Apollo 16 Ferroan Anorthosites (FANs), the Rb-Sr studies establish that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 in them was the same as in the FANs.

  14. Comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic, trace element, and mineralogical characterization of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials (United States)

    Fourny, Anaïs.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.


    Controlling the accuracy and precision of geochemical analyses requires the use of characterized reference materials with matrices similar to those of the unknown samples being analyzed. We report a comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and trace element concentration data set, combined with quantitative phase analysis by XRD Rietveld refinement, for a wide range of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials analyzed at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. The samples include a pyroxenite (NIM-P), five basalts (BHVO-2, BIR-1a, JB-3, BE-N, GSR-3), a diabase (W-2), a dolerite (DNC-1), a norite (NIM-N), and an anorthosite (AN-G); results from a leucogabbro (Stillwater) are also reported. Individual isotopic ratios determined by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS, and multielement analyses by HR-ICP-MS are reported with 4-12 complete analytical duplicates for each sample. The basaltic reference materials have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios with external precision below 50 ppm (2SD) and below 100 ppm for Hf isotopes (except BIR-1a). For Pb isotopic reproducibility, several of the basalts (JB-3, BHVO-2) require acid leaching prior to dissolution. The plutonic reference materials also have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (<50 ppm), however, obtaining good reproducibility for Pb and Hf isotopic ratios is more challenging for NIM-P, NIM-N, and AN-G due to a variety of factors, including postcrystallization Pb mobility and the presence of accessory zircon. Collectively, these results form a comprehensive new database that can be used by the geochemical community for evaluating the radiogenic isotope and trace element compositions of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic rocks.

  15. Experimental research and statistical analysis on the dielectric properties of lunar soil simulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dihui; JIANG Jingshan; WU Ji; ZHANG Dehai; ZHANG Xiaohui


    To support the microwave brightness data retrieval of future China space-borne lunar exploration microwave radiometer, based on the collection of plentiful terrestrial basalts and anorthosites and their chemical compositions got by X-ray fluorescence, nine lunar soil simulators were prepared and made respectively into 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 g/cm3 five densities each. We measured their relative dielectric constants over the range of 0.5-20 GHz with open-ended coaxial line model on the HP8722C Network Analyzer and then processed and analyzed the measurement data. This study shows that among the three parameters of density, frequency and composition, density has the strongest effect on the relative dielectric constants, frequency comes second, composition the least. The three parameters account for 45%, 33% and 22% respectively of the changed real part of a relative dielectric constant, and 55%, 27% and 19% respectively of the changed imaginary part. The real parts of the relative dielectric constants are linearly linearly correlated with density or frequency, and the imaginary parts have a linear relation with both approximately over the range of 0.5-10 GHz and tend to be poorly correlated with them in 10-20 GHz. The effect of composition on a relative dielectric constant seems very complicated, both probably do not follow a simple function relation, with the least correlation. Multiple regression analysis indicates that major element oxides SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO2 and -Fe are correspondent to a one-order polynomial, and TiO2 or -Fe or TiO2+-Fe has not been proven to be the indicators in the contribution to the relative dielectric constants.

  16. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon (United States)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.


    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of feldspathic impact-melt breccia Abar al' Uj 012, the first lunar meteorite from Saudi Arabia (United States)

    MéSzáRos, Marianna; Hofmann, Beda A.; Lanari, Pierre; Korotev, Randy L.; Gnos, Edwin; Greber, Nicolas D.; Leya, Ingo; Greenwood, Richard C.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.


    Abar al' Uj (AaU) 012 is a clast-rich, vesicular impact-melt (IM) breccia, composed of lithic and mineral clasts set in a very fine-grained and well-crystallized matrix. It is a typical feldspathic lunar meteorite, most likely originating from the lunar farside. Bulk composition (31.0 wt% Al2O3, 3.85 wt% FeO) is close to the mean of feldspathic lunar meteorites and Apollo FAN-suite rocks. The low concentration of incompatible trace elements (0.39 ppm Th, 0.13 ppm U) reflects the absence of a significant KREEP component. Plagioclase is highly anorthitic with a mean of An96.9Ab3.0Or0.1. Bulk rock Mg# is 63 and molar FeO/MnO is 76. The terrestrial age of the meteorite is 33.4 ± 5.2 kyr. AaU 012 contains a ~1.4 × 1.5 mm2 exotic clast different from the lithic clast population which is dominated by clasts of anorthosite breccias. Bulk composition and presence of relatively large vesicles indicate that the clast was most probably formed by an impact into a precursor having nonmare igneous origin most likely related to the rare alkali-suite rocks. The IM clast is mainly composed of clinopyroxenes, contains a significant amount of cristobalite (9.0 vol%), and has a microcrystalline mesostasis. Although the clast shows similarities in texture and modal mineral abundances with some Apollo pigeonite basalts, it has lower FeO and higher SiO2 than any mare basalt. It also has higher FeO and lower Al2O3 than rocks from the FAN- or Mg-suite. Its lower Mg# (59) compared to Mg-suite rocks also excludes a relationship with these types of lunar material.

  18. Chemically fractionated fission-xenon in meteorites and on the earth (United States)

    Shukolyukov, Yuri A.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Meshik, Alexander P.; Vu Minh, Dang; Jordan, Jimmy L.


    This is a report on the nature of isotopically anomalous xenon, which has been detected in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. It is extremely enriched in 132Xe, 129Xe, and to a lesser extent in 131Xe. Similar large excesses of 132Xe as well as of 131Xe, 134Xe, and 129Xe have previously been found in material processed in a natural nuclear reactor (Oklo phenomenon). Excess of these isotopes had also been encountered in MORB-glasses, in an ancient Greenland anorthosite. Thus, this Xe-type, which had previously been termed "alien" ( JORDON et al., 1980a) does not seem to be unique. To determine the origin of "alien" Xe, we analysed Xe (a) in neutron irradiated pitchblende and in the irradiation capsule, (b) in non-irradiated extremely fine-grained pitchblende (so-called Colorado-type deposit), and (c) in sandstone taken from the epicentre of an atomic explosion. In addition, the isotopic composition of xenon released by stepwise degassing and after selective dissolving of rocks from the Oklo natural reactor was determined. The results of these dedicated experiments demonstrate that the formation of alien Xe is due to the migration of the radioactive precursors of the stable isotopes 134Xe, 132Xe, 131Xe, and 129Xe. Due to this reason we now call it CFF-Xe - Chemically Fractionated Fission Xenon. Prerequisites for its formation are the simultaneous prevalence of two conditions: (1) fission (of 238U, 235U, and/ or 244Pu) and (2) a physicochemical environment (temperature, pressure, fluidity) at which the precursors of xenon (mainly Te and I) are mobile. Taking into account the occurrence of xenon in meteorites and terrestrial rocks, not all excesses of 129Xe in mantle rocks and natural gases are necessarily connected with the decay of primordial 129I.

  19. U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite petrogenesis (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Premo, W.R.


    U-Pb isotopic analyses of eight single and multi-grain zircon fractions separated from a syenite of the Diana Complex of the Adirondack Mountains do not define a single linear array, but a scatter along a chord that intersects the Concordia curve at 1145 ?? 29 and 285 ?? 204 Ma. For the most concordant analyses, the 207Pb/206Pb ages range between 1115 and 1150 Ma. Detailed petrographic studies revealed that most grains contained at least two phases of zircon growth, either primary magmatic cores enclosed by variable thickness of metamorphic overgrowths or magmatic portions enclosing presumably older xenocrystic zircon cores. The magmatic portions are characterized by typical dipyramidal prismatic zoning and numerous black inclusions that make them quite distinct from adjacent overgrowths or cores when observed in polarizing light microscopy and in back-scattered electron micrographs. Careful handpicking and analysis of the "best" magmatic grains, devoid of visible overgrowth of core material, produced two nearly concordant points that along with two of the multi-grain analyses yielded an upper-intercept age of 1118 ?? 2.8 Ma and a lower-intercept age of 251 ?? 13 Ma. The older age is interpreted as the crystallization age of the syenite and the younger one is consistent with late stage uplift of the Appalachian region. The 1118 Ma age for the Diana Complex, some 35 Ma younger than previously believed, is now approximately synchronous with the main Adirondack anorthosite intrusion, implying a cogenetic relationship among the various meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks. The retention of a high-temperature contact metamorphic aureole around Diana convincingly places the timing of Adirondack regional metamorphism as early as 1118 Ma. This result also implies that the sources of anomalous high-temperature during granulite metamorphism are the syn-metamorphic intrusions, such as the Diana Complex.

  20. The mineral resources of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Columbia (Zone I) (United States)

    Tschanz, Charles McFarland; Jimeno V., Andres; Cruz, Jaime B.


    The Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria on the north coast of Colombia is an isolated triangular mountain area that reaches altitudes of almost 19,000 feet. The exceedingly complex geology is shown on the 1:200,000 geologic map. Despite five major periods of granitic intrusion, three major periods of metamorphism, and extensive volcanic eruptions, metallic deposits are small and widely scattered. Sulfide deposits of significant economic value appear to be absent. Many small copper deposits, of chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, and azurite are found in epidotized rock in Mesozoic redbeds and intercalated volcanic rocks, but their economic potential is very small. Deposits of other common base metals appear to be absent. The most important metallic deposits may prove to be unusual bimineralic apatite-ilmenite deposits associated with gneissic anorthosite. The known magnetite deposits are too small to be exploited commercially. Primary gold deposits have not been identified and the placer deposits are uneconomic and very small. The largest and most important deposits are nonmetallic. Enormous reserves of limestone are suitable for cement manufacture and some high-purity limestone is suitable for the most exacting chemical uses. Small deposits of talc-tremolite could be exploited locally for ceramic use. The important noncoking bituminous coal deposits in the Cerrej6n area are excluded from this study. Other nonmetallic resources include igneous dimension stone in a variety of colors and textures, and agricultural dolomite. There probably are important undeveloped ground water resources on the slopes of the wide Rancheria and Cesar valleys, which separate the Sierra Nevada from the Serrania de Persia.

  1. Coupling between impacts and lunar volcanism for Humorum and Procellarum basins (United States)

    Peters, S. T. M.; Koschny, D.; Foing, B. H.


    A lot of knowledge has been obtained by ground-based observations and previous space missions on Mare Humorum and Oceanus Procellarum, which are a circular and irregular basin, respectively. Correlating tectonic signatures and volcanic outflows within this area gives information on the development of both basins; and thus on their origin of impact. By marking different fracture patterns, paleo-stress fields occurring in the area of both maria become visible. These stresses are believed to be caused by the contrast in density of the solidified lava and the anorthosite crust and therefore to be post-volcanic. The presence of underlying topography and structures of fault systems influence the formation of new zones of weakness within the basins. Therefore they induce faults which do not properly reflect the stress field under which they are formed. To exclude this distortion, only the most inner parts of the basins are measured. Images from the AMIE-camera on SMART-1 Moon mission were annotated for tectonic interpretation using ARC-GIS. A volcanic outflow analysis is made using Clementine UVVIS-data: Lava outflows from different origin were distinguished on base of their FeO and TiO2 contents. Ages of the units were determined by cratercounting methods from other authors. The eruptional and structural analyses provide a model for the stratigraphic development and spatial occurrence of the volcanic processes that flooded the maria. This model is compared with both irregular and circular impact basins for different shape, age and geographical positions. The results show how these impact-related parameters influence volcanic mare evolution. With the geographical position, also the depth and thickness of the KREEP-layer has been taken in account.

  2. The uranium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In identifying uranium provinces, and, more importantly, mineralized zones within these provinces, it is of paramount importance to attempt to trace the geochemical behaviour of an element through all stages of Earth's evolution. Aspects that need to be addressed in this regard include solar abundance levels and fractionation processes during accretion, changing patterns of crustal evolution, effects of an evolving atmosphere, and the weathering cycle. Abundance patterns and partition coefficients of some of the siderophile elements in mantle rocks lend support to a multistage accretionary process. Lack of a terrestrial record in the first 500 Ma necessitates that lunar models be invoked, which suggests that early fractionation of a mafic/ultramafic magma resulted in an anorthositic crust. Fractionation of the mantle and transfer of materials to the upper levels must be central to any model invoked for development of the crust. Given high heat flow conditions in the early Archaean it would seem inescapable that the process of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics was an ongoing process. If the plate tectonic model is taken back to 3500 Ma, and assuming current speading rates, then about half of the mantle has passed through the irreversible differentiation cycle. Arguments in support of recycled material must be balanced against mantle metasomatism effects. With the associated advent of partial melting of the mantle material a partitioning of minor and trace elements into the melt fraction would take place. The early primitive mafic and ultramafic komatiites exemplify this feature by concentrating U and Th by a factor of 5 compared to chondritic abundances. It is of tantamount importance to understand the generation of the magmas in order to predict which are the 'fertile' bodies in terms of radioelement concentrations. In that the granitoid magmas image their source compositions, the association of high radioelements will primarily be source-dependent. Uranium

  3. Mineral chemistry as a tool for understanding the petrogenesis of Cryogenian (arc-related)-Ediacaran (post-collisional) gabbros in the western Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Harbi, Hesham M.


    Metagabbros and gabbros in the Ablah-Shuwas belt (western Saudi Arabia) represent part of significant mafic magmatism in the Neoproterozoic Arabian Shield. The metagabbros are Cryogenian, occasionally stratified and bear calcic amphiboles (hornblende, magnesio-hornblende and actinolite) typical of calc-alkaline complexes. These amphiboles suggest low pressure ( 1-3 kbar), high f_{O2 } and crystallization temperature up to 727 °C, whereas it is 247-275 °C in the case of retrograde chlorite. Rutile and titanite in metagabbros are Fe-rich and replace Mn-bearing ilmenite precursors at high f_{O2} . On the other hand, younger gabbros are fresh, layered and comprised of olivine gabbro and olivine-hornblende gabbro with an uppermost layer of anorthositic gabbro. The fresh gabbros are biotite-bearing. They are characterized by secondary magnetite-orthopyroxene symplectitic intergrowth at the outer peripheries of olivine. The symplectite forms by deuteric alteration from residual pore fluids moving along olivine grain boundaries in the sub-solidus state. In fresh gabbros, ortho- and clinopyroxenes indicate crystallization at 1300-900 and 800-600 °C, respectively. Geochemically, the Cryogenian metagabbros ( 850-780 Ma) are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline in composition and interpreted as arc-related. Younger, fresh gabbros are calc-alkaline and post-collisional ( 620-590 Ma, i.e., Ediacaran), forming during the late stages of arc amalgamation in the southern Arabian Shield. The calc-alkaline metagabbros are related to a lithospheric mantle source previously modified by subduction. Younger, fresh gabbros were probably produced by partial melting of an enriched mantle source (e.g., garnet lherzolite).

  4. Petrography of isotopically-dated clasts in the Kapoeta howardite and petrologic constraints on the evolution of its parent body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed mineralogic and petrographic data are presented for four isotopically-dated basaltic rock fragments separated from the howardite Kapoeta. Clasts C and rho have been dated at approximately 4.55 AE and approximately 4.60 AE respectively, and Clast rho contains 244Pu and 129I decay products. These are both igneous rocks that preserve all the features of their original crystallization from a melt. They thus provide good evidence that the Kapoeta parent body produced basaltic magmas shortly after its formation ( 40Ar/39Ar age. This sample is extensively recrystallized, and the ages are interpreted as a time of recrystallization, and not the time of original crystallization from a melt. Clast B has yielded a Rb-Sr age of approximately 3.63 AE, and an 40Ar/39Ar age of > approximately 4.50 AE. This sample is moderately recrystallized, and the Rb-Sr age probably indicates a time of recrystallization, whereas the 40Ar/39Ar age more closely approaches the time of crystallization from a melt. Thus, there is no clearcut evidence for 'young' magmatism on the Kapeota parent body. The FeO and MnO contents of all pyroxenes in Kapeota fall near a line with FeO/MnO approximately 35, suggesting that the source rocks are fundamentally related. The FeO/MnO value in lunar pyroxenes (approximately 60) is distinct from that of the pyroxenes in Kapoeta. Anorthositic rocks were not observed in Kapoeta, suggesting that plagioclase was not important in the evolution of the Kapoeta parent body, in contrast to the Moon. Both objects appear to have originated in chemically-distinct portions of the solar system, and to have undergone differentiation on different time scales involving differing materials. (author)

  5. Interpretation of Chemical and Chronological Data of some Pegmatites in the Oaxacan Complex, Mexico. (United States)

    Shchepetilnikova, Valentina; Solé, Jesús


    This work presents the preliminary results of a geochemical and geochronological study of some pegmatite bodies from the Oaxacan Complex, and a brief discussion about their possible origin. The Oaxacan Complex is a large complex in southern Mexico metamorphosed up to the granulite facies during the Grenville orogeny s.l. (1.2-0.95 Ga). This Complex, which includes anorthosites, granulites, gneisses, quartzites, etc., is characterized by the intrusion of multiple pegmatite bodies. Some pegmatites were studied on two areas of the Oaxacan Complex: central part (Ayoquezco-Ejutla) and northern part (Telixtlahuaca). The U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages on zircons lie in two ranges: 920-1000 Ma and 1160-1240 Ma. Both ranges can be present in the same pegmatite body. Likewise, the concentration of Hf, Y, Yb, Sm, U, Ce and Eu was determined in the same zircons and some diagrams constructed (Shnukov et al. 1997; Belousova et al. 2002) that can be used to estimate the probable melt origin of the zircon bearing rocks. It has been suggested that all pegmatites from the Oaxacan Complex are the result of the evolution of felsic melts formed during anatexis processes. The interpretation of chemical data indicate that the composition of the initial melt was ultramafic in some cases. This means that the probable process of pegmatite formation was not the last stage of a granitic intrusion. The results of the conducted work indicate that one possible scenario for the Oaxacan tectonic setting in the limit between Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic could be a rift. Moreover, an estimation of cooling rate has been done using U-Pb and K-Ar ages, showing faster cooling rates towards the North.

  6. DTM generation from STC-SIMBIO-SYS images (United States)

    Re, C.; Simioni, E.; Cremonese, G.; Roncella, R.; Forlani, G.; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, G.; Salemi, G.


    The research group with the responsibility of the STereo Camera (STC) for the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, has realized an innovative and compact camera design in which the light collected independently by two optical channels at ±20° with respect to the nadir direction converges on unique bidimensional detector. STC will provide the 3Dmapping of Mercury surface, acquiring images from two different perspectives. A stereo validation setup has been developed in order to give a much greater confidence to the novel instrument design and to get an on ground verification of the actual accuracies in obtaining elevation information from stereo pairs. A series of stereo-pairs of an anorthosite stone sample (good analogue of the hermean surface) and of a modelled piece of concrete, acquired in calibration clean room by means of an auxiliary optical system, have been processed in the photogrammetric pipeline using image correlation for the 3D model generation. The stereo reconstruction validation has been performed by comparing the STC DTMs (Digital Terrain Models) to an high resolution laser scanning 3D model of the stone samples as reference data. The latter has a much higher precision (ca. 20 μm) of the expected in-lab STC DTM (190 μm). Processing parameters have been varied in order to test their influence on the DTM generation accuracy. The main aim is to define the best illumination conditions and the process settings in order to obtain the best DTMs in terms of accuracy and completeness, seeking the best match between the mission constraints and the specific matching aspects that could affect the mapping process.

  7. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study of the Glen Mountains layered complex: Initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen (United States)

    Lambert, David D.; Unruh, D. M.; Gilbert, M. Charles


    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for rocks and minerals of the Glen Mountains layered complex (GMLC), a midcontinent mafic layered intrusion in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma, constrain the time of initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and provide information on the chemistry of the early Paleozoic mantle. Four whole-rock samples define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a maximum crystallization age of 577 ±165 Ma and an initial Sr isotopic composition of 0.70359 ±2. These whole-rock analyses do not define a Sm-Nd isochron; rather, they display a significant range in initial Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd = 3.63-5.35). A three-point Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock (internal) isochron for an anorthositic gabbro provides a crystallization age of 528 ±29 Ma. These data suggest that the GMLC was emplaced into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen during the initial phase of rifting along the southern margin of the North American craton in the early Paleozoic. This Sm-Nd internal isochron age is within analytical uncertainty of U-Pb zircon ages for granites and rhyolites from the Wichita Mountains; therefore, mafic and felsic magmatism may have been contemporaneous within the rift during the early stages of development. Hybrid rocks and composite dikes in the Wichita Mountains provide field evidence for contemporaneous mafic and felsic magmas. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest that magmas parental to the GMLC were derived from a depleted mantle source. However, Nd isotopic data for the GMLC plot distinctly below data for the depleted mantle source cited by DePaolo and thus suggest that the parental magmas of the GMLC were either contaminated by Proterozoic crust of the southern midcontinent or were derived from a heterogeneous mantle source region that had variable initial Nd isotopic compositions.

  8. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study of the Glen Mountains layered complex: initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.D.; Unruh, D.M.; Gilbert, M.C.


    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for rocks and minerals of the Glen Mountains layered complex (GMLC), a midcontinent mafic layered intrusion in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma, constrain the time of initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and provide information on the chemistry of the early Paleozoic mantle. Four whole-rock samples define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a maximum crystallization age of 577 +/- 165 Ma and an initial Sr isotopic composition of 0.70359 +/- 2. A three-point Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock (internal) isochron for an anorthositic gabbro provides a crystallization age of 528 +/- 29 Ma. These data suggest that the GMLC was emplaced into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen during the initial phase of rifting along the southern margin of the North American craton in the early Paleozoic. This Sm-Nd internal isochron age is within analytical uncertainty of U-Pb zircon ages for granites and rhyolites from the Wichita Mountains; therefore, mafic and felsic magmatism may have been contemporaneous within the rift during the early stages of development. Hybrid rocks and composite dikes in the Wichita Mountains provide field evidence for contemporaneous mafic and felsic magmas. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest that magmas parental to the GMLC were derived from a depleted mantle source. However, Nd isotopic data for the GMLC plot distinctly below data for the depleted mantle source cited by DePaolo and thus suggest that the parental magmas of the GMLC were either contaminated by Proterozoic crust of the southern midcontinent or were derived from a heterogenous mantle source region that had variable initial Nd isotopic compositions.

  9. Lunar meteorites:witnesses of the composition and evolution of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Bingkui; CHEN Hongyi; XIA Zhipeng; YAO Jie; XIE Lanfang; NI Wenjun; ZHANG Chuantong


    Lunar meteorites are fragments of the Moon that escaped the gravity of the Moon following high-energy impacts by asteroids, subsequently fell to Earth. An inventory of 165 lunar meteorites has been developed since the discovery and identiifcation of the ifrst lunar meteorite, ALHA 81005, in 1979. Although the Apollo samples are much heavier in mass than lunar meteorites, the meteorites are still an important sample supplement for scientiifc research on the composition and history of the Moon. Apart from a small amount of unbrecciated crystalline rocks, the majority of lunar meteorites are breccias that can be classiifed into three groups:highland feldspathic breccia, mare basaltic breccia, and mingled(including lfedspathic and basaltic clasts) breccia. The petrography of lunar rocks suggests that there are a series of rock types of anorthosite, basalt, gabbro, troctolite, norite and KREEP in the Moon. Although KREEP is rare in lunar rocks, KREEP components have been found in the increasing number of lunar meteorites. KREEP provides important information on lunar magmatic evolution, e.g., the VHK KREEP clasts in SaU 169 may represent the pristine lunar magma (urKREEP). Six launching pairs of lunar meteorites have been proposed now, along with ten possible lunar launching sites. In addition, symplectite is often found in lunar basalts, which is a signiifcant record of shock metamorphism on the lunar surface. Furthermore, isotopic ages and noble gases not only provide information on crystallization processes in lunar rocks and the formation of lunar crust, but also provide insight into shock events on the lunar surface.

  10. Evidence for a "Wet" Early Moon (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Neal, Clive R.


    The Moon was thought to have lost its volatiles during impact(s) of a Mars-size planetesimal with the proto Earth [1] and during degassing of an early planet-wide magma ocean [2]. This view of an anhydrous Moon, however, has been challenged by recent discoveries of water on its surface [3-5] and in lunar volcanics [6-10] and regoliths [11]. Indigenous water is suggested to be heterogeneously distributed in the lunar interior and some parts of lunar mantle may contain as much water as Earth's upper mantle [6,10]. This water is thought to have been brought in part through solar wind implantation [3-5,8,11] and meteorite/cometary impacts [3,4,8,12] after the formation of the primary crust. Here we measured water in primary products of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) thereby by-passing the processes of later addition of water to the Moon through impact events or during mantle overturn as suggested by previous studies (e.g., [8,12]). So far, ferroan anorthosite (FAN) is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the LMO [2]. It is generally accepted that plagioclase, after crystallization, floated in the LMO and formed FAN as the original crust [2]. Therefore, any indigenous water preserved in FAN was partitioned from the LMO. These data can be used to estimate the water content of the magma ocean at the time of plagioclase crystallization, as well as that of the mare magma source regions.

  11. Mineral potential for nickel, copper, platinum group elements(PGE), and chromium deposits hosted in ultramafic rocks in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 67): Chapter G in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II) (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric D.


    PRISM-I summary documents mention the presence of mafic-ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks in several areas of Mauritania and a number of chromium (Cr) and copper-nickel (Cu-Ni (±Co, Au)) occurrences associated with them. Permissive geologic settings generally include greenstone belts of any age, layered mafic-ultramafic and unlayered gabbro-anorthosite intrusive complexes in cratonic settings, ophiolite complexes, flood basalt provinces, and fluid-rich shear zones cutting accumulations of mafic-ultramafic rocks. Regions of Mauritania having these characteristics that are discussed in PRISM-I texts include the Mesoarchean greenstone belts of the TasiastTijirit terrane in the southwestern Rgueïbat Shield, two separate layered ultramafic complexes in the Amsaga Complex west of Atar, serpentinized metadunites in Mesoarchean rocks of the Rgueïbat Shield in the Zednes map sheet, several lateritized annular mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Paleoproterozoic northwestern portion of the Rgueïbat Shield, and the serpentinized ophiolitic segments of the Gorgol Noir Complex in the axial portion of the southern Mauritanides. Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM) work in the “Extreme Sud” zone also suggests that small copper occurrences associated with the extensive Jurassic microgabbroic intrusive rocks in the Taoudeni Basin of southeastern Mauritania could have potential for magmatic Cu-Ni (PGE, Co, Au) sulfide mineralization. Similarly, Jurassic mafic intrusive rocks in the northeastern Taoudeni Basin may be permissive. Known magmatic Cu-Ni deposits of these types in Mauritania are few in number and some uncertainty exists as to the nature of several of the more important ones.

  12. U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite petrogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asish R Basu; Wayne R Premo


    U-Pb isotopic analyses of eight single and multi-grain zircon fractions separated from a syenite of the Diana Complex of the Adirondack Mountains do not define a single linear array, but a scatter along a chord that intersects the Concordia curve at 1145 ± 29 and 285 ± 204 Ma. For the most concordant analyses, the 207Pb/206Pb ages range between 1115 and 1150 Ma. Detailed petrographic studies revealed that most grains contained at least two phases of zircon growth, either primary magmatic cores enclosed by variable thickness of metamorphic overgrowths or magmatic portions enclosing presumably older xenocrystic zircon cores. The magmatic portions are characterized by typical dipyramidal prismatic zoning and numerous black inclusions that make them quite distinct from adjacent overgrowths or cores when observed in polarizing light microscopy and in back- scattered electron micrographs. Careful handpicking and analysis of the "best" magmatic grains, devoid of visible overgrowth of core material, produced two nearly concordant points that along with two of the multi-grain analyses yielded an upper-intercept age of 1118 ± 2.8 Ma and a lower- intercept age of 251 ± 13 Ma. The older age is interpreted as the crystallization age of the syenite and the younger one is consistent with late stage uplift of the Appalachian region. The 1118 Ma age for the Diana Complex, some 35 Ma younger than previously believed, is now approximately synchronous with the main Adirondack anorthosite intrusion, implying a cogenetic relationship among the various meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks. The retention of a high-temperature contact metamorphic aureole around Diana convincingly places the timing of Adirondack regional metamorphism as early as 1118 Ma. This result also implies that the sources of anomalous high- temperature during granulite metamorphism are the syn-metamorphic intrusions, such as the Diana Complex.

  13. Petrology of the anorogenic, oxidised Jamon and Musa granites, Amazonian Craton: implications for the genesis of Proterozoic A-type granites (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Rämö, O. Tapani; de Magalhães, Marilia Sacramento; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano


    The 1.88 Ga Jamon and Musa granites are magnetite-bearing anorogenic, A-type granites of Paleoproterozoic age. They intrude the Archaean rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain in the eastern part of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. A suite of biotite±amphibole monzogranite to syenogranite, with associated dacite porphyry (DP) and granite porphyry (GP) dykes, dominates in these subalkaline granites that vary from metaluminous to peraluminous and show high FeO/(FeO+MgO) and K 2O/Na 2O. In spite of their broad geochemical similarities, the Jamon and Musa granites show some significant differences in their REE patterns and in the behaviour of Y. The Jamon granites are related by fractional crystallisation of plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, biotite, magnetite±amphibole±apatite±ilmenite. Geochemical modelling and Nd isotopic data indicate that the Archaean granodiorites, trondhjemites and tonalites of the Rio Maria region are not the source of the Jamon Granite and associated dyke magmas. Archaean quartz diorites, differentiated from the mantle at least 1000 m.y. before the emplacement of the granites, have a composition adequate to generate DP and the hornblende-biotite monzogranite magmas by different degrees of partial melting. A larger extent of amphibole fractionation during the evolution of the Musa pluton can explain some of the observed differences between it and the Jamon pluton. The studied granites crystallised at relatively high fO 2 and are anorogenic magnetite-series granites. In this aspect, as well as concerning geochemical characteristics, they display many affinities with the Proterozoic A-type granites of south-western United States. The Jamon and Musa granites differ from the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite suites of north-eastern Canada and from the reduced rapakivi granites of the Fennoscandian Shield in several aspects, probably because of different magmatic sources.

  14. P-T history and geochemical characteristics of mafic granulites and charnockites from west of Periya, North Kerala, southern India (United States)

    Prakash, D.; Chandra Singh, P.; Arima, M.; Singh, Triveni


    The study region forms the northern part of Kerala (south India) and constitutes part of granulite-facies rocks of the exhumed Proterozoic south Indian Granulite Terrain (SGT). The SGT consists of a large variety of rock types with a wide range of mineral parageneses and chemical compositions, namely charnockite, mafic granulite, gneiss, schist, anorthosite, granite and minor meta-sedimentary rocks. Garnet-bearing mafic granulites occur as small enclaves within charnockites. We report for the first time P-T constraints on the prograde path preceding peak metamorphism in the northernmost part of Kerala. An increase of the Mg, Fe and decrease of Ca and Mn contents from the core towards the rim of garnet in the mafic granulites suggest prograde garnet growth. The prograde path was followed by peak metamorphism at a temperature of c. 800 °C and a pressure of c. 7.5 kbar as computed by isopleths of XMg garnet, XCa garnet and XAn plagioclase. The resorption of garnet in various reaction textures and the development of spectacular orthopyroxene-plagioclase, biotite-quartz and hornblende-plagioclase symplectites characterize the subsequent stages of metamorphism. The PT path is characteristically T-convex suggesting an isothermal decompression path and reflects rapid uplift followed by cooling of a tectonically thickened crust. Diffusion modeling of Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and hornblende suggests a near-peak cooling rate of 10-70 °C/myr. Such cooling rates are too high to be accounted for by normal isostatic uplift and erosion and suggest that the terrain was tectonically exhumed. Charnockites are richer in SiO2 and lower in MgO and CaO when compared to mafic granulites. Their REE patterns are relatively flat and show prominent negative europium anomalies. The mafic granulites are metamorphosed tholeiitic basalts as revealed by major- and trace-element geochemistry.

  15. Stimulated infrared emission from rocks: assessing a stress indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund


    Full Text Available To study the effect of stress-activated positive hole (p-hole charge carriers on the infrared (IR emission from rocks, we subjected a portion (~10 vol.% of a large (60×30×7.5 cm3 block of anorthosite, a nearly monomineralic (Ca-rich feldspar igneous rock, to uniaxial deviatory stress up to failure. We measured the IR emission from a flat surface ≈40 cm from the stressed rock volume over the 800–1300 cm−1 (7.7–12.5 μm range. Upon loading, the intensity and spectrum of the IR emission change. Narrow bands near instantly appear at 930 cm−1 (10.75 μm, 880 cm−1 (11.36 μm, 820 cm−1 (12.4 μm plus additional bands in the 1000–1300 cm−1 (10.0–7.7 μm range. Upon further loading the bands broaden and shift. Their intensities increase but also fluctuate. Near the emission maxima at 300 K, at 1150 cm−1 and 1030 cm−1 (8.7 and 9 μm, barely any intensity increase occurs suggesting that the temperature of the surface does not actually increase. We propose that the observed narrow IR emission bands arise from vibrationally excited O-O stretching modes which form when p-hole charge carriers (activated in the stressed rock spread into the unstressed portion of the rock to the surface, where they recombine and radiatively decay. The effect, stimulated IR emission due to hole-hole recombination, may help explain the enhanced IR emission seen in night-time satellite images of the land surface before major earthquakes known as "thermal anomalies''.

  16. Petrotectonic framework of granulites from northern part of Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: Compressional vis-à-vis transpressional tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushik Das; Sankar Bose; Subrata Karmakar; Supriya Chakraborty


    Granulite-facies rocks occurring north-east of the Chilka Lake anothosite (Balugan Massif) show a complex metamorphic and deformation history. The M1–D1 stage is identified only through microscopic study by the presence of S1 internal foliation shown by the M1 assemblage sillimanite–quartz–plagioclase–biotite within garnet porphyroblasts of the aluminous granulites and this fabric is obliterated in outcrop to map-scale by subsequent deformations. S2 fabric was developed at peak metamorphic condition (M2–D2­) and is shown by gneissic banding present in all lithological units. S3 fabric was developed due to D3 deformation and it is tectonically transposed parallel to S2 regionally except at the hinge zone of the F3 folds. The transposed S2/S3 fabric is the regional characteristic structure of the area. The D4 event produced open upright F4 folds, but was weak enough to develop any penetrative foliation in the rocks except few spaced cleavages that developed in the quartzite/garnet–sillimanite gneiss. Petrological data suggest that the M4–D4 stage actually witnessed reactivation of the lower crust by late distinct tectonothermal event. Presence of transposed S2/S3 fabric within the anorthosite arguably suggests that the pluton was emplaced before or during the M3–D3 event. Field-based large-scale structural analyses and microfabric analyses of the granulites reveal that this terrain has been evolved through superposed folding events with two broadly perpendicular compression directions without any conclusive evidence for transpressional tectonics as argued by earlier workers. Tectonothermal history of these granulites spanning in Neoproterozoic time period is dominated by compressional tectonics with associated metamorphism at deep crust.

  17. Partial eclogitization of the Ambolten gabbro-norite, north-east Greenland Caledonides (United States)

    Gilotti, J.A.; Elvevold, S.


    Partially eclogitized igneous bodies composed of gabbro, leucogabbro, anorthosite and cross-cutting diabase dikes are well represented in the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province. A 200 x 100 meter intrusive body on Ambolten Island (78?? 20' N, 19?? 15' W) records a prograde transition from gabbro-norite to eclogite facies coronitic metagabro-norite surrounded by hydrated margins of undeformed to strongly foliated amphibolite. Igneous plagioclase + olivine + enstatite + augite + oxides convert to eclogite facies assemblages consisting of garnet, omphacite, diopside, enstatite, kyanite, zoisite, rutile and pargasitic amphibole through several coronitic reactions. Relict cumulus plagioclase laths are replaced by an outer corona of garnet, an inner corona of omphacite and an internal region of sodic plagioclase, garnet, kyanite, omphacite and zoisite. Olivine and intercumulus pyroxene are partly replaced by metamorphic pyroxenes and amphibole. The corona structures, zoning patterns, diversity of mineral compositions in a single thin section, and preservation of metastable asemblages are characteristic of diffusion-controlled metamorphism. The most extreme disequilibrium is found in static amphibolites, where igneous pyroxenes, plagioclase domains with eclogite facies, assemblages, and matrix amphibole coexist. Complete eclogitization was not attained at Ambolten due to a lack of fluids needed to drive diffusion during prograde and retrograde metamorphism. The P-T conditions of the high-pressure metamorphism are estimated at ??? 750??C and > 18 kbar. Well-equilibrated, foliated amphibolites from the margin of the gabbro-norite supports our contention that the entire North-East Greenland Eclogite Province experienced Caledonian high-pressure metamorphism, even though no eclogite facies assemblages have been found in the quartzofeldspathic host gneisses to date.

  18. Crystal-bearing lunar spherules: Impact-melting of the Moon's crust and implications for the origin of meteoritic chondrules (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.


    Crystal-bearing lunar spherules (CLSs) in lunar breccia (14313, 14315, 14318), soil (68001, 24105), and impact-melt-rock (62295) samples can be classified into two types: feldspathic and olivine-rich. Feldspathic CLSs contain equant, tabular, or acicular plagioclase grains set in glass or a pyroxene-olivine mesostasis; the less common olivine-rich CLSs contain euhedral or skeletal olivine set in glass, or possess a barred-olivine texture. Bulk-chemical and mineral-chemical data strongly suggest that feldspathic CLSs formed by impact-melting of mixtures of ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks that compose the feldspathic crust of the Moon. It is probable that olivine-rich CLSs also formed by impact-melting, but some appear to have been derived from distinctively magnesian lunar materials, atypical of the Moon's crust. Some CLSs contain reversely-zoned "relict" plagioclase grains that were not entirely melted during CLS formation, thin (?5 ?m thick) rims of troilite or phosphate, and chemical gradients in glassy mesostases attributed to metasomatism in a volatile-rich (Na-K-P-rich) environment. CLSs were rimmed and metasomatized prior to brecciation. Compound CLS objects are also present; these formed by low-velocity collisions in an environment, probably an ejecta plume, that contained numerous melt droplets. Factors other than composition were responsible for producing the crystallinity of the CLSs. We agree with previous workers that relatively slow cooling rates and long ballistic travel times were critical features that enabled these impact-melt droplets to partially or completely crystallize in free-flight. Moreover, incomplete melting of precursor materials formed nucleation sites that aided subsequent crystallization. Clearly, CLSs do not resemble meteoritic chondrules in all ways. The two types of objects had different precursors and did not experience identical rimming processes, and vapor-fractionation appears to have played a less important role in

  19. In-situ stressing of rock: Observation of infrared emission prior to failure (United States)

    Dahlgren, R.; Freund, F. T.; Momayez, M.; Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Joggerst, P.; Jones, K.; Wang, S.


    Blocks of igneous rocks such as anorthosite and granite subjected at one end to uniaxial stress have been shown to emit a small but distinct excess amount of infrared (IR) light (Freund, F. T., et al, JASTP, 71, 2009). This anomalous IR emission arises from the radiative de-excitation of electron vacancy defects, which, upon stress-activation, flow into the unstressed portion and recombine at the surface. This non-thermal IR emission occurs in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength region. Field experiments are performed by slowly stressing large boulders and monitoring the IR emission in situ with a Bruker EM27 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The boulders are prepared by drilling four blind holes into the rock, 50-100 cm deep, in an array roughly parallel to, and behind, the surface from where the IR emission is monitored. Any debris and water is blown out of the boreholes with compressed air, and the rock is given time to dry and relax from drilling-induced stresses. The holes are then filled with grout that expands upon curing, creating an increasing radial pressure of up to 5 × 103 t/m2. The experiments were carried out with two large granite boulders, one of about 30 t of hard (over 150 MPa) granite at the University of Arizona’s Henry "Hank" Grunstedt San Xavier Mining Laboratory, located in the copper mining district near Tucson, AZ and the other of about 7 t of weathered granite in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Oakhurst, CA. The Bruker EM27 FTIR spectrometer equipped with a 20 cm reflective telescope collects the IR emission from a safe distance at a rate of a full 4-16 µm spectrum every 30 sec. After recording baseline data, the grout was mixed with water and poured into the holes as IR emission was monitored continuously until the experiment was terminated after rock failure. The time of failure is noted whenever the first acoustic or visual cues are sensed from the boulder. The IR data shows that after a period of quiescence, pronounced

  20. In-situ stressing of rock: Observation of Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) magnetic signals and ion emissions detected prior to failure (United States)

    Bleier, T. E.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Dunson, C.


    Blocks of igneous rocks such as anorthosite and granite, subjected at one end to uniaxial stress in the laboratory, have been shown to emit infrared (IR) light, electrical currents, magnetic disturbances, and air ions (Freund, F. T. et al, JASTP, 71, 2009). Field experiments are performed by slowly applying stress to a large boulder of about 7 t of weathered granite in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Bass Lake, Ca. In situ monitoring of the induced signals is performed by a QuakeFinder QF-1005 two-axis induction magnetometer (QuakeFinder QF-1005), a pair of air ion counters (Alpha Lab AIC), and a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Bruker EM27). The boulder is prepared by drilling four 5 cm diameter holes into the rock 100 cm deep, in a linear array along the centerline of the boulder. Any debris and water are blown out of the boreholes with compressed air, and the rock is given time to dry and relax from drilling-induced stresses. The holes are then filled with a grout that expands upon curing, creating an exponentially increasing radial pressure of up to 5 x 10^3 t/m2. The magnetometers are placed within 0.3 m from the base, on the north and south sides of the boulder, and record signals at 50 sps. The Ion counters are positioned about 1m apart, 10cm above the boulder, and recorded at 50 sps on a max scale of 2000 x 10^6 ions/cc/sec. The spectrometer is equipped with a 20 cm reflective telescope and collects the IR emission from a safe distance at a rate of one 4-16 µm spectrum every 30 sec. After recording baseline data, the grout is mixed with water and poured into the holes and all signals are monitored continuously until the experiment is terminated after rock failure. The magnetometer and ion data show significant pre-fracture activity when compared to the pre-stressed, quiescent state. These signals are then compared with field measurements taken 2 km from the Oct. 30, 2007 M5.4 Alum Rock, Ca. earthquake (Bleier, T.E, et al, NHESS, 9, 1

  1. On the potential for lunar highlands Mg-suite extrusive volcanism and implications concerning crustal evolution (United States)

    Prissel, Tabb C.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Parman, Stephen W.; Head, James W.


    The lunar magnesian-suite (Mg-suite) was produced during the earliest periods of magmatic activity on the Moon. Based on the cumulate textures of the samples and a lack of evidence for Mg-suite extrusives in both the sample and remote sensing databases, several petrogenetic models deduce a predominantly intrusive magmatic history for Mg-suite lithologies. Considering that ∼18% of the lunar surface is covered by mare basalt flows, which are substantially higher in density than estimated Mg-suite magmas (∼2900 versus ∼2700 kg/m3), the apparent absence of low-density Mg-suite volcanics is surprising. Were Mg-suite magmas predominantly intrusive, or have their extrusive equivalents been covered by subsequent impact ejecta and/or later stage volcanism? If Mg-suite magmas were predominantly intrusive, what prevented these melts from erupting? Or, if they are present as extrusives, what regions of the Moon are most likely to contain Mg-suite volcanic deposits? This study investigates buoyancy-driven ascent of Mg-suite parental melts and is motivated by recent measurements of crustal density from GRAIL. Mg-suite dunite, troctolite, and spinel anorthosite parental melts (2742, 2699, and 2648 kg/m3, respectively) are considered, all of which have much lower melt densities relative to mare basalts and picritic glasses. Mg-suite parental melts are more dense than most of the crust and would not be expected to buoyantly erupt. However, about 10% of the lunar crust is greater in density than Mg-suite melts. These areas are primarily within the nearside southern highlands and South Pole-Aitken (SP-A) basin. Mg-suite extrusions and/or shallow intrusions were possible within these regions, assuming crustal density structure at >4.1 Ga was similar to the present day crust. We review evidence for Mg-suite activity within both the southern highlands and SP-A and discuss the implications concerning crustal evolution as well as Mg-suite petrogenesis. Lower crustal densities

  2. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.


    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  3. 900 Ma Pole from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, Norway: Where Was Baltica in the Early Neoproterozoic? (United States)

    Brown, L. L.; McEnroe, S. A.


    The southern Norwegian Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust between 930 and 920 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ~7km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic mega-units created by repeated magma influxes capped by a transition zone and a thick sequence of more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 paleomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the mega-cyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the mega-cyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower mega-cyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest mega-cyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 x 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.9 x 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A/m. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are often unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.7°, D = 303.7°, with α95 = 3.6° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 36.1°S and 217.5°E, with a paleolatitude for this part of Baltica of 59.7°S. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks yields an age of magnetization of ~900 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the presence

  4. 916 Ma Pole for southwestern Baltica: palaeomagnetism of the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, southern Norway (United States)

    Brown, Laurie L.; McEnroe, Suzanne A.


    The Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) in southern Norway intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust ˜930 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ˜7 km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic megaunits created by repeated magma influxes topped by a transition zone and more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 palaeomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the megacyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the megacyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower megacyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest megacyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 × 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.7 × 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A m-1. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are commonly unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.5°, D = 303.4°, with α95 = 3.7° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 35.9°S and 217.9°E, with a palaeolatitude for this part of Baltica of -59.4°. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks and cooling rates for the region yields an age of magnetization of 916 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the

  5. Zinc and volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Day, James M. D.; Moynier, Frédéric


    Zinc is a moderately volatile element and a key tracer of volatile depletion on planetary bodies due to lack of significant isotopic fractionation under high-temperature processes. Terrestrial basalts have δ66Zn values similar to some chondrites (+ 0.15 to 0.3‰ where [{66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64ZnJMC-Lyon-1} × 1000]) and elevated Zn concentrations (100 ppm). Lunar mare basalts yield a mean δ66Zn value of +1.4 ± 0.5‰ and have low Zn concentrations (~2 ppm). Late-stage lunar magmatic products, such as ferroan anorthosite, Mg-suite and Alkali suite rocks exhibit heavier δ66Zn values (+3 to +6‰). The heavy δ66Zn lunar signature is thought to reflect evaporative loss and fractionation of zinc, either during a giant impact or in a magma ocean phase.We explore conditions of volatile element loss within a lunar magma ocean (LMO) using models of Zn isotopic fractionation that are widely applicable to planetary magma oceans. For the Moon, our objective was to identify conditions that would yield a δ66Zn signature of ~ +1.4‰ within the mantle, assuming a terrestrial mantle zinc starting composition.We examine two cases of zinc evaporative fractionation: (1) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was completed prior to LMO crystallization and (2) lunar surface zinc fractionation that was concurrent with LMO crystallization. The first case resulted in a homogeneous lunar mantle and the second case yielded a stratified lunar mantle, with the greatest zinc isotopic enrichment in late-stage crystallization products. This latter case reproduces the distribution of zinc isotope compositions in lunar materials quite well.We find that hydrodynamic escape was not a dominant process in losing Zn, but that erosion of a nascent lunar atmosphere, or separation of condensates into a proto-lunar crust are possible. While lunar volatile depletion is still possible as a consequence of the giant impact, this process cannot reproduce the variable δ66Zn found in the Moon. Outgassing

  6. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph


    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  7. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar


    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  8. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher


    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the definition, development and testing of new analytical instruments for use in planetary missions, as well as possible calibration and ground-truthing of remote sensing data sets

  9. The first DTM generated by STC/SIMBIOSYS that will be on board the BepiColombo mission (United States)

    Re, Cristina; Simioni, Emanuele; Cremonese, Gabriele; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero


    The STereo Camera for the BepiColombo mission to Mercury, integrated in the SIMBIO-SYS suite, has been designed to provide the three dimensional global mapping of the surface of the innermost planet of the Solar System. The camera will acquire images from two different points of view. The new stereo push-frame configuration adopted for the camera, with two different points of view with unique and simultaneous acquisition system, needs a pre-flight verification of the actual accuracies in obtaining elevation information from stereo couples. The generation of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from a series of stereo pairs acquired in laboratory has been considered a robust method to validate the new concept adopted for STC. A stereo validation setup, based on the used of two rotational stages, to get an indoor reproduction of the flight observing condition of the instrument has been developed in order to give a much greater confidence to the novel instrument design. Since in-flight STC will have to deal with source/target placed at infinity, an auxiliary optical system (collimator lens of 1 m focal) that collimates the light rays coming from the target, has been necessary to realize the indoor acquisition of the images. The stereo-pairs of a series of rock samples (anorthosite, basalt stones and a modelled piece of concrete that should simulate the Hermean surface by the characteristic scaled features) acquired in laboratory, have been introduced in the photogrammetric pipeline that consider the Dense Matcher as image matching program for the DTM generation. The actual accuracy evaluation of the instrument capability has been performed by comparing the STC DTMs produced by Dense Matcher software and the DTM produced by an high resolution laser scanning system as reference data. The latter has a much higher precision (ca. 20 μm) of the expected in-lab STC photogrammetric image network (190 μm). We will show the first DTM generated by STC revealing a final accuracy of

  10. New paleomagnetic results from Middle and Late Proterozoic intrusive rocks of the central and southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan, S.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))


    Paleomagnetic results from Proterozoic intrusive rocks from the central and southern Rocky Mountains yield data that provide definition to the North American APW path. Results from the ca. 1420 Ma Laramie anorthosite (LA) and Sherman Granite (SG) yield dual polarity magnetizations; a combined pole (7[degree]S, 215[degree]E, A[sub 95] = 4[degree]) is essentially identical to 1400 Ma poles from elsewhere in North America. Group A dikes from the Tobacco Root (TR) Mtns, MT, along the southern margin of the Belt Basin, have a dual-polarity remanence with a pole at 10[degree]N, 222[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 11[degree]) that plots slightly north of the LA/SG and other poles of ca. 1450 Ma. Comparison of Belt Supergroup poles, assuming coherence of the Belt terrane and interior Laurentia, with 1400 Ma poles and those of the well-defined western arm of the Logan Loop of the N. American APW path, would seem to indicate that the age of most Belt poles are in the range of 1300--1400 Ma, although this age assignment conflicts with available geochronologic data. Results from 1100 Ma diabase sheets from central AZ yield two distinct, normal and reverse polarity magnetizations: ADn and ADr. ADn gives a pole at 23[degree]N, 181[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 8[degree]) that overlaps poles of ca. 1100 Ma from the midcontinent rift (MR). Pole ADr is located at 38[degree]N, 248[degree]E (A[sub 95] = 39[degree]); the large uncertainty of this pole precludes its use in defining the APW path. All dikes are of WNW trend and several from the TR Mtns and the Christmas Lake dike from the Beartooth uplift give hornblende [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar ages of 760--770 Ma. The data are interpreted to provide evidence for Late Proterozoic mafic magmatism along the W and SW margin of the Wyoming Province, possibly related to crustal extension accompanying deposition of the Windermere Group in the northern part of the Cordillera and volcanism and sedimentation in SE Idaho and NE Washington.

  11. The Ni-Cu-PGE mineralized Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, Riacho do Pontal Orogen: Onset of Tonian (ca. 900 Ma) continental rifting in Northeast Brazil (United States)

    Salgado, Silas Santos; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Caxito, Fabrício de Andrade; Uhlein, Alexandre; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Stevenson, Ross


    The Brejo Seco mafic-ultramafic Complex (BSC) occurs at the extreme northwest of the Riacho do Pontal Orogen Internal Zone, in the northern margin of the São Francisco Craton in Northeast Brazil. The stratigraphy of this medium size (3.5 km wide and 9 km long) layered intrusion consists of four main zones, from bottom to top: Lower Mafic Zone (LMZ; mainly troctolite), Ultramafic Zone (UZ; mainly dunite and minor troctolite); Transitional Mafic Zone (TMZ; mainly troctolite) and an Upper Mafic Zone (UMZ; gabbro and minor anorthosite, troctolite, and ilmenite magnetitite). Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization occurs at the contact of the UZ with the TMZ, consisting of an up to 50 m thick stratabound zone of disseminated magmatic sulfides. An Mg-tholeiitic affinity to the parental magma is indicated by the geochemical fractionation pattern, by the magmatic crystallization sequence and by the elevated Fo content in olivine. A Smsbnd Nd isochron yielded an age of 903 ± 20 Ma, interpreted as the age of crystallization, with initial εNd = 0.8. Evidence of interaction of the BSC parental magma with sialic crust is given by the Rare Earth and trace element patterns, and by slightly negative and overall low values of εNd(900 Ma) in between -0.2 and +3.3. Contrary to early interpretations that it might constitute an ophiolite complex, based mainly on the geochemistry of the host rocks (Morro Branco metavolcanosedimentary complex), here we interpret the BSC as a typical layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in continental crust, related to an extensional regime. The BSC is chrono-correlated to mafic dyke swarms, anorogenic granites and thick bimodal volcanics of similar age and tectonic setting in the São Francisco Craton and surrounding areas. Intrusion of the BSC was followed by continued lithospheric thinning, which led to the development of the Paulistana Complex continental rift volcanics around 888 Ma and ultimately to plate separation and the generation of new oceanic crust (Monte

  12. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust (United States)

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.


    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  13. The Stratigraphy and Evolution of the Lunar Crust (United States)

    McCallum, I. Stewart


    Reconstruction of stratigraphic relationships in the ancient lunar crust has proved to be a formidable task. The intense bombardment during the first 700 m.y. of lunar history has severely perturbed the original stratigraphy and destroyed the primary textures of all but a few nonmare rocks. However, a knowledge of the crustal stratigraphy as it existed prior to the cataclysmic bombardment about 3.9 Ga is essential to test the major models proposed for crustal origin, i.e., crystal fractionation in a global magmasphere or serial magmatism in a large number of smaller bodies. Despite the large difference in scale implicit in these two models, both require an efficient separation of plagioclase and mafic minerals to form the anorthositic crust and the mafic mantle. Despite the havoc wreaked by the large body impactors, these same impact processes have brought to the lunar surface crystalline samples derived from at least the upper half of the lunar crust, thereby providing an opportunity to reconstruct the stratigraphy in areas sampled by the Apollo missions. As noted, ejecta from the large multiring basins are dominantly, or even exclusively, of crustal origin. Given the most recent determinations of crustal thicknesses, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of about 60 km. Of all the lunar samples studied, a small set has been recognized as "pristine", and within this pristine group, a small fraction have retained some vestiges of primary features formed during the earliest stages of crystallization or recrystallization prior to 4.0 Ga. We have examined a number of these samples that have retained some record of primary crystallization to deduce thermal histories from an analysis of structural, textural, and compositional features in minerals from these samples. Specifically, by quantitative modeling of (1) the growth rate and development of compositional profiles of exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes and (2) the rate of Fe-Mg ordering in

  14. Reconstruction of mid-crustal pluton assembly and evolution using trace elements in augite: Sausfjellet pluton, Bindal batholith, north-central Norway. (United States)

    Coint, Nolwenn; Barnes, Calvin; Yoshinobu, Aaron; Prestvik, Tore; Barnes, Melanie


    The Sausfjellet pluton is a 445 Ma gabbroic to monzonitic body of 7 Km in diameter emplaced in two stages at ~700 MPa pressure. Stage 1 is a coarse pyroxene hornblende gabbro. Stage 2 intrudes a steep contact between marbles on the east and pelitic migmatites on the west. Stage 2 displays a gradational transition from hornblende biotite two-pyroxene diorite to hornblende biotite three-pyroxene quartz monzonite. This transition is accompanied by a decrease in the An content of normally-zoned plagioclase from An61 to An27. Much of the pluton consists of cumulate rocks, as illustrated by the presence of anorthosite and pyroxene-rich layers. In the western part of the intrusion, hosted by metapelitic rocks, incompatible element concentrations and bulk-rock ^18O increase to levels that cannot be explained by fractional crystallization. These increases were originally explained by AFC processes, but because of the cumulative nature of the rocks, it is difficult to assess magmatic processes using bulk rock compositions. Therefore, we analyzed trace element contents and core-to-rim zoning in augite as a proxy to track changes in melt composition. Augite is normally zoned, with lower incompatible element abundances in the cores than in the rims, consistent with evolution of the melt by fractional crystallization. However, instead of plotting along a single differentiation trend, augite compositions define two trends, which is inconsistent with a closed system. The most mafic rocks define a trend with lower REE contents and smaller (negative) Eu anomalies compared to those from the more evolved part of the pluton, although the two trends overlap in Zr content. The two trends correspond to the central, more mafic zone that intrudes marble and the western, more evolved zone that intrudes metapelites. The trend associated with the western zone consists of the same samples that show bulk-rock ^18O enrichment, and is best explained as resulting from assimilation of the host

  15. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  16. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, J. S.


    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  17. Polar wander, rapid plate velocity, or an equatorial dipole: A single silicate crystal study of the ca. 565 Ma Sept Iles Intrusive Suite in Laurentia (United States)

    Bono, R. K.; Tarduno, J. A.


    The Ediacaran apparent polar wander path for Laurentia implies rapid motion that has led to interpretations of polar wander (aka true polar wander) and/or rapid plate motion. A key data set in such interpretations comes from the Sept Iles Intrusive Suite (SIIS), a large (80 km diameter), primarily mafic series of intrusive units, along the northern shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The intrusive series shows cross-cutting relationships between layered anorthosites, more acidic dikes, and overlying intrusions which may have formed due to a plume like structure, resulting in a magma chamber with a complex cooling history. The SIIS purportedly records two primary magnetic remanences of the same age, but with directions approximately orthogonal to each other. Alternative explanations for the two remanences have been proposed. For example, some have proposed that multidomain (MD) grains are responsible for one of the components of magnetization. Others discard MD effects and call for the magnetic field to flip between axial and equatorial dipole configurations. To address these multiple interpretations, we have undertaken a study of the SIIS to link rock magnetic carriers to remanence records. In SEM/EDS analyses of the groundmass, we find evidence for a large range of magnetic grain sizes and magnetic mineral character, including complex areas of iron-silicate exsolution. Magnetic hysteresis and temperature versus susceptibility data show evidence for multidomain grains with magnetite-like compositions. In isolated feldspars we find evidence for magnetic mineral exsolution, single domain-like hysteresis behavior, and titanomagnetite compositions. Initial directional data from CO2 laser demagnetization of oriented feldspar crystals reveal a variety of magnetic directions, quite unlike prior paleomagnetic studies of feldspars isolated from igneous rocks. Our groundmass and single silicate crystal results to date imply a complex history of cooling that may have

  18. Laser Argon-40-Argon-39 Age Studies of Dar Al Gani 262 Lunar Meteorite (United States)

    Fernandes, V. A.; Burgess, R.; Turner, G.


    The lunar meteorite Dar al Gani 262 (DAG 262) was found in the Sahara Desert in Libya on March 23,1997. This was the first lunar meteorite found in a desert and is the thirteenth lunar meteorite discovered. DAG 262 is a polymict anorthositic lunar highland breccia. The Ar-40-Ar-39 dating technique has been applied to DAG 262 in an attempt to determine the crystallization age and shock events experienced by this meteorite. Previous studies have indicated that this meteorite may have suffered up to four shock events. Due to the brecciated nature of the rock and the likelihood of multiple shock events, a laser-probe technique has been used to analyze individual components (minerals and clasts) of the meteorite. The sample supplied to us ( about 1.5 g) shows two distinct clast types (1) feldspathic and (2) basaltic, the latter not having been previously described. Plagioclases show fractures and undulatory extinction as the result of shock events. The feldspathic clast has small, round low-Ca pyroxenes distributed within it. Electron-microprobe analyses of feldspar and pyroxene are given. The bulk composition as determined by suggests that the source of this clast is the ferroan-anorthositic suite. The basaltic clast shows a very fine intergranular texture with some larger plagioclase grains. The two clasts are separated by a melt-glass matrix that contains plagioclase with the same chemical composition as those plagioclases within the feldspathic clast. A devitrified mafic-glass spherule of - 150 mm diameter was identified within the matrix as well as other small fragments of possible glass spheres. Some dendritic veins can be observed on the outer part of the section, which formed after breccia lithification. Two laser Ar-40-Ar-39 experiments are being carried out: (1) infrared laser-stepped heating of feldspathic fragments that have been separated from the meteorite; and (2) ultraviolet laser spot fusion (50 micron) of a slice of meteorite (about 1.0 x 0.5 cm

  19. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry (United States)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano


    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of

  20. Well known outstanding geoid and relief depressions as regular wave woven features on Eartg (Indian geoid minimum), Moon (SPA basin), Phobos (Stickney crater), and Miranda (an ovoid). (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.


    A very unreliable interpretation of the deepest and large depressions on the Moon and Phobos as the impact features is not synonymous and causes many questions. A real scientific understanding of their origin should take into consideration a fact of their similar tectonic position with that of a comparable depression on so different by size, composition, and density heavenly body as Earth. On Earth as on other celestial bodies there is a fundamental division on two segments - hemispheres produced by an interference of standing warping wave 1 (long 2πR) of four directions [1]. One hemisphere is uplifted (continental, highlands) and the opposite subsided (oceanic, lowlands). Tectonic features made by wave 2 (sectors) adorn this fundamental structure. Thus, on the continental risen segment appear regularly disposed sectors, also uplifted and subsided. On the Earth's eastern continental hemisphere they are grouped around the Pamirs-Hindukush vertex of the structural octahedron made by interfering waves2. Two risen sectors (highly uplifted African and the opposite uplifted Asian) are separated by two fallen sectors (subsided Eurasian and the opposite deeply subsided Indoceanic). The Indoceanic sector with superposed on it subsided Indian tectonic granule (πR/4-structure) produce the deepest geoid minimum of Earth (-112 m). The Moon demonstrates its own geoid minimum of the same relative size and in the similar sectoral tectonic position - the SPA basin [2, 3]. This basin represents a deeply subsided sector of the sectoral structure around the Mare Orientale (one of vertices of the lunar structural octahedron). To this Mare converge four sectors: two subsided - SPA basin and the opposite Procellarum Ocean, and two uplifted - we call them the "Africanda sector" and the opposite "Antiafricanda one" to stress structural similarity with Earth [2]. The highest "Africanda sector" is built with light anorthosites; enrichment with Na makes them even less dense that is required

  1. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation (United States)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Steshenko, Ekaterina


    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Re-Os data the duration of this formation can be to 100-130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008; Bayanova et. al., 2009]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies [Bayanova et. al., 2009; Bayanova et. al., 2014]. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003] and for crustal components were used host-rocks Nd-data. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A

  2. Geología y petrología del cuerpo Máfico-Ultramáfico Las Juntas, Sierra de Valle Fértil, Provincia de San Juan Geology and petrology of mafic-ultramafic body from Las Juntas, Valle Fértil, San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliani Ignacio


    cumulates, and massive plagioclaserich cumulates. The cumulate gabbroic section largely consists of olivine gabbronorites interalyered with amphibole pyroxene gabbronorites and amphibole-bearing plagioclaserich gabbros (anorthosites. The cumulate ultramafic banks are largely composed of peridotites and dunites that contain varying proportions of pyroxenes, chromerich spinels, amphibole and small proportion of plagioclase. The cogenetic relation between mafic and ultramafic rocks is inferred from the Mg-Fe silicates compositions among all these rocks. The Fe-Mg exchange coefficient olivine-liquid and clinopyroxene-liquid reflect that this magma had Mg/Mg + Fe+² ratio of around 0.6; so that the magma had Mg/Mg + Fe+² ratio lower than that of a peridotiticmantle-derived primary magma. By implication, the main conclusion of this study is that primitive primary magmas originated at the lithospheric mantle - lower crust boundary zone ascended to feed chambers emplaced at upper levels within the lower crust (20 - 25 Km. This petrologic process is typical and characteristic of subduction-related magmatism, which in this case was related to the Famatinian arc.

  3. Exploratory Study of an Active Landslide in the Adirondacks Using Applied Geophysics (United States)

    Schlosser, K. W.; Sherrod, L. A.; Kozlowski, A.; Bird, B.; Swiontek, J.


    Residents of Keene Valley, NY face a serious natural hazard in the form of a landslide on Porter Mountain in the High-Peaks region of the Adirondack Mountains. The slide initiated in early May 2011 as a result of the melting of heavy snowpack and the onset of abnormally excessive April rain on the mountain slopes. Spanning 82 acres, this is the largest documented landslide in New York state history. Although it is advancing slowly, with downslope soil movement rates between 15 and 60 cm per day, the slide has proven to be destructive. At the time of this study, shifting soils had caused one house to be condemned due to the unstable ground under the foundation. At the same time, three other houses were in immediate danger. The destructive nature of this landslide speaks to the importance of understanding the distribution and character of glacial sediments deposited on the steep slopes during deglaciation of the region, and the interaction of a complex groundwater system. In order to understand the framework and mechanisms of the current landslide and to aid in predicting the potential for other slides in the area, geophysical methods were employed. Geophysical surveys and corresponding subsurface imaging were used to examine the amount of sediment present and the stratigraphy of the shallow subsurface. The bedrock in this area is believed to be anorthosite which underlies a surficial lithology of glacial sediments. Depth to the bedrock was measured at 76 m in a borehole at the base of the slide. However, in a well near the top of the slide, depth to bedrock was measured at 6 m, with some exposures of bedrock visible at the surface. To delineate three-dimensional trends of the bedrock in the subsurface, several of the geophysical surveys followed the surface exposures of bedrock to a depth where these features were no longer detectable. Nineteen resistivity surveys were implemented to map the subsurface glacial features and depth to bedrock using a MPT DAS-1

  4. Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    to form Rodinia. Rodinia broke up in stages from ca. 1000 to ca. 520 Ma. Before Rodinia had completely come apart, some of its pieces had already been reassembled in a new configuration, Gondwana, which was completed by 530 Ma. Gondwana later collided with Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia to form Pangea by about 300 Ma. Breakup of Pangea began at about 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) and continues today. In the suggested scenario, no supercontinent cycle in Earth history corresponded to the ideal, in which all the continents were gathered together, then broke apart, then reassembled in a new configuration. Nuna and Gondwana ended their tenures not by breakup but by collision and name change; Rodinia's assembly overlapped in time with its disassembly; and Pangea spalled Tethyan microcontinents throughout much of its tenure. Many other secular trends show a weak or uneven imprint of the supercontinent cycle, no imprint at all. Instead, these secular trends together reveal aspects of the shifting background against which the supercontinents came and went, making each cycle unique. Global heat production declined; plate tectonics sped up through the Proterozoic and slowed down through the Phanerozoic; the atmosphere and oceans became oxidized; life emerged as a major geochemical agent; some rock types went extinct or nearly so (BIF, massif-type anorthosite, komatiite); and other rock types came into existence or became common (blueschists, bioclastic limestone, coal).

  5. U-Pb systematics in coexisting zircon, rutile and titanite from granophyres in the Archean Stillwater Complex: metamictization and the fate of radiogenic Pb (United States)

    Friedman, R. M.; Wall, C. J.; Scoates, J. S.; Meurer, W. P.


    Self-irradiation of zircon causes structural damage (metamictization) that can result in the loss of radiogenic Pb during interaction with aqueous solutions. To evaluate this behavior in metamict zircon, and in other U-bearing accessory phases like titanite and rutile, we are examining the U-Pb systematics of granophyric rocks from the ca. 2.7 Ga Stillwater layered intrusion, Montana. Four samples were studied in detail, including a pegmatitic ksp-qtz core to a gabbroic pegmatoid in the Lower Banded Series (N1), an alaskite and an amphibole-rich reaction zone between the alaskite and anorthosite (AN1) in the Middle Banded Series, and an amphibole-bearing granophyre from the Upper Banded Series (GN3). Except in the pegmatite, zircon is variably metamict with amorphous zones characterized by distinctive Ca-enrichment. Single zircon grains were analyzed by ID-TIMS following annealing and chemical abrasion, and multi-grain (n=4-5) fractions of titanite and rutile were analyzed by conventional ID-TIMS; the UBC 233-235U-205Pb isotopic tracer is calibrated against mixed U-Pb gravimetric reference solutions made available through the EarthTime initiative. The U-Pb systematics are coherent only for the pegmatite yielding both a Concordia age of 2709.60 ± 0.80 Ma (2σ, including tracer calibration, decay-constant errors not included) for low-U zircon (76-237 ppm) and concordant titanite results with 207Pb/206Pb ages from 2701-2710 Ma. The results for high-U zircon (up to 1438 ppm) for the other three samples are strongly discordant (9-43%, 85-89%, 28-71%, respectively) with a wide range of 207Pb/206Pb ages (2583-2647 Ma, 2210-2357 Ma, 2345-2499 Ma). Given the extreme incompatibility of Pb2+ in zircon and the highly metamict state of zircon in these granophyres, we are investigating the extent to which radiogenic lead is selectively removed during the chemical abrasion and annealing process from step-wise leaching experiments and image analysis (CL, SEM). In contrast

  6. Identification of New Lithic Clasts in Lunar Breccia 14305 by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Carpenter, Paul K.; Jolliff, Bradley L.


    From 1969 to 1972, Apollo astronauts collected 382 kg of rocks, soils, and core samples from six locations on the surface of the Moon. The samples were initially characterized, largely by binocular examination, in a custom-built facility at Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the samples have been curated at JSC ever since. Despite over 40 years of study, demand for samples remains high (500 subsamples per year are allocated to scientists around the world), particularly for plutonic (e.g., anorthosites, norites, etc.) and evolved (e.g., granites, KREEP basalts) lithologies. The reason for the prolonged interest is that as new scientists and new techniques examine the samples, our understanding of how the Moon, Earth, and other inner Solar System bodies formed and evolved continues to grow. Scientists continually clamor for new samples to test their emerging hypotheses. Although all of the large Apollo samples that are igneous rocks have been classified, many Apollo samples are complex polymict breccias that have previously yielded large (cm-sized) igneous clasts. In this work we present the initial efforts to use the non-destructive techniques of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) to identify large lithic clasts in Apollo 14 polymict breccia sample 14305. The sample in this study is 14305,483, a 150 g slab of regolith breccia 14305 measuring 10x6x2 cm (Figure 1a). The sample was scanned at the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility on an Xradia MicroXCT scanner. Two adjacent overlapping volumes were acquired at 49.2 micrometer resolution and stitched together, resulting in 1766 slices. Each volume was acquired at 100 kV accelerating voltage and 98 mA beam current with a 1 mm CaF2 filter, with 2161 views gathered over 360deg at 3 seconds acquisition time per view. Micro-XRF analyses were done at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on an EDAX Orbis PC micro-XRF instrument. Multiple scans were made at 40 k


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Gintov


    -subduction option, and one of them is Moho.Spreading of the Western and Eastern microplates of USh began at the turn of 2.05–2.10 billion years, as evidenced by the available tectonophysical data on fields of latitudinal extension of the crust. During spreading 2.1–2.05 billion years ago, emanations and solutions were able to ascend into the upper crust and thus stimulate palingenesis (Novoukrainsky and Kirovogradsky granites, and during repeated spreading 1.75 billion years ago, magma of the basic and acid composition (Pluto gabbro-anorthosite and rapakivi intruded into the upper crust. The spreading zone coincided with the former collisional suture and became the site wherein the inter-regional Kherson-Smolensk suture was formed; it stretches submeridionally across the East European platform. 

  8. U-Pb (ID-TIMS) baddeleyite ages and paleomagnetism of 1.79 and 1.59 Ga tholeiitic dyke swarms, and position of the Rio de la Plata Craton within the Columbia supercontinent (United States)

    Teixeira, Wilson; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Hamilton, Mike A.; Ernst, Richard E.; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Bettencourt, Jorge S.


    The Tandilia Terrane (southernmost fringe of the Rio de la Plata Craton) is an igneous and metamorphic complex produced by an accretionary orogeny (2.25-2.02 Ga). Calc-alkaline acidic dykes with E-W strike and a major shear zone with similar orientation are related with the late orogeny stage, as supported by field relations. In a previous study the acid dykes gave 40A-39Ar ages of 2007 ± 24 Ma to 2020 ± 24 Ma. A N and NW trending tholeiitic dyke swarm (Tandil swarm) is also present in the Tandilia Terrane. One sample from the NW-trending subset previously gave a U-Pb (ID-TIMS) baddeleyite age of 1588 ± 11 Ma. New precise U-Pb (ID-TIMS) baddeleyite dating of both N- and NW-trending Tandil dykes yielded crystallization ages of 1589 ± 3 Ma, 1588 ± 3 Ma and 1588 ± 3 Ma. Significantly older tholeiitic dykes known as the Florida swarm occur in the Northern Rio de la Plata Craton, for which a U-Pb (ID-TIMS) baddeleyite age of 1790 ± 5 Ma was previously reported. Consequently intermittent rifting (1.79, 1.59 Ga) took place after tectonic stabilization of the late Paleoproterozoic lithosphere (proto-Rio de la Plata Craton). The available geochemical data for the 1.59 Ga Tandil dykes define low- and high-TiO2 trends, although, only the low-TiO2 subgroup is firmly dated. Both the Tandil and Florida dykes have geochemical and Nd-Sr characteristics consistent with derivation from heterogeneous mantle sources that underwent metasomatic effects. The Tandil dykes may be linked with the 1.57 ± 0.02 Ga Capivarita anorthosite which occurs to the east of the northern part of the craton. Correlatives on other crustal blocks may include those in Baltica such as bimodal rock association (including the Breven-Hällefors and Åland-Åboland diabase dykes) and in the reconstructed Gawler Craton/NW Laurentia dolerites, bimodal magmatism and IOCG deposits. Contemporary within-plate bimodal associations are also present in the SW Amazonian Craton. Paleomagnetic data for the 1790 Ma

  9. Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    form Rodinia. Rodinia broke up in stages from ca. 1000 to ca. 520 Ma. Before Rodinia had completely come apart, some of its pieces had already been reassembled in a new configuration, Gondwana, which was completed by 530 Ma. Gondwana later collided with Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia to form Pangea by about 300 Ma. Breakup of Pangea began at about 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) and continues today. In the suggested scenario, no supercontinent cycle in Earth history corresponded to the ideal, in which all the continents were gathered together, then broke apart, then reassembled in a new configuration. Nuna and Gondwana ended their tenures not by breakup but by collision and name change; Rodinia's assembly overlapped in time with its disassembly; and Pangea spalled Tethyan microcontinents throughout much of its tenure. Many other secular trends show a weak or uneven imprint of the supercontinent cycle, no imprint at all. Instead, these secular trends together reveal aspects of the shifting background against which the supercontinents came and went, making each cycle unique. Global heat production declined; plate tectonics sped up through the Proterozoic and slowed down through the Phanerozoic; the atmosphere and oceans became oxidized; life emerged as a major geochemical agent; some rock types went extinct or nearly so (BIF, massif-type anorthosite, komatiite); and other rock types came into existence or became common (blueschists, bioclastic limestone, coal).

  10. «Granulite» zircons of the Lapland granulite belt (United States)

    Kaulina, T.


    -49, respectively), typical for metamorphic zircons, formed under high ÐÒ- parameters (Bibikova et al., 1993). An age of these zircons in four studied samples is 1915±3 Ma. So at this time (about 1915 Ma ago) mass crystallization of zircon took place not only in rocks of the Tanaelv belt but LGB also. And so far as morphology, isotopic composition and impurity contents are similar, their crystallization was at the same conditions. And identical age show the simultaneity of endogenic processes responsible for an appearance of the described zircons in both structures. Investigations of M. Roberts and F. Finger (Roberts and Finger, 1997) and experimental data on zircon solubility (Watson, Harrison, 1984) show, that zircon crystallization at high-grade metamorphism could take place not at peak of P-T conditions but at decompression. Thus, an age 1915±3 Ma can be interpreted as the beginning of decompression and cooling during started uplift of granulites. Detailed structural-petrologic and geological study (Perchuk, Krotov, 1998) proves this conclusion. Titanite age from anorthosites of the Yavrozersky massif 1916±12 Ma (Kaulina et al., 2001) also confirms decreasing of temperature at this time at least till 700°Ñ (closure T for U-Pb titanite system (Cherniak, 1993)). And the short-prismatic form of zircons is caused by high temperature, when en equilibrium crystal shape can be almost spherical (Chernov et al., 1980) The work is supported by RFBR grant 1 01-05-64218

  11. The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 2. Melt vs sulphide percolation process and modeling sulphide saturation in the parental magmas and original cumulates (United States)

    Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid


    An important feature of the Dovyren intrusive complex [1] is its fertility due to the presence of massive sulphide ores near the bottom of the Ioko-Dovyren massif (YDM, SW and NE margins), as well as PGE-reefs in anorthosites from the Ol-gabbronorite zone in the centre [2]. These observations argue for the importance of downward percolation of sulphides through the porous space of cumulates and probable link of this process with upward migration of intercumulus melts at a post-cumulus stage. Indirectly, this is supported by the basic conclusion on the open-system behavior of the magma chamber [1]. A key aspect of these speculations is the onset of sulphide immiscibility in YDM parental magmas and the original cumulates. To reconstruct the sulphide saturation history, we applied a newly developed sulphide version of COMAGMAT (ver. 5.2 [3]) to the rocks from the chilled zone of YDM and underlying ultramafic sills, by simulating the course of their crystallization coupled with the SCSS calculations. Modeled crystallization trajectories evidence for under-saturated nature of the most primitive parental magmas (1310oC, Fo88) from which the chilled rocks were crystallized, whereas more evolved rocks from the sills demonstrate sulphide saturation starting from their initial temperature (1190oC, Fo85), see [1]. This correlates with the absence of sulphide ores in the central parts of the pluton and their occurrence in underlying ultramafics and YDM border series containing olivine Fo~85. Another set of calculations was carried out to demonstrate the effect of bulk Ni contents in Ol cumulate piles on the evolution of SCSS during their post-cumulus crystallization [3]. To achieve the goal, two calculations by the COMAGMAT-5.2 model were carried out. The first one involved modelling equilibrium crystallization for an initial mixture of Ol (Fo88) and intercumulus melt (~1320oC), with the starting composition corresponding to that of a bottom Pl-dunite (2315 ppm NiO, 0.030 wt


    Poitrasson, F.; Zambardi, T.; Magna, T.; Neal, C. R.


    responsible for this peculiar isotopic effect observed in the high-Ti basalts that are unknown on Earth. It might be linked to armalcolite, a Fe- and Ti-oxide specific to the Moon. Estimating the bulk Moon Fe isotope composition remains difficult. The now clarified Fe isotope difference between high- and low-Ti basalts shows that a high temperature process generates a planetary-scale Fe isotope fractionation. Hence, these basalts cannot be easily taken as the direct proxies of the Fe isotope composition of the deep Moon. On the other hand, highland rocks, both anorthosites and rocks from the Mg-suite that are older than the mare basalts, display the same Fe isotope composition whatever their petrology. They may well yield a more pristine iron isotope composition of the bulk Moon. The value obtained here (δ57Fe = 0.177±0.036‰) is undistinguishable from our previous estimate for the Moon (0.206±0.029‰). It must be recognized, however, that this conclusion is based on a limited number of samples (n = 6) and more highland bulk rock data are required to assess whether the Moon is isotopically similar to or different from the Earth.

  13. Preliminary Geologic Map of the San Fernando 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.


    . The San Fernando area lies on the southern slopes of the San Gabriel Mountains. The basement rocks here include high-grade metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The mountains are largely composed of crystalline basement that includes the Pelona Scist of probable Mesozoic age that has been overthrust by Precambrian gneisses; the gneisses were subsequently intruded by Mesozoic plutons prior to overthrusting along the latest Cretaceous Vincent thrust. Gneisses of somewhat variable composition and possibly varying ages are found in four terranes, but not all are in contact with Pelona Schist. Large tracts of Precambrian (1.2 billion years old) andesine anorthosite are intrusive into 1.7 billion year-old Mendenhall gneiss, and are found in the western part of the San Gabriels. Mixed with these are younger marble, limestone, and schist of possible Paleozoic age found in association with plutons along the southern margin of the range. The older rocks are intruded by diorite, quartz diorite, and granodiorite of Jurassic age. Also present are siliceous sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age. A thick section of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks overlie these units. The sediments located south of the San Gabriel Fault are totally different in character from those on the northern range flank, and mostly resemble the western Transverse Ranges due to their deposition in the southeastern Ventura basin; approximately 3,000 m of these sediments are exposed north and west of the city of San Fernando in the Tujunga syncline. Some of the Tertiary rocks are Paleocene and Eocene in age, but the bulk of these rocks are Oligocene and Miocene in age. The Vasquez and Sespe Formations of basal basaltic volcanic and sandstone are Oligocene and lower Miocene in age. These are overlain by clastic rocks of Tick Canyon and Mint Canyon Formations of middle to late Miocene age. Above these rocks are the Castaic, Modelo, and Santa Margarita Formations of fossiliferous marine shale, sand

  14. Reflectance properties of spinel-plagioclase mixtures (United States)

    Cheek, L.; Jackson, C.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.; Prissel, T. C.; Williams, K. B.


    Near-infrared spectra displaying the diagnostic properties of Mg-spinel have recently been reported in several lunar craters based on Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data [1-5]. These spectra lack evidence for olivine or pyroxene, suggesting that they represent a spinel-plagioclase lithology [1]. Current hypotheses [6, 7] suggest that this lithology formed by interactions of a mafic or ultramafic liquid with an anorthositic country rock, but the proportions of spinel and plagioclase are unknown. The aim of this work is to constrain the modal abundances of spinel and plagioclase in the observed lithology using laboratory reflectance spectroscopy of particulate mixtures. Reflectance spectra of Mg-spinel display a strong absorption at ~2000 nm due to Fe2+ in a tetrahedral site [e.g., 8]. At higher FeO contents, > ~5 wt%, an octahedral absorption near 1000 nm is also apparent [9]. Plagioclase often displays a broad absorption centered near 1250 nm due to trace amounts (0.1 wt%) of Fe2+ in the Ca2+ site. Previous studies have noted that plagioclase must be present in extremely high abundances (~85 vol%) in order for the 1250 nm absorption to be apparent in mixtures with olivine and pyroxene [10, 11]. Recent nonlinear modeling has suggested that at least 50% plagioclase is necessary for the 1250 nm absorption to be apparent in a calculated mixture with spinel [12]. Our approach involves making mineral mixtures of spinel and plagioclase particulate samples and measuring near-infrared spectra of the bulk material. For the plagioclase endmember, we use terrestrial gem quality labradorite with ~0.3 wt% FeO. The spinel endmember was produced experimentally at Brown University (1500 C; fO2~ IW; sintered 72 hrs), and contains 5 wt% FeO. Preliminary results show that spectra of a 90% plagioclase - 10% spinel mixture only display the spectral properties of the spinel component; the 1250 nm absorption is not apparent. Importantly, the addition of 90% plagioclase does not significantly

  15. Sediments Of The Moon And Earth As End-Members For Comparative Planetology (United States)

    Basu, Abhijit; Molinaroli, Emanuela

    Processes of production, transport, deposition, lithification, and preservation of sediments of the Moon and Earth are extremely different. The differences arise primarily from the dissimilarity in the origins and sizes of the Moon and Earth. The consequence is that the Moon does not have an atmosphere, a hydrosphere (the Moon is totally dry), a biosphere (the Moon is totally life-less), a magnetosphere, and any tectonic force. Pristine rocks on the exposed surface of the Moon are principally anorthositic and basaltic, but those on the Earth are granitic (discounting suboceanic rocks). Sediments on these two bodies probably represent two end-members on rocky planetary bodies. Sediments on other rocky planetary bodies (atmosphere-free Mercury and asteroids, Venus with a thick atmosphere but possibly no water on its surface, and Mars with a currently dry surface sculptured by running water in the past) are intermediate in character. New evidence suggests that characteristics of Martian sediments may be in-between those of the Moon and Earth. For example, impacts generate most Martian sediments as on the Moon, and, Martian sediments are wind-blown to form dunes as on Earth. A comparative understanding of sediments of the Moon and Earth helps us anticipate and interpret the sedimentary record of other planetary bodies. Impact processes, large and small, have produced the sediments of the Moon. Unlike Earth, the surface of the Moon is continuously bombarded by micrometeorites and solar wind. Processes of chemical and mechanical weathering aided by biological activity produce sediments on Earth, fixing a significant amount of carbon in the solid state. Whereas solar wind produces minor chemical changes in lunar sediments, chemical weathering significantly alters and affects the character of Earth sediments. Primarily ballistic and electrostatic forces transport lunar sediments but Earth sediments are transported by air, water, and ice. Whereas Earth sediments accumulate

  16. Mineralogical composition of lunar central crater peaks inferred from NIR observations by the SIR-2 reflectance spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 (United States)

    Mall, Urs; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bhatt, Megha; Bhattacharya, Satadru; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; SIR-2 Collaboration

    Since the return of lunar samples by the Apollo missions the lunar crust, which is believed to have been formed by differentiation of a global magma ocean, is known to be mostly made up of anorthosite (a plagioclase-rich rock). Denser, iron-rich and magnesium-rich minerals such as pyroxenes and olivines are sunk deeper into the interior. The mineralogy of the crust provides key information for refining chemical and thermodynamical models of lunar formation and evolution. Remote observations of the lunar crust and its quantitative compositional identification were partly hampered in the past from the experimental side by the fact that a combination of good spectral and spatial resolution of an imaged surface area is difficult to achieve. Also the mineralogical spectral deconvolution process of such observations is in itself quite complex. The identification of plagioclase has proved to pose a particular challenge. This challenge originates not only from the fact that the plagioclase characterizing absorption feature, which is located at around 1.3 m, is only detectable if trace amounts of Fe2+ are present in the mineral's structure, but also due to the fact that olivine and pyroxene have strong absorption bands around 1 m which dominate nearinfrared spectra. In addition, any analysis is complicated by the fact that experimental laboratory work has clearly demonstrated that changes in reflectance with increasing peak shock pressures in experimentally shocked plagioclase feldspar-rich rocks can occur and that these changes are nonlinear [1]. Despite these difficulties, new near-infrared spectrometers recently flown around the Moon have led to the identification of plagioclase on the lunar surface [2,3]. Among this new generation of spectrometers is the SIR-2 instrument, [4] flown on Chandrayaan-1. This instrument is a grating-based, compact, high-resolution pointing spectrometer operating in the spectral range 0.9-2.4 m. SIR-2 combines high spectral resolution ( 0

  17. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.


    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  18. Lunar maria - result of mantle plume activity? (United States)

    Sharkov, E.

    It is generally accepted that lunar maria are the result of catastrophic impact events. However, comparative studying of the Earth's and the Moon's tectonomagmatic evolution could evidence about another way of these specific structures origin. Such studies showed that the both planetary bodies evolved on the close scenario: their geological development began after solidification of global magmatic oceans which led to appearance of their primordial crusts: granitic on the Earth and anorthositic - on the Moon. The further evolution of the both bodies occurred in two stages. For their first stages, lasted ˜2.5 mlrd. years on the Earth and ˜1.5 mlrd. years on the Moon, were typical melts, generated in depleted mantle (Bogatikov et al., 2000). However, at the boundary 2.2-2.0 Ga ago on the Earth and 3.9-3.8 Ga on the Moon another type of magmas appeared: geochemical enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, characteristic for the terrestrial Phanerozoic plume-related situations, and basaltic mare magmatism with high-Ti varieties on the Moon. It suggests that evolution of the Earth's magmatism was linked with ascending of mantle plumes (superplumes) of two generation: (1) generated in the mantle, depleted during solidification of magmatic ocean and Archean magmatic activity, and (2) generated at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The latter were enriched in the mantle fluid components (Fe, Ti, alkalies, etc); this lighter material could ascend to shallower depths, leading to change of tectonic processes, in particular, to appearance of plate tectonics as the major type of tectonomagmatic activity till now (Bogatikov et al., 2000). By analogy to the Earth, magmatism of the Moon was also linked with ascending of mantle plumes: (1) generated in the depleted mantle (magnesian suite) and (2) generated at the lunar CMB with liquid at that time metallic core (mare basalt and picrites with high-Ti varieties). Like on the Earth, these plumes were lighter than the older plumes, and

  19. The lunar Gruithuisen silicic extrusive domes: Topographic configuration, morphology, ages, and internal structure (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.; Bystrov, A.


    alternated with possible explosive activity (fine-grained materials). The spatial association of the Gruithuisen domes with the highland lava plains resembles the situation in which bimodal volcanism occur on Earth. The terrestrial association can be due to either fractional crystallization in basaltic magma reservoirs or remelting of high-silica crustal materials. In the first case, the evolved melts appear in later stages of volcanic activity and in the second case these melts are formed near the beginning of evolution of the magmatic systems. The age estimates of the Gruithuisen domes and the surrounding volcanic plains are more consistent with the crustal remelting scenario. However, remelting of primary anorthositic crust cannot readily produce the silica-rich melts and requires the presence of pre-existing granite-like materials. Formation of the domes by fractional crystallization avoids this difficulty but requires explanation of the older age of the domes relative to the volcanic plains in the surroundings. A third option is that the domes are unrelated genetically to the mare deposits.

  20. Preliminary geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino 30' x 60' quadrangle, California (United States)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Miller, Fred K.


    . Within the Peninsular Ranges a profound diachronous unconformity marks the pre-Late Cretaceous-post-Late Cretaceous subdivision, but within the Transverse Ranges the division appears to be slightly younger, perhaps coinciding with the end of the Cretaceous or extending into the early Cenozoic. Initial docking of Peninsular Ranges rocks with Transverse Ranges rocks appears to have occurred at the terminus of plutonism within the Peninsular Ranges. During the Paleogene there was apparently discontinuous but widespread deposition on the basement rocks and little tectonic disruption of the amalgamated older rocks. Dismemberment of these Paleogene and older rocks by strike-slip, thrust, and reverse faulting began in the Neogene and is ongoing. The Peninsular Ranges basement rock assemblage is made up of the Peninsular Ranges batholith and a variety of metasedimentary rocks. Most of the plutonic rocks of the batholith are granodiorite and tonalite in composition; primary foliation is common, mainly in the eastern part. Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Los Angeles Basin crop out in the Puente and San Jose Hills along with the spatially associated Glendora Volcanics; both units span the boundary between the Peninsular Ranges and San Gabriel Mountains basement rock assemblages. The San Gabriel Mountains basement rock assemblage includes two discrete areas, the high standing San Gabriel Mountains and the relatively low San Bernardino basin east of the San Jacinto Fault. The basement rock assemblage is characterized by a unique suite of rocks that include anorthosite, Proterozoic and Paleozoic gneiss and schist, the Triassic

  1. Re Os isotopic systematics of the Voisey's Bay Ni Cu Co magmatic ore system, Labrador, Canada (United States)

    Lambert, D. D.; Foster, J. G.; Frick, L. R.; Li, C.; Naldrett, A. J.


    .1 Ga Grenville orogeny. Re-Os isotopic modelling suggests that a reasonable fit to the ore data may be obtained via bulk crustal contamination of magmas parental to the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) with either Tasiuyak (2% contamination) or Nain (16% contamination) gneiss, followed by an R-factor process (200 to 1000) which improved the tenor of the sulphide liquid during transport in active magma conduits or after deposition in an active/replenished Voisey's Bay intrusion magma chamber. However, the dominance of plagioclase-rich (high Al 2O 3) magmas in the mafic members of the NPS (troctolites and anorthosites) may indicate that other (deeper) forms of lithospheric interaction, potentially involving mafic lower crust, may be crucial to understanding this style of magmatic sulphide ore system.

  2. Generation of continental crust in the northern part of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, from Archaean to Neoproterozoic (United States)

    de Souza, Zorano Sérgio; Kalsbeek, Feiko; Deng, Xiao-Dong; Frei, Robert; Kokfelt, Thomas Find; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Li, Jian-Wei; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Galindo, Antonio Carlos


    This work deals with the origin and evolution of the magmatic rocks in the area north of the Patos Lineament in the Borborema Province (BP). This northeastern segment of NE Brazil is composed of at least six different tectonic blocks with ages varying from late-Archaean to late-Palaeoproterozoic. Archaean rocks cover ca. 5% of the region. They were emplaced over a period of 700 Ma, with at least seven events of magma generation, at 3.41, 3.36, 3.25, 3.18, 3.12, 3.03, and 2.69 Ga. The rocks are subalkaline to slightly alkaline, with affinity to I- and M-type magmas; they follow trondhjemitic or potassium calc-alkaline differentiation trends. They have epsilon Nd(t) of +1.4 to -4.2 and negative anomalies for Ta-Nb, P and Ti, consistent with a convergent tectonic setting. Both subducted oceanic crust and upper mantle (depleted or metasomatised) served as sources of the magmas. After a time lapse of about 350 m y., large-scale emplacement of Paleoproterozoic units took place. These rocks cover about 50% of the region. Their geochemistry indicates juvenile magmatism with a minor contribution from crustal sources. These rocks also exhibit potassic calc-alkaline differentiation trends, again akin to I- and M-type magmas, and show negative anomalies for Ta-Nb, Ti and P. Depleted and metasomatised mantle, resulting from interaction with adakitic or trondhjemitic melts in a subduction zone setting, is interpreted to be the main source of the magmas, predominanting over crustal recycling. U-Pb ages indicate generation of plutonic rocks at 2.24-2.22 Ga (in some places at about 2.4-2.3 Ga) and 2.13-2.11 Ga, and andesitic volcanism at 2.15 Ga. Isotopic evidence indicates juvenile magmatism (epsilon Nd(t) of +2.9 to -2.9). After a time lapse of about 200 m y. a period of within-plate magmatic activity followed, with acidic volcanism (1.79 Ga) in Orós, granitic plutonism (1.74 Ga) in the Seridó region, anorthosites (1.70 Ga) and A-type granites (1.6 Ga) in the Transverse Zone

  3. Kiglapait magma evolution: mantle to Labrador to lab (United States)

    Morse, S. A.; Banks, D. C.; Brady, J. B.


    anorthositic Nain Plutonic Suite suggests crustal extension and a locally shallow depth to mantle (Olson &Morse, Nature 344, 760 1990). The data so far are consistent with melting beginning in the GT field and separating at or near the SP/PL boundary, with significant crystallization of OL at the level of emplacement, as found in the basal LZ. Similar mid-Proterozoic Hi-Al-Fe magmas and their sources are documented by Hoal (Lithos Slave-Kaapvaal issue, 2003). & Melting of KI UZ rocks containing appreciable Ti and P indicates ingestion of carbon from the crucible and gives FeO(T) contents up to 32% (wt) in the melt. The sampled rocks fall far below this level of iron enrichment, so determination of the UZ-LLD evolutionary trace requires further study without Ti and P to complex the carbon.

  4. Early Energetic Particle Irradiation of the HED Parent Body Regolith (United States)

    Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Rao, M. N.


    the maximum time peRiod for the solar irradiation. Various asteroidal regolith models, based on Monte Carlo modeling of impact rates as a function of size and on irradiation features of meteorites, predict surface exposure times of about 0.1 to 10 m.y., and depend on such factors as gravity, rock mechanical properties, and micrometeoroid flux. Because the depth at which solar Fe tracks are produced (is much less than 1 micrometer) is much less than the depth at which Solar Cosmic Rays (SCR) Ne is produced (about 1 cm), for a reasonably well-stirred HED regolith the "surface exposure time" for SCR 21-Ne production should be significantly longer than that for solar tracks and some other surface irradiation features. Enhanced Solar Proton Irradiation: For bulk samples of Kapoeta dark feldspar and a one-component regolith model, the derived ratio of 21-Ne/22-Ne = 0.68 implies that the early production ratio of SCR 21-Ne to GCR 21-Ne was about 0.5-1.5. This ratio is independent of any assumptions about the fraction of dark grains that are irradiated or of the variability in the degree of solar irradiation among grains. The 21-Ne SCR/GCR ratio indirectly derived from bulk Kapoeta pyroxene is somewhat larger, as is the ratio derived for simple two-component regolith models. Individual feldspar grains that were extensively solar irradiated would require even larger 21-Ne SCR/GCR production ratios. In contrast, the theoretical SCR/GCR production ratio for lunar feldspar with 0 g/CM2 shield ing is is less than or equal to 2, and the lowest ratio observed in near-surface samples of lunar anorthosites is less than or equal to 1. Considering the greater solar distance of Vesta (compared to the Moon), the likelihood that SCR 21-Ne was acquired under some shielding where production rates are lower, and the likelihood that the exposure time to galactic protons exceeded the exposure time to solar protons because of their very different penetration depths, the 21-Ne SCR/GCR production

  5. Implication of the monomineral eclogite thermobarometry for the reconstruction of the PT conditions and origin of mantle eclogites in the structure of Siberian and other cratons. (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Logvinova, Alla; Spetsius, Zdislav; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ravi, Subramanaian; Vladykin, Nikolai; Stegnitsky, Yuri; Babushkina, Svetlana; Ovchinnikov, Yuri


    progressive melting of subducted basalts (Rosenthal et al., 2014) or an opposite due to crystallization of evolving partial melts from primary eclogites. In USCLM the GrB3 omphacites show reactional trends with decreasing Fe# upward or an opposite progressive rise due to magmatic differentiation. GrC dominate the middle part of the SCLM (3-4 GPa) and mostly correspond to the layer originated in the Early Archean time at 3.5-4.0 GPa possibly due to subduction of the tonalitic crust and related metasediments. CrD1 -rich grosspyditic varieties from India, Siberia and South Africa are relatively low-Fe and Al-rich and possibly are metasomatites or products of interaction of sediments and peridotites. The other Ca- rich varieties most likely are subducted anorthosites or rare granites. Supported by the RFBR grants: 05-05-64718, 03-05-64146, 11 -05-00060, 11-05-91060-PICS, 16-05-00841, 16-05-00860 and projects 77-2, 65-03, 02-05 UIGGM SB RAS and ALROSA Stock Company

  6. The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a younger bimodal suite composed of garnet-bearing metagabbronorite and coarse-grained granitic gneiss. Zircons U-Pb ages from the Big Creek Gneiss demonstrate that: (1) the average age of detrital zircons in the supracrustal rocks is ~1805 Ma, requiring a significant source of 1805-Ma (or older) detritus during deposition, possibly representing an older phase of arc magmatism; (2) the older bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1780 Ma, correlative with arc-derived rocks of the Green Mountain Formation; (3) the younger bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1763 Ma, coeval with the extensional(?) Horse Creek anorthosite complex in the Laramie Mountains and Sierra Madre Granite batholith in the southwestern Sierra Madre; (4) Big Creek Gneiss rocks were tectonically buried, metamorphosed, and partially melted at ~1750 Ma, coeval with the accretion of the Green Mountain arc to the Wyoming province along the Cheyenne belt; (5) the posttectonic granite and pegmatite bodies throughout the Big Creek Gneiss crystallized at ~1630 Ma and are correlative with the 'white quartz monzonite' of the south-central Sierra Madre. Geochemical analysis of the ~1780-Ma bimodal plutonic suite demonstrates a clear arc-affinity for the mafic rocks, consistent with a subduction environment origin. The granodioritic rocks of this suite were not derived by fractional crystallization from coeval mafic magmas, but are instead interpreted as melts of lower-crustal mafic material. This combination of mantle

  7. Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon (United States)

    Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.


    The first Indian planetary mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, launched on 22nd October, 2008 with a suite of Indian and International payloads on board, collected very significant data over its mission duration of close to one year. Important new findings from this mission include, discovery of hydroxyl and water molecule in sunlit lunar surface region around the poles, exposure of large anorthositic blocks confirming the global lunar magma hypothesis, signature of sub surface ice layers in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar north pole, evidence for a new refractory rock type, mapping of reflected lunar neutral atoms and identification of mini-magnetosphere, possible signature of water molecule in lunar exosphere, preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation and radiation dose en-route and around the moon. Chandrayaan-2:, The success of Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission provided impetus to implement the second approved Indian mission to moon, Chandrayaan-2, with an Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration. The enhanced capabilities will enable addressing some of the questions raised by the results obtained from the Chandrayaan-1 and other recent lunar missions and also to enhance our understanding of origin and evolution of the moon. The orbiter that will carry payloads to further probe the morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar surface material through remote sensing observations in X-ray, visible, infra-red and microwave regions. The Lander-Rover system will enable in-depth studies of a specific lunar location and probe various physical properties of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission will be collaboration between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Federal Space Agency of Russia. ISRO will be responsible for the Launch Vehicle, the Orbiter and the Rover while the Lander will be provided by Russia. Initial work to realize the different elements of the mission is currently in progress in both countries

  8. On the chronology of lunar origin and evolution. Implications for Earth, Mars and the Solar System as a whole (United States)

    Geiss, Johannes; Rossi, Angelo Pio


    An origin of the Moon by a Giant Impact is presently the most widely accepted theory of lunar origin. It is consistent with the major lunar observations: its exceptionally large size relative to the host planet, the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, the extreme depletion of volatile elements, and the delayed accretion, quickly followed by the formation of a global crust and mantle. According to this theory, an impact on Earth of a Mars-sized body set the initial conditions for the formation and evolution of the Moon. The impact produced a protolunar cloud. Fast accretion of the Moon from the dense cloud ensured an effective transformation of gravitational energy into heat and widespread melting. A "Magma Ocean" of global dimensions formed, and upon cooling, an anorthositic crust and a mafic mantle were created by gravitational separation. Several 100 million years after lunar accretion, long-lived isotopes of K, U and Th had produced enough additional heat for inducing partial melting in the mantle; lava extruded into large basins and solidified as titanium-rich mare basalt. This delayed era of extrusive rock formation began about 3.9 Ga ago and may have lasted nearly 3 Ga. A relative crater count timescale was established and calibrated by radiometric dating (i.e., dating by use of radioactive decay) of rocks returned from six Apollo landing regions and three Luna landing spots. Fairly well calibrated are the periods ≈4 Ga to ≈3 Ga BP (before present) and ≈0.8 Ga BP to the present. Crater counting and orbital chemistry (derived from remote sensing in spectral domains ranging from γ- and x-rays to the infrared) have identified mare basalt surfaces in the Oceanus Procellarum that appear to be nearly as young as 1 Ga. Samples returned from this area are needed for narrowing the gap of 2 Ga in the calibrated timescale. The lunar timescale is not only used for reconstructing lunar evolution, but it serves also as a standard for chronologies of the