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Sample records for anorectal malignant melanoma

  1. Anorectal Malignant Melanomas: Experience of Uludag University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aytac

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anorectal melanomas represent a group of mucosal melanomas with unknown etiology and poor prognosis. The lesions can be misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids during clinical examination. We reviewed the morphological and clinical features of 14 anorectal melanomas, and discuss the treatment modalities of this entity. Fourteen patients who were diagnosed with anorectal malignant melanoma between 1997 and 2004 were evaluated with regard to age, sex, size, morphology, lymph node or distant metastasis, treatment modality and survival. Eight patients were female and six were male, and their mean age was 58 years. The size of melanoma ranged from 3 cm to 8 cm. Pathological evaluation revealed epithelioid and spindle cell type tumor in seven and two patients, respectively, whereas, in the remaining seven patients, the tumor was composed of both types. Pigmentation was apparent in all tumors. There was lymph node metastasis in 11 patients and distant metastasis in all patients. Eleven patients underwent abdominoperineal resection and three were treated by local excision. Mean survival was 8.7 months. Prognosis of anorectal melanoma remains poor. Awareness of the diverse clinicopathological features of these lesions, both on the part of the clinicians and pathologists, is crucial for their early detection and proper treatment.

  2. Approach to Malign Melanoma in Anorectal Area

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    Huseyin Pulat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anorectal malign melanoma comprise 0.2-1 % of all malign melanoma. They are extremely aggressive. Most patients are lost beacuse of incurable systemic illness. In our study, we aim to evaluate the results of surgical and oncological follow-up of our patients that we operated because of anorectal malign melanoma. Material and Method: Our 4 patients operated because of anorectal malign melanoma between October 2008 and April 2013 were analysed. The patients were analysed in terms of demographic datas, complaint and its time, physical examination and imaging findings, treatment procedure, local recurrence or presence of metastasis and follow-up results.Results: Our study group comprised 4 people (2 men and 2 women with the mean age of 64,2 years. The main complaint was rectal bleeding. The avarage complaint duration was 7.5 months. In all patients, anorectal mass was detected after physical examination and imaging studies. Biopsies of the mass were reported to be consistent with malign melanoma. With the further studies, one patient was detected to have metastasis in liver. Abdominoperineal resection was applied to one patient after wide local excision and to three patients during the first aplication. The avarage follow-up time was 19,25 months. The avarage diameter of tumor was 3,9 cm. One patient was applied lymph node dissection because of recurrence in iliac region. The avarage stay time at hospital of the patients who had no postoperative problems was 9,7 days. During follow-up time, three of the patients died because of common metastasis. A patient followed regularly is still continuing his life without illness in his postoperative 22nd month. Discussion: Anorectal malign melanoma is a rare, with a bad prognosis and a late diagnosed entity as it has a similarity with benign illnesses which are mostly seen in anorectal area in terms of clinical symptoma. To correct the prognosis of the illness, the suitable surgery and adjuvant treatment

  3. [Anorectal malignant melanomas. Apropos of 2 new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, S; Sadok, H; Dai, B; Meyer, C

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of anorectal melanoma have been studied about 2 new cases. The initial symptoms were often misdiagnosed with hemorrhoids disease. This cancer carries a bad prognosis but the best treatment seems to be abdominoperineal resection (APR) when the thickness of the melanoma is under 3 mm. Over this limit, APR alone will not cure this disease. Curative treatment will probably involve a combined therapy with local and systemic therapies.

  4. Combined laparoscopic abdomino-endoscopic perineal total mesorectal excision for anorectal malignant melanoma: A case report

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    Ryo Ohta

    Full Text Available Introduction: This report presents a case of anorectal malignant melanoma treated with combined laparoscopic abdomino-endoscopic perineal total mesorectal excision. Presentation of case: An 82-year-old female presented with hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a 5-cm tumor in the anorectal junction, and biopsy specimen showed malignant melanoma. Modified ransanal total mesorectal excision was performed to get the sufficient surgical resection margins. After lymph node dissection in usual manner, mobilizing the rectum to the level of levator ani muscle. Then a skin incision was made around the anus and the transperineal access platform was placed. The fat tissue of the ischioanal fossa was divided until the levator ani muscle was exposed. The oral side of the colon was transected and specimen was extracted through the perineal incision site. Then stoma was placed laparoscopically. Discussion: This procedure provides not only better exposure of the extralevator surgical field, but also efficient resection margins compared with the conventional andominoperineal resection. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of combined laparoscopic abdomino-endoscopic perineal total mesorectal excision for anorectal malignant melanoma. Our experience showed safety and feasible option for anorectal malignant diseases. Keywords: Anorectal malignant melanoma, Transanal total mesorectal excision, Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection, Case report

  5. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  6. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  7. Malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Braud, Filippo; Khayat, David; Kroon, Bin B. R.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Bruzzi, Paolo; Cascinelli, Natale

    2003-01-01

    In the European Community cutaneous melanoma accounts for 1 and 1.8% of cancers occurring in men and women, respectively. The incidence rate is increasing faster than that of any other tumour. Sun exposure, patient's phenotype, family history, and history of a previous melanoma are the major risk

  8. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  9. Malignant Melanoma

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    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  10. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

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    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  11. Primary malignant melanoma

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    A. Ferhat Mısır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas (MM of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period.

  12. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

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    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  13. Disseminated malignant melanoma

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    Verma Kaushal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man had multiple asymptomatic, nodular lesions on the trunk, extremities and the face for 3 months. He also had left facial palsy with severe headache and vomiting. There were no other systemic or constitutional symptoms. Skin biopsy from a nodular lesion showed features of malignant melanoma, confirmed by Fontana Masson and S-100 protein staining. A diagnosis of disseminated malignant melanoma was made and the patient was treated symptomatically. The patient died in 4 months.

  14. Anorectal melanoma: experience from a tertiary cancer care centre in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, S; Muralee, M; Sajeed, A; Arun, P M; Cherian, K; Nair, C K; Augustine, P; Ahamed, I

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Mucosal malignant melanoma of the anorectum is a rare and aggressive disease, in which early diagnosis is difficult. The prognosis remains extremely poor, irrespective of the treatment. We share our experience in treating this malignancy at our centre in South India. Methods This study describes a retrospective analysis of 31 cases of anorectal melanoma presented to our centre between January 2001 and December 2013. Results Twenty-two patients (71%) presented with metastasis and had a median overall survival of nine months. None of the 22 patients survived for two years. Nine patients (29%) had curative surgery, in the form of abdominoperineal resection (six patients), abdominoperineal resection with bilateral inguinal node dissection (one patient), abdominoperineal resection with liver resection (one patient) and posterior exenteration (one patient). In patients who underwent curative surgery, the median overall survival was 15 months and disease-free survival was nine months, with a two-year overall survival of 22%. Conclusions Anorectal melanoma is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. The majority of patients present with distant metastases. Prognosis depends on stage at presentation. Early diagnosis and surgical resection may improve the overall outcome. Newer modalities such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies such as anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies have radically changed the management of mucosal melanoma and may, in the future, improve the overall prognosis of anorectal melanoma.

  15. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

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    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  16. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  17. Thigmotropism of Malignant Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Pi?rard-Franchimont, Claudine; No?l, Fanchon; Pi?rard, G?rald E.

    2011-01-01

    During malignant melanoma (MM) progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape)....

  18. Rectal malignant melanoma mistaken for thrombotic hemorrhoids - rare tumor with poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacova, E.; Hvizdakova, A.; Vyskocil, M.; Kinova, S.; Sesovsky, V.; Kobzova, D.; Palkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Rectal malignant melanoma originates in the melanocytes of the anorectal area. Represent less than 1 % of all melanomas, and 4 % of all malignant tumors of the rectum and anus. The most common clinical manifestation is bleeding, the clinical examination may be mistaken for benign lesions or hemorrhoids. Given the rarity of the diagnosis are not well-defined therapeutic procedures. Prognosis for patient is poor. The authors present a case of 70-year old patient with rectal melanoma diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, initially with diagnosis a thrombotic hemorrhoid. (author)

  19. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal melanomas constitute 1.3% of all melanomas and they may develop in any mucosal membrane. Conjunctival melanomas (0.5/million/year) and melanomas in the sinonasal cavity (0.5/million/year) are the most common, followed by anorectal melanomas (0.4/million/year) and melanomas in the oral...... cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma...... is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is poor, with the 5-year survival rate ranging from 0% (gastric melanoma) to 80% (conjunctival melanoma)....

  20. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

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    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  1. PRIMARY MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... ing including positron emission tomography (PET) scan failed to reveal a primary source of malignant melanoma. So, the patient was diagnosed as primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic mucosa. Figure 1 Photomicrograph showing origin of melano- ma (H&E, 100x). Figure 2 Photomicrograph ...

  2. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  3. From Melanocyte to Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

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    Bizhan Bandarchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in human and is responsible for almost 60% of lethal skin tumors. Its incidence has been increasing in white population in the past two decades. There is a complex interaction of environmental (exogenous and endogenous, including genetic, risk factors in developing malignant melanoma. 8–12% of familial melanomas occur in a familial setting related to mutation of the CDKN2A gene that encodes p16. The aim of this is to briefly review the microanatomy and physiology of the melanocytes, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, historical classification and histopathology and, more in details, the most recent discoveries in biology and genetics of malignant melanoma. At the end, the final version of 2009 AJCC malignant melanoma staging and classification is presented.

  4. Thigmotropism of Malignant Melanoma Cells

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    Pascale Quatresooz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During malignant melanoma (MM progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape. These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called “accretive” growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread.

  5. Thigmotropism of malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E

    2012-01-01

    During malignant melanoma (MM) progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape). These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called "accretive" growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread.

  6. Alpha -2b treatment of Malignant Melanoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Interferon preparations such as interferon alpha are widely used in the treatment of a number of non malignant and malignant conditions including malignant melanoma where it used. Mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose- reduction or treatment ...

  7. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated pancreatic metastasis from malignant melanoma (IPMMM) is rare because most melanoma patients already have a widespread disease at diagnosis. No adjuvant systemic treatment is known to be effi cient in this setting. Experience with pancreatic resection for IPMMM is limited and controversial. We report here ...

  8. Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ismail Önder; Misir, Mustafa; Polat, Kerem; Altuntaş, Emine Elif; Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Tuncer, Ersin; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinus mucosa is a rare disease and seen in less than 1% among all melanomas. Malignant melanomas have 2 origins: cutaneous and mucosal. The mucosal form has a worse prognosis because of its aggressiveness compared with that of the cutaneous form. Mucosal melanomas often occur at a rate of 2% to 3% among all melanomas and are typically found in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Generally, it is more common in males and in those older than 50 years. In this study, 4 patients were observed at the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine; 2 of them were a 64-year-old man and an 82-year-old woman who had a malignant melanoma originating from the nasal septal mucosa, 1 patient was a 72-year-old woman whose malignant melanoma originated from the inferior turbinate, and 1 patient was a 77-year-old woman with a sinonasally located melanoma. The conditions of these patients were discussed under the light of literature instructions.

  9. Intraoral malignant melanoma | Babburi | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm and accounts for only 0.2‑8% of all reported melanomas. It is a malignant neoplasm of melanocytes that may arise from a benign melanocytic lesion or de novo from melanocytes within normal skin or mucosa. It is considered to be the most deadly and ...

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic fold | Chhabra | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary malignant melanoma rarely arises from noncutaneous tissues that contain melanocytes. Head and neck mucosal melanomas account for 0.7% to 3.8% of all melanomas. Here we report a case of primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic fold. Result: Here we reported a case of primary malignant ...

  11. Cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, G. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Sydney Melanoma Unit); Firth, I. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Department of Medical Oncology); Coates, A. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Sydney Melanoma Unit)

    1993-03-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of factors affecting survival in 129 patients with cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology from June '82-January '90. Their ages ranged from 19-83 years and the time interval form diagnosis of the primary tumour to development of cerebral metastases ranged from 1 month-17 years. Cerebral metastases were apparently solitary in 59 (46%) and multiple in 70 (54%) patients. Craniotomy with resection of tumour was performed in 49 patients, of whom 24 had a solitary cerebral metastasis as the only evidence of disease Most patients (94%) received radiotherapy-course. Median survival of the whole group after detection of cerebral metastases was 5 months (range <1-87+). Univariate analysis indicated that a solitary cerebral metastasis, absence of extracranial disease and tumour resection predicted improved survival, but only surgical intervention was of independent prognostic significance in a multivariate analysis. The effect of cranial irradiation on survival could not be assessed, but the dose of radiation did not influence survival. Of the 10 patients who survived for more than 2 years, 8 had total resection of a solitary cerebral metastasis. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  13. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula

    1999-01-01

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  14. [Systemic treatment of inoperable metastasized malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, R; Rauschenberg, R; Meier, F

    2016-07-01

    The medical therapy of inoperable malignant melanoma has changed dramatically over the last few years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current state of systemic medical treatment of malignant melanoma. Clinical studies and guidelines in the therapy of malignant melanoma are reviewed. Medical therapy of inoperable melanoma changed due to developments in immunotherapies (checkpoint inhibitors) and molecular-targeted therapies (BRAF and MEK inhibitors). Checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies administered as infusions every 2-3 weeks, blocking the checkpoints PD-1 or CTLA-4, thus, preventing downregulation of the immune system. BRAF and MEK inhibitors are small molecules, they are given orally and block a certain signaling pathway in tumor cells. The activation of this pathway has to be demonstrated by molecular analysis of tumor tissue first. This strategy is currently registered for 40-50 % of melanomas harboring a BRAF V600 mutation, while the combination of a BRAF plus MEK inhibitor has been proven more efficient than a BRAF inhibitor alone. A fascinating development has started in the melanoma field due to immunotherapeutic and molecular-targeted treatment strategies. The continuation of this development needs further clinical and translational studies. This includes particular clinical studies with the new substances in the adjuvant situation, and sequences and combinations in the metastatic setting. Translational studies are needed to develop biomarkers for response and side effects.

  15. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  16. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    or with melanocytic naevi. While AMs are clearly distinguished from CM by displaying few BRAF mutations, they are commonly indistinguishable from CM at the level of gene expression. The aim was to carry out expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers and of the protein deleted in malignant brain...

  17. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, pre-operative exhaustive staging is needed to confirm both the absence of local invasion of major vasculature and the absence of distant metastasis. Positron emission tomography scanning seems to have a higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional imaging for detecting metastasis from malignant melanoma.

  18. Nodular malignant melanoma - Secondary to carcinoma rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year female presented with a sudden eruption of multiple brownish black nodular lesions since 5 months over the face, trunk and extremities which were clinically diagnosed as a case of nodular malignant melanoma. Histopathologically, they revealed the secondaries from carcinoma rectum.

  19. Radiotherapy in the cerebral metastatic malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, P.E.R.S.; Albuquerque, L.F.; Salvajoli, J.V.; Peres, O.; Bandeira, D.C.; Calvis, L.A.; Santos, I.D.A.O.; Belfort, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 21 patients with cerebral metastasis from malignant melanoma was done. Two groups of patients were defined: patients receiving cranial radiation therapy with total dose higher than 20 Gy with or without other Kinds of therapy and patients not irradiated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Verrucous-Keratotic Malignant Melanoma (VKMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Damianov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with a verrucous keratotic variant of melanoma visiting the policlinic of Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR-Sofia, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic surgery, with a keratotic verrucous lesion, located on the right thigh, partially deeply pigmented at upper right quadrant. The lesion had appeared three years ago before her presentation in the policlinic, and it had gradually enlarged and become darker in the last twelve months. The surface of the lesion was covered with thick hyperkeratotic lobules. The histologic evaluation revealed verrucous melanoma with a tumour thickness of 3 mm and Clark Level IV and focal ulceration. The tumour was staged as stage IIB (T3bN0M0. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was planned. Verrucous-keratotic forms of malignant melanoma occur more commonly in women and favour the extremities, but may be found on any anatomic site. Seventy-one percent of this melanoma type are situated on the upper and lower extremities. Although two-thirds of these neoplasms can be can be histologically graded according to the classification of Clark, one-third of these melanomas with marked verrucous hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis do not fit into his classification. Histological classification of patients with a verrucous keratotic type of melanoma may sometimes be extremely difficult. The marked papilliferous architecture of these lesions made an assessment of Breslow depth difficult. The presented case highlights the clinical existence and features of such benign-looking melanomas. It is therefore important for surgical pathologists to recognise this unusual variant of malignant melanoma, as it may be confused both clinically and pathologically with benign lesions.

  1. [Acute dyspnea in malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, A M; Günzel, T

    2011-09-01

    Metastases to the larynx are rare. The current article presents the case of a 75-year-old patient with a history of shortness of breath due to a supraglottic exophytic lesion that was identified as a metastasis of a cutaneous melanoma treated 2.5 years previously. As a result of our medline analysis we found approximately 30 cases of metastatic melanoma to the larynx published to date. Primary tumors are always cutaneous in origin and spread over the whole integument of trunk and extremities. The time interval between diagnosis of the primary and the laryngeal metastasis is often several years. In most reports a supraglottic exophytic, red coloured lesion is described. Diagnosis can only be proven by histological examination. Laryngeal metastasis is usually an indication of tumor dissemination and always has a fatal prognosis.

  2. Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dawei; Ran, Xingwu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Acral lentiginous melanoma (AML) does not exhibit the classic signs of malignant melanoma. ALM is frequently misdiagnosed because of its unusual sites and atypical clinical morphologies, which lead to poor prognosis. Patient concerns: A female patient aged 78 years was presented to our center with two ulcers on her right foot. Diabetic foot ulcer was considered as the primary diagnosis. The ulcers failed to improve after 2 weeks’ therapy. Diagnoses: An incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed malignant melanoma. Interventions: The patient received wide excision, skin grafting as well as biotherapy. Outcomes: The lesion was healed and no other metastasis has been founded until now. Lessons: Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in distinguishing malignant melanoma from other more benign skin lesions of the foot. The need for early biopsy of ulcer, even when clinical suspicion is low, can not be overemphasized. Only in this way can we reduce misdiagnosis rate and improve survival rate in patients with foot ulcer. PMID:28723771

  3. Oral Malignant Melanoma in a Ferret ( Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Rossi, Giacomo; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms in dogs but are rare in other domesticated species. This case report describes the clinical manifestations and histological appearance of oral melanoma in a ferret ( Mustela putorius furo). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published description of a clinical case and histopathological findings of oral melanoma in this species.

  4. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...... to this group of patients. Background: MM is the type of cancer, which over the past 50 years has increased the most in newly discovered cases, and is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. The statement above shows that this group of patients will increase in the future. It is therefore important...... to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated...

  5. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Presenting as an Appendiceal Mucocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alduaij

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma metastatic to the appendix is extremely rare. Here we describe a case of a 31-year-old female from Bolivia with a remote history of metastatic malignant melanoma first diagnosed as a cutaneous malignant melanoma ten years prior to this presentation. The patient was being followed for a mucocele which on resection was found to be metastatic melanoma. “Mucocele” is a generic diagnosis that warrants further characterization and treatment.

  6. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  7. Primary retroperitoneal melanoma presented in a rare extracutaneous site for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alsharedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, as the name implies, is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, found in the skin, eyes, meningeal lining and the mucosal epithelium of the aero-digestive and genitourinary tracts. Malignant melanoma is typically skin malignancy, which rarely presents at extracutaneous site. Here we present a rare case of primary retroperitoneal melanoma and review the findings in comparison with other cases described in literature.

  8. Malignant melanoma clinically masquerading vascular tumor: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Pradhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is an invasive neoplasm of the skin, whose incidence is reported to be rising among Indians. We hereby present a unique case of unilateral, multiple, asymptomatic, pigmented, nodular lesions over the lower limb; resembling vascular tumor, revealing itself as malignant melanoma only on histopathology. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique presentation of malignant melanoma has not yet been reported from the Indian subcontinent.

  9. Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanowsky, A.; Krey, H.F.; Kopp, J.; Kanitz, W.; Wagner, T.

    1990-01-01

    We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months

  10. Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanowsky, A.; Krey, H.F.; Kopp, J.; Kanitz, W.; Wagner, T. (Eye Clinic, Central Clinic, Augsburg (West Germany))

    1990-07-15

    We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months.

  11. Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, Henrik; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Björn; Rivera, Patricio; Loskog, Angelica; Segall, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Tötterman, Thomas H

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma. However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential. Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages. The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies. Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma. Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery. After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation. This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy. Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression. This case was treated with 6 AdCD40L injections over 60 days. One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis. Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.

  12. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  13. Positron emission tomography scanning in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, D S; Onaitis, M; Kherani, A; Hata, A; Nicholson, E; Keogan, M; Fisher, S; Coleman, E; Seigler, H F

    2000-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the low yield of anatomically based computed tomography scans in evaluating Stage III (American Joint Committee on Cancer) patients with malignant melanoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and clinical utility of functionally based positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the same patient population. A prospective evaluation of 106 whole body PET scans obtained after injection of 2-fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) was performed in 95 patients with clinically evident Stage III lymph node and/or in-transit melanoma. Areas of abnormality on FDG PET scanning were identified visually as foci of increased metabolic activity compared with background, and all positive foci were assessed pathologically. In this patient population, there were 234 areas that were evaluated pathologically of which 165 were confirmed histologically to be melanoma. PET scanning identified 144 of the 165 areas of melanoma for a sensitivity of 87.3%. The 21 areas of melanoma that were missed included 10 microscopic foci, 9 foci less than 1 cm, and 2 foci greater than 1 cm. There were 39 areas of increased PET activity that were not associated with malignancy for a 78.6% predictive value of a positive test. Of the 39 false-positive areas (false-positive rate of 56.5%), 13 could be attributed to recent surgery, 3 to arthritis, 3 to infection, 2 to superficial phlebitis, 1 to a benign skin nevus, and 1 to a colonic polyp. Pathologic evaluation of the remaining false-positive areas failed to reveal a definitive etiology for their increased activity on PET scan. With the application of pertinent clinical information, the predictive value of a positive PET scan could be improved to 90. 6%. The specificity of PET scanning in this study was only 43.5% because very few prophylactic lymph node dissections were performed. Thirty-six of the total 183 abnormal areas (19.7%) on PET scanning proved to be unsuspected areas of

  14. Oral malignant melanoma: A rare case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala Rakaraddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is only rarely found in oral cavity (estimated between 0.2 and 8-0% of all melanomas and occurs approximately four times more frequently in oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate, alveolar gingiva and melanoma of mandibular gingiva is extremely rare. The peak age of diagnosis of melanoma is between 55 and 65 years. A biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis. Here, we present a rare case of malignant melanoma of mandibular gingiva in a 64-year-old female patient which is confirmed by histopathology.

  15. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J

    1998-01-01

    melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed......Stereological estimation of nuclear volume was performed in a case control study of 72 malignant melanomas, thickness melanomas due to too sparse cellularity. Thus, 21 thin metastasizing...... no significant differences in nuclear volume between metastasizing and non-metastasizing thin malignant melanomas....

  16. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Pour M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of the middle age. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. At present, the clinicopathological classification of oral melanoma is not yet clearly outlined; consequently, the skin form is often taken as a reference. In many cases (up to 30%, the diagnosis of melanoma is made on lesions, which have evolved from the pre-existing pigmented lesions. The poor prognosis of oral melanomas requires that pigmented lesions of undetermined origin be routinely biopsied. The surgical approach, combined with the chemotherapeutic one, is the first choice treatment. The purpose of this study is to review literature that has been published about malignant melanoma of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight published articles and 8 textbooks related to oral malignant melanoma and been published in the last two decades are reviewed. Conclusion: The review of literature in the field of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity show that this malignancy might be different from cutaneous malignant melanomas, and new criteria for diagnosis and therapy should be considered for this disease. Physicians and dentists who treat problems of the oral cavity should be aware of the need for early diagnosis of oral melanomas and performing biopsies of doubtful pigmented lesions.

  17. UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61 e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27, todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno.BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in malignant melanoma (MM patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61 and MM group (n = 27, which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation was measured by the onset of a contact

  18. Primary oral malignant melanoma - A case report | Kumar | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment and perhaps the key factor in improving the prognosis of oral malignant melanoma. This paper reports a case of a 42year old woman with primary malignant melanoma at a rare site, the left retromolar region involving the left side of the mandible, up to level IV ipsilateral ...

  19. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma Arising From a Vitiligo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin cancer is rare in people of African origin while vitiligo occurs worldwide. The occurrence of primary malignant melanoma and vitiligo together is very rare. We present a rare case of primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a depigmented patch of a patient with vitiligo. It was completely excised and followed ...

  20. Oral malignant melanoma: a rare case with unusual clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary Oral malignant melanoma is a rare tumor with an indigent prognosis. This is a case report of 47-year-old Sudanese female diagnosed as Oral malignant melanoma of the mandible with an unusual pattern of growth and clinical presentation. Furthermore, a possibility of intraosseous origin is suggested. Pan African ...

  1. Fluorescence angiography of iris in malignant uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguszakova, J.; Dubska, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence angiography of the iris was performed in 12 eyes with malignant uveal melanoma. Tumors localized in front of the equator, without respect to their cellular types, caused secondary fluoroangiographic changes in the iris corresponding to the location of these tumors. The character and degree of changes corresponded to the mechanical effect of the malignant melanoma. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  2. Hemosideric heterochromia iridum in malignant melanoma of the choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K J

    1975-08-01

    A case is reported in which hyperchromic heterochromia iridum developed due to blood staining of an eye with malignant melanoma of the choroid in which massive hemorrhage developed. It is suggested that a possibility of the malignant melanoma of the choroid be kept in mind where hemosiderin deposits are suspected to be the cause of heterochromia but no intraocular iron foreign body is present.

  3. Malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm in long-term childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; Overbeek, Annelies; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Annette Y. N.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A.

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review provides information on malignant melanoma as second malignant neoplasm (SMN) after childhood cancer and evaluates its risk factors. Study reports describing incidences of SMN and malignant melanoma as SMN in a population of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were included. Of

  4. The presence of dysplastic nevus remnants in malignant melanomas. A population-based study of 551 malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Hou-Jensen, K

    1991-08-01

    We examined 512 malignant melanomas, representing all newly diagnosed cutaneous malignant melanomas, excluding lentigo maligna melanomas, from the period October 1, 1982 to March 31, 1985 occurring in the region of eastern Denmark in patients aged 20-79 years for the presence of dysplastic nevus remnants. Criteria for the diagnosis of a dysplastic nevus remnant include all the following changes (a) lentiginous or epithelioid melanocyte hyperplasia, (b) cytologic melanocyte atypia, (c) eosinophilic fibroplasia, (d) lamellar fibroplasia, and (e) lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis. Dysplastic nevus remnants were found in association with 34 (7%) of the evaluable 512 malignant melanomas. Fourteen (41%) of the remnants were of compound nevus type. In nine (27%) of the remnants, atypia was pronounced. Most (62%) dysplastic nevus remnants were contiguous to thin superficial spreading melanomas. We conclude from this population-based study that about 7% of malignant melanomas arise in prior dysplastic nevi.

  5. Ocular surface foreign bodies: novel findings mimicking ocular malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudgil, A; Wagner, B E; Rundle, P; Rennie, I G; Mudhar, H S

    2014-11-01

    Malignant melanoma of the eye is an uncommon condition that is important to recognise. We describe three cases in which ocular foreign bodies have masqueraded as ocular malignant melanoma. Interventional case reports. Case 1 describes diathermy-induced carbon particle implantation, during plaque therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma, mimicking recurrence with extra-scleral invasion. Case 2 shows a foreign body called 'mullite' mimicking conjunctival melanoma. Case 3 demonstrates a conjunctival foreign body called 'illite' that mimicked a limbal melanocytic lesion, clinically thought to be either melanocytoma or melanoma. This report highlights the importance of careful history taking, examination, and appropriate biopsy in cases of suspected malignant melanoma, to prevent unnecessary and potentially radical treatment.

  6. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  7. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  8. Complete infarction of the eye complicating a choroidal malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H; Manners, R; Elkington, A R; Weller, R O

    1991-01-01

    Infarction of malignant melanoma of the choroid has been previously reported, but infarction of the whole eye in association with infarction of melanoma is a rare event that has not been previously described. We present such a case and discuss the possible pathogenesis.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  10. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented

  11. Psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Ross, Lone; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: In 1993, a randomized intervention study among patients with malignant melanoma showed a significant decrease in psychological distress and increased coping capacity 6 months after the intervention and enhanced survival 6 years later. We applied a similar intervention with a few modifica...... that a psychoeducational group intervention for such patients can decrease psychological distress and enhance effective coping. However, this effect is short term and the clinical relevance is not obvious.......PURPOSE: In 1993, a randomized intervention study among patients with malignant melanoma showed a significant decrease in psychological distress and increased coping capacity 6 months after the intervention and enhanced survival 6 years later. We applied a similar intervention with a few...... modifications in a randomized controlled trial among Danish patients with malignant melanoma and evaluated results on immediate and long-term effects on psychological distress and coping capacity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 262 patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma were randomly assigned...

  12. Malignant melanoma. Current status; Malignes Melanom. Aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.K.; Buder-Bakhaya, K.; Enk, A.; Hassel, J.C. [Universitaetshautklinik, Nationales Centrum fuer Tumorerkrankungen, Heidelberg (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Klinische Kooperationseinheit Nuklearmedizin, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is continuously increasing. The prognosis of metastatic disease is still limited. Until a few years ago palliative chemotherapy with a limited response rate was the standard treatment for metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy provide new treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved the prognosis. Regional lymph node sonography, computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest and abdomen and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used. As an alternative to CT scans 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be used. Immunotherapy provides the chance of long-term disease control in metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab may provide long-term tumor control in approximately 20% of patients. Median overall survival of approximately 2 years is achieved during therapy with anti-programmed cell death (PD) 1 antibodies. For combined therapy of ipilimumab and nivolumab a response rate of almost 60% is achieved and 2-year survival is also approximately 60%. The range of immune-mediated side effects demands particular consideration. For response evaluation immune-related response criteria were defined. Furthermore, immunotherapeutic approaches, such as talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), which is a modified herpes virus can be used for intralesional injection. An individual definition of the appropriate therapy for each patient is of particular importance. In the context of modern therapy regimens close patient monitoring is crucial. (orig.) [German] Die Inzidenz des Melanoms steigt stetig an. Die Prognose bei metastasierter Erkrankung ist weiterhin limitiert. Bis vor wenigen Jahren war eine palliative Chemotherapie mit begrenzten Ansprechraten Standardtherapie des metastasierten Melanoms. Immuntherapie und zielgerichtete Therapien stellen neue Behandlungsoptionen dar. Insbesondere Immuncheckpointinhibitoren haben die Prognose verbessert. Routinemaessig werden die

  13. A clinical trial of fast neutron therapy for malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Morita, Shinroku; Ishikawa, Tatsuo

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with malignant melanoma of the skin or the head and neck underwent fast neutron therapy between November 1975 and March 1983. Of these patients, 21 patients with melanoma of the skin and 12 patients with melanoma of the head and neck were chosen as subjects for this study. Of the 21 patients with skin lesions, complete regression was seen in 2 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy alone and in 17 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy combined with salvage surgery. A cumulative five-year survival rate was 47 %. Preoperative fast neutron therapy is a promising method used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Two of 12 patients with advanced melanoma of the head and neck were long-term survivors. Fast neutron-induced skin damage was seen in one of the 33 patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma of Parotid Gland with a Regressed Primary Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mustafa Kılıçkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the parotid gland is often metastatic and mainly originates from malignant melanomas in the head and neck. Nevertheless, some malignant melanomas may metastasize and subsequently regress. Therefore, it may not be possible to observe a metastatic malignant melanoma and its primary melanoma simultaneously. The investigation of a patient’s old photographs may help in the detection of preexisting and regressed pigmented lesions in the facial and neck regions.

  15. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuknecht, B.; Nadjmi, M.; Mueller, J.

    1990-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.) [de

  16. Malignant melanoma misdiagnosed as diabetic foot ulcer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dawei; Ran, Xingwu

    2017-07-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma (AML) does not exhibit the classic signs of malignant melanoma. ALM is frequently misdiagnosed because of its unusual sites and atypical clinical morphologies, which lead to poor prognosis. A female patient aged 78 years was presented to our center with two ulcers on her right foot. Diabetic foot ulcer was considered as the primary diagnosis. The ulcers failed to improve after 2 weeks' therapy. An incisional biopsy of the lesion revealed malignant melanoma. The patient received wide excision, skin grafting as well as biotherapy. The lesion was healed and no other metastasis has been founded until now. Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in distinguishing malignant melanoma from other more benign skin lesions of the foot. The need for early biopsy of ulcer, even when clinical suspicion is low, can not be overemphasized. Only in this way can we reduce misdiagnosis rate and improve survival rate in patients with foot ulcer.

  17. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M; Gniadecki, R

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Over the past decades, its incidence has been increasing by 3-8% per year in western countries while mortality has stabilized. Melanoma is a heterogenous disease and can be subclassified based on distinct clinical...... to play a crucial role in cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. MiRNAs might prove to be powerful cancer biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on the miRNA involvement in four molecular pathways known to be deregulated in malignant melanoma, including the RAS...... characteristics, histopathological features and mutation patterns within NRAS and BRAF genes. Recent data indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. MiRNAs are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner and are known...

  18. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  19. Morphological Patterns Of Malignant Melanoma In Benin-City, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Malignant melanoma ranked among the top 10 most common malignancies in developed countries. It remains a major skin cancer with considerable geographical, racial and ethnical variation worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency and morphological patterns and variants of ...

  20. Malignant melanoma – etiopathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarova, Z.; Borecka, D.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma belongs to the most malignant and aggressive tumors due to its fast growing metastasis. Despite the fact that the incidence of melanoma has been on the increase for the past years and mortality to low and medium risk melanoma has decreased, the mortality of aggressive fast growing high risk melanomas has been stable. Diagnosis of “typical” melanomas, fulfilling ABCDEF criteria, usually does not cause any problems. Particular attention should be paid to the problems of fast growing melanomas, which are very similar to benign lesions at the beginning so they are often detected too late. Melanomas have two extreme properties: on one edge of the spectrum there are patients with small and thin skin lesions, who are usually completely cured by wide surgical excision. On the other edge of the spectrum there are patients with generalized metastatic disease. In these patients the treatment options are very limited and the probability to survive is about 6-9 months. The most significant factor for survival is the early melanoma detection. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  2. Towards new therapeutic approaches for malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ivan; Buzea, Cristina; Tron, Victor

    2011-11-01

    Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of melanoma has created new opportunities for developing novel therapeutic modalities to manage this potentially lethal disease. Although at first glance, melanoma carcinogenesis appears to be a chaotic system, it is indeed, arguably, a deterministic multistep process involving sequential alterations of proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressors and miRNA genes. The scope of this article is to discuss the most recent and significant advances in melanoma molecular therapeutics. It is apparent that using single agents targeting solely individual melanoma pathways might be insufficient for long-term survival. However, the outstanding results on melanoma survival observed with novel selective inhibitors of B-RAF, such as PLX4032 give hope that melanoma can be cured. The fact that melanoma develops acquired resistance to PLX4032 emphasises the importance of simultaneously targeting several pathways. Because the most striking feature of melanoma is its unsurpassed ability to metastasise, it is important to implement newer systems for drug delivery adapted from research on stem cells and nanotechnology.

  3. Cutaneous malignant melanoma arising in an acquired naevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clare R S; Acland, Katharine; Khooshabeh, Ramona

    2009-11-01

    Naevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis most commonly found in black or Asian skin and is usually a benign malformation, but with a low risk of melanoma. We describe a 32-year-old Caucasian man with an acquired naevus of Ota with subtle pigmentation, in which a melanocytic papule developed. The lesion, deceptively, had no clinically suspicious features, but investigation revealed an aggressive cutaneous malignant melanoma, extensive orbital ring melanocytosis and metastatic brain and subsequent liver disease.

  4. Radiosensitivity of malignant melanomas. Part II. Clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; von Lieven, H.; Kummermehr, J.; Skopal, D.; Lukacs, S.; Braun-Falco, O.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-four lymph node or skin metastases of malignant melanomas received definite radiotherapy. Twenty were locally controlled for 2 or more years. Local control rate increased with dose. TCD-50 was about 1800 ret. The effectiveness of radiotherapy was more dependent on overall treatment time than on fraction size or number of fractions. Radiotherapy is suggested to decrease the high rate of locoregional failure of surgery of nodular melanomas in the foot and face

  5. Unexpected pulmonary hypertensive crisis after surgery for ocular malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kaori; Saji, Tsutomu; Kaneko, Taku; Takahashi, Kei; Sugi, Kaoru

    2014-11-24

    To report a case of unexpected pulmonary hypertensive crisis caused by endothelin release from melanoma cells after surgery for choroidal melanoma. A 56-year-old man suddenly developed dyspnea after resection of choroidal melanoma. Worsening hypoxia required intensive treatment, including percutaneous cardiopulmonary support, after which a series of tests were immediately performed. The tentative diagnosis was idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previous studies noted a significant association between melanoma and endothelin (ET)-1. We hypothesized that a substantial amount of ET-1 had been released from malignant melanoma cells during resection, thus triggering the pulmonary hypertensive crisis in our patient. The patient fully recovered after intensive treatment and administration of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan. The success of bosentan treatment, along with the extremely high level of ET-1 on pathologic analysis, confirmed our hypothesis regarding the increase in plasma ET-1 level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pathologists may encounter problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma, spindle and epithelioid neoplasms of peripheral nerves, and fibrohistiocytic tumors. Tyrosinase has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity...... of tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 protein, CD34, and vimentin was studied in 70 tumors, including 15 melanomas (5 desmoplastic, 4 amelanotic, 6...... at 121 degrees C. RESULTS: All melanomas demonstrated positive immunostaining for tyrosinase, HMB-45, and S100 protein. Immunoreactivity for HMB-45 was generally stronger than that for tyrosinase in amelanotic lesions and significantly stronger in 1 of the desmoplastic lesions. The 4 pigmented...

  7. Treatment with levodopa and risk for malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H; Tangerud, Karina; Wermuth, Lene

    2007-01-01

    with nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 172 control subjects, we investigated the hypothesis that treatment with levodopa increases the risk for skin cancer. Information on diagnoses and treatment was retrieved from medical records. We observed a significant fourfold to fivefold increase in the risk for malignant...... melanoma in a subgroup of patients with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as compared with other patients. There was apparently no effect of levodopa on the risk for malignant melanoma as indicated by an odds ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.3) per 1,000 g cumulative intake...... of the drug. We conclude that the increased rate of malignant melanoma observed in patients treated at hospital for Parkinson's disease is restricted to those with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, however, unrelated to the treatment with levodopa. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society....

  8. Female Urethral Malignant Melanoma With Vesical Invasion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Akbas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a 75-year-old female with a primary urethral malignant melanoma. A mass protruding from inside the urethra was detected on physical examination. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass extending from the urethra with dimensions of 4 × 2 cm, and periurethral heterogenous fatty planes consistent with infiltration. The histopathologic examination was consistent with HMB45(+ malignant melanoma. We performed cystourethrectomy and bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy in one session. The pathology report revealed primary malignant melanoma of the urethra invading the inferior bladder wall. The patient received no adjuvant therapy because of cardiopulmonary morbidities and the presence of multiple pulmonary metastases. The patient eventually died 13 months after surgery.

  9. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Androutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion  cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3 cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  10. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...... of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...

  11. Proton irradiation of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragoudas, E.S.; Goitein, M.; Koehler, A.; Wagner, M.S.; Verhey, L.; Tepper, J.; Suit, H.D.; Schneider, R.J.; Johnson, K.N.

    1979-01-01

    This is the first case of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body treated by the authors with proton beam irradiation, a technique that they developed for irradiating choroidal melanomas. After 21 months of follow-up no growth of the tumour has been observed, and shrinkage of the tumour was noted on the follow-up photographs and by ultrasonography. The 32 Pu uptake test, which was positive before treatment, turned negative 14 months after irradiation. The described technique of proton beam irradiation might offer an alternative for the treatment of ciliary body melanomas when the present technique of iridocyclectomy cannot be applied because of the size of the lesion. (author)

  12. Metastatic malignant subungal melanoma: Importance of FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Punshi Nandwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subungual melanoma is a rare type of skin cancer. It is an uncommon form of acral lentiginous melanoma. Approximately 85% of cases are misdiagnosed initially, and it is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic subungal melanoma to the axillary lymph node in a 45-year-old male. Diagnosis of metastasis was made based on cytology, where the clinicians were guided to search for primary. This case report highlights the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of this entity to draw the attention of the reader to the possible underreporting of melanoma because of a variant that evades diagnosis and our reluctance to think about its existence.

  13. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...

  14. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nakanishi, Takafumi

    1985-01-01

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10 B chlorpromazine compounds and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA) as tumor-seeking 10 B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10 B 1 -BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Use of Oncept melanoma vaccine in 69 canine oral malignant melanomas in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verganti, S; Berlato, D; Blackwood, L; Amores-Fuster, I; Polton, G A; Elders, R; Doyle, R; Taylor, A; Murphy, S

    2017-01-01

    Oral malignant melanomas carry a poor-to-guarded prognosis because of their local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. The Oncept melanoma vaccine is licensed to treat dogs with stage II or III locally-controlled oral malignant melanoma and this retrospective study aimed to assess survival of affected dogs treated with the vaccine in the UK. Medical records of dogs with histopathologically-confirmed oral malignant melanoma that received the vaccine as part of their treatment were evaluated. Survival analyses for potential prognostic factors were performed. Sixty-nine dogs were included; 56 dogs, staged I to III, and with previous locoregional therapy, had a median survival time of 455 days (95% CI: 324 to 586 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with associated log-rank testing, no significant prognostic factors were identified for this population. Of the 13 patients with macroscopic disease treated with vaccine alone or in combination therapy, eight showed clinical response. Three patients with stage IV oral malignant melanoma survived 171, 178 and 288 days from diagnosis. Patients treated with the melanoma vaccine in our study had survival times similar to their counterparts receiving the vaccine in the USA. There were observed responses in patients with macroscopic disease and so the vaccine could be considered as palliative treatment in dogs with stage IV disease. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Classical and molecular genetics of malignant melanoma and dysplastic naevi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traupe, H.; Macher, E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conclude that the prevailing concept of monogenic autosomaldominant inheritance of dysplastic naevi and familial melanoma is not compatible with the principles of formal (Mendelian) genetics. The concept of polygenic inheritance offers instead a sound basis to explain familial aggregation of dysplastic naevi and melanoma. The various genes involved have not yet been identified at the molecular level. The recent advances made possible by modern DNA technology have given us a new view of carcinogenesis. In human malignant melanoma, chromosomes 1, 6, 7 are of particular interest and oncogenes located on these chromosomes may be involved with the initiation, promotion and progression of melanoma. Carcinogenesis is viewed as a multistep process and even tumour initiation requires the input of at least two independent oncogenes. Molecular genetics thus adds an important argument for the existence of a polygenic predisposition to melanoma. The concept of polygenic inheritance is not restricted to familial melanoma, but implies that all melanomas basically share the same predisposition and are due to similar genetic mechanisms. In some patients an inherited genetic predisposition is of great importance, whereas in others (the majority) environmental factors (e.g. UV-light-induced mutations) will be the cause of initial steps in the malignant transformation. The concept of polygenic inheritance has consequences for the management of our patients. In contrast to simple Mendelian inheritance, the risk for dysplastic naevi and melanoma is not constantly 50%, but increases with the number of family members already affected. Persons belonging to families with more that 2 affected close relatives should be considered at high risk regardless of the dysplastic naevus status. Strict surveillance of this patient group is warranted for melanoma prevention

  17. Malignant cutaneous melanoma in patients from Las Tunas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María Yabor Palomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin neoplasia, whose incidence shows a constant and rapid increase.Objective: to characterize variables in patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma, whose biopsies were analyzed in the pathologic anatomy department of "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" General Teaching Hospital from January, 2008 to December, 2014.Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 31 patients treated in the place and period of time mentioned above. The official form of biopsy was used as a secondary source of collecting information and it was processed using descriptive statistics.Results: the 10,6 % of the biopsies analyzed corresponded with cutaneous melanoma, its frequency prevailed in 2011 and 2010, with a 25,8 % and 19,3 % respectively. It was evident a higher percentage in males (67,7 % and in the age group between 60 and 69 years old, with a 35,4 %. Caucasian patients were the most affected ones, with a 90,3 % and the predominant location was in the lower limbs in 45,1 % of the cases. The prevailing Clark invasion level was IV, evident by the 32,2 % of the sample, and the most frequent histological variety was the malignant nodular melanoma in 19 patients, for a 61,2 %.Conclusions: cutaneous melanoma prevailed in lower extremities in males and it had a belated diagnosis, since there was prevalence of IV Clark invasion level and nodular melanoma as the most frequent histological type.

  18. Chondrosarcomatous Differentiation in a Large Malignant Melanoma of the Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S. Alderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Divergent differentiation in malignant melanoma is a rare phenomenon, which can lead to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis, impacting upon patient treatment and outcome, as well as the understanding of tumour behaviour. Case. We present the case of a large long-standing tumour on the scalp of a 72-year-old female patient, which when excised and examined histologically was revealed to be a nodular malignant melanoma displaying chondrosarcomatous differentiation. Foci suggestive of lentigo maligna were also present. Rapid metastatic spread of the tumour was observed shortly after the primary resection. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of chondrosarcomatous differentiation in a lentigo maligna melanoma. The clinical and histopathological details and images of this case are presented alongside a discussion regarding such tumours and patterns of similar tumour behaviour.

  19. Intercellular crosstalk in human malignant melanoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Szabo, Pavol; Kodet, O.; Strnad, Hynek; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, L.; Krejčí, E.; Nanka, O.; Sedo, A.; Smetana, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1143-1150 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05534S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Melanocyte * Melanoma cells * Melanoma ecosystem * cancer -associated fibroblast * Keratinocyte * Cytokine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  20. CT of malignant choroidal melanoma - morphology and perfusion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Hagemann, J.; Jend, H.H.; Guthoff, R.

    1982-01-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of malignant choroidal melanoma and its perfusion characteristics are described. Thirty-three static and serial CT examinations made on 29 patients with choroidal melanoma, three with pseudotumors of the macula and one with choroidal metastasis revealed the choroidal melanoma to be usually a hyperdense, markedly perfused tumor, while the non-contrast, diagnostically undifferentiable pseudotumors and the choroidal metastasis, revealed no significant change in density after the administration of contrast material. Density values or perfusion characteristics of choroidal melanoma that are outside of the normal range are a result of secondary changes within the immediate surroundings of the tumor, such as detachment of the retina, tumor-induced glaucoma, or tumor necrosis. (orig.)

  1. CT of malignant choroidal melanoma - morphology and perfusion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, M.; Hagemann, J.; Jend, H.H.; Guthoff, R.

    1982-03-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of malignant choroidal melanoma and its perfusion characteristics are described. Thirty-three static and serial CT examinations made on 29 patients with choroidal melanoma, three with pseudotumors of the macula and one with choroidal metastasis revealed the choroidal melanoma to be usually a hyperdense, markedly perfused tumor, while the non-contrast, diagnostically undifferentiable pseudotumors and the choroidal metastasis, revealed no significant change in density after the administration of contrast material. Density values or perfusion characteristics of choroidal melanoma that are outside of the normal range are a result of secondary changes within the immediate surroundings of the tumor, such as detachment of the retina, tumor-induced glaucoma, or tumor necrosis.

  2. Socioeconomic status and cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening...

  3. Some interesting prognostic factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Alejandro Yuri Joan; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Jimenez Mendes, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present research was to determine the independent prognostic value and the 3 and 5 years survival of more significant clinicopathological prognostic factors and in each stage, according to pathological staging system of tumor-nodule-metastasis (TNM) in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)

  4. Pattern of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological patterns of distribution, presence of dark brown melanin pigments, nucleolar appearance and Clark's histological grading were studied. The data was analysed and tabulated into frequency tables. Results: Fifty four cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma were reviewed. The over all male: female sex ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Malignant melanoma in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    accounting for less than 4.6% of skin malignancy but, is responsible for over 75% of skin cancer ... incidence of melanoma is in Australia.3 The combined effects of predominantly light skinned population in a .... continued to be the standard of care for most patients with this disease.18. Though the use of more than one.

  6. Malignant melanoma in a Nigerian tertiary hospital | Emegoakor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of melanocytes which usually arises from the skin and other parts of the body where melanocytes exist. The incidence is low in black Africa and occurs mostly in the extremities. Surgery is the main stay of treatment for localised disease. Methodology: A 5-year retrospective ...

  7. Malignant Melanoma in an Albino | Efem | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oculocutaneous albinism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by generalised depigmentation, photophobia, decreased visual acuity, and nystagmus. Malignant melanoma is rare in patients with albinism. We report a case of a large advanced fumigating tumour on the right forearm of a male Nigerian albino ...

  8. Malignant melanoma revealed by testicular metastasi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dusaud

    2015-01-01

    Due to rapid disease progression and high mortality rate within a short interval, a complete staging looking for other secondary locations must be done and a multidisciplinary care and palliative involvement must also be initiated in the context of metastatic melanoma.

  9. Malignant melanoma in teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.

  10. [Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, M; Bendszus, M

    2015-02-01

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be

  11. Homogeneously staining regions (HSR) in a human malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieux de Salum, S; Slavutsky, I; Besuschio, S; Pavlovsky, A A

    1984-01-01

    A case of nodular malignant melanoma (level V of Clark's classification) with homogeneously staining regions (HSR) on the long arm of one chromosome #2 is described. Ultrastructural observation of melanosomic and promelanosomic granules near Golgi's vesicles confirmed the histologic diagnosis. Chromosome analysis was performed on nine metaphases from a bone marrow sample and 76 metaphases from culture of the malignant skin tumor. G-banding revealed the presence of a clone with trisomy #8 and another cell line with the HSR marker. This is the first report of HSR in human melanoma cells. As HSR has been found only in malignant cells, we believe that among the many factors that influence the patients' clinical evolution and poor response to treatment, the genic imbalance is of the utmost importance.

  12. Histopathological diagnosis of small melanocytic lesions suspicious for malignant melanoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Cuzzi, Tullia

    2017-01-01

    The concern about malignant skin neoplasms leads to the excision of smaller lesions. This study on small melanocytic lesions aims to evaluate the range of possible histopathological diagnoses, describe histopathological aspects, and assess the usefulness of serial histological sections. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive histopathological study examining 76 pigmented skin lesions up to 6 mm in diameter. Histopathological diagnoses included atypical melanocytic nevi (n=38), common melanocytic nevi (n=18), atypical lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia with architectural features of atypical melanocytic nevi (n=7), lentigo simplex (n=2), and malignant melanoma (n=1). Ten cases were non-diagnostic. Cytological atypia was not an exclusive finding of atypical lesions. Examination of serial sections did not change histopathological impression. Early detection of malignant melanoma is important, but clinical and dermoscopy exams may be leading to the resection of a great number of benign lesions. Strict attention to histopathological criteria results in a large number of non-diagnostic cases. PMID:29186251

  13. Histopathological diagnosis of small melanocytic lesions suspicious for malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Danielle Carvalho; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Cuzzi, Tullia

    2017-01-01

    The concern about malignant skin neoplasms leads to the excision of smaller lesions. This study on small melanocytic lesions aims to evaluate the range of possible histopathological diagnoses, describe histopathological aspects, and assess the usefulness of serial histological sections. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive histopathological study examining 76 pigmented skin lesions up to 6 mm in diameter. Histopathological diagnoses included atypical melanocytic nevi (n=38), common melanocytic nevi (n=18), atypical lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia with architectural features of atypical melanocytic nevi (n=7), lentigo simplex (n=2), and malignant melanoma (n=1). Ten cases were non-diagnostic. Cytological atypia was not an exclusive finding of atypical lesions. Examination of serial sections did not change histopathological impression. Early detection of malignant melanoma is important, but clinical and dermoscopy exams may be leading to the resection of a great number of benign lesions. Strict attention to histopathological criteria results in a large number of non-diagnostic cases.

  14. Primary Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Dermis Mimicking Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeyinwa E. Obiorah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clear cell sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm that typically involves tendons and aponeurosis. Clear cell sarcoma in the dermis is an extremely rare occurrence, and it is difficult to differentiate between this neoplasm and dermal malignant melanoma because they have similar morphologic and immunohistochemical features. Although rare, clear cell sarcoma of the skin typically occurs in the extremities. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of primary clear cell sarcoma of the skin occurring in the neck. Here, we report an unusual case of clear cell sarcoma arising in the skin of the neck. Case Report: A 43-year-old female presented with a right neck lesion. Histologic sections of the lesion showed a nodular proliferation of spindle cells with pale cytoplasm with epithelioid features involving the entire dermis with no epidermal component. The tumour cells were positive for melanocytic markers, including S100 and Human Melanoma Black 45, which led to an initial diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22q12, which led to a diagnosis of primary clear cell sarcoma in the skin. Conclusion: Because the treatments for clear cell sarcoma and conventional melanoma are different, fluorescence in situ hybridization for EWSR1 should be performed in any dermal lesions with melanocytic features that do not have an in situ component.

  15. Linear Malignant Melanoma In Situ: Reports and Review of Cutaneous Malignancies Presenting as Linear Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-09-18

    Melanomas usually present as oval lesions in which the borders may be irregular. Other morphological features of melanoma include clinical asymmetry, variable color, diameter greater than 6 mm and evolving lesions. Two males whose melanoma in situ presented as linear skin lesions are described and cutaneous malignancies that may appear linear in morphology are summarized in this report. A medical literature search engine, PubMed, was used to search the following terms: cancer, cutaneous, in situ, linear, malignant, malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ, neoplasm, and skin. The 25 papers that were generated by the search and their references, were reviewed; 10 papers were selected for inclusion. The cancer of the skin typically presents as round lesions. However, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may arise from primary skin conditions or benign skin neoplasms such as linear epidermal nevus and linear porokeratosis. In addition, linear tumors such as basal cell carcinoma can occur. The development of linear cutaneous neoplasms may occur secondary to skin tension line or embryonal growth patterns (as reflected by the lines of Langer and lines of Blaschko) or exogenous factors such as prior radiation therapy. Cutaneous neoplasms and specifically melanoma in situ can be added to the list of linear skin lesions.

  16. Meningeal Melanomas Associated With Transforming Ota Nevus to Malignant Melanoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial invasion of cellular blue nevus (CBN from the skin is extremely rare and such a condition with malignant transformation is even rarer.A case of meningeal melanoma with malignant transformation which was derived from an Ota   nevus is presented in this report.   A21-year-old man with a neurocutaneous syndrome since childhood was referred with headache and mild left hemiparesia. CT scan and MRI demonstrated intracranial lesions and conjunctival biopsy leads to the pathologic diagnosis of blue nevus.Thereafter his parietal lesion was operated by craniotomy with total gross excision.On histopathological examination, diagnosis of malignant melanoma was confirmed.Approximately 2 months after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, he afflicted to diplopia and blurred vision on the leftside due to enlargement of orbital and cavernous sinus lesion. Following one year follow-up,he was survived and thrived with diffuse leptomeningeal nodular enhancement in favor of melanoma dissemination.Primary intracranial melanomas are though rare, but it should be suspected especially in the presence of periorbital blue nevus or nevus of Ota. Moreover, although CBN is considered benign, scalp or periorbital CBN has the potential for intracranial invasion and malignant ransformation.

  17. FDG PET in early stage cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIvor, Jody; Siew, Teck; McCarthy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is not recommended in early stage melanoma; however, a significant number of cases are referred to our institution for FDG PET. We refer to early stage disease as American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II, which includes all cases without metastases. A retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical utility of FDG PET in this patient group. A retrospective study of FDG scans on all patients presenting to the WA PET Centre with early stage melanoma over a 5½ year period was undertaken. The positivity rate of the initial study for detection of malignant melanoma was determined. In patients with an initially negative FDG PET, the time from initial diagnosis to a positive surveillance study was determined. Both the initial positivity rate and time to a positive study were correlated with Breslow staging. Three hundred twenty-two patients were included in the study, of which 74 had initial positive FDG PET scans (23%). Adequate follow-up was available in 51 patients with the PET result confirmed as true positive in 37 (positive predictive value 73%). One hundred eight of 248 patients initially negative had follow-up scans during the follow-up period, of which 48 became positive. The 73% of recurrences were over 12 months post-diagnosis. No correlation with Breslow thickness was demonstrated. Despite FDG PET not being recommended for early cutaneous malignant melanoma, 27% of melanoma cases referred for FDG PET during the study period were AJCC stage I or II. Our results suggest FDG PET in early stage melanoma demonstrates occult disease in 17% of cases.

  18. Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Acral Lentiginous Malignant Melanoma; Lentigo Maligna Malignant Melanoma; Nodular Malignant Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Solar Radiation-related Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma; Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma

  19. [Latest approaches in the surgical treatment of cutaneous malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, A; Bordea, C I; Voinea, S C; Gherghe, M; Albert, P; Condrea, I; Blidaru, A

    2011-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a disease with an unpredictable evolution. Detected in stage I and II has a great chance to cure, if it is correctly treated: excisional biopsy with safety margins in accordance with tumor thickness. Lymphoscintigraphy with sentinel node identification and biopsy became compulsory for staging malignant melanoma, the role of complete lymphadenectomy would be established by publishing the MSLTII data. The sentinel node is analysed using more and more sophisticated techniques (RT-PCR) in order to detect isolated tumoral cells, although their clinical significance is not known yet. Metastases occurrence is a dramatic phenomenon because chemotherapy, radiotherapy or biologic therapy have insignificant results. The only therapeutic modality which may increase survival in this situation is surgery for some carefully selected patients.

  20. Cataract extraction after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, G.E.; Jost, B.F.; Snyder, W.I.; Fuller, D.G.; Birch, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen eyes of 55 consecutive patients treated with brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid developed postirradiation cataracts. Cataract development was more common in older patients and in patients with larger and more anterior tumors. Eleven eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Initial visual improvement occurred in 91% of eyes, with an average improvement of 5.5 lines. Visual acuity was maintained at 20/60 or better in 55% of the eyes over an average period of follow-up of 24 months (range, 6 to 40 months). These data suggest that, visually, cataract extraction can be helpful in selected patients who develop a cataract after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

  1. A Case Report of Malignant Melanoma of the Sphenoid Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoaki Tsukahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the sphenoid sinus is a very rare disease, and only 6 cases have previously been reported. The present case involved a 74-year-old woman who was examined for visual disturbance of the left eye. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue shadow, but only mucosal hypertrophy was found on opening the sphenoid sinus under general anesthesia. One month postoperatively, visual disturbance of the right eye and paresis of cranial nerve III appeared. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed from biopsy. Multiple bone metastases were identified, but the patient declined active treatment. As a result, palliative care was provided and she died 3 months later. When there is no improvement in postoperative visual acuity as in this case, in consideration of the possibility of neoplastic lesions, rigorous followup including monitoring for neurological symptoms is warranted.

  2. Malignant Melanoma of Nose and Paranasal Sinuses: 2 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhagat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the rare and highly aggressive diseases of the sinonasal cavity. High index of suspicion is required for diagnosis as the patient usually presents with non specific signs and symptoms. In the natural course of the disease, higher rate of loco regional recurrences and distant metastasis are seen making the overall prognosis of disease very poor. In reviewing the various treatment modalities used in the past, surgical resection of the tumour with postoperative radiotherapy is preferred one. Advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy don’t have any impact on improved survival, which remains poor in this disease. We report two cases of malignant melanoma, which were treated at our institute.

  3. Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, A; di Meo, N; Trevisan, G

    2010-12-01

    Eccrine acrospiroma, better known as eccrine poroma, is a benign adnexal neoplasm of the skin. Its clinical aspect can masquerade as some other nodular and cystic lesions. The current dermoscopy literature offers very few case studies. Moreover, these very few examples present a totally different appearance pattern compared to the one we examined. Its homogeneous blue pattern suggested the better-known nodular malignant melanoma; in fact, this dermoscopic appearance was due to the Tyndall effect.

  4. Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the eye, lids, and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Caroline; Finger, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer. Thus, it will become an increasingly common source of metastatic disease to the eye, lids, and orbit. Herein, we have performed a systematic review of previously published cases including patient characteristics, clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, current treatments, and outcomes. At the time of ocular diagnosis, nearly all reported patients had a known history of cutaneous melanoma and synchronous non-ocular metastases. Several aspects help in differentiating the tumors from primary uveal melanomas such as the presence of symptoms, rapidly growing multifocal tumors, vitreous seeding, and histopathological findings. Intraocular metastases (uvea, vitreous, retina, and anterior-segment) are more common and occur in younger patients than extraocular metastases (eyelids, orbit, and extraocular muscles). Palliative radiation therapy is often used for intraocular disease. Orbital metastases from cutaneous melanoma commonly involve the extraocular muscles resulting in diplopia and exophthalmos. The mainstays of extraocular treatment are surgical resection and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, there are few good options for systemic treatment of diffusely metastatic melanoma. Therefore, patients with ocular metastasis should be managed to prevent loss of vision or loss of the eye, and to maximize their quality of life.

  5. Melanoma anorretal: relato de 2 casos e revisão da literatura Anorectal melanoma: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad Hossne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores malignos do canal anal e do anus são muito raros, não ultrapassam 2% de todos os tumores do colo, reto e anus; segundo os principais levantamentos os melanomas não ultrapassam a incidência de 0,1 a 1,2% dos tumores malignos. Os autores descrevem 2 casos de melanoma, discutindo os principais dados da literatura, enfocando os aspectos diagnósticos, tratamento, evolução e prognostico. Os indicies de cura s são baixos e com elevados índices de mortalidade a curto prazo.Malignant tumors of the anal canal and anus are rare pathologic events, representing less than 2% of all tumors of the colon, rectum and anus; according to reports, the incidence of melanoma does not achieve 0,1 to 1,2% of malignant tumors. Authors describe two cases of melanoma, discussing the data described in literature, focusing on the diagnosis aspects, treatment, evolution and prognosis. Cure rates are low and the disease presents high rates of mortality in short term.

  6. Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Barrak M; Rotstein, David S; Law, Jerry M; Rosol, Thomas J; LeRoy, Bruce; Keene, Bruce W; Jackson, Mark W

    2002-07-15

    A 12-year-old Cocker Spaniel with an oral malignant melanoma was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. No metastases were identified during antemortem evaluation, but severe hypercalcemia was evident. Antemortem diagnostic testing failed to identify a cause for the hypercalcemia. No neoplasms other than the melanoma were identified on postmortem examination. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration was markedly high, and the melanoma had moderate to marked immunostaining for this protein. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare in dogs with malignant melanoma.

  7. Aggressive solitary intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma from a primary mediastinal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Vinay S; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most common tumour to cause cerebral metastases, following breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system metastases occur in 10-40% of patients with melanoma. Intracranial metastasis from a primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is uncommon. We report a case of solitary intracranial metastatic melanoma arising from a primary mediastinal tumour. We then discuss the clinico-radiological features and treatment options. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Verma, Satyajeet; Kala, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  9. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  10. Robot-assisted anterior pelvic exenteration in vulvovaginal malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Seungmee; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Hee Seung

    2018-02-01

    Melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare, and surgery is the gold standard of treatment [1, 2]. Since recent studies have reported pelvic exenteration by using robotic surgical system [3, 4], we showed the surgical procedures of robot-assisted anterior pelvic exenteration (rAPE) with ileal conduit urinary diversion for vulvovaginal malignant melanoma. A 55-year-old woman who received vaginal wall resection due to vaginal malignant melanoma 8months before was referred. Multiple biopsies of pigmented lesions on the vulva, vagina, and urethral orifice confirmed the recurrence, whereas preoperative image studies revealed no abnormal findings. Thus, we performed rAPE with ileal conduit urinary diversion. First, we performed robot-assisted bilateral inguinal and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Thereafter, we conducted en bloc resection of the bladder, uterus, vagina, and vulva through abdominal and perineal approaches (Fig. 1): Under the 4-arm robotic surgical system, prevesical space was developed and laterally dissected along the undersurface of pubic bone, to the level of levator ani muscles. Bilateral infudibulopelvic ligaments, uterine arteries and parametrium, uterosacral ligaments, and pubovesical ligaments were ligated and resected. During the wide local excision of the vulva, the rectovaginal space was dissected along the posterior vaginal wall. En bloc specimen was successfully delivered. Finally, the ileal conduit urinary diversion was performed. Total operative time was 4.5h excluding set-up and docking times of the robotic surgical system. The pathologic report ascertained clear resection margin and no lymph node involvement. rAPE with ileal conduit urinary diversion for treatment of vulvovaginal malignant melanoma is feasible (Fig. 1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sun exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been based primarily on questionnaires. Objective measures are needed....

  12. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary gastric melanoma: case report of a rare malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Augustyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 64-year-old white male who presented to his primary care physician with complaints of fatigue. Physical exam was unremarkable and laboratory studies revealed profound anemia, for which the patient received a transfusion. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a bleeding mass in the proximal stomach that was histologically determined to be malignant melanoma, with immunohistochemical staining demonstrating positivity for SOX10, S100, MART-1, and HMG-45. After an extensive dermatological exam no other primary lesion was identified. Whole body positron emission tomography (18-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated pathologic uptake only in the area of the proximal stomach. For this reason, primary gastric melanoma was suspected in this patient. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with mass excision followed by Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Very few cases of primary gastric melanoma have been reported. We report this case and present diagnostic criteria for primary non-cutaneous melanoma and discuss potential non-surgical therapies.

  14. Serial or Parallel Metastasis of Cutaneous Melanoma? A Study of the German Central Malignant Melanoma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassenmaier, Maximilian; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Keim, Ulrike; Goebeler, Matthias; Fiedler, Eckhard; Schuler, Gerold; Leiter, Ulrike; Weide, Benjamin; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Martus, Peter; Garbe, Claus

    2017-12-01

    For more than a century the Halstedian hypothesis of contiguous metastasis from the primary tumor through the lymphatics to distant sites shaped lymph node surgery for melanoma. We challenge this dogma of serial metastatic dissemination. A single-center series of 2,299 patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma was investigated to analyze overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival of stage IV patients with or without primary lymphatic metastasis. Results were then compared with those of 2,134 patients from three independent centers of the German Central Malignant Melanoma Registry. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for the initial metastatic pathway. Distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.14; P = 0.76) and overall survival (HR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.96-1.23; P = 0.177) did not differ between stage IV patients with primary hematogenous or primary lymphatic metastasis. Melanoma localization was the only significant risk factor for the initial metastatic pathway. These findings indicate that regional and distant metastases originate from the primary tumor itself in a rather parallel than serial fashion and could explain the lack of survival benefit associated with immediate complete lymph node dissection in sentinel lymph node-positive melanoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Desmoplastic malignant melanoma presenting as large lung mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Alao, Bassel Suffian

    2010-08-01

    We describe a case of successful minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgical resection of metastatic desmoplastic malignant melanoma replacing the entire right lower lobe of the lung, presenting 4 years after the initial complete resection of the primary scalp lesion. An 89-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of right-sided chest pain. A computed tomographic scan showed a large paravertebral mass with possibility of chest wall invasion. Core biopsy initially raised the suspicion of a schwannoma. We also discussed the atypical delayed presentation and misleading radiologic and histologic findings.

  16. Computational vision systems for the detection of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Kosmopoulos, Dimitrios I

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, computational vision-based diagnostic systems for dermatology have demonstrated significant progress. We review these systems by first presenting the installation, visual features utilized for skin lesion classification and the methods for defining them. We also describe how to extract these features through digital image processing methods, i.e. segmentation, registration, border detection, color and texture processing, and present how to use the extracted features for skin lesion classification by employing artificial intelligence methods, i.e. discriminant analysis, neural networks, and support vector machines. Finally, we compare these techniques in discriminating malignant melanoma tumors versus dysplastic naevi lesions.

  17. Malignant melanoma of soft parts. A "non plastic surgeon's land"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J C; Lesimple, T; Garin, E; Laurent, J-F; Watier, E; Hu, W

    2008-08-01

    Malignant melanoma of soft parts (MMSP) (or "clear cell sarcoma") is a very rare tumour that shows up without primitive skin involvement (except in subcutaneous prolongations of deep tumours), mostly predominant in the extremities of young adults. Eight files of MMSP were studied retrospectively. The mean patient is a male of 35 years old affected in an extremity (four upper, three lower and one gluteal), according to classical descriptions. The importance of radical surgery in these cases has been extensively established. Confronted with these cases, the plastic surgeon must be aware of the specifics of this rare entity to ensure its proper inclusion in his clinical suspicion. Just in case.

  18. Malignant melanoma risk after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    . A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of malignant melanoma associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for parity status. RESULTS: 112 malignant melanomas were identified...

  19. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  20. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2009-03-05

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  1. Orbital malignant melanoma associated with nevus of Ota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherungottil V Radhadevi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota (oculodermal melanosis is a dermal melanocytic hamartoma with bluish hyperpigmentation along the first and second branches of the trigeminal nerve. Extracutaneous involvement, especially ocular, has been reported. A 45-year-old male presented with malignant melanoma of the left orbit in association with nevus of Ota. Being locally invasive, a modified exenteration with frontal flap repair was done on left eye. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given after wound healing. All pigmented lesions of the eye require close monitoring to help in the early diagnosis. Since malignant transformation has been reported in oculodermal melanosis, close follow-up and patient education will facilitate early diagnosis and prompt management. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation.

  2. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  3. Up-Regulation of Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Facilities Tumor Progression in Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Liu, Li-Feng; Kuo, Lai-Hsin; Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, San-Cher; Chan, Elsa C.; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Tai, Ming-Hong; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200) showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16–F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23536873

  4. Impact of sentinel lymph node management in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, S.; Munz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma initially metastasises to regional lymph nodes and belongs to the ''leading candidates'' for sentinel lymph node (SLN) management. In newly diagnosed melanoma stage Ib to IIIa, today the SLN diagnostics is classified as the staging method of first choice. The technique of the SLN diagnostics is described thoroughly, including multimodal imaging if this is required for selective SLN biopsy. The evaluation of the diagnostic results, documentation and classification encompasses an important part. In approximately 2/3 of the melanoma patients there is no presence of metastases in SLN and non-SLN, one of five patients has metastases in SLN with negative non-SLN, every sixth to tenth patient has positive SLN and non SLN. Every thirtieth patient with tumour free SLN exhibits pathological findings in the non-SLN by using conventional examination methods only, every fifteenth if using molecular-genetic methods in addition. Among the prognostic parameters the SLN status has the most significant impact on disease-free and disease-specific survival. (orig.)

  5. Malignant Melanoma of the Choroid in the Eye With Oculodermal Melanocytosis of a Chinese Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Chi Chen; Cheng-Hsien Chang; Shiuh-Liang Hsu; Min-Wen Hsu; Chia-Ling Lee

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report a rare case of choroidal melanoma in an eye with oculodermal melanocytosis (Nevus of Ota). A 56-year-old Taiwanese woman with oculodermal melanocytosis in the right eye was found to have an ipsilateral uveal melanoma. Histopathology of the enucleated eye confirmed the diagnosis of malignant choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type. A search of the literature revealed strong evidence that oculodermal melanocytosis can predispose to the development of uveal melanoma in Cau...

  6. Gene expression profile associated with radioresistance and malignancy in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibañez, I.L.; Molinari, B.; Notcovich, C.; García, F.M.; Bracalente, C.; Zuccato, C.F.; Durán, H.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has substantially increased over the last decades. Melanomas respond poorly to treatments and no effective therapy exists to inhibit its metastatic spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between radioresistance of melanoma cells and malignancy. A melanoma model developed in our laboratory from A375 human amelanotic melanoma cells was used. It consists in two catalase-overexpressing cell lines with the same genetic background, but with different phenotypes: A375-A7, melanotic and non-invasive and A375-G10, amelanotic and metastatic; and A375-PCDNA3 (transfected with empty plasmid) as control. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay after irradiating these cells with a “1”3”7 Cs gamma source. Survival curves were fitted to the linear-quadratic model and surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated. Results showed that A375-G10 cells were significantly more radioresistant than both A375-A7 and control cells, demonstrated by SF2 and α parameter of survival curves: SF2=0.32±0.03, 0.43±0.16 and 0.89±0.05 and α=0.45±0.05, 0.20±0.05 and 0 for A375-PCDNA3, A375-A7 and A375-G10 respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of whole genome expression microarrays data (Affymetrix) from these cells was performed. A priori defined gene sets associated with cell cycle, apoptosis and MAPK signaling pathway were collected from KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to evaluate significant differences in gene set expression between cells by GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). A375-G10 showed significant decrease in the expression of genes related to DNA damage response (ATM, TP53BP1 and MRE11A) compared to A375-A7 and controls. Moreover, A375-G10 exhibited down-regulated gene sets that are involved in DNA repair, checkpoint and negative regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion, A375-G10 gene expression profile could be involved in radioresistance mechanisms of these cells. Thus, this expression

  7. Establishment and characterization of human uveal malignant melanoma xenografts in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S; Spang-Thomsen, M; Prause, J U

    2003-01-01

    model. Tumour tissue blocks (2 x 2 x 2 mm) from enucleated eyes with choroidal malignant melanoma were transplanted subcutaneously into the flanks of nude mice. The growing tumours were measured and serially transplanted. The tumour samples were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry......The purpose of this study was to develop a suitable animal model for the investigation of the pathogenesis and therapy of uveal malignant melanoma. Eight choroidal malignant melanomas from eight patients were transplanted into nude mice in an attempt to establish a serially transplantable tumour...... the characteristic properties of malignant melanoma. However, the transplanted cells demonstrated vimentin reactivity, whereas the primary tumour cells were negative for vimentin. It can be concluded that a new experimental model of malignant uveal melanoma with tumours that were easy to observe and access...

  8. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in situ: A Danish cross-sectional study on patient and tumour characteristics in 144 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Klit

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The anatomical distribution of MIS differed with patient age and tumour subtype. The anatomical distribution was different in comparison to invasive malignant melanomas, and MIS cases were generally older. This suggests a non-linear relation between malignant melanoma in situ and invasive malignant melanoma.

  9. Nevus of the Eyelid Margin Mimicking a Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Echchaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nevi are a benign skin lesions commonly found on the eyelid margin, these tumors are usually pigmented and have thickness. Nevi are not typically visible at birth; they appear during childhood and often exhibit a more rapid increase in pigmentation about the time of puberty. Most eyelid nevi can be diagnosed by clinical examination; suspicious lesions should be biopsied when rapid growth, loss of eyelashes or discoloration of the nevus is noted. Eyelid nevi require treatment if malignant transformation and/or cosmetically bothersome to the patient. We report a case of a 37-year-old female patient exhibited a single cutaneous tumor at the free margin of the lower left eyelid, she noticed a dark spot on their eyelid since childhood. It was a brown, fleshy, thickened, and nodular well-circumscribed exophytic mass, measuring 6 mm in diameter; its clinical appearance argued for a possible nodular melanoma. Excisional-biopsy was performed using a full-thickness pentagonal wedge excision technique. Histopathology showed that the lesion was a benign melanocytic nevocellular nevus. The post-operative courses were uneventful with excellent cosmetic and functional result. Preventive measures (cap, sunglasses... and regular monitoring of the lesion by assessing ABCDE criteria (asymmetry, irregular borders, multiple colors, diameter ≥ 6 mm, and enlargement remain necessary to detect and rule out a possible risk of malignant melanoma.

  10. Deadliest tumor of oral cavity: A rare case of intra oral malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunsavathu Purnachandrarao Naik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a rare tumor arising from the uncontrolled growth of melanocytes found in the basal layer of the epithelium. Although cutaneous malignant melanoma is the third most common malignancy of the skin, it accounts only for 3-5% of all dermal malignancies. Primary malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa is extremely rare, accounting for only 0.2-8% of all malignant melanomas. The incidence is slightly higher in males while others report a higher incidence in females. In the oral cavity, 80% of the cases occur in the maxilla with the prevalence of the hard palate or combined with the gingival or alveolar ridge. In this paper, we present a rare case of a 47-year-old female patient who reported with completely asymptomatic, pigmented growth in the maxillary anterior region.

  11. Survival after a psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: a replication study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Boesen, Sidsel H; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The results of a randomized, intervention study done in 1993 of psychoeducation for patients with early-stage malignant melanoma showed a beneficial effect on recurrence and survival 6 years after the intervention. In the present study, we replicated the study with 258 Danish patients with malign...... with malignant melanoma. We also compared recurrence and survival among the participants in the randomized study with 137 patients who refused to participate....

  12. Changes in MR of malignant melanomas induced by glucose and fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, P.; Thuomas, K.A.; Roberto, A.; Larsson, B.S.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1991-01-01

    MR imaging has been performed on malignant melanomas in vitro and in vivo. Changes of the water content in an enucleated malignant melanoma in vitro were followed by significant changes of the T1 and T2 values. In mice with implanted subcutaneous melanoma similar changes could be obtained after injection of glucose and fructose intraperitoneally. Malignant melanoma of the eye could be influenced in the same way in 10 consecutive patients after oral intake of glucose and fructose. The present study shows that the MR images may be significantly changed after a few hours by altered metabolism induced by glucose and fructose. It is anticipated that this is due to changes within the tumor leading to different water distribution. The finding may be of importance as a further help for diagnosing malignant melanoma of the eye. (orig.)

  13. Prognostic Value of Melanoma Inhibitory Activity Protein in Localized Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sandru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is a heterogeneous disease, acknowledged for its lack of predictability regarding clinical evolution. In order to appreciate a patient’s individual prognosis, an attempt is made to find new tumor markers that parallel the disease progression. Objective. To identify if melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA protein could represent a tool for selecting high risk early stages melanoma patients. Method. Between 2008 and 2013, 155 patients with CMM were treated in our clinic. 84 of them were classified into stages I and II, according to TNM 2009. MIA serum concentration was measured in all patients and 50 healthy donors. A cut-off value of 9.4 ng/ml was established using the ROC curve. Results. All patients were followed up by periodic investigations every 6 months. We have noticed that 66% of patients with MIA serum values at diagnosis greater than 9.4 ng/mL have relapsed, while only 5% of patients with MIA serum concentration below the estimated threshold, recurred during the follow-up period (P=0.000. The death risk was 12 times higher in pathological MIA group of patients (P=0.0001. Conclusions. Our data suggest that MIA is an independent prognostic factor for patients with localized CMM.

  14. Prognostic value of melanoma inhibitory activity protein in localized cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, Angela; Panaitescu, Eugenia; Voinea, Silviu; Bolovan, Madalina; Stanciu, Adina; Cinca, Sabin; Blidaru, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a heterogeneous disease, acknowledged for its lack of predictability regarding clinical evolution. In order to appreciate a patient's individual prognosis, an attempt is made to find new tumor markers that parallel the disease progression. Objective. To identify if melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) protein could represent a tool for selecting high risk early stages melanoma patients. Method. Between 2008 and 2013, 155 patients with CMM were treated in our clinic. 84 of them were classified into stages I and II, according to TNM 2009. MIA serum concentration was measured in all patients and 50 healthy donors. A cut-off value of 9.4 ng/ml was established using the ROC curve. Results. All patients were followed up by periodic investigations every 6 months. We have noticed that 66% of patients with MIA serum values at diagnosis greater than 9.4 ng/mL have relapsed, while only 5% of patients with MIA serum concentration below the estimated threshold, recurred during the follow-up period (P = 0.000). The death risk was 12 times higher in pathological MIA group of patients (P = 0.0001). Conclusions. Our data suggest that MIA is an independent prognostic factor for patients with localized CMM.

  15. MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF A CHOROIDAL NEVUS IN AN EYE TREATED FOR CHOROIDAL MELANOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ido D; Arora, Amit K; Cohen, Victoria M L

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of a choroidal melanoma and a discrete choroidal nevus that has transformed into a malignant melanoma 5 years after initial diagnosis. Retrospective case report. A diffuse macular choroidal melanoma and a discrete choroidal nevus located superonasal to the optic disk were diagnosed in the right eye of a 63-year-old woman in 2009. The patient was treated by ruthenium plaque radiotherapy for the choroidal melanoma, which consequently flattened and scarred. On a routine eye check in 2014, the nevus was found to have been transformed into a choroidal melanoma. It was treated with ruthenium plaque radiotherapy. Although extremely rare, patients with a uveal melanoma can develop an additional discrete uveal melanoma. This case highlights the importance of monitoring benign choroidal nevi in patients with a history of choroidal melanoma.

  16. The Y152X MC1R gene mutation: occurrence in ethnically diverse Jewish malignant melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galore, Gilli; Azizi, Esther; Scope, Alon; Pavlotsky, Felix; Yakobson, Emanuel; Friedman, Eitan

    2007-04-01

    MC1R sequence variants are associated with malignant melanoma risk, and most commonly are missense mutations. Few (n=9) truncating mutations have been described in this gene as predisposing to malignant melanoma. In this study, three Jewish individuals were found to harbor an identical truncating MC1R mutation--Y152X: an Ashkenazi patient with two malignant melanomas, a non-Ashkenazi malignant melanoma patient with familial malignant melanoma and her asymptomatic mother. Both malignant melanoma patients carried additional, seemingly pathogenic MC1R variants. Haplotype analysis revealed that all three mutation carriers shared the same haplotype. This sequence variant was previously described in ethnically diverse, non-Jewish individuals and in all likelihood represents an error-prone domain that, in conjunction with other genetic and environmental factors, increases malignant melanoma risk.

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina with repeated local recurrences and brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Te Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the vagina, a very rare malignancy, has a notoriously aggressive behavior associated with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. At present, there are various treatment options for this disease but no standard guideline. We describe a case of a 54-year-old woman with a locally advanced melanoma of the vagina, who underwent radical surgery, biochemotherapy with interferon-α-2b, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and repeat excision of local recurrent lesions and brain metastasis. In conclusion, malignant melanoma of the vagina has a high risk for local recurrence. Repeated local excision followed by biochemotherapy is a tolerable treatment.

  18. Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra: Report of a rare neoplasm of the urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bhutani

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its occurance in the female urethra is extremely rare. We report a case of primary malignant urethral melanoma developed in an elderly female patient. Presentation of case: A 70 years old female presented with dysuria, poor stream, gross haematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass. On physical examination, there were no suspicious lesions on the skin. On external genital examination, a lesion at the level of the urethral meatus was observed. The mass was removed by wide local excision under spinal anaesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma of the urethra. Discussion: The common presentations include bleeding and/or discharge per urethra, voiding dysfunction and the presence of tumor mass. Survival depends on the stage, location and size of the neoplasm at the time of diagnosis. Despite major surgery, radiotherapy or immunotherapy; malignant melanoma usually has a poor prognosis. Conclusion: Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely uncommon pathology leading to paucity of literature and any definite recommendations regarding management. The histological and immunohistochemical findings can be helpful in making an early and accurate diagnosis of malignant melanoma in the urogenital region. Keywords: Case report, Female urethral cancer, Immunohistochemistry, Malignant melanoma, Urethral neoplasm

  19. Safety of administering the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept) to cats with malignant melanoma - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Luminita; Kitchell, Barbara E; Bergman, Philip J

    2017-02-01

    Objectives A xenogeneic human tyrosinase DNA vaccine was developed for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma (Oncept; Merial). No studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of this vaccine in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the canine melanoma vaccine in cats diagnosed with melanoma. Methods Medical records were reviewed from cats diagnosed with malignant melanoma and treated with the canine melanoma DNA vaccine (Oncept). Data regarding signalment, melanoma location, treatments received, vaccine adverse effects and cause of death were collected. Results A total of 114 melanoma vaccines were administered to 24 cats. Seven cats (11.4%) had clinical adverse effects from a total of 13 vaccines classified as grade 1 or 2 based on the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group's common terminology criteria for adverse events v1.1. These included pain on vaccine administration, brief muscle fasciculation, transient inappetence, depression, nausea and mild increase in pigmentation at the injection site. Nineteen cats were deceased at study close. The most common cause of death was melanoma (14 cats). Hematological and biochemical changes were observed in six cats, five of which had concurrent disease or treatments that likely caused or greatly contributed to the laboratory abnormalities found. Therefore, these adverse events were considered unlikely to be caused by the melanoma vaccine. One cat had transient grade 1 hypoalbuminemia, which was possibly caused by the vaccination but not thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions and relevance The canine melanoma DNA vaccine can be safely administered to cats, with minimal risk of adverse effects.

  20. Competing risk bias to explain the inverse relationship between smoking and malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and melanoma remains unclear. Among the different results is the paradoxical finding that smoking was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in some large cohort and case-control studies, even after control for suspected confounding

  1. Utility of chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound for stage III cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, M. T. W.; Holm, J.; Rødgaard, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current Danish Melanoma Guidelines suggest that stage III cutaneous malignant melanoma receive chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound to exclude lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of chest X-ray and...

  2. Characterization of ex vivo expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with malignant melanoma for clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Niels; Thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials of adoptive transfer of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) to patients with advanced malignant melanoma have shown remarkable results with objective clinical responses in 50% of the treated patients. In order to initiate a clinical trial in melanoma, we have...

  3. Lymph node dissection in patients with malignant melanoma is associated with high risk of morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer types globally, and it is by far the most serious skin cancer. Patients with a melanoma ≥ 1 mm in Breslow thickness are offered sentinel node (SN) biopsy and subsequent radical lymph node dissection if the biopsy is positive...

  4. Does the sun play a role in the aetiology of malignant melanoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the sun in the aetiology of malignant melanoma is controversial. In 1992 Schuster1 wrote provocatively, 'Despite the lack of evidence of a causal link between sun exposure and melanoma, fear has been used shamelessly to frighten people out of the sun and into pigmented lesion clinics.' He claimed that the ...

  5. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Diffuse Interstitial Infiltrative Lung Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Na young; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Ah Hyun; Shim, Hyo Sub; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A diffuse interstitial infiltrative pattern of lung metastasis in a patient with malignant melanoma is rare and can be confused with benign conditions such as pulmonary edema or drug-induced pneumonitis. We experienced a case of diffuse interstitial infiltrative lung metastasis in malignant melanoma in a 37-year-old man. This case was confirmed by a transbronchial lung biopsy. We herein describe the findings on CT and positron emission tomography scan

  7. Mutational dichotomy in desmoplastic malignant melanoma corroborated by multigene panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Stephan W; Kashofer, Karl; Halbwedl, Iris; Winter, Gerlinde; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Mentzel, Thomas; Hoefler, Gerald; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette

    2015-07-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a distinct melanoma entity histologically subtyped into mixed and pure forms due to significantly reduced lymph node metastases in the pure form. Recent reports investigating common actionable driver mutations have demonstrated a lack of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutation in pure desmoplastic melanoma. In search for alternative driver mutations next generation amplicon sequencing for hotspot mutations in 50 genes cardinal to tumorigenesis was performed and in addition the RET G691S polymorphism was investigated. Data from 21 desmoplastic melanomas (12 pure and 9 mixed) were retrieved. Pure desmoplastic melanomas were either devoid of mutations (50%) or displayed mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4) singularly or in combination with the exception of a PIK3CA double-mutation lacking established biological relevance. Mixed desmoplastic melanomas on the contrary were frequently mutated (89%), and 67% exhibited activating mutations similar to common-type cutaneous malignant melanomas (BRAF, NRAS, FGFR2, and ERBB2). Separate analysis of morphologically heterogeneous tumor areas in four mixed desmoplastic malignant melanomas displayed no difference in mutation status and RET G691 status. GNAQ and GNA11, two oncogenes in BRAF and NRAS wild-type uveal melanomas, were not mutated in our cohort. The RET G691S polymorphism was found in 25% of pure and 38% of mixed desmoplastic melanomas. Apart from RET G691S our findings demonstrate absence of activating driver mutations in pure desmoplastic melanoma beyond previously investigated oncogenes (BRAF, NRAS, and KIT). The findings underline the therapeutic dichotomy of mixed versus pure desmoplastic melanoma with regard to activating mutations primarily of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  8. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Gingiva: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Singhal

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, the mucosal melanomas have an aggressive vertical growth phase. Different cell types, like spindled, plasmacytoid, and epithelioid may be observed. The treatment of choice is complete excision with adequate negative margins. The role of radiotherapy is not clearly defined since malignant melanoma is relatively insensitive to radiation. The prognosis for mucosal melanoma is generally quite poor because of its tendency to invade and cause early hematogenous metastasis. Nodal involvement reduces survival time and multiple local recurrences are the most common cause of treatment failure.

  9. miR-137 inhibits glutamine catabolism and growth of malignant melanoma by targeting glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Wenkang; Zhou, Zhou; Zhu, Yan; Xia, Yun; Wang, Jinlong; Xu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Glutamine catabolism is considered to be an important metabolic pathway for cancer cells. Glutaminase (GLS) is the important rate-limiting enzyme of glutamine catabolism. miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignant tumors. However, the role and molecular mechanism of miR-137 and GLS in malignant melanoma has not been reported. In this study, we showed that miR-137 was decreased in melanoma tissue, and the low miR-137 level and high GLS expression are independent risk factor in melanoma. miR-137 suppressed the proliferation and glutamine catabolism of melanoma cells. GLS is crucial for glutamine catabolism and growth of malignant melanoma. We also demonstrated that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in melanoma by targeting GLS. This result elucidates a new mechanism for miR-137 in melanoma development and provides a survival indicator and potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival rates of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, A; Voinea, S; Panaitescu, E; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the cutaneous neoplasia with the greatest mortality rates and one of the malignancies with the highest potential of dissemination. The prognosis of patients with metastatic MM is grim, with a 5-years survival rate between 5-19%, and is dictated by the location and the number of metastases. We aimed to estimate the survival of patients with metastatic MM from our study and find out if the metastasis' location influences survival. Between 2008 and 2013, 155 patients with cutaneous MM were diagnosed in our clinic. All the patients were staged according to 2009 AJCC staging system. The median follow-up period was of 24 months. Survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method with a confidence level of 95%. 40.5% of the patients developed metastases in different organs, especially the brain. 80.6% of those with metastases died during the study. The median overall survival, estimated for the entire group of patients who developed metastases, was of 5.3 months. The influence of metastases distribution on the overall survival was examined and it was noticed that there were statistically significant differences between the risks of death of various groups of patients, depending on metastasis topography. Thus, the death probability of a patient with brain metastases is twice that of a patient with digestive metastasis, about 7 times higher than that of a patient with lung metastasis (p=0.0004) and 12 times higher than the death risk of a patient with extra-regional lymph nodes or subcutaneous metastasis (p=0.0000).

  11. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  12. Malign Melanoma: Risk Factors and Major Clinical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Baykal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM shows rapid increase in the incidence and it is the most common cause of death due to skin cancer. On the other hand, MM can completely be removed in patients noticing the lesions early and applying to physicians on time. Thus the life expectancy of these patients is not altered. Although MM can occur in every individual, it is more common in patients with some of the established risk factors such as fair skin, increased sun exposure, genetic basis (CDKN2A mutation, and existence of increased number of melanocytic nevi and/or dysplastic nevi. A specialized care of patients with risk factors and their regular follow-up is critical to lower the mortality and morbidity in MM. Early diagnosis of MM prevents metastasis and decreases mortality rate. Nowadays, there are many newly developed imaging methods to help the clinicians before biopsy. However, the suspicion of MM should initially be based upon major clinical findings of the lesion subject to changes during the evolution of the tumor. In this review, risk factors of MM will be summarized and clues for early diagnosis of this dangerous tumor will be discussed.

  13. Experience with Ruthenium 106-treatment of uveal malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laatikainen, L.; Tarkkanen, A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981-1986, 25 eyes with malignant melanoma of the uvea were treated with beta irradiation using ruthenium 106 plaques. In 21 cases the tumour originated in the choriod, in 4 cases in the ciliary body. In 12 eyes it was within 3 mm from the optic disc or the fovea, and the mean height (±SEM) was 5.2±0.4 mm. Three eyes received two sets of irradiation with 1.1 - 1.7 years' interval. After a mean followup of 1.6 years (range 0,5 - 5.6) the tumour had decreased in size in 12, was unchanged in 6, and had progressed in 7 eyes, 4 of the latter were enucleated. In 3 patients metastases were diagnosed (2.0 -2.9 years after irradiation), and 1 patient has died (3.3 years after the first irradiation). Twelve eyes have retained useful vision (0.05 or better), but in some of them a tendency to deterioration was observed 3-5 years after treatment due to radiation maculopathy. Other causes of visual loss were the centrally located tumour itself, exudative detachment of the retina, and persistent vitreous haemorrhage. (author)

  14. Experience with Ruthenium /sup 106/-treatment of uveal malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatikainen, L.; Tarkkanen, A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981-1986, 25 eyes with malignant melanoma of the uvea were treated with beta irradiation using ruthenium/sup 106/ plaques. In 21 cases the tumour originated in the choriod, in 4 cases in the ciliary body. In 12 eyes it was within 3 mm from the optic disc or the fovea, and the mean height (+-SEM) was 5.2+-0.4 mm. Three eyes received two sets of irradiation with 1.1 - 1.7 years' interval. After a mean followup of 1.6 years (range 0,5 - 5.6) the tumour had decreased in size in 12, was unchanged in 6, and had progressed in 7 eyes, 4 of the latter were enucleated. In 3 patients metastases were diagnosed (2.0 -2.9 years after irradiation), and 1 patient has died (3.3 years after the first irradiation). Twelve eyes have retained useful vision (0.05 or better), but in some of them a tendency to deterioration was observed 3-5 years after treatment due to radiation maculopathy. Other causes of visual loss were the centrally located tumour itself, exudative detachment of the retina, and persistent vitreous haemorrhage.

  15. Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Malignant Melanoma: A Future Therapeutic Agent or Just Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmpis, Nikolaos; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpi, Anna; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Margonis, Georgios-Antonios; Schizas, Dimitrios; Deskou, Irini; Doula, Chrysoula; Magkouti, Eleni; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Efstathios A; Nonni, Afroditi; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Mantas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with increasing frequency and mortality. Melanoma is characterized by rapid proliferation and metastases. Malignant transformation of normal melanocytes is associated with imbalance between oncogenes' action and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations or inactivation of these genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Many target-specific agents improved progression-free survival but unfortunately metastatic melanoma remains incurable, so new therapeutic strategies are needed. The balance of histones' acetylation affects cell cycle progression, differentiation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with different types of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are enzymes that inhibit the action of HDAC, resulting in block of tumor cell proliferation. A small number of these enzymes has been studied regarding their anticancer effects in melanoma. The purpose of this article was to review the therapeutic effect of HDACI against malignant melanoma, enlightening the molecular mechanisms of their action. The MEDLINE database was used. The keywords/ phrases were; HDACI, melanoma, targeted therapies for melanoma. Our final conclusions were based on studies that didn't refer solely to melanoma due to their wider experimental data. Thirty-two articles were selected from the total number of the search's results. Only English articles published until March 2017 were used. Molecules, such as valproid acid (VPA), LBH589, LAQ824 (dacinostat), vorinostat, tubacin, sirtinol and tx-527, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), depsipeptide and Trichostatin A (TSA) have shown promising antineoplastic effects against melanoma. HDACI represent a promising agent for targeted therapy. More trials are required. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative analysis of genes regulating sensitivity to heavy ion irradiation in cultured cell lines of malignant choroid melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Ken; Adachi, Nanao; Nimura, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    As a treatment strategy for malignant melanoma, heavy ion irradiation has been planned in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). However, the molecular biology of the malignant melanoma cell after irradiation of heavy ion is still unknown. In this study, we used resistant and sensitive cell lines of malignant melanoma to study the effects of heavy ion irradiation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of early response genes for heavy ion irradiation was carried out on these cell lines using microarray technology. (author)

  17. Quantitative analysis of genes regulating sensitivity to heavy ion irradiation in cultured cell lines of malignant choroid melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Ken; Nimura, Yoshinori; Kato, Masaki; Seki, Naohiko; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Mizuho; Shino, Yayoi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Mizota, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    As a treatment strategy for malignant melanoma, heavy ion irradiation has been planned in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). However, the molecular biology of the malignant melanoma cell after irradiation of heavy ion is still unknown. In this study, we used resistant and sensitive cell lines of malignant melanoma to study the effects of heavy ion irradiation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of early response genes for heavy ion irradiation was carried out on these cell lines using microarray technology. (author)

  18. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer. Nationwide, population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans

    2016-01-01

    obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1......An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic...... status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were...

  19. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume in benign melanocytic lesions and cutaneous malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1989-01-01

    V in melanocytic cutaneous tumors and to compare these with estimates of nuclear volume fraction and with traditional two-dimensional morphometric estimates of nuclear profile area, nuclear density, and mitotic index. Routinely processed, paraffin embedded tissue specimens from 47 malignant melanomas and 76...... noninvasive melanocytic cutaneous tumors were investigated retrospectively. vV clearly distinguished between noninvasive (average vV = 122 microns 3) and invasive lesions (average vV = 246 microns 3). Most of the patients with malignant melanomas showing an overlap of nuclear vV with benign lesions had...... estimator for distinguishing between melanocytic cutaneous tumors showing different biological behavior, well-suited for objective malignancy grading....

  20. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report of an unusual clinical and histologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Iqbal Belgaumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a potentially aggressive tumor of melanocytic origin. Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The present case occurred in a 60-year-old female patient, as a pedunculated growth involving the palate and alveolar ridge and histologically showing a desmoplastic differentiation. The article discusses the distinct clinico-pathologic presentation of this case and emphasizes on the need to identify and report such cases for further understanding of their biologic behavior.

  1. Apparent absence of a benign precursor lesion: Implications for the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.M. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This review relates concepts derived from the study of chemically induced skin cancer in animal models to the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma in humans. Most chemically induced experimental cancers in animals, including melanomas in rodents, arise within a benign precursor lesion. The initiation-promotion-progression sequence is a central concept in animal models for carcinogenesis. Many human melanomas appear to arise from epidermal melanocytes, with no associated precursor lesion. This article considers why there is no apparent precursor in many human melanomas and the consequences of this absence. Melanocyte physiology and factors that govern escape from defenses such as DNA repair, local tissue environment, and immunity presumably influence melanocyte conversion to melanoma. These factors may determine the absence of a precursor lesion in primary melanomas. In addition, it is possible that some human melanomas arise by cellular mechanisms different from those causing cancer in rodent models. Both molecular and prospective clinical studies will be required to explain this apparent paradox in the pathogenesis of melanoma. A similar approach may help to explain the origin of basal cell carcinoma and perhaps other human cancers that appear to arise directly from normal cells. From a clinical point of view, the absence of an identifiable, benign precursor lesion requires even greater emphasis on melanoma prevention. Research on mechanisms of ultraviolet carcinogenesis indicates that appropriate postexposure treatments may be useful in preventing long-term consequences of sunburn, including melanoma. 69 references.

  2. Apoptosis and injuries of heavy ion beam and x-ray radiation on malignant melanoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Li, Sha; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Dong-Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Yang

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) and low LET X-ray radiation on apoptosis and related proteins of malignant melanoma on tumor-bearing mice under the same physical dosage. C57BL/6 J mice were burdened by tumors and randomized into three groups. These mice received heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) and X-ray radiation under the same physical dosage, respectively; their weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days post-radiation. After 30 days, these mice were sacrificed. Then, median survival time was calculated and tumors on mice were proliferated. In addition, immunohistochemistry was carried out for apoptosis-related proteins to reflect the expression level. After tumor-bearing mice were radiated to heavy ion, median survival time improved and tumor volume significantly decreased in conjunction with the upregulated expression of pro-apoptosis factors, Bax and cytochrome C, and the downregulated expression of apoptosis-profilin (Bcl-2, Survivin) and proliferation-related proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). The results indicated that radiation can promote the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit their proliferation. This case was more suitable for heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ). High LET heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) radiation could significantly improve the killing ability for malignant melanoma cells by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibiting their proliferation. These results demonstrated that heavy ion ( 12 C 6+ ) presented special advantages in terms of treating malignant melanoma. Impact statement Malignant melanoma is a malignant skin tumor derived from melanin cells, which has a high malignant degree and high fatality rate. In this study, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) can induce the apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells and inhibit its proliferation, and its induction effect on apoptosis is significantly higher than low LET X-ray; hence, it is expected to

  3. Relationship between regulatory and type 1 T cells in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yutaka; Tominaga, Makiko; Ichikawa, Mika; Yamashita, Masao; Okano, Kumiko; Jikumaru, Yuri; Nariai, Yoko; Nakajima, Yuko; Kuwabara, Masato; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Recent data suggest a decreased prevalence of IFN-gamma-producing T lymphocytes (Type 1 T cells) in tumor-bearing hosts. Moreover, it has been reported that Treg have a strong impact on the activation and proliferation of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes; however, no previous reports have described the relationship between Treg and the progression of tumor, or Type 1 T cell populations in dogs with malignant tumor. In this study, the percentage of Treg, Th1, and Tc1 in the peripheral blood of dogs with oral malignant melanoma and healthy dogs was measured and compared. Although the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 in dogs with oral malignant melanoma were less than those in healthy dogs (Th1: P dogs with oral malignant melanoma. In dogs, Treg appears to suppress Type 1 immunity, which may be responsible for anti-tumor responses.

  4. Metastatic malignant melanoma representing a multiple mesenteric cystic tumor: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Lim; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A metastatic malignant melanoma is a malignant tumor which can involve virtually every organ system. It has variable radiographic findings which mostly indicate solid masses in the mesentery. We report here on a case of a metastatic malignant melanoma, which is made up of multiple mesenteric cystic tumors that need to differentiate from the mesenteric cystic tumor. These include the cystic spindle cell tumor, cystic teratoma, cystic mesothelioma as well as the mesenteric cystic and the solid tumor, which in turn comprises the gastrointestinal stromal tumor, lymphoma and metastatic lesion. The metastatic malignant melanoma can offer a differential diagnosis when the image findings indicate multiple mesenteric cystic masses, multiple organic metastases, and subcutaneous nodules.

  5. Development of radioiodine-labeled 4-hydroxyphenylcysteamine for specific diagnosis of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Nishii, Ryuichi; Shikano, Naoto; Flores, Leo G.; Mizutani, Asuka; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Sugama, Jyunko; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Kawai, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A specific diagnosis for melanoma is strongly desired because malignant melanoma has poor prognosis. In a previous study, although radioiodine-125-labeled 4-hydroxyphenyl-L-cysteine ( 125 I-L-PC) was found to have good substrate affinity for tyrosinase enzyme in the melanin metabolic pathway, 123/131 I-L-PC had insufficient substrate affinity for tyrosinase to diagnose melanoma. In this study, we synthesized 4-hydroxyphenylcysteamine (4-PCA) and developed a novel radioiodine-125-labeled 4-hydroxyphenylcysteamine ( 125 I-PCA) to increase affinity for the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Methods: 4-PCA was separated with 2-hydroxyphenylcysteamine (2-PCA), which is an isomer of 4-PCA, and was examined using melting point, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. 125 I-PCA was prepared using the chloramine-T method under no-carrier added conditions. We performed biodistribution experiments using B16 melanoma-bearing mice using 125 I-PCA, 125 I-L-PC, 125 I-α-methyl-L-tyrosine, 123 I-m-iodobenzylguanidine and 67 Ga-citrate. In vitro assay was performed with B16 melanoma cells, and affinity for tyrosinase, DNA polymerase and amino acid transport was evaluated using phenylthiourea, thymidine, ouabine and L-tyrosine inhibitor. In addition, partition coefficients of 125 I-PCA were evaluated. Results: In the synthesis of 4-PCA, analysis values did not differ between calculated and reported values, and 4-PCA was separated from 2-PCA at high purity. In biodistribution experiments, 125 I-PCA was accumulated and retained in B16 melanoma cells when compared with 125 I-L-PC. 125 I-PCA showed the highest values at 60 min after radiotracer injection in melanoma-to-muscle ratios, melanoma-to-blood ratios and melanoma-to-skin ratios. Accumulation of 125 I-PCA was significantly inhibited by phenylthiourea and thymidine. Partition coefficients of 125 I-PCA were lower than those of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine and were not

  6. Rare nodular malignant melanoma of the heel in the Caribbean: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Sookdeo, Vandana Devika; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Sarran, Kevin; Pran, Lemuel; Fortuné, Maurice; Greaves, Wesley; Narinesingh, Sharda; Harnanan, Dave; Maharaj, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the heel is a rare melanoma subtype with incidence rates that reflect the complex relationship between sun exposure at certain geographic locations, individual melanin levels and overall melanoma risk. It is oftentimes characterized by poor prognosis because of delays in presentation resulting in longitudinal tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and metastasis. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago with a 5mm pruritic lesion on her left heel. At presentation, the lesion was asymmetric with border irregularities, color heterogeneity, with dynamics in elevation and overall size. She was subsequently diagnosed with malignant melanoma with left inguinal lymphadenopathy. A single stage wide local excision (WLE) of the left heel lesion with a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and a left inguinal lymphadenectomy were performed. Dacarbazine (Bayer) was administered post operatively. Globally, the incidence of malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing, particularly, in countries like Trinidad and Tobago with a significant population of non-fair skinned individuals. There is need for strategic initiatives to increase patient adherence in these populations. The rarity of malignant heel melanomas heightens the need for increased patient awareness and greater clinical surveillance to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. miR-137 suppresses tumor growth of malignant melanoma by targeting aurora kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Haiping [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Wei, E-mail: zhuwei_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2016-07-01

    As an oncogene, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression and roles of AURKA in malignant melanoma are largely unknown. In this study, a miR-137-AURKA axis was revealed to regulate melanoma growth. We found a significant increase in levels of AURKA in melanoma. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of AURKA decreased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further found that miR-137 reduced AURKA expression through interaction with its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) and that miR-137 was negatively correlated with AURKA expression in melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-137 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Notably, re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR-137-mediated suppression of cell growth and clonality. In summary, these results reveal that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AURKA, providing new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. -- Highlights: •First reported overexpression of AURKA in melanoma. •Targeting AURKA inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. •Further found miR-137 suppressed cell growth by binding to AURKA 3′UTR. •Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-137-mediated suppression. •miR-137-AURKA axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma.

  8. Some interesting prognostic factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joan Figueroa, AlejandroYuri; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Jimenez Mendes, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of present research was to determine the independent prognostic value and the 3 and 5 years survival of more significant clinicopathological prognostic factors and in each stage, according to pathological staging system of tumor-nodule-metastasis (TNM) in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). METHODS: A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted applying the Cox proportional risk form and the Kaplan-Meier method, aimed to search of different risk variables in patients with CMM. We studied 157 patients with CMM, seen during 8 years (1993 to 2001), diagnosed and treated in National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology of La Habana. RESULTS: The more powerful prognostic variables related to localized disease (stage I and II) were the Breslow density (P: 0,000), the mitosis rate (P: 0,004), and the Clark level (P: 0,04); among the variables related to the regional disease (stage III) the number of lymphatic ganglia involved was the more weighthy (P:0,000) and the more important in Stage IV was the distant visceral metastasis (P:0,003). Survival was decreasing according to the advance of the pathological stage of disease. CONCLUSIONS: The more involved independent prognostic factors were the Breslow rate, the number of involved regional lymphatic nodules and the distant visceral metastasis, which is endorsed by a world consensus. However, variables as age, sex, lesion site, ulceration, host-tumor inflammatory response, histological subtype, satellitosis and transient metastasis, considered as independent prognostic indicators in big casuistries, had not statistical significance in present paper. (author)

  9. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  10. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J

    1998-01-01

    melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed...

  11. Data on inflammasome gene polymorphisms of patients with sporadic malignant melanoma in a Brazilian cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Cardoso da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data related to our another article entitled, Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression (W.C. Silva, T.M. Oshiro, D.C. Sá, D.D.G.S. Franco, C. Festa Neto, A. Pontillo, 2016 [2]. Data presented here refers to the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs in a Brazilian case/control cohort. We have identified 4 inflammasome related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for CARD8 (rs6509365; IL1B (rs1143643 and IL18 (rs5744256 and rs1834481 related to melanoma susceptibility/protection. This data can serve as a potential prognostic marker in sporadic malignant melanoma.

  12. Malignant melanoma arising from a perianal fistula and harbouring a BRAF gene mutation: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Lozoya, Rafael; Boldó, Enrique; Bosch, Nuria; Peñas, Lucas; Flores-Couce, Esther; Ochoa, Enrique; Munárriz, Javier; Aracil, Juan P; Tajahuerce, Marcos; Royo, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma of the anal region is a very uncommon disease, accounting for only 0.2-0.3% of all melanoma cases. Mutations of the BRAF gene are usually absent in melanomas occurring in this region as well as in other sun-protected regions. The development of a tumour in a longstanding perianal fistula is also extremely rare. More frequent is the case of a tumour presenting as a fistula, that is, the fistula being a consequence of the cancerous process, although we have found only two cases of fistula-generating melanomas reported in the literature. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a perianal fistula of four years of evolution. Histopathological examination of the fistulous tract confirmed the presence of malignant melanoma. Due to the small size and the central location of the melanoma inside the fistulous tract, we believe the melanoma reported here developed in the epithelium of the fistula once the latter was already formed. Resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative and the patient, after going through a wide local excision, remains disease-free nine years after diagnosis. DNA obtained from melanoma tissue was analysed by automated direct sequencing and the V600E (T1799A) mutation was detected in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. Since fistulae experience persistent inflammation, the fact that this melanoma harbours a BRAF mutation strengthens the view that oxidative stress caused by inflammatory processes plays an important role in the genesis of BRAF gene mutations

  13. A case of desmoplastic melanoma that was difficult to distinguish from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yorita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathological diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma is difficult, because almost 50% of desmoplastic melanoma cases involve non-pigmented lesions and the tumor cells can resemble fibroblasts or Schwannian cells based on their frequent amelanotic features. Moreover, desmoplastic melanoma typically has low positive rates for melanoma markers, with the exception of the S-100 protein. We report the case of an 81-year-old Japanese man with an 8-mm desmoplastic melanoma. He initially noticed a painless and non-pigmented skin lesion that did not grow noticeably for 6 months. It was unlikely that he had von Recklinghausen disease, and the mass was initially considered a dermatofibroma. Excisional biopsy revealed an intradermal mass, with the superficial portion mimicking neurofibroma and the deeper portion exhibiting nodular growth of sarcomatoid spindle cells. The tumor region lacked intradermal proliferation of atypical melanocytic cells, intracytoplasmic melanin, and expression of melanoma markers (except S-100 protein and Sox10. Although a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor derived from neurofibroma was possible, the slow growth with diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to the S-100 protein and Sox10 favored a diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma. Pathologists should recognize that desmoplastic melanoma may not involve in situ lesions or the immunohistochemical expression of standard melanoma markers.

  14. Intralesional and metastatic heterogeneity in malignant melanomas demonstrated by stereologic estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Erlandsen, M

    1990-01-01

    Regional variability of nuclear 3-dimensional size can be estimated objectively using point-sampled intercepts obtained from different, defined zones within individual neoplasms. In the present study, stereologic estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, within peripheral...... melanomas showed large interindividual variation. This finding emphasizes that unbiased estimates of nuclear vv are robust to regional heterogeneity of nuclear volume and thus suitable for purposes of objective, quantitative malignancy grading of melanomas....

  15. Speculations on the role of ultraviolet radiation in the development of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in the etiology of human malignant melanoma has increased considerably in recent years. The basis for this heightened concern can be attributed to two seemingly unrelated issues. The first is that the incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing at an alarming rate. At the present time, both the incidence of melanoma and the mortality rate are doubling every 10 to 17 years. Thus identification of causal factors in the development of melanoma is an urgent necessity if this upward trend is to be curbed. The second issue that has directed attention to the identification of etiologic factors in malignant melanoma is ozone depletion. The layer of ozone surrounding the earth shields it from solar uv radiation. Anticipated decreases in stratospheric ozone, resulting from high-altitude aircraft, nuclear explosions, and the release into the atmosphere of chlorofluoromethanes from refrigerants and aerosol sprays, raised concerns about the effects of an increased exposure of all life forms to uv light. One anticipated effect of increased exposure of humans to uv light is a corresponding increase in some types of skin cancer in humans. If malignant melanoma is included among the types of skin cancer at risk of increasing, then the impact of ozone depletion on humans is serious indeed. In the prognosis for melanoma is less favorable, particularly in cases in which the tumor is already invasive at the time of diagnosis. Thus the threat of an increased level of exposure to light has stimulated a careful reevaluation of the role of radiation in the induction of melanoma

  16. Current status and future direction in the management of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Patrick; Darwish, Noureldien H E; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly on a global scale. Although some types of melanoma, for example primary cutaneous melanoma, can be managed by surgery, metastatic melanoma cannot and it has a high mortality rate. Both oncogene and immune-targeted strategies have shown marked efficacy in some patients, but their effect on overall survival is still variable. Therefore, newer therapeutic approaches are needed. Fortunately, new advances in molecular medicine have led to an understanding of an individual patient's cancer at the genomic level. This information is now being used in all stages of cancer treatment including diagnosis, treatment selection, and treatment monitoring. This new strategy of personalized medicine may lead to marked shifts in immunotherapeutic treatment approaches such as individualized cancer vaccines and adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells. This review provides an overview of recent approaches in cancer research and expected impact on the future of treatment for metastatic melanoma.

  17. The Critical Role of PPARγ in Human Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Freudlsperger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 30 years have only seen slight improvement in melanoma therapy. Despite a wide variety of therapeutic options, current survival for patients with metastatic disease is only 6–8 months. Part of the reason for this treatment failure is the broad chemoresistance of melanoma, which is due to an altered survival capacity and an inactivation of apoptotic pathways. Several targetable pathways, responsible for this survival/apoptosis resistance in melanoma, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways. As PPARγ was shown to be constitutively active in several tumour entities and PPARγ agonists extent strong anticancer effects, the role of PPARγ as a possible target for specific anticancer strategy was investigated in numerous studies. However, only a few studies have focused on the effects of PPARγ agonists in melanoma, showing conflicting results. The use of PPARγ agonists in melanoma therapy has to be carefully weighted against considerable, undesirable side effects, as their mode of action is not fully understood and even pro-proliferative effects have been described. In the current review, we discuss the role of PPARs, in particular PPARγ in melanoma and their potential role as a molecular target for melanoma therapy.

  18. RAGE-aptamer Attenuates the Growth and Liver Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobutaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ishibashi, Yuji; Sotokawauchi, Ami; Fukami, Kei; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi

    2017-11-06

    Epidemiological studies have suggested the link between cumulative diabetic exposure and cancer. Interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with their receptor (RAGE) may contribute to the phenomenon. We examined here the effects of DNA aptamer raised against RAGE (RAGE-aptamer) on growth and liver metastasis of G361 melanoma in nude mice. Malignant melanoma cells were intradermally injected into the upper flank region of nude mice, which received continuous administration of RAGE-aptamer (38.4 pmol/day/g body weight) or vehicle intraperitoneally by an osmotic pump up to 42 days. RAGE-aptamer significantly reduced levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine, AGEs, RAGE, proliferating nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and CD31 and Mac-3, respective markers of endothelial cells and macrophages in tumors of nude mice and suppressed the proliferation and liver metastasis of malignant melanoma. Furthermore, RAGE-aptamer attenuated the AGE-induced oxidative stress generation, proliferation, and VEGF and MCP-1 gene expression in both G361 melanoma cells and endothelial cells. The present findings suggest that RAGE-aptamer could attenuate melanoma growth and liver metastasis in nude mice by suppressing the tumor angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration via inhibition of the AGE-RAGE system. RAGE-aptamer may be a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  19. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma of the Inguinal Lymph Node with Unknown Primary Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ali Eltawansy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant melanoma could present with metastasis with unknown primary (MUP and this happens in 2-3% according to the studies. Around 90% of melanomas have cutaneous origin, but still there are melanomas that could be found in visceral organs or lymph nodes with unknown primary site. Spontaneous regression of the primary site could be an explanation. Case Report. We report a 58-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a right sided swelling in the inguinal region. Surgery was performed and biopsy showed metastatic malignant melanoma. No cutaneous lesions were identified by history or physical examination. Work up could not detect the primary lesion and patient was started on radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Conclusion. We present a case of malignant melanoma of unknown primary presenting in an unusual place which is the inguinal lymph node. Theories try to explain the pathway of development of such tumors and one of the theories mentions that it could be a spontaneous regression of the primary cutaneous lesion. Another theory is that it could be from transformation of aberrant melanocyte within the lymph node. Prognosis is postulated to be better in this case than in melanoma with a known primary.

  20. Analysis of alpha-synuclein in malignant melanoma - development of a SRM quantification assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Welinder

    Full Text Available Globally, malignant melanoma shows a steady increase in the incidence among cancer diseases. Malignant melanoma represents a cancer type where currently no biomarker or diagnostics is available to identify disease stage, progression of disease or personalized medicine treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the tissue expression of alpha-synuclein, a protein implicated in several disease processes, in metastatic tissues from malignant melanoma patients. A targeted Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay was developed and utilized together with stable isotope labeling for the relative quantification of two target peptides of alpha-synuclein. Analysis of alpha-synuclein protein was then performed in ten metastatic tissue samples from the Lund Melanoma Biobank. The calibration curve using peak area ratio (heavy/light versus concentration ratios showed linear regression over three orders of magnitude, for both of the selected target peptide sequences. In support of the measurements of specific protein expression levels, we also observed significant correlation between the protein and mRNA levels of alpha-synuclein in these tissues. Investigating levels of tissue alpha-synuclein may add novel aspect to biomarker development in melanoma, help to understand disease mechanisms and ultimately contribute to discriminate melanoma patients with different prognosis.

  1. [Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Uribe-Olalde, Juan Salvador; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo Alberto; Rejón-Pérez, Jorge Dax; Palomera-Gómez, Héctor Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The rare incidence of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system and its ability to mimic other melanocytic tumors on images makes it a diagnostic challenge for the neurosurgeon. A 51-year-old patient, with a tumor located in the right forniceal callosum area. Total surgical excision was performed. Histopathological result was consistent with the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, after ruling out extra cranial and extra spinal melanocytic lesions. The primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare. There are features in magnetic resonance imaging that increase the diagnostic suspicion; nevertheless there are other tumors with more prevalence that share some of these features through image. Since there is not an established therapeutic standard its prognosis is discouraging. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Recurrent Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Isolated Pleural Metastases in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Anand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated pleural metastasis with pleural effusion is a rare occurrence in malignant melanoma. We report an unusual case of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and recurrent pleural effusions. The pleural fluid cytology and immunohistochemistry profile were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL. However, chemotherapy with pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab did not result in any meaningful clinical response. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and biopsy of the affected nodular parietal layer of the pleura were consistent with malignant melanoma. Our case underlines the importance of having a suspicion for secondary causes of effusion in patients with CLL. We briefly discuss the mechanisms of an increased incidence of secondary cancers in CLL and the diagnosis of isolated pleural metastases in malignant melanoma.

  3. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lentigo maligna melanoma; Melanoma in situ; Superficial spreading melanoma; Nodular melanoma; Acral lentiginous melanoma ... and brown. It is most common in Caucasians. Nodular melanoma usually starts as a raised area that is ...

  4. CREB inhibits AP-2alpha expression to regulate the malignant phenotype of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava O Melnikova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of AP-2alpha and increased activity of cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB protein are two hallmarks of malignant progression of cutaneous melanoma. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the loss of AP-2alpha during melanoma progression remains unknown.Herein, we demonstrate that both inhibition of PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation, as well as silencing of CREB expression by shRNA, restored AP-2alpha protein expression in two metastatic melanoma cell lines. Moreover, rescue of CREB expression in CREB-silenced cell lines downregulates expression of AP-2alpha. Loss of AP-2alpha expression in metastatic melanoma occurs via a dual mechanism involving binding of CREB to the AP-2alpha promoter and CREB-induced overexpression of another oncogenic transcription factor, E2F-1. Upregulation of AP-2alpha expression following CREB silencing increases endogenous p21(Waf1 and decreases MCAM/MUC18, both known to be downstream target genes of AP-2alpha involved in melanoma progression.Since AP-2alpha regulates several genes associated with the metastatic potential of melanoma including c-KIT, VEGF, PAR-1, MCAM/MUC18, and p21(Waf1, our data identified CREB as a major regulator of the malignant melanoma phenotype.

  5. Intraocular malignant melanoma of the choroid presenting as orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kaliki, Swathi; Ali, Mohammed Javed; Naik, Milind N; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of choroidal melanoma with features suggestive of orbital cellulitis. A 24-year-old Asian Indian male presented with a 20-day history of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Edematous eyelids with complete mechanical ptosis, complete ophthalmoplegia, gross proptosis accompanied by massive chemosis, and prolapse of the inferior forniceal conjunctiva were noted. He denied perception of light in the right eye. The left eye was unremarkable. B-scan ultrasonography of the right eye showed a large dome-shaped mass filling the posterior segment suggestive of choroidal melanoma. Computed tomography confirmed those findings and showed no extraocular tumor extension. The patient was conservatively treated with systemic steroids following which the inflammation subsided. He underwent enucleation of the right eye and a diagnosis of spindle A cell choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathological examination. Although rare, orbital cellulitis is one of the presenting features of choroidal melanoma. Uveal melanoma-associated orbital cellulitis can be well controlled with systemic steroids, does not always indicate extraocular tumor extension, and can occur in spindle A cell melanomas.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busam Klaus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma causes over 75% of skin cancer-related deaths, and it is clear that many factors may contribute to the outcome. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs play an important role in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane that, in turn, modulate cell division, migration and angiogenesis. Some polymorphisms are known to influence gene expression, protein activity, stability, and interactions, and they were shown to be associated with certain tumor phenotypes and cancer risk. Methods We tested seven polymorphisms within the MMP-9 gene in 1002 patients with melanoma in order to evaluate germline genetic variants and their association with progression and known risk factors of melanoma. The polymorphisms were selected based on previously published reports and their known or potential functional relevance using in-silico methods. Germline DNA was then genotyped using pyrosequencing, melting temperature profiles, heteroduplex analysis, and fragment size analysis. Results We found that reference alleles were present in higher frequency in patients who tend to sunburn, have family history of melanoma, higher melanoma stage, intransit metastasis and desmoplastic melanomas among others. However, after adjustment for age, sex, phenotypic index, moles, and freckles only Q279R, P574R and R668Q had significant associations with intransit metastasis, propensity to tan/sunburn and primary melanoma site. Conclusion This study does not provide strong evidence for further investigation into the role of the MMP-9 SNPs in melanoma progression.

  7. Obesity as a risk factor for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, K; Lindgren, T H; Koch, C A; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-09-01

    The dramatic increases in incidence of both obesity and many cancers including skin cancer emphasize the need to better understand the pathophysiology of both conditions and their connections. Melanoma is considered the fastest growing cancer and rates of non-melanoma skin cancer have also increased over the last decade. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and skin cancer are not clearly understood but emerging evidence points to changes in the tumor microenvironment including aberrant cell signaling and genomic instability in the chronic inflammatory state many obese individuals experience. This article reviews the literature linking obesity to melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.

  8. Solitary Secondary Malignant Melanoma of Clavicle Two Years after Enuclation for Ocular Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Tozum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary metastasis of uveal melanoma to bone is extremely rare and usually associated with other organ involvement. We present a rare case of an ocular melanoma patient presenting with solitary metastasis to the clavicle two years after enucleation, without any other organ involvement. In this report, we tried to present our treatment strategy for the solitary metastasis of bone.

  9. A clinicopathological study of malignant melanoma with special reference to atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhalakshmi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a tumor of melanocytic origin. Lymphatic and hematogenous metastases are common in this condition. Retrospective analysis was performed in 16 consecutive cases diagnosed histopathologically as malignant melanoma at the pathology department of a medial college in eastern India. 75% of the patients were male; majority of them was in their sixth decade. All (100% the lesions were pigmented. The primary site was known in all cases, except two (12.5%. Out of the 14 cases with known primary site 11 (78.57% were cutaneous melanomas, including one arising in labia minora, two (14.29% were ocular and one (7.14% was vaginal in origin. Among cutaneous melanomas, superficial spreading type was the commonest variety and mixed population of epithelioid and spindle cell was the commonest histopathological pattern. The commonest grade of invasion was grade III (Clark′s. The clinical presentation of the case of vaginal melanoma and the two cases of secondary melanomas, including the one with obscure primary tumor, were bewildering and hence are discussed separately.

  10. Long term outcome of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, J.; Fukuda, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshino, K.; Honda, C.; Ichihashi, M.; Mishima, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using 10 B-BPA. Our aim was to assess the long term clinical outcome of BNCT on these patients. The target areas were 15 primary lesions and 5 metastatic lesions. The primary lesions were consisted of acral lentigious melanoma (ALM) in six patients, nodular melanoma (NM) in six and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) in three. The complete regression (CR) rates were 73% for the primary lesions, 20% for the metastatic lesions. The CR rates for the primary lesions according to melanoma type were 33% for NM and 100% for non-NM. None of the patients with CR showed local recurrence in the radiation field during follow up ranging from 5.5 to 10.6 years (mean 6.7 years). The five year cause specific survival rate was 92% in the cases without distant metastasis at the time of BNCT. BNCT proves to be a very useful therapeutic modality for the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma. (author)

  11. Long term outcome of boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Fukuda, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Honda, C.; Ichihashi, M. [Kobe Univ., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Eighteen patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using {sup 10}B-BPA. Our aim was to assess the long term clinical outcome of BNCT on these patients. The target areas were 15 primary lesions and 5 metastatic lesions. The primary lesions were consisted of acral lentigious melanoma (ALM) in six patients, nodular melanoma (NM) in six and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) in three. The complete regression (CR) rates were 73% for the primary lesions, 20% for the metastatic lesions. The CR rates for the primary lesions according to melanoma type were 33% for NM and 100% for non-NM. None of the patients with CR showed local recurrence in the radiation field during follow up ranging from 5.5 to 10.6 years (mean 6.7 years). The five year cause specific survival rate was 92% in the cases without distant metastasis at the time of BNCT. BNCT proves to be a very useful therapeutic modality for the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma. (author)

  12. Using computer graphics to preserve function in resection of malignant melanoma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M; Vantuyl, A; Japour, C; Ghosh, B C

    2001-08-01

    The increasing incidence of malignant melanoma challenges physicians to find innovative ways to preserve function and appearance in affected areas that require partial resection. We carefully planned the resection of a malignant lesion between the third and fourth toes of a 77-year-old man with the aid of computer technology. The subsequent excision of the third, fourth, and fifth digits was executed such that the new metatarsal arc formed would approximate the dimensions of the optimal hyperbola, thereby minimizing gait disturbance.

  13. Differing lectin-binding patterns of malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohchiyama, A; Oka, D; Ueki, H

    1987-01-01

    The lectin-binding patterns of primary malignant melanoma, nevocellular nevus, and Spitz nevus were studied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using a series of biotinylated lectins--concanavalin A (ConA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA1), dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Ulex europeus agglutinin-1(UEA1)--and employing the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In nevocellular and Spitz nevi, all of the nevus cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1. No positive staining was observed, however, with the other lectins and no change in binding patterns occurred following neuraminidase pretreatment. In malignant melanoma, all of the melanoma cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1, and some were also stained with MPA, PNA, and WGA. In addition, DBA, SBA, MPA, PNA, and WGA labeled all of the melanoma cells after neuraminidase pretreatment. No positive staining was observed with UEA1 despite neuraminidase pretreatment. The present results showed that malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi have different lectin-binding patterns and different responses to neuraminidase pretreatment. We, therefore, believe that the lectin staining on paraffin-embedded sections can be a useful probe for the differentiation of these diseases.

  14. Oncolysis of malignant human melanoma tumors by Coxsackieviruses A13, A15 and A18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many RNA viruses are displaying great promise in the field of oncolytic virotherapy. Previously, we reported that the picornavirus Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21 possessed potent oncolytic activity against cultured malignant melanoma cells and melanoma xenografts in mice. In the present study, we demonstrate that three additional Group A Coxsackieviruses; Coxsackievirus A13 (CVA13, Coxsackievirus A15 (CVA15 and Coxsackievirus A18 (CVA18, also have similar oncolytic activity against malignant melanoma. Each of the viruses grew quickly to high titers in cancer cells expressing ICAM-1 and intratumoral injection of preformed subcutaneous SK-Mel-28 xenografts in mice with CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18 resulted in significant tumor volume reduction. As preexisting immunity could potentially hinder oncolytic virotherapy, sera from stage IV melanoma patients and normal controls were tested for levels of protective antibody against the panel of oncolytic Coxsackieviruses. Serum neutralization assays revealed that 3 of 21 subjects possessed low levels of anti-CVA21 antibodies, while protective antibodies for CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18 were not detected in any sample. Serum from individuals who were seropositive for CVA21 failed to exhibit cross-neutralization of CVA13, CVA15 and CVA18. From these studies it can be concluded that the administration of CVA13, CVA15 or CVA18 could be employed as a potential multivalent oncolytic therapy against malignant melanoma.

  15. Blood flow velocity imaging of malignant melanoma by micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H.; Andoh, T.; Akiguchi, S.; Shirakawa, H.; Kobayashi, D.; Kuraishi, Y.; Hachiga, T.

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure blood flow, the micromultipoint laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-MLDV). This equipment can measure absolute velocity and, based on this, can display the course of blood vessels. In this study, we attempted to perform blood flow velocity imaging of malignant melanoma transplanted to the mouse ear. We found that blood flow velocity of the formed blood vessels originating in the melanoma was much greater than that of the capillary vessels in normal skin. Furthermore, the form of the tumor was clearly visible from the blood flow velocity image. These experimental results suggest that μ-MLDV has potential as a diagnostic method for distinguishing benign nevi from malignant melanomas.

  16. Establishment of optimal thermal neutron capture therapy for 5 types of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1993-03-01

    A series of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies has already germinated in 1972, with a view to establishing the BNCT particularly suited for the treatment of various types of malignant melanoma, and has been succeeded by research teams comprised of multi-disciplinary members. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women, aged from 50 to 85 years) with malignant melanoma have been treated with BNCT; among them, six patients were completely cured, four had extremely reduced tumors, and two were still in the clinical process. The present Progress Report is a compilation of 39 research presentations for the recent two years. In this report, three patients are described. Of these, one patient had deep-seated lesions in right and left lymph nodes. These lesions were cured by the use of D 2 O that allowed neutron beams to reach them. Application of positron emission tomography to the diagnosis of melanoma is a highlight in this Report. (N.K.)

  17. Choroidal malignant melanoma with no extraocular extension presenting as orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcaci, Serhad; Palamar, Melis; Yaman, Banu; Akalin, Taner; Mentes, Jale

    2016-10-01

    This report describes a patient with choroidal malignant melanoma presenting as orbital cellulitis without extraocular tumor extension. It is an interventional case report with histopathologic correlation. A 68-year-old male presented with a 3-day history of painful hyperemia and swelling in the right eye. The examination showed edematous eyelids, mechanical ptosis and chemosis with conjunctival injection. B-scan ultrasonography showed a mass with medium level echogenicity that filled the vitreous cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid choroidal mass with hemorrhagic and inflammatory changes with no obvious extraocular extension. Due to these suggestive findings of choroidal melanoma the right eye was enucleated. A spindle cell choroidal melanoma including intense pigmentation and necrosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Although rare; choroidal melanoma may present as orbital cellulitis, particularly when the tumor is necrotic.

  18. Melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs contributes to the intractability of malignant melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin G.; Valencia, Julio C.; Lai, Barry; Zhang, Guofeng; Paterson, Jill K.; Rouzaud, François; Berens, Werner; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Garfield, Susan H.; Leapman, Richard D.; Hearing, Vincent J.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2006-06-01

    Multidrug resistance mechanisms underlying the intractability of malignant melanomas remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the development of multidrug resistance in melanomas involves subcellular sequestration of intracellular cytotoxic drugs such as cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin; CDDP). CDDP is initially sequestered in subcellular organelles such as melanosomes, which significantly reduces its nuclear localization when compared with nonmelanoma/KB-3-1 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The melanosomal accumulation of CDDP remarkably modulates melanogenesis through a pronounced increase in tyrosinase activity. The altered melanogenesis manifested an 8-fold increase in both intracellular pigmentation and extracellular transport of melanosomes containing CDDP. Thus, our experiments provide evidence that melanosomes contribute to the refractory properties of melanoma cells by sequestering cytotoxic drugs and increasing melanosome-mediated drug export. Preventing melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting the functions of melanosomes may have great potential as an approach to improving the chemosensitivity of melanoma cells. cancer | melanosomes | skin | tumor therapy | multidrug resistance

  19. Malignant melanoma of the choroid in the eye with oculodermal melanocytosis of a Chinese woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Chi; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Shiuh-Liang; Hsu, Min-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ling

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we report a rare case of choroidal melanoma in an eye with oculodermal melanocytosis (Nevus of Ota). A 56-year-old Taiwanese woman with oculodermal melanocytosis in the right eye was found to have an ipsilateral uveal melanoma. Histopathology of the enucleated eye confirmed the diagnosis of malignant choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type. A search of the literature revealed strong evidence that oculodermal melanocytosis can predispose to the development of uveal melanoma in Caucasians. Only seven such cases have been reported in the East Asian population. This is believed to be the first such reported case in a patient of Chinese descent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research project in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma is under consideration by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This paper reviews the biochemistry of melanoma and the properties of some melanoma-affined radiopharmaceuticals and their boron analogues. Human cell lines are being used for in vitro tests of uptake and incorporation of some of these compounds, and selected lines will then be implanted in nude mice for in vivo distribution studies. The fidelity of human melanoma xenografts in nude mice has been well studied, and results are reviewed in this paper. Boron concentration will be measured directly by plasma arc emission spectroscopy or liquid scintillation counting with 14 C-labelled boron analogues. Track-etch techniques will be used for the microscopic determination of boron in tumor sections. Neutron irradiation and radiobiology experiments are outlined

  1. Intralesional and metastatic heterogeneity in malignant melanomas demonstrated by stereologic estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Erlandsen, M

    1990-01-01

    Regional variability of nuclear 3-dimensional size can be estimated objectively using point-sampled intercepts obtained from different, defined zones within individual neoplasms. In the present study, stereologic estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, within peripheral...... on average larger in the peripheral zones of primary melanomas, than nuclear vv in central zones (2p = 6.7 x 10(-4), whereas no zonal differences were demonstrated in metastatic lesions (2p = 0.21). A marked intraindividual variation was demonstrated between primary and corresponding secondary melanomas (2p...... melanomas showed large interindividual variation. This finding emphasizes that unbiased estimates of nuclear vv are robust to regional heterogeneity of nuclear volume and thus suitable for purposes of objective, quantitative malignancy grading of melanomas....

  2. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1995-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  3. A case of collision tumor or transdifferentiation between malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Rasmussen, Helle; Breiting, Line

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was referred to the hospital due to a pigmented, asymptomatic nevus on her right arm that had changed in size and color. The histopathological examination showed a superficial spreading malignant melanoma, Clark level III, 2.26 mm in thickness. Two years later, the patient pre...

  4. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in malignant melanoma as same day procedure vs delayed procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Jes C; Kramer, Stine; Stolle, Lars B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a delayed sentinel node biopsy (dSNB) procedure with a same-day procedure (sSNB) in malignant melanoma. In March 2012, Aarhus University Hospital went from the dSNB to the sSNB procedure defined by lymphoscintigraphy (LS) and sentinel node biopsy (SNB) performed...

  5. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of malignant melanoma in Southeast Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sula, Bilal; Uçmak, Feyzullah; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali; Urakçi, Zuhat; Arica, Mustafa; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM). The present study retrospectively analyzed the data of 78 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with MM in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Dermatology and Medical Oncology departments between 2005 and 2014. The study included 78 patients in total with 44 (56.4%) male and 34 (43.6%) female. Median age of the patients was 62.50 years (range: 27 - 84 years). Of the patients, 78.2% (n = 61) had cutaneous melanoma, 8.9% had solid organ melanoma, and 2.5% had ocular and mucosal melanoma. The most common tumor localization among the patients was the lower extremities with 29.4% (n = 23). The most common histopathological type was nodular malignant melanoma with 35.8% (n = 28). Based on TNM, Clark and Breslow classifications, 26.9% (n = 21) of the patients were stage 4, 26.9% (n = 21) were Clark stage 4, and 37.1% (n = 29) were Breslow stage 4. Median overall survival in all patients was 14.9 months (95% CI 10.9 - 18.8 months). In the multivariate Cox analysis, only stage statistically significantly affecting survival [odds ratio (OR): 0.54; (95% CI 0.16-1.82, p = 0.02)]. Malignant melanoma data are also important for the optimal utilization of effective methods and healthcare resources to prevent the disease. In order to minimize MM mortality and morbidity, not only the society but also physicians from primary and secondary care hospitals should become familiar with melanoma.

  6. A natural product-like JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor induces apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jia Wu

    Full Text Available The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, and has been suggested as a potential molecular target for anti-melanoma therapeutics. However, few JAK2 inhibitors were being tested for melanoma therapy. In this study, eight amentoflavone analogues were evaluated for their activity against human malignant melanoma cells. The most potent analogue, compound 1, inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in human melanoma cells, but had no discernible effect on total JAK2 and STAT3 levels. A cellular thermal shift assay was performed to identify that JAK2 is engaged by 1 in cell lysates. Moreover, compound 1 showed higher antiproliferative activity against human melanoma A375 cells compared to a panel of cancer and normal cell lines. Compound 1 also activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, which are markers of apoptosis, and suppressed the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Finally, compound 1 induced apoptosis in 80% of treated melanoma cells. To our knowledge, compound 1 is the first amentoflavone-based JAK2 inhibitor to be investigated for use as an anti-melanoma agent.

  7. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abschuetz, Oliver; Osen, Wolfram; Frank, Kathrin; Kato, Masashi; Schadendorf, Dirk; Umansky, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy

  8. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schadendorf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  9. T-Cell Mediated Immune Responses Induced in ret Transgenic Mouse Model of Malignant Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abschuetz, Oliver [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Osen, Wolfram [Division of Translational Immunology, German Cancer Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Frank, Kathrin [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Kato, Masashi [Unit of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Schadendorf, Dirk [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45122 (Germany); Umansky, Viktor, E-mail: v.umansky@dkfz.de [Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, Mannheim , Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2012-04-26

    Poor response of human malignant melanoma to currently available treatments requires a development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Their evaluation should be based on animal models that resemble human melanoma with respect to genetics, histopathology and clinical features. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous skin melanoma, in which the ret transgene is expressed in melanocytes under the control of metallothionein-I promoter. After a short latency, around 25% mice develop macroscopic skin melanoma metastasizing to lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs and brain, whereas other transgenic mice showed only metastatic lesions without visible skin tumors. We found that tumor lesions expressed melanoma associated antigens (MAA) tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-1, TRP-2 and gp100, which could be applied as targets for the immunotherapy. Upon peptide vaccination, ret transgenic mice without macroscopic melanomas were able to generate T cell responses not only against a strong model antigen ovalbumin but also against typical MAA TRP-2. Although mice bearing macroscopic primary tumors could also display an antigen-specific T cell reactivity, it was significantly down-regulated as compared to tumor-free transgenic mice or non-transgenic littermates. We suggest that ret transgenic mice could be used as a pre-clinical model for the evaluation of novel strategies of melanoma immunotherapy.

  10. Expression of VEGF(xxx)b, the inhibitory isoforms of VEGF, in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Jones, R O; Dunn, D B A; Qiu, Y; Varey, A H R; Orlando, A; Rigby, H; Harper, S J; Bates, D O

    2007-07-16

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal of the skin cancers and the UK incidence is rising faster than that of any other cancer. Angiogenesis - the growth of new vessels from preexisting vasculature - is an absolute requirement for tumour survival and progression beyond a few hundred microns in diameter. We previously described a class of anti-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF, VEGF(xxx)b, that inhibit tumour growth in animal models, and are downregulated in some cancers, but have not been investigated in melanoma. To determine whether VEGF(xxx)b expression was altered in melanoma, PCR and immunohistochemistry of archived human tumour samples were used. In normal epidermis and in a proportion of melanoma samples, VEGF(xxx)b staining was seen. Some melanomas had much weaker staining. Subsequent examination revealed that expression was significantly reduced in primary melanoma samples (both horizontal and vertical growth phases) from patients who subsequently developed tumour metastasis compared with those who did not (analysis of variance (ANOVA) Pxxx)b expression appears to predict metastatic spread in patients with primary melanoma. These results suggest that there is a switch in splicing as part of the metastatic process, from anti-angiogenic to pro-angiogenic VEGF isoforms. This may form part of a wider metastatic splicing phenotype.

  11. Xenogeneic murine tyrosinase DNA vaccine for malignant melanoma of the digit of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, C A; Leibman, N F; Wolchok, J D; Rivière, I C; Bartido, S; Craft, D M; Bergman, P J

    2011-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of dogs is a highly aggressive neoplasm and is the 2nd most common digit tumor. Metastatic disease is a common sequela for which few effective treatment options exist. Studies show that xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccination yields immune responses and prolongation of survival in dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Describe clinical findings and tumor characteristics of a cohort of dogs with digit malignant melanoma, and evaluate the prognostic utility of a proposed staging system. Determine if a novel xenogeneic DNA vaccine is safe and potentially effective for treatment of dogs with digit melanoma. Fifty-eight dogs with digit malignant melanoma treated at the Animal Medical Center between 2004 and 2007. Retrospective, medical records review of dogs with digit melanoma treated with xenogeneic DNA vaccine. Overall median survival time (MST) for dogs treated with loco-regional control and xenogeneic DNA vaccine was 476 days with a 1-year survival rate of 63%. MST for dogs presenting with metastasis was 105 days versus 533 days for dogs presenting without metastasis (P dogs in the latter group were alive at 2 and 3 years. A proposed staging system proved prognostic with stages I-IV dogs surviving >952, >1,093, 321, and 76 days, respectively. The xenogeneic murine tyrosinase DNA vaccine was safe and appears effective when used in conjunction with local and regional disease control. The proposed staging system was prognostic in this study and future studies might benefit from utilizing this staging system. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Outcomes of dogs undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of oral malignant melanoma: 111 cases (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Mori, Takashi; Ito, Yusuke; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of dogs with stage I, II, III, or IV oral malignant melanoma treated by various types of radiotherapy. Retrospective case series. 111 dogs. Medical records of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by radiotherapy (with or without adjunctive treatments) at a veterinary medical center between July 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed. Information regarding signalment, tumor location, disease stage, treatment protocols, adverse effects, and survival time were obtained from medical records and by telephone follow-up. Associations between variables of interest and outcome were analyzed. Dogs received orthovoltage x-ray (n = 68), megavoltage x-ray (39), or electron beam (4) radiotherapy. Adjunctive treatments included debulking surgery (n = 18), chemotherapy (39), or both (27). Median survival times for dogs with stage I, II, III, and IV melanoma were 758 days (n = 19), 278 days (24), 163 days (37), and 80 days (31), respectively, and differed significantly between dogs with stage I disease and those with all other disease stages. Among dogs with stage III melanoma, risk of death was significantly higher in those that received orthovoltage x-ray treatment than in those that received megavoltage x-ray treatment. Severe (primary or secondary) adverse effects were identified in 9 dogs. Median survival time was significantly longer for dogs with stage I oral malignant melanoma than for dogs with more advanced disease at the time of staging. The staging system used may be a useful tool for prognosis prediction in dogs undergoing similar treatment protocols for oral malignant melanomas.

  13. Relationship Between LAPTM4B Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility of Malignant Melanoma in Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B is known as an oncogene associated with many human malignant tumors. There are two alleles of the gene, LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. Previous studies have shown that LAPTM4B polymorphism contributes to the risk of many cancers. This case-control study was to investigate the relationship between LAPTM4B gene polymorphism and susceptibility of malignant melanoma. The genotypes of LAPTM4B were determined in 617 control subjects and 220 patients with malignant melanoma by utilizing polymerase chain reaction based on specific primers. The genotypic distribution of LAPTM4B and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were analyzed by χ2 test. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval was calculated by unconditional logistic regression. The distributions of LAPTM4B genotypes were significantly different between melanoma patients (45.9% for *1/1, 46.4% for *1/2 and 7.7 for *2/2 and controls (54.5% for *1/1, 39.9% for *1/2 and 5.7 for *2/2. LAPTM4B *1/2 and LAPTM4B *2/2 had a 1.396-fold and 1.619-fold higher risk for melanoma occurrence than *1/1, and subjects with LAPTM4B*2 have a 1.308-fold higher risk than LAPTM4B*1 carriers. No association between LAPTM4B genotypes and gender, age, subtype, Clark level of invasion, Breslow thickness, ulceration, clinical stage, and C-KIT, BRAF gene mutation status was observed. LAPTM4B*2 is associated with the high risk of malignant melanoma and carrying LAPTM4B *2 may be a susceptible factor to Chinese melanoma patients.

  14. Anorectal abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by intestinal disorders such as Crohn disease or diverticulitis . The following factors increase the risk for an anorectal abscess: Anal sex Chemotherapy medicines used to treat ... ( Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis ) Use of corticosteroid ...

  15. Prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadili, Ali; Smylie, Michael; Danyluk, John; Dabbs, Kelly

    2009-06-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard at many institutions caring for melanoma patients. Patients with positive SLNB results are currently offered completion lymph node dissection (CLND) of the affected lymph node basin. This procedure entails considerable morbidity and is often applied to patients with shortened life expectancies. Because 80% of CLNDs yield no additional positive nodes and there is no proof that CLND leads to survival improvement, criteria are needed to limit this procedure to those most likely to harbor nonsentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. A retrospective review of 349 cases of melanoma from January 1999 to April 2007 that underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at a single institution was done. Statistical analysis was used to compare two subgroups of patients: a positive CLND group and a negative CLND group. These two groups were compared with regards to multiple variables related to patient demographics, primary tumor characteristics, and SLN tumor burden. Age and total size of SLN tumor deposit were the factors with the strongest correlation with CLND positivity. By applying a risk score model that uses the cutoff values of age 55 y and SLN tumor deposit of 5 mm, it is possible to predict CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients. The likelihood of CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients can be predicted from two criteria readily available: size of SLN tumor deposit and patient age.

  16. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases; thi...

  17. Case Report - Malignant melanoma of the lung: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. A 68-year-old man was admitted with 3 months history of cough, sputum production, dyspnea, hemoptysis and chest pain. The chest radiography demonstrated bilateral mass lesion and thoracal computerized (CT) ...

  18. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B

    2002-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the sensitivity of tyrosinase expression and demonstrate the relative specificity of tyrosinase as a marker for melanocytic lesions, including desmoplastic melanoma, although pigmented peripheral nerve tumors may demonstrate focal positive staining. Immunoreactivity...

  19. Clinicopathological features and pituitary homeobox 1 gene expression in the progression and prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Barut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that PITX1 (pituitary homeobox 1 is a significant tumor suppressor in human cancer remains largely circumstantial, but it clearly warrants further study as little is known about the tumor-inhibitory roles of PITX1 in cutaneous malignant melanoma. The aims of this study were to investigate PITX1 gene expression in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma and to evaluate its potential relevance to clinicopathological characteristics and tumor cell proliferation. Clinicopathological findings of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were analyzed retrospectively. PITX1 and Ki-67 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in malignant melanoma and healthy tissue samples from each patient. Labeling indices were calculated based on PITX1 gene and Ki-67 expression. The correlation between PITX1and Ki-67 expressions was analyzed in cutaneous malignant melanoma cases. The relationship between PITX1 expression intensity and clinicopathological characteristics was also analyzed. PITX1 expression was observed in all (100% normal healthy skin tissue samples. In addition, PITX1 expression was found in 56 (80% and was absent in 14 (20% of the 70 cutaneous malignant melanoma cases. Ki-67 positive expression was only detected in the 14 (20% PITX1-negative cases. PITX1-positive tumor cells were observed on the surface, but Ki-67 positive tumor cells were observed in deeper zones of the tumor nests. PITX1 expression was downregulated in human cutaneous malignant melanoma lesions compared with healthy skin tissue, but Ki-67 expression was upregulated in concordance with the progression of cutaneous malignant melanoma. PITX1 expression may be involved in tumor progression and is a potential tumor suppressor gene and prognostic marker for cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  20. Malignant melanoma and other cancers of the skin in Czech Republic (epidemiology, risk factors and prevention possibilities).

    OpenAIRE

    Pojezná, Eliška

    2009-01-01

    two basic types: non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma. Skin tumors mean up to 5%. The increase in incidence is due to both a strong knowledge ofdevelopment issues and melanoma tumor detection and efforts to reduce its incidence. Also in the diagnosis of melanoma was diagnosis. Although in recent years to s tumor. I see a reduction in its incidence. Also in the diagnostic result in death, but are far from melanoma malignancy. This does not mean that they should vykousanou crayfish or crab. "i...

  1. Expression of Glut-1 in Malignant Melanoma and Melanocytic Nevi: an Immunohistochemical Study of 400 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Důra, Miroslav; Němejcová, Kristýna; Jakša, Radek; Bártů, Michaela; Kodet, Ondřej; Tichá, Ivana; Michálková, Romana; Dundr, Pavel

    2017-11-11

    The glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) is a cell membrane glycoprotein involved in glucose uptake. An increased expression of Glut-1 is an important cell adaptation mechanism against hypoxia. An upregulation of Glut-1 can be found in several types of malignant tumors, which are able to reprogram their metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). However, the data regarding melanocytic lesions is equivocal. We performed comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of the Glut-1 expression in 225 malignant melanomas (MM) and 175 benign nevi. Only the membranous expression of Glut-1 was regarded as positive. The expression of Glut-1 (the cut-off for positivity was determined as H-score 15) was found in 69/225 malignant melanomas. The number of positive cases and the H-score of Glut-1 increased where there was a higher Breslow thickness (p Glut-1 is a common feature of a malignant melanoma but this type of expression is very rare in benign melanocytic nevi. Our results suggest that the membranous expression of Glut-1 can be used as a surrogate marker in the assessing of the biological nature of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. However, despite its high specificity, the sensitivity of this marker is relatively low. Moreover, due to the fact that the increased expression of Glut-1 correlates with a shorter survival period (10-year disease free survival, recurrence free survival and metastasis free survival and MFS), it can be used as a prognostically adverse factor.

  2. Nodular malignant melanoma and multiple cutaneous neoplasms under immunosuppression with azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenova, Emmanuella; Lichte, Verena; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Woelbing, Florian; Moehrle, Matthias; Roecken, Martin; Schaller, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are at increased risk of skin cancer. A 67-year-old renal transplant recipient developed a nodular malignant melanoma after 30 years of immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisolone. The patient died of metastatic disease 3 months after the diagnosis was made. The function of the renal graft was not affected at all. Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of developing nonmelanocytic skin tumors when on immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A. Less common is the development of skin cancer during immunosuppression with azathioprine. Latest reports show the increased incidence of malignant melanoma in immunosuppressed patients. Our case illustrates the necessity of close dermatological surveillance of allograft recipients, to assure an early recognition of any malignant skin tumor and to reduce the risk of systemic metastatic disease.

  3. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Micro-Malignant Melanoma Lesions Applying Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented. The system contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and classification stage using SVMs. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 200 images including 70 melanomas and 130 benign lesions. The SVM classifier achieved sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The results indicate that the proposed approach captured most of the malignant cases and could provide reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Conclusions. Micro-melanomas due to the small size and low advancement of development create enormous difficulties during the diagnosis even for experts. The use of advanced equipment and sophisticated computer systems can help in the early diagnosis of skin lesions.

  4. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Micro-Malignant Melanoma Lesions Applying Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented. The system contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and classification stage using SVMs. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 200 images including 70 melanomas and 130 benign lesions. The SVM classifier achieved sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The results indicate that the proposed approach captured most of the malignant cases and could provide reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Conclusions. Micro-melanomas due to the small size and low advancement of development create enormous difficulties during the diagnosis even for experts. The use of advanced equipment and sophisticated computer systems can help in the early diagnosis of skin lesions.

  5. Radioimmunoscintigraphy for the detection of known and/or occult metastases of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, K.

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphy was performed in 11 patients (all males, mean age about 45 years), using a Tc-99m labelled F(ab')2 fragment of an anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody 225.28S. 8 had metastatic malignant melanoma while three had other malignancies (basal cell carcinoma, carcinoma urinary bladder, and adenocystic carcinoma of salivary gland). In the non-melanoma group, overall distribution pattern of the antibody was observed. Non-specific tracer uptake was noted in the liver, spleen kidneys, bonemarrow, and in the external genitalia. Mean liver, spleen individual kidney and external genitalia uptake after injection (15 min.) was 6.8%, 2.8%, 3.4%, and 0.7% respectively. All the organs except kidneys, which showed increasing accumulation, showed progressive clearance with time. In the eight melanoma cases studied, out of total of 31 clinically detectable lesions, immunoscintigraphy was successful in visualizing 25 (80.6%). Additionally, seven occult lesions were seen which were either subcutaneous or were in the superficial or deep lymph nodes. The optimal imaging time was found to be between 4-10 hours after the administration of antibody and no significant additional information was obtained at 2 or 24 hours. We conclude that immunoscintigraphy in useful in staging patients with melanoma and is free from side effects. (author)

  6. Patients' Characteristics, Histopathological Findings, and Tumor Stage in Different Types of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Mohammad Farahmand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is currently the most fatal of skin cancers accounting for 50000 deaths annually. Five distinct melanomas are described histopathologically: superficial spreading, lentigo maligna, nodular, acral lentiginous and mucosal melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with various types of malignant melanoma and evaluate histopathological findings. In this retrospective study, we obtained our data from the records of 111 patients with melanoma. Biopsied specimens were collected and re-evaluated. Demographic information and histopathological findings were noted. SPSS 16 was used for analyzing data. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA was conducted for comparing categorical and numerical variables respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.33±14.68 years old. Most common melanoma type was acral lentiginous (40.5%, followed by nodular (35.1% and mucosal (10.8%. The highest tumor thickness was viewed in nodular melanoma followed by mucosal melanoma. The highest rate of metastasis, microsatellitosis, perineural invasion and Clark level of the invasion were reported in nodular and acral lentiginous respectively. The most frequent rate of ulceration and vascular invasion was reported in mucosal melanoma. Distribution of melanoma types varies largely in different regions. Lack of classic presentations in some types necessitate specific public education about warning signs. Histopathological and pathological characteristics in melanoma can aid in better staging and management of the tumor.

  7. Patients' Characteristics, Histopathological Findings, and Tumor Stage in Different Types of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Ali-Mohammad; Ehsani, Amir-Hoshang; Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Mohsenian, Maryam; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is currently the most fatal of skin cancers accounting for 50000 deaths annually. Five distinct melanomas are described histopathologically: superficial spreading, lentigo maligna, nodular, acral lentiginous and mucosal melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with various types of malignant melanoma and evaluate histopathological findings. In this retrospective study, we obtained our data from the records of 111 patients with melanoma. Biopsied specimens were collected and re-evaluated. Demographic information and histopathological findings were noted. SPSS 16 was used for analyzing data. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA was conducted for comparing categorical and numerical variables respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.33±14.68 years old. Most common melanoma type was acral lentiginous (40.5%), followed by nodular (35.1%) and mucosal (10.8%). The highest tumor thickness was viewed in nodular melanoma followed by mucosal melanoma. The highest rate of metastasis, microsatellitosis, perineural invasion and Clark level of the invasion were reported in nodular and acral lentiginous respectively. The most frequent rate of ulceration and vascular invasion was reported in mucosal melanoma. Distribution of melanoma types varies largely in different regions. Lack of classic presentations in some types necessitate specific public education about warning signs. Histopathological and pathological characteristics in melanoma can aid in better staging and management of the tumor.

  8. [Clinical and histopathological characteristics of malignant melanoma cases seen at "Dr. Manuel Gea González" General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káram-Orantes, Marcia; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Veja-Memije, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma is a type of tumor that arises from melanocytes generally located in the dermoepidermal junction. Although melanoma is found in less than 10% of cases, mortality is high representing 75% of deaths attributed to cutaneous cancer. There are four major subtypes: Superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo malignant melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma and nodular melanoma. Superficial spreading melanoma is the most common type among Caucasians. In a Mexican case series, the nodular type is the most common type reported. The aim of this study was to determine the most common type seen at our medical facility. We analyzed patient's medical records from March 1981 to December 2006. Demographic data included sex, age, place of residence, occupation, tumor progression, location and clinical description. Histologically we evaluated tumor thickness using the Breslow scale; invasion was measured using the Clark scale. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study. 165 patients were studied, 112 were females and 53 males. The most common location was the lower limb. Acral lentiginous melanoma was the most common subtype. Our findings differ from the other series where they report nodular and superficial spreading melanoma as the most common types. The most common subtypes in our study were acral lentiginous melanoma and lentigo malignant melanoma among females, with a ratio of female-male of 2.1:1.

  9. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Expression in Proliferative Nodules Arising within Congenital Nevi Allows Differentiation from Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Olesya; Fraitag, Sylvie; Hohl, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of proliferative nodules in giant congenital nevi from melanoma arising within such nevi is an important diagnostic challenge. DNA methylation is a well-established epigenetic modification already observed in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis, which increases during melanoma progression. The ten-eleven translocation enzymes catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which has recently been reported as an epigenetic hallmark associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in a wide variety of cancers. In this study, we analyzed 12 proliferative nodules and 13 melanomas both arising in giant congenital nevi and matched results with a control group including 67 benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Proliferative nodules displayed high 5-hmC expression levels (90.65%) compared with melanomas with almost complete loss of this marker (7.87%). We showed that low 5-hmC levels in melanomas correlate with downregulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and ten-eleven translocation families of enzymes implicated in the cytosine methylation cycle. Simultaneously, these enzymes were overexpressed in proliferative nodules leading to strong 5-hmC expression. We emphasize the significance of 5-hmC loss for discrimination of melanomas from benign proliferative nodules arising within giant congenital nevi, and for establishing the correct diagnosis in ambiguous cases when histological and immunohistochemical characteristics are not sufficiently specific. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600-800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800-400-400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  11. Proliferation kinetics of a human malignant melanoma serially grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1984-01-01

    The technique of labelled mitoses and flow cytometric DNA analysis were used to determine the proliferation kinetics of a human malignant melanoma grown in nude mice. The effect of tumour volume and of long-term serial transplantation on the kinetic parameters was investigated. The results showed...... of the G1 duration time, whereas no significant changes occurred in the duration of the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The stability of the investigated tumour characteristics indicated that the kinetics of this melanoma remained unchanged during more than sixty serial transplantations in nude mice...

  12. Malignant melanoma and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A further case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoukian, S.; Briscioli, V.; Lalatta, F. [Instituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan (Italy)

    1997-01-20

    In a previous issue of this journal, Greene et al. described 2 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease who later developed cutaneous malignant melanoma. Although the development of the two diseases in the same patient may have occurred by chance, the authors raised the possibility of a shared neural crest defect or a genetic linkage. Among the patients reported by Greene et al., one had a dominant form of CMT. The patient`s mother and brother were similarly affected. A paternal aunt died of melanoma. The second patient had a neuronal type of CMT. His brother showed the same disease, but the parents were not examined. 7 refs.

  13. The relationship between mitotic rate and depth of invasion in biopsies of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Basir HR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir,1,2 Pedram Alirezaei,2 Sara Ahovan,3 Abbas Moradi3 1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psoriasis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Malignant melanoma of the skin is a potentially lethal neoplasm that generally originates from atypical melanocytes in the dermal–epidermal junction. When the neoplasm penetrates into the dermis, several variables can affect the extent of its spread, among which depth of invasion has the most important prognostic value. Mitotic rate is another prognostic factor that reflects the biological behavior of the neoplasm.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the probable relationship between the depth of invasion of malignant melanoma and its mitotic rate.Materials and methods: This study was performed on 50 excisional biopsy specimens that had received the diagnosis of malignant melanoma histopathologically. Tumor characteristics including Breslow thickness, Clark level, T-stage, and tumor mitotic rate were recorded.Results: We observed that at higher Clark levels and higher T-stages, and the mean mitotic rate was significantly increased. Moreover, there was a positive and significant correlation between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate. We demonstrated that one unit increase in mitotic rate was correlated with 0.8 mm increase in Breslow thickness of the tumor.Conclusion: In malignant melanoma, mitotic activity may probably indicate the depth of tumor invasion. Therefore, in incisional biopsies where depth of invasion cannot be accurately determined, the mitotic activity may be used to estimate Breslow thickness, which is necessary for planning surgical management. Keywords: melanoma, mitosis, Breslow, invasion, thickness, proliferation

  14. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast With Malignant Melanoma Component: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergine, Marco; Guy, Catherine; Taylor, Mark R

    2015-09-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast display a wide variation in histological appearance and are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant categories based on a combination of histological parameters. These tumors may include a malignant heterologous component that is believed to originate through a process of multidirectional differentiation from a cancer stem cell. In these cases, the tumor is classified as a malignant phyllodes tumor. Among the heterologous elements that have been described in malignant phyllodes tumors are rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma and angiosarcoma. We present the first case of a phyllodes tumor with a malignant melanoma component in the breast of a 71-year-old lady, discussing the clinical implications of this diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Trends in the incidence of malignant melanoma in Denmark 1978-2007. Incidence on the island of Bornholm compared with the whole country incidence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Klit, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, malignant melanoma is among the most rapidly increasing cancer types. Malignant melanoma accounts for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Sunshine is the main cause of the increase seen in melanoma incidence. Within Denmark, Bornholm is the area that receives most sunshine...

  16. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  17. Electrochemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunte, C; Letulé, V; Gehl, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (ECT) is an effective local treatment for cutaneous metastasis. Treatment involves the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs followed by delivery of electrical pulses to the tumour. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of ECT in cutaneous metastases of melanoma...... and to identify factors that affect (beneficially or adversely) the outcome. METHODS: Thirteen cancer centres in the International Network for Sharing Practices on Electrochemotherapy consecutively and prospectively uploaded data to a common database. ECT consisted of intratumoral or intravenous injection...... of lymphoedema and treatment of nonirradiated areas. Factors significantly associated with complete response to ECT treatment were coverage of deep margins, previous irradiation of the treated area and tumour size (

  18. Asymptomatic brain metastases in patients with cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Schmidt, Henrik; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the frequency of asymptomatic brain metastases detected by computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma referred to first-line systemic treatment. Between 1995 and 2009, 697 Danish patients were screened with a contrast......-enhanced CT scan of the brain before the start of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy. Among the 697 patients, 80 had asymptomatic brain metastases (12%). Patients' characteristics did not differ significantly between groups with and without brain metastases. Patients received systemic treatment (IL-2...

  19. Imaging malignant melanoma with {sup 18}F-5-FPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongyan; Xia, Xiaotian; Li, Chongjiao; Song, Yiling; Qin, Chunxia; Liu, Qingyao; Zhang, Yongxue; Lan, Xiaoli [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging (China)

    2016-01-15

    Radiolabelled benzamides are attractive candidates for targeting melanoma because they bind to melanin and exhibit high tumour uptake and retention. {sup 18}F-5-Fluoro-N-(2-[diethylamino]ethyl)picolinamide ({sup 18}F-5-FPN), a benzamide analogue, was prepared and its pharmacokinetics and binding affinity evaluated both in vitro and in vivo to assess its clinical potential in the diagnosis and staging of melanoma. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was prepared and purified. Its binding specificity was measured in vitro in two different melanoma cell lines, one pigmented (B16F10 cells) and one nonpigmented (A375m cells), and in vivo in mice xenografted with the same cell lines. Dynamic and static PET images using {sup 18}F-5-FPN were obtained in the tumour-bearing mice, and the static images were also compared with those acquired with {sup 18}F-FDG. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-5-FPN was also performed in B16F10 tumour-bearing mice with lung metastases. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was successfully prepared with radiochemical yields of 5 - 10 %. Binding of {sup 18}F-5-FPN to B16F10 cells was much higher than to A375m cells. On dynamic PET imaging B16F10 tumours were visible about 1 min after injection of the tracer, and the uptake gradually increased over time. {sup 18}F-5-FPN was rapidly excreted via the kidneys. B16F10 tumours were clearly visible on static images acquired 1 and 2 h after injection, with high uptake values of 24.34 ± 6.32 %ID/g and 16.63 ± 5.41 %ID/g, respectively, in the biodistribution study (five mice). However, there was no visible uptake by A375m tumours. {sup 18}F-5-FPN and {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging were compared in B16F10 tumour xenografts, and the tumour-to-background ratio of {sup 18}F-5-FPN was ten times higher than that of {sup 18}F-FDG (35.22 ± 7.02 vs. 3.29 ± 0.53, five mice). {sup 18}F-5-FPN PET imaging also detected simulated lung metastases measuring 1 - 2 mm. {sup 18}F-5-FPN specifically targeted melanin in vitro and in vivo with high retention and affinity

  20. Activation of the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling Pathway is Rare in Canine Malignant Melanoma Tissue and Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, E.; Thompson, V.; Schmid, S.; Stein, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Canine malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour associated with a poor overall survival rate due to both local disease recurrence and its highly metastatic nature. Similar to advanced melanoma in man, canine oral melanoma is poorly responsive to conventional anti-cancer therapies. The lack of sustainable disease control warrants investigation of novel therapies, preferably targeting features specific to the tumour and different from normal cells. The Wnt signalling pathway is known to contribute to melanocytic lineage development in vertebrates and perturbation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in numerous cancer types. Alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are suggested to occur in a subset of human melanomas, although the precise role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma is yet to be defined. This study investigates the activation status of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in canine malignant melanoma and its potential as a therapeutic target for treating this disease. The data indicate canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a rare event in canine oral malignant melanoma tissue and canine malignant melanoma cell lines. PMID:22901430

  1. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma.

  2. Clinical characteristics, management and survival in young adults diagnosed with malignant melanoma: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plym, Anna; Ullenhag, Gustav J; Breivald, Mats; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Few studies to date have described the clinical features of malignant melanoma in young adulthood. Also, little is known about patterns of care in young patients. We examined and compared clinical characteristics, management and survival between young adult (15-39 years) and older adult melanoma patients in Central Sweden. Patients diagnosed with invasive malignant melanoma between 1997 and 2011 were identified in the Regional Quality Register of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Central Sweden, a population-based register covering a source population of about two million. Data on clinical characteristics, management and survival were retrieved and compared according to age at diagnosis. Of 5915 patients included in the study, 584 (9.9%) were between 15 and 39 years of age at diagnosis. Compared with older patients, young adult patients were more likely to be female, with higher proportions of thin, non-ulcerated melanomas, superficial spreading melanoma and melanomas located on the lower extremity. Young adults had shorter waiting times for surgical procedures and a higher proportion received surgical treatment according to guidelines. Overall, young patients had better relative survival than older patients. Age-related survival differences varied by stage of disease at diagnosis, and were most prominent in stage II disease. The observed differences in clinical characteristics, management and survival between young adult and older melanoma patients call for an improved understanding of not only disease etiology but also factors driving management decisions. A better understanding of these differences may help improve care and prognosis for melanoma patients of all ages.

  3. Phase II study of ipilimumab in adolescents with unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geoerger, Birgit; Bergeron, Christophe; Gore, Lia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in adults; however, little information on the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in younger patients is available. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to ... malignant melanoma received ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Primary end-points were 1-year overall survival and safety. RESULTS: Over a period of 3.5 years, 12 patients received ipilimumab at either 3 mg/kg (n = 4) or 10 mg/kg (n = 8). The median number of ipilimumab doses was four for 3 mg....... There was one grade 3/4 immune-mediated adverse reaction with 3 mg/kg and five with 10 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related deaths. The study was stopped due to slow accrual. CONCLUSIONS: At >1 year follow-up, ipilimumab demonstrated activity in melanoma patients aged 12 to safety...

  4. Targeting the Cellular Signaling: BRAF Inhibition and Beyond for the Treatment of Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ades

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although advances in cytotoxic treatments have been obtained in several neoplasias, in metastatic melanoma there was no drug able to significantly change the natural history of the disease in the last 30 years. In the last decade, translational research identified important mechanisms in malignant transformation, invasion, and progression. Signaling pathways can be abnormally activated by oncogenes. The identification of oncogenic mutated kinases implicated in this process provides an opportunity for new target therapies. The melanoma dependence on BRAF-mutated kinase allowed the development of inhibitors that produced major responses in clinical trials. This is the beginning of a novel class of drugs in metastatic melanoma; the identification of the transduction signaling networking and other “druggable” kinases is in active research. In this paper, we discuss the ongoing research on cellular signaling inhibition, resistance mechanisms, and strategies to overcome treatment failure.

  5. The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx-case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepanovic, D.; Pobijakova, M.; Paluga, M.; Rybnikarova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx (hereinafter referred to collectively as the sinonasal tract, i.e., sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas [SNMMs]) is rare, accounting for between 0.3% and 2% of all malignant melanomas and about 4% of head and neck melanomas. Surgery is the treatment of choice for sinonasal mucosal malignant melanomas, especially complete resection of the tumor with sufficient free margins. Radiotherapy has controversial role in the treatment. Melanoma cells are traditionally considered as radioresistant because they have a high capacity for repair of sublethal damages, in particular when we used a conventional fractionation. Therefore, hypo fractionation considered as a reasonable treatment regimen for this disease. Case: In this paper, we have reported the patient with intranasal cavity malignant melanoma. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor. However, using positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan with fluorodeoxyglucose was diagnosed residual nasopharyngeal tumor. Then, intracavitary brachytherapy for nasopharynx was further administered. Solitary metastatic cervical nodal involvement which was completely removed has been occurred 6 months after the end of brachytherapy. Even with the regional disease progression, we used external radiation therapy, as a modality of treatment. Conclusion: We decided to show this case report because of its rarity and the possible use of radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Characteristic findings of computed tomography in cerebral metastatic malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Chikashige; Nose, Tadao; Nakagawa, Kunio; Tomono, Yuji; Enomoto, Takao; Hashikawa, Masanori; Egashira, Taihei; Maki, Yutaka

    1986-01-01

    Four cases with metastatic cerebral melanoma were studied by means of computed tomography (CT). Two cases were male, and the other two were female, with an average age of 55 years. Their primary lesions were on the chest wall in two cases, around the calcaneus in one, and around the genitalia in one. All cases died within 6 months after the metastatic brain lesions were found. Necropsies were carried out in two cases. CT revealed high-density areas in all cases, and contrast studies showed an enhancement of the lesions, as has previously been reported. On the other hand, autopsied cases revealed neither fresh nor old intratumoral bleedings such as a scattered focus of hemosiderin. These findings suggest that the high-density tumoral shadows in CT are probably not intratumoral bleedings due to a bleeding tendency of the tumors, as some authors have previously supposed. We mentioned some other factors contributing to the high density of the melanoma on computed tomograms. (author)

  7. [Malignant Choroidal Melanoma in T4 Orbital Stage; Prosthesis of the Orbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Ferková, A; Krásnik, V; Krčová, I; Horkovičová, K

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the eye is extremely difficul; surgical treatment in advanced stages, when the tumor grows in the orbit, leads to extensive radical surgery of the face. The extent and nature of surgical procedures depends on the nature of the tumor process, in advanced stages is indicated mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. Exenteration of the orbit due to the extrascleral extension of malignant melanoma of the uvea is very rare, unfortunately, even today in certain cases it is necessary to make such a mutilating surgery. Case report--65 year old female patient, sent to our Departement in 2008 with the finding of the pigment deposits on the posterior pole of the left eye. Ultrasound study found elevations of up to 3 mm, she was asked to come for further control in three months interval. She did not coma, furthermore she sporadically attended another eye clinic. In 2011 she was treated for secondary glaucoma--cyclocryopexia. Due to pain another surgery--tarzoraphia was indicated. In 2012 she underwent surgery at St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in Bratislava--Nefrectomia transperitoneally l. dx., excision hepatis. Histological examination in addition to the primary papillary renal carcinoma--mucinous tubular T1 Nx Mx type, found the metastasis of malignant melanoma to the liver and right kidney. She underwent the diagnostic procedure to find the origo of the melanoma. The patient was subsequently admitted to our clinic with blind painfull eye for enucleation. During the surgery the was found retrobulbar tumor ingrowth. Histopatholigical findings confirmed malignant melanoma. Indicated was exenteration of the orbit due to malignant melanoma T4 N0 M2 stage in June 2012. After healing of the cavity she was recommended to design an individual prosthesis. After completing several courses of palliative chemotherapy during a recent review in January 2015 the patient is without recurrence of the melanoma in the orbit Histological examination

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporters Glut-1 and Glut-3 in human malignant melanomas and benign melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parente Paola

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported data indicate that cancer cells have increased rates of glucose metabolism, as determined by 18FDG-PET imaging in patients with malignancies. The results of many studies have demonstrated that the expression of glucose transporters, especially Glut-1, is increased in a variety of malignancies. This study was undertaken to assess the differential expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 by benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for Glut-1 and Glut-3 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections prepared from melanocytic nevi (12 cases, Spitz nevi (12 cases and primary cutaneous malignant melanomas (20 cases. Results We observed immunoreactivity for Glut-1 in all melanocytic nevi, 9 of the 12 Spitz nevi and in 9 of the 20 malignant melanomas, whereas Glut-3 was expressed in all the melanocytic lesions, both benign and malignant. Conclusion These findings indicate that the glucose transporters Glut-1 and Glut-3 play a role in the glucose metabolism of melanocytic cells. Glut-1 was present in the majority of benign nevi, whereas its expression was downregulated in 55% of malignant melanomas. Our results suggest that glucose transporter Glut-1 expression can significantly discriminate between human malignant melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi, and support the idea that additional mechanisms other than Glut-1 may contribute to glucose uptake in melanomas.

  9. Malignant melanoma in 63 dogs (2001-2011): the effect of carboplatin chemotherapy on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockley, L K; Cooper, M A; Bennett, P F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of carboplatin chemotherapy on the survival of canine patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma after loco-regional control or as a sole therapy. A retrospective study of 63 dogs with oral, digital or cutaneous malignant melanoma treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy was undertaken. Dogs were grouped based on the anatomical site of melanoma development. For oral melanoma, dogs were subclassified into two groups: loco-regional control and gross disease. All patients in the digital and cutaneous groups had achieved loco-regional control with surgery. Comparisons between survival data for each group at each anatomical site were then made. Within the loco-regional control groups survival time was compared between those treated with and without chemotherapy post surgery. For the oral melanoma patients with gross disease survival was compared between those treated with chemotherapy and palliative therapy. The toxicity of carboplatin chemotherapy was evaluated overall. The overall median survival times for patients with oral, digital and cutaneous melanoma were 389, 1,350 days and not reached (with a median follow-up of 776 days) respectively. Median survival time was defined as "not reached" when less than 50% of the subjects died of the disease at the end of the follow-up period, or at the time they were lost to follow-up. The addition of chemotherapy to surgery did not confer a survival benefit in the loco-regional control setting when assessing survival for each anatomical site. For oral melanoma patients with gross disease there was no difference between survival of patients treated with chemotherapy and palliative intent therapy. There was however an improvement in survival in the three dogs that responded to chemotherapy (978 days; p=0.039) compared to the eight non-responders (147 days). On univariate and multivariate analysis, anatomic location was the only variable that was significantly related to survival (p=0

  10. Immunosuppressive cytokines in the regional lymph node of a dog suffering from oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, B; Gould, S M; Kellett-Gregory, L M; Dobson, J M

    2002-10-01

    A 10-year-old male cross-breed dog was referred for investigation of oral malignant melanoma. Fine-needle aspirates were taken from the draining submandibular lymph node. The presence of metastatic melanoma cells was confirmed by cytological examination and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers for the melanoma-associated antigens: tyrosinase and mart-1/melan A. Cytokine expression in the lymph node was evaluated by multiplex RT-PCR, which demonstrated the presence of mRNA for IL-10 and TGF-beta1. However, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNgamma mRNA could not be detected, suggesting a lack of immune activation. Thoracic radiographs showed a lesion within the caudal lung fields suggestive of pulmonary metastasis. The dog developed signs of dyspnoea and collapse and was euthanased four days later. This case illustrates that molecular techniques can be used to aid clinical staging of canine oral malignant melanoma, and suggests that immunosuppressive cytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

  11. Majority of the most-cited articles on cutaneous malignant melanoma are published in non-dermatology/melanoma specialized journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The most-cited articles. (MCAs) are likely those that impressed other researchers and had profound influence on clinical practice or future developments in the related scientific field. This study was conducted to explore a bibliometric approach to assess in where the cutaneous malignant melanoma. (CMM) related MCAs have been published. We identified journals for publications with the word "melanoma" in the title by using the ISI Web of Knowledge Database between 2000 and 2010. The term MCAs arbitrarily defined as equal or more than 100 citations. A total of 425 MCAs were published in 93 journals, led by the Cancer Research. (n = 58) and Journal of Clinical Oncology. (n = 53). Journal categories with the MCAs were the Oncology with 232 articles, followed by the Medicine with 138. articles. The median number of citations was 147. The total numbers of citations were most prominent for the journal Nature and the New England Journal of Medicine. (NEJM) (median 385 and 354, respectively). Total number of citations was the highest for the Science.categorized journals. (median 211). Articles categorized as Dermatology and Melanoma was the least (median 132.5). The median number of citations per year was 14.91. The most valuable cited articles of per year were also published in the journal Nature. (median 59.67) and the NEJM. (median 48.67). The number of citation was the highest for the Science-categorized journals. (median 25.92). Majority of the MCAs on CMM were published in non-dermatology/melanoma specialized journals.

  12. Nodular progression of lentigo malignant melanoma during a treatment with tocilizumab: cause or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finet, A; Amini-Adle, M; Balme, B; Colson, F; Thomas, L

    2013-02-01

    Tocilizumab is an anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, used since 2010 for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is known to induce infection, similarly to other biotherapies which modulate immune response and cytokines. Few cases of malignancy, however, have as yet been reported. We describe here the case of a patient with severe RA, previously treated with prednisolone, methotrexate, leflunomide, etanercept, and rituximab, who, after 8 months of treatment with tocilizumab, developed rapidly progressive nodular melanoma on a preexisting pigmented lesion on her left cheek. Recently, another case of nodular melanoma under tocilizumab has been published. The possible causative role of tocilizumab and other immunomodulatory agents in the development of this malignancy is discussed. Based on the present case, dermatologic screening is recommended before initiation of tocilizumab.

  13. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2009-08-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  14. Neuropsychiatric complications associated with interferon - alpha -2b treatment of malignant melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enudi, W

    2012-02-01

    Several adverse effects have been associated with interferon alpha 2b treatment and neuropsychiatric effects have also been commonly reported. Psychosis and mood disorders have been described in the literature. This case report is of a 30 year old man with malignant melanoma stage 3a who was receiving adjuvant alpha 2b interferon and developed a manic episode two weeks post switching after one month of treatment on a high dose to a low dose. There was no previous psychiatric illness and no known family history of mental illness. This is in keeping with previous reports that mania has been observed in patients undergoing interferon treatment especially after significant dose-reduction or treatment breaks. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs .Since interferon alpha 2b is now commonly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other conditions, the need to be aware of its neuropsychiatric complications is essential.

  15. Some Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Genetic Predisposition to Malignant Melanoma and Tumours of Various Site of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębniak Tadeusz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on epidemiological data we can assume that at least some malignant melanoma (MM and breast cancer cases can be caused by the same genetic factors. CDKN2A, which encodes the p16 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor suppressing cell proliferation, is regarded as a major melanoma susceptibility gene and the literature has also implicated this gene in predisposition to breast cancer. Genes also known to predispose to MM include XPD and MC1R. We studied CDKN2A/ARF, XPD and MC1R for their associations with melanoma and breast cancer risk in Polish patients and controls. We found that CDKN2A and ARF do not contribute significantly to either familial melanoma or malignant melanoma within the context of a cancer familial aggregation of disease with breast cancer. However, the common variant of the CDKN2A gene A148T, previously regarded as non-pathogenic, may predispose to malignant melanoma, early-onset breast cancer and lung cancer. Compound carriers of common XPD variants may be at slightly increased risk of breast cancer or late–onset malignant melanoma. Common recurrent variants of the MC1R gene (V60L, R151C, R163Q and R160W may predispose to malignant melanoma. In general, the establishment of surveillance protocols proposed as an option for carriers of common alterations in CDKN2A, XPD or MC1R variants requires additional studies. It is possible that missense variants of genes for which truncating mutations are clearly pathogenic may also be deleterious, but with reduced penetrance. This may be overlooked unless large numbers of patients and controls are studied. A registry that includes 2000 consecutive breast cancer cases, 3500 early onset breast cancer patients, 500 unselected malignant melanoma and over 700 colorectal cancer patients has been established in the International Hereditary Cancer Centre and can contribute to these types of large association studies.

  16. Improving early recognition of malignant melanomas by digital image analysis in dermatoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, A; Stolz, W; Neiss, A; Abmayr, W; Pompl, R; Bernklau, A; Bunk, W; Dersch, D R; Glässl, A; Schiffner, R; Morfill, G

    1997-01-01

    The malignant melanoma (MM) is the most dangerous human skin disease. The incidence increased dramatically during the last years. The only chance for the patient is an early recognition and excision of the MM. The best diagnostic method for this is skin surface microscopy or dermatoscopy. Its use, however, requires much expertise. In order to support learning and using the method, a computer-based dermatoscopy workstation is being developed. Among others, new complexity measures are used for the image analysis.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS SURGICAL RESECTIONS OF TWO DISTANT METASTATIC MALIGNANT MELANOMA LESIONS ? CASE REPORT ?

    OpenAIRE

    TANEI, TAKAFUMI; NAKAHARA, NORIMOTO; TAKEBAYASHI, SHIGENORI; HIRANO, MASAKI; WAKABAYASHI, TOSHIHIKO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 41-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness, right hemiparesis, and symptoms of Gerstmann syndrome. She had a history of malignant melanoma resections of an ear mole and her right neck lymph nodes and parotid gland, with subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Computed tomography showed two large lesions in the right frontal and left parietal lobes surrounded by severe brain edema. Magnetic resonance images revealed that the two lesions were strongly enhanced wi...

  18. Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, David L.; Zhao, Z. Z.; Sturm, Richard A.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously described the role of red hair (Melanocortin 1 Receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye and skin colour. In this paper, we test a selected set of polymorphisms in pigmentatio...

  19. Recurrent Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Isolated Pleural Metastases in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartik Anand; Shashank Cingam; Prakash Peddi

    2017-01-01

    Isolated pleural metastasis with pleural effusion is a rare occurrence in malignant melanoma. We report an unusual case of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and recurrent pleural effusions. The pleural fluid cytology and immunohistochemistry profile were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL. However, chemotherapy with pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab did not result in any meaningful clinical response. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and biopsy of the affecte...

  20. The role of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes in invasion and dissemination of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalyk, L.S.; Tsanev, P.E.; Parshikova, S.M.; Demidov, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Preoperative chemo- and radiation therapy was followed by a decrease in lysosomal cathepsins activity in metastatic lymph nodes which, however, did not reach the level established for intact lymph nodes. The pathogenetic role of proteolytic endopeptidases in invasion and sissemination of malignant melanoma is discussed as well as the value of their level measurement for assessing metastatic potential of tumor and prognosis of disease of disease on the basis of tumor site, degree of invasion regional lymph node status

  1. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Marina; Pagnan, Gabriella; Loi, Monica; Mura, Maria Elena; Tilocca, Maria Giovanna; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Delogu, Giovanna; Ponzoni, Mirco; Rozzo, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancer and chemotherapeutic agents currently in use are still unsatisfactory. Prevention and early diagnosis are the only effective tools against this tumour whose incidence and mortality rates are highly increased during the last decades in fair skin populations. Therefore the search for novel therapeutic approaches is warranted. Aim of this work was to identify and test new compounds with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on melanoma cells. We tested eugenol together with six natural and synthetic eugenol-related compounds for their capability to inhibit cell growth on primary melanoma cell lines established from patients' tissue samples. Results Eugenol and isoeugenol monomers and their respective O-methylated forms did not show to inhibit melanoma cells proliferation. Conversely, the dimeric forms (biphenyls) showed some antiproliferative activity which was mild for dehydrodieugenol, higher for its O,O'-methylated form (O,O'-dimethyl-dehydrodieugenol), and markedly pronounced for the racemic mixture of the brominated biphenyl (6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol) (S7), being its enantiomeric form (S) the most effective compared to the other compounds. Such activity resulted to be selective against tumour cells, without affecting cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Dose and time dependence curves have been obtained for the enantiomeric form S7-(S). Then IC50 and minimal effective doses and times have been established for the melanoma cell lines tested. TUNEL and phosphatidylserine exposure assays demonstrated the occurrence of apoptotic events associated with the antiproliferative activity of S7-(S). Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induced by treating melanoma cells with eugenol-related biphenyls was partially dependent by caspase activation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the eugenol related biphenyl (S)-6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol elicits specific antiproliferative activity on

  2. Use of adjuvant carboplatin for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma following surgical excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, G; Rassnick, K M; Sokolovsky, Y; Garrett, L D; Post, G S; Kitchell, B E; Sellon, R K; Kleiter, M; Northrup, N; Segev, G

    2014-03-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in dogs. This retrospective study evaluated adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy (with or without radiation therapy) in 17 dogs with malignant oral melanoma following surgical resection. The median dosage and number of doses of carboplatin administered to the 17 dogs was 300 mg m(-2) (range, 150-300 mg m(-2)) and 4 (range, 2-11), respectively. The overall median progression-free survival for all dogs was 259 days [95% confidence interval (CI95), 119-399 days]. The first progression-free survival event was local recurrence in seven dogs (41%) and metastases in seven dogs (41%). The median overall survival for all dogs was 440 days (CI95, 247-633 days). The tumour was the cause of death in 10 dogs (59%). On the basis of this study, systemic therapy with carboplatin may be an appropriate adjunct to local treatment for canine malignant melanoma, although future prospective controlled studies are needed to compare treatment modalities for this aggressive neoplasia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Motomo Chojniak

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-randomizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro basal tratados por termoterapia transpupilar utilizando-se sucessivas aplicações de laser diodo contínuo de 810 nm. Resultados: Foram tratados 11 pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos. O tumor era único e pigmentado em 100% dos casos. Crescimento documentado esteve presente em 5 pacientes (45,45% previamente ao tratamento e fatores de risco para crescimento ou metástase estavam presentes em todos os pacientes. O tempo de seguimento destes pacientes a partir do tratamento foi em média de 5,72 meses (3 - 8 meses. Foram utilizadas 3 sessões de laser em 5 pacientes (45,45% e 4 sessões em 6 pacientes (64,64%. As lesões apresentavam, por ocasião do diagnóstico, uma espessura média de 2,65 mm (1,85-3,86 mm, com maior diâmetro basal médio de 7,98 mm (4,2-11,33 mm. Após o tratamento, a espessura média foi de 1,83 mm (0,98-2,93 mm e o maior diâmetro basal médio foi de 6,59 mm (3,81 mm -10,67 mm. Das lesões tratadas, 100% apresentaram diminuição da altura e do máximo diâmetro basal, tendo sido a diminuição média da espessura de 0,89 mm e do máximo diâmetro basal de 1,39 mm. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 5 casos (45,45% e piorou após o tratamento em 6 casos (54,54%. Ocorreram complicações em 9 casos, tendo sido considerada complicação grave 1 caso de descolamento parcial da retina (9,09%; as outras complicações foram consideradas leves: pequenas hemorragias intra-retinianas em 7 pacientes (63

  4. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divgi, C.R.; Larson, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The use of antibodies directed against tumors has found increasing usefulness after the discovery by Kohler and Milstein of hybridoma technology, which made it possible to obtain monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that reacted specifically against a particular epitope on a particular antigen site. Relative tumor specificity and a lack of significant toxicity, together with the ability to link radionuclides (both halogens and metals) without significant deterioration of biologic behavioral characteristics such as immunoreactivity, have enabled widespread use of radiolabeled MoAbs in several malignancies, including and especially malignant melanoma. There is a significant body of data indicating that radiolabeled MoAbs directed against melanoma-associated antigens have an important role in the detection and therapy of metastatic malignant melanoma. Detection of visceral disease, while currently suboptimal, will in the future improve with optimization of SPECT imaging using 99mTc-labeled MoAb Fab fragments. This may result in an attenuated or absent antimouse response, especially after one injection, unless of course coinfused with either specific and/or nonspecific intact immunoglobulin (Ig). Radiolabeled fragments play an important role in radioimmunotherapy in metastatic melanoma. This role may be enhanced by the development of newer chelating agents that will decrease nonspecific hepatic uptake of radionuclide, enabling the use of beta-emitting radiometals such as 90Y. The recent report demonstrating diminished hepatic uptake of 99mTc-labeled anti-high molecular weight antigen (HMWA) Fab shows promise, since the same labeling technique can be used to deliver radiotherapeutic agents such as 186Re, which may be labeled to MoAb with methods similar to those used for 99mTc.82 references

  5. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão.A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  6. The EMT-related transcription factor snail up-regulates FAPα in malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanmei; Wang, Zhaotong; Sun, Yanqin; Chen, Junhu; Zhang, Biao; Wu, Minhua; Li, Tianyu; Hu, Li; Zeng, Jun

    2018-03-15

    FAPα is a cell surface serine protease, mainly expressed in tumor stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of human epithelial carcinomas. Due to its almost no expression in normal tissues and its tumor-promoting effects, FAPα has been studied as a novel potential target for antitumor therapy. However, the regulation mechanism on FAPα expression is poorly understood. In this study, we found that overexpression of snail significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of FAPα in malignant melanoma B16 and SK-MEL-28 cells. Overexpression of snail increased FAPα promoter activity remarkably. Snail could directly bind to FAPα promoter to regulate FAPα expression. Moreover, snail expression was positively correlated to FAPα expression in human cutaneous malignant melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of FAPα markedly reduced snail-induced cell migration. Overall, our findings provide a novel regulation mechanism on FAPα expression and highlight the role of snail/FAPα axis as a novel target for melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of malignant melanoma of the maxilla treated by adoptive immunotherapy after fast neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morifuji, Masayo; Ohishi, Masamichi; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Ozeki, Satoru; Tashiro, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A 77-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma was treated by fast neutron therapy and immunotherapy. Total dose of fast neutron applied to the primary lesion was 1905 cGy per 21 fractionation for 46 days. For adoptive immunotherapy, lymphocytes were collected from the peripheral blood drawn from the patient 2 days after the injection of cyclophosphamide. T cells were further purified by passing the lymphocytes through nylon wool. Cytotoxic T cells were induced by incubating the T cells mixed with allogeneic malignant melanoma cells and a small number of patient's adherent cells, and activated with recombinant interleukin-2 (γ IL-2). Our patient and the patient from whom stimulating melanoma cells were derived shared A locous 24 and B locous 51 of MHC class I antigens in common. Thus prepared cytotoxic T cells were inoculated to the patient via the maxillary artery, 3 to 4 times a week for one month. Total amount of cells transferred was 5.6 x 10 8 (97% lymphocytes). Primary lesion reduced markedly by the therapies. During adoptive immunotherapy, increase in natural killer cells and decrease in both suppressor/inducer T-cells and macrophages were observed. However, lung metastases appeared 3 months after adoptive immunotherapy. While the nonspecific immunotherapy (OK-432 injection) was being conducted thereafter, growth of the metastatic lesions of the lung was kept gentle but became obvious after the suspension of the treatment. (author)

  8. Clinical assessment of 67 Ga-citrate tumor scintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Takagi, Yaeko; Kubo, Atsushi; Sanmiya, Toshikazu; Okano, Yoshiyuki.

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the value of 67 Ga-citrate scan in cases of malignant melanoma, 63 scans were obtained from 22 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the 67 Ga-citrate scan for detection of affected patients were excellent, that is, 85.7%, 100%, 95.2%, respectively. Of the 92 lesions of grossly or pathologically proven melanoma, 65 (70.7%) were detected by routine 67 Ga-citrate scan. The smallest lesion that could be detected was the nodular skin metastasis of 4 mm in diameter. Many patients with positive 67 Ga-citrate scan showed elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protain, lactic dehydrogenase and increased levels of alpha-2 globulin in serum total protain. The life expectancy of patients with an abnormal scan was shorter than that of patients with a normal scan. 67 Ga-citrate whole body scan reliably revealed the extent of malignant melanoma, and is of value in clinical management. (author)

  9. Clinical assessment of /sup 67/Ga-citrate tumor scintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru (National Hospital of Okura, Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Yaeko; Kubo, Atsushi; Sanmiya, Toshikazu; Okano, Yoshiyuki

    1984-07-01

    In a retrospective study of the value of /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan in cases of malignant melanoma, 63 scans were obtained from 22 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan for detection of affected patients were excellent, that is, 85.7%, 100%, 95.2%, respectively. Of the 92 lesions of grossly or pathologically proven melanoma, 65 (70.7%) were detected by routine /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan. The smallest lesion that could be detected was the nodular skin metastasis of 4 mm in diameter. Many patients with positive /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan showed elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, lactic dehydrogenase and increased levels of alpha-2 globulin in serum total protein. The life expectancy of patients with an abnormal scan was shorter than that of patients with a normal scan. /sup 67/Ga-citrate whole body scan reliably revealed the extent of malignant melanoma, and is of value in clinical management.

  10. A Case of Malignant Melanoma of the Uterine Cervix with Disseminated Metastases throughout the Vaginal Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Noguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM in the female genital tract accounts for less than 2% of all melanomas, and the vast majority associated occur in the vulva and vagina. Primary MM of the uterine cervix is extremely rare and its prognosis is very poor. We report a case of primary MM of the cervix with dissemination throughout the vaginal wall. A 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a 2 cm polypoid blackish-pigmented tumor on the cervix with multiple small blackish-pigmented lesions throughout the vaginal wall. Cervical Pap smear cytology showed malignant melanoma. MRI and PET/CT did not detect any distant or lymph node metastases. She underwent radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and total vaginectomy. The pathological diagnosis was FIGO stage IIIA primary cervical MM. She received adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 courses of dacarbazine, but 6 months later, multiple lung metastases were detected. Despite 4 courses of anti-PD-1 antibody (nivolumab treatment, she died of the disease 13 months after surgery.

  11. Downregulation of miR-125b in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Martin; Rossing, Maria; Hother, Christoffer; Holst, Line; Hastrup, Nina; Nielsen, Finn C; Gniadecki, Robert; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to identify microRNA species involved in the earliest metastatic event in cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM). Samples from 28 patients with MM [stage T2 (tumor), M0 (distant metastasis)] were grouped by the presence of micrometastasis in the sentinel lymph nodes (N0/N1). Melanoma cells were harvested from primary, cutaneous MM tumors by laser-capture microdissection, and microRNA expression profiles were obtained by the microarray technique. Results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We found that miR-125b was downregulated in the primary cutaneous melanomas that produced early metastases (T2, N1, M0) compared with the sentinel lymph node-negative (T2, N0, M0) melanomas. MiR-125b has earlier been found to be downregulated in other tumor types and in atypic naevi compared with the common acquired naevi. In conclusion, miR-125b may be involved in an early progression of cutaneous MM.

  12. [Malignant melanoma of the skin in Denmark--epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Maase, H; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Dahlstrøm, K K; Geertsen, P F; Gjedde, S B; Hastrup, N C; Holmberg, S B; Krag, C; Lock-Andersen, J

    1992-07-06

    About 700 new cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are registered annually in Denmark. The incidence is increasing rapidly and the number of new cases increases by more than 5% per annum. The most important phenotypical risk factors are the number of acquired pigmented naevi and exposure to sunlight is the most important risk factor in the external environment so that severe sunburn in children and intermittent intense exposure to sunlight increase the risk of melanoma. The thickness of the tumour at the time of the diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. The prognosis deteriorates with increasing thickness. Treatment is primarily surgical. In cases of inoperable local melanoma and regional recurrences, irradiation may be administered. Chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy are of experimental character. In the light of the rapidly increasing incidence, it is important that knowledge of risk factors for development of the disease and the clinical characteristics of early melanoma is spread to not only the medical profession but also to the general public.

  13. Single sternal metastasis due to malignant melanoma with unexpected long-term survival: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogakos AS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apostolos S Gogakos,1 Dimitrios Paliouras,1 Christos Asteriou,1 Thomas Rallis,1 Achilleas Lazopoulos,1 Fotios Chatzinikolaou,2 Athanassios Zissimopoulos,3 Drosos Tsavlis,4 Katerina Tsirgogianni,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,4 Kosmas Tsakiridis,5 Georgia Pitsiou,4 Ioannis Kioumis,4 Ilias Karapantzos,6 Chrysanthi Karapantzou,6 Nikos Sachpekidis,5 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Nikolaos Barbetakis1 1Thoracic Surgery Department, 2Department of Pathology, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, 3Nuclear Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 4Pulmonary Department – Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 5Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, 6Ear, Nose and Throat Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Panorama, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Metastases from melanoma have a very poor prognosis for the patient. Single metastatic lesions in the sternum due to melanoma are extremely rare. A rare case of a presternal mass in a 56-year-old patient who had undergone excision for malignant melanoma is presented. Review of the patient’s history and surgical resection of a single metastatic soft tissue lesion offer the best chance of long-term survival. Keywords: melanoma, metastasis, chest wall, sternum

  14. Workplace investigation of increased diagnosis of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.H. II; Patterson, H.W.; Hatch, F.; Discher, D.; Schneider, J.S.; Bennett, D.

    1994-08-01

    Based on rates for the surrounding communities, the diagnosis rate of malignant melanoma for employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 1972 to 1977 was three to four times higher than expected. In 1984 Austin and Reynolds concluded, as a result of a case-control study, that five occupational factors were {open_quotes}causally associated{close_quotes} with melanoma risk at LLNL. These factors were: (1) exposure to radioactive materials, (2) work at Site 300, (3) exposure to volatile photographic chemicals, (4) presence at the Pacific Test Site, and (5) chemist duties. Subsequent reviews of the Austin and Reynolds report concluded that the methods used were appropriate and correctly carried out. These reports did determine, however, that Austin and Reynolds` conclusion concerning a causal relationship between occupational factors and melanoma among employees was overstated. There is essentially no supporting evidence linking the occupational factors with melanoma from animal studies or human epidemiology. Our report summarizes the results of further investigation of potential occupational factors.

  15. [Psychological aspects of immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Pánczél, Gitta; Melegh, Krisztina; Balatoni, Tímea; Pörneczy, Edit; Lõrincz, Lenke; Czirbesz, Kata; Gorka, Eszter; Liszkay, Gabriella

    2016-03-02

    Psychological problems may arise in connection with oncomedical treatments in three ways: 1. acute and/or 2. chronic ways, as well as 3. co-morbid psychiatric diseases that already exist must also be taken into account. Immunotherapies have the most common and also clinically relevant psychological side effects. Fatigue, anhedonia, social isolation, psychomotor slowness is reported during treatment. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) immunotherapy can present one of the most modern opportunities for adequate treatment for patients having distant metastasis or unresectable tumour. In relation to immunotherapies, acute psychological side effects (acute stress) emerging during treatments develop in a way that can mostly be linked to environmental factors, e.g. notification of diagnosis, hospitalisation, progression, deterioration in quality of life, imminent dates of control. Crisis is a temporary and threatening condition that endangers psychological balance. In such conditions, enhanced psychological vulnerability must be taken into account and doctors play a key role in the rapid recognition of the condition. Chronic psychological problems, which may arise from the depressogenic effect of the applied treatment or originated from a pre-melanoma psychiatric condition, may exceed the diagnostic and psychotherapeutic competences of a clinical psychologist. Even in case of a well-defined depressogenic biological mechanism such as the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathway, positive environmental effects can reduce symptoms and thus increase compliance. Side effects can be treated successfully using psychotherapeutic methods and/or psychiatric medicines. The application of routinely used complex psychosocial screening packages can provide the easiest method to identify worsening psychological condition during immunotherapy and give rapid feedback to the oncologist and the patient. Team work is of particular importance in a situation like this as it requires

  16. Malignant melanoma in the penguin: characterization of the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of malignant melanoma in 10 individuals from three species of penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ann E; Smedley, Rebecca; Anthony, Simon; Garner, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Malignant melanomas are aggressive neoplasms that are relatively common in penguins compared to other avian species. In this study, the clinical and pathologic characteristics of melanocytic neoplasms in five macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus), three rock hopper (Eudyptes chrysocome), and two Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) penguins are described. Tumors most commonly occurred in the skin of the foot or hock, and were seen in the subcutaneous muscle, especially near the beak/oral cavity. Gross lesions were usually heavily pigmented, becoming raised and ulcerated over time. Humboldt penguins had a unique presentation, forming variably pigmented, cornified lesions in the inguinal area. Original case materials were obtained from all but two cases, and were assessed to define the characteristics of malignancy, evaluate four immunohistochemical markers for melanoma, and look for factors useful to informing prognosis and clinical decisions. Diagnosis was made histologically, based on morphologic features and pigmentation. Though not necessary for diagnosis, PNL-2 was found to be a useful immunohistochemical marker. HMB-45 showed unreliable positive labelling and S-100, Melan-A and Ki67 were not useful. Several factors were associated with prognosis, including gross surface dimension, mitotic index, depth of neoplastic cell invasion, and degree of surface ulceration. Metastatic spread occurred to the liver, lung, adrenal gland, brain, and bone; all lesions showed positive labelling to PNL-2. The average survival after diagnosis was 7 mo, though complete surgical excision of tumors less than 2.0 cm was curative in two cases and radiation therapy prolonged survival in one penguin. The underlying pathogenesis associated with the high prevalence of melanocytic neoplasms in captive penguins could not be identified. Three different molecular methods were performed to look for viral particles and results were negative. Advanced age is the most probable associated risk factor

  17. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600 to 800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800 to 400 to 400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  18. Childhood Body Size and the Risk of Malignant Melanoma in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyle, Kathrine D; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Adult anthropometry influences MM development; however, associations between childhood body size and future melanomagenesis are largely unknown. We investigated whether height, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2......), and body surface area (BSA) at ages 7-13 years and birth weight are associated with adult MM. Data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, containing annual height and weight measurements of 372,636 Danish children born in 1930-1989, were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression......, without any comparable influence of BMI or BSA. Melanoma transformation is unlikely to be due to height per se; however, height-regulating processes in childhood present new areas for mechanistic explorations of this disease....

  19. Cutaneous malignant melanoma show geographic and socioeconomic disparities in stage at diagnosis and excess mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Peterson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    -specific incidence of CMM. The incidence of stage I-II tumors was higher in the western health care region, whereas the incidence of stage III-IV CMMs was higher in the southern region. The divergent incidence patterns per stage at diagnosis were consistent across population strata based on educational level......Background Preventive measures are needed to counteract the increasing burden of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). As a basis for rational melanoma prevention, we investigated geographic differences and impact from socioeconomic factors related to incidence, clinical stage at diagnosis...... and outcome. Material and methods All patients with primary invasive CMM diagnosed in 2004-2013 in the southern and the western Swedish health care regions with a population of 2.9 million adults were eligible for the study. Population-based data were obtained from the national Cancer Register...

  20. c-RET molecule in malignant melanoma from oncogenic RET-carrying transgenic mice and human cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ohshima

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1 transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1 were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM, while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma.

  1. The relationship between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Rajabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant melanoma is the most invasive cutaneous tumor which is associated with an incredibly high mortality rate. The most reliable histological factors associated with melanoma prognosis are tumor thickness- measured by the Breslow index- and invasion depth- measured by Clark level. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2 gene inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis. An increase in MDM2 expression has been found in many tumors. This study aimed to investigate MDM2 expression and its correlation with tumor thickness and invasion level in malignant melanoma. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated paraffin blocks from 43 randomly selected patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who referred to the main university pathology center in Isfahan, Iran. MDM2 expression rate was assessed via immunohistochemical techniques and hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine tumor thickness and invasion level. Correlations between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion were analyzed using Spearman′s correlation coefficient in SPSS 17 . Results: The mean age of patients was 61.2 ± 15 years. Men and women constituted 55.8% and 44.2% of the participants, respectively. The rate of MDM2 positivity was 28.9%. MDM2 expression was directly associated with tumor thickness (r = 0.425; p = 0.002 and weakly with invasion level (r = 0.343; p = 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the low MDM2 expression rate observed in this study, direct relationships between MDM2 positivity and tumor thickness and invasion level were identified. MDM2 expression can thus be suggested as a potential new predictive prognostic factor.

  2. Clinical value of imaging methods for postoperative management of patients with malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Akihide; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Hatta, Naohito

    2008-01-01

    In the postoperative management of patients with malignant melanoma, CT and MRI are both used for screening of recurrent disease more frequently in Japan than in other countries. We evaluated the usefulness of various imaging methods during the postoperative period by retrospective analysis of 142 patients with Stage I-III malignant melanoma. Metastases were found in 44 of 142 patients (31%) during the follow-up period. In 28 cases, the metastases were detected by a routine physical examination, but by imaging tests including CT, MRI, Ga/Tc scintigraphy and positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 cases. Elevated serum markers including 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5-SCD), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed in 24%, 72%, and 12% of patients who developed metastases, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall survival rate between in patients with metastasis detected by a routine physical examination and in patients with metastasis detected by imaging methods (p=0.27). In contrast, there was a significantly longer overall survival rate in patients with operable metastasis compared with those with inoperable metastasis (p=0.001). Patients with operable stage IV disease showed a longer overall survival rate than did patients with inoperable disease (p=0.07). The results suggest that early detection of melanoma metastases may improve the survival rate of patients. However, frequent systemic evaluation by imaging methods is strongly discouraged due to costs and effects. An adequate follow-up schedule should be justified according to the risk of each patient. (author)

  3. Comparative study of various imaging methods to retinoblastoma and malignant melanoma of the uvea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakiyama, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Clinical usefulness of ultrasonography, CT-scan and MRI was compared in diagnosis of retinoblastoma and malignant melanoma of the uvea. In retinoblastoma, ultrasonography was effective to detect a small tumor, detached retinas and dissemination of vitreous body. The calcified part presented a high internal reflection. CT-scan was difficult to detect a small tumor, but useful for the detection of the calcified part and invasion to optic nerve. A tumor showed as high intensity in T1 weighted image and low intensity in T2 weighted image of MRI. The calcified part showed low intensity and necrosis part showed high intensity in T2 weighted image. The degree of differentiation of tumors could not be determined from these images. In malignant melanoma of the uvea, peculiar findings were obtained in A-scan of ultrasonography, and inside reflection was high with irregularity in cases with much necrosis. Tumors uniformly showed high density in CT-scan, and CT-scan was useful to detect invasion of the sclera. Tumors showed high intensity in T1 weighted image of MRI, and low intensity in T2 weighted image, and the part containing much melanin showed clear low intensity. Ultrasonography and MRI were superior to detect the detached retinas and dissemination of vitreous body. A diagnosis of malignant tumor in eyes becomes easy by combined use of ultrasonography, CT-scan and MRI. (K.H.)

  4. Comparing disciplines: outcomes of non melanoma cutaneous malignant lesions in oral and maxillofacial surgery and dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, M; Szamocki, S; Komath, D; Cascarini, L; Heliotis, M

    2015-01-01

    300 cases of non-melanoma cutaneous lesion procedures carried out by the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dermatology departments in a North West London hospital over a 6 month period between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in a retrospective case control study. The results from each speciality were compared. The mean age of the OMFS group was 75.8 years compared to 69.9 years in the dermatology group. There was no statistically significant difference in gender between the 2 groups. The OMFS group treated a higher proportion of atypical (17%) and malignant (64.9%) cases compared to the dermatology group (11.3% and 50.5% respectively). This could also account for the fact that the OMFS group carried out a higher number of full excisions compared to dermatology. Both groups had a similar number of false positives (a benign lesion initially diagnosed as malignant) and a similar proportion of false negatives (a malignant lesion initially diagnosed as benign). Overall, the results show that both specialities had similar outcomes when managing non-melanoma cutaneous lesions. Both groups adhere to the guidelines set out by the British Association of Dermatologists and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence when managing such lesions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of ANXA5 and ILKAP in susceptibility to malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoana Arroyo-Berdugo

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs are a source of diversity among human population, which may be responsible for the different individual susceptibility to diseases and/or response to drugs, among other phenotypic traits. Several low penetrance susceptibility genes associated with malignant melanoma (MM have been described, including genes related to pigmentation, DNA damage repair and oxidative stress pathways. In the present work, we conducted a candidate gene association study based on proteins and genes whose expression we had detected altered in melanoma cell lines as compared to normal melanocytes. The result was the selection of 88 loci and 384 SNPs, of which 314 fulfilled our quality criteria for a case-control association study. The SNP rs6854854 in ANXA5 was statistically significant after conservative Bonferroni correction when 464 melanoma patients and 400 controls were analyzed in a discovery Phase I. However, this finding could not be replicated in the validation phase, perhaps because the minor allele frequency of SNP rs6854854 varies depending on the geographical region considered. Additionally, a second SNP (rs6431588 located on ILKAP was found to be associated with melanoma after considering a combined set of 1,883 MM cases and 1,358 disease-free controls. The OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.12-1.48; p-value = 4×10-4. Both SNPs, rs6854854 in ANXA5 and rs6431588 in ILKAP, show population structure, which, assuming that the Spanish population is not significantly structured, suggests a role of these loci on a specific genetic adaptation to different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the biological relevance of these genes in MM is supported by in vitro experiments, which show a decrease in the transcription levels of ANXA5 and ILKAP in melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes.

  6. Expression of monoacylglycerol lipase as a marker of tumour invasion and progression in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuko; Funakoshi, T; Mori, M; Emoto, K; Masugi, Y; Ekmekcioglu, S; Amagai, M; Tanese, K

    2017-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the lipid lytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) promotes tumour invasion and metastasis through up-regulation of pro-tumorigenic signalling lipids in several tumour cell lines. However, the expression status of MAGL in clinical melanoma tissues and its clinicopathological significance remain unclear. To correlate the tumour expression status of MAGL with the clinicopathological information of patients with malignant melanoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array screening was performed, and the results were validated using immunocytochemical analysis of tumour and non-tumour melanocytic cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining for MAGL was performed for 74 melanoma samples, including 48 primary and 26 metastatic tumours, in which the expression of MAGL was determined by evaluating the percentage of MAGL-positive tumour cells and the MAGL staining intensity. Finally, we analysed the association of MAGL expression status with tumour progression, tumour thickness and vascular invasion of the primary lesion. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that MAGL was expressed in all 12 melanoma cell lines, but not in normal human epidermal melanocytes. In the immunohistochemical analysis, positive staining for MAGL was noted in 32 of 48 (64.5%) primary lesions, 14 of 17 (82.4%) lymph node metastatic lesions and 7 of 9 (77.8%) skin metastatic lesions. Metastatic tumours had a significantly higher staining intensity (P = 0.033 for lymph node, P = 0.010 for skin). In the analysis of primary lesions, higher MAGL expression correlated with greater tumour thickness (P = 0.015) and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.017). On further evaluation of MAGL-positive primary lesions, staining intensity of MAGL tended to be higher in deeper areas of the tumour mass. The expression of MAGL in tumour cells reflects the aggressiveness of melanoma cells and may serve as a marker of tumour progression. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and

  7. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Thygesen, Sandra K; Nelson, Jeanenne J

    2016-05-03

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997-2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40% of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70% died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6% with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9% with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7% with Bowen's disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8% (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8% (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1% (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen's disease, 0.04% (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0%. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1%; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and non-cuSCC were

  8. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  9. A comparison of melanin bleaching and azure blue counterstaining in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligora, C J; Fair, K P; Clem, M S; Patterson, J W

    1999-12-01

    Distinguishing heavily pigmented melanocytes from melanophages on routine hematoxylin and eosin slides can be difficult. Melanin bleaching with potassium permanganate solution is a traditional means of removing melanin from tissues and can be used before immunohistochemical staining to remove any pigment that might be confused with the brown chromogen diaminobenzidine. Azure B stains melanin granules green-blue, easily contrasts with diaminobenzidine, and may be used as a counterstain on unbleached sections after immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, studies comparing melanin bleaching with azure B counterstaining in the immunohistochemical evaluation of malignant melanomas have not been performed. Paraffin sections from 33 heavily pigmented malignant melanomas were bleached with a 3.0-g/L potassium permanganate solution, immunohistochemically stained for S-100 and HMB-45, and counterstained with hematoxylin. Unbleached sections were similarly stained for S-100 and HMB-45 and counterstained with azure B. To establish optimal permanganate concentrations, a variable number of sections were bleached with lower permanganate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 2.5 g/L. S-100 antigenicity was preserved at all permanganate concentrations, whereas HMB-45 antigenicity was abolished at concentrations of 0.5 g/L and greater. At permanganate concentrations from 0.125 to 0.5 g/L, both antigenicities were preserved; however, melanin was incompletely removed. Complications of bleaching included tissue damage and loss of cytologic detail. Positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in azure B counterstained sections. Azure B stained melanin greenblue and was easily distinguished from the brown diaminobenzidine chromogen, regardless of the antibody tested. Neither tissue damage nor loss of cytologic detail was observed. We conclude that the use of azure B counterstaining is superior to permanganate bleaching in the histologic evaluation of heavily pigmented

  10. 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of asymptomatic malignant melanoma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Lengana, Thabo; Ololade, Kehinde; Boshomane, Tebatso; Reyneke, Florette; Modiselle, Moshe; Vorster, Mariza; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-06-12

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT in the detection of asymptomatic recurrence in patients with malignant melanoma who have had resection of their primary lesion. We also aimed to determine the pattern and factors predisposing to disease recurrence. Patients with malignant melanoma who have had surgical resection of their disease and without any clinical evidence of disease recurrence were followed-up with FDG PET/CT. The diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT, pattern of recurrence and factors predictive of disease recurrence were determined. A total of 144 patients were followed-up for a median period of 50.50 months. Asymptomatic recurrence was seen in 37 patients (25.7 %) with a median time to recurrence of 20 months. Lymph node was the commonest site of asymptomatic recurrence. Sex, tumour depth, histology type and presence of nodal metastasis were significant predictors of tumour recurrence. Age, race, site of primary lesion, type of lymph node resection were not significant predictors of disease recurrence. Race has a significant effect on the histological subtype of tumour (nodular maligna was more common in Caucasian while acral lentiginous was more prevalent in the Blacks) and the site of the primary lesion (lower limb in Blacks and trunk in Caucasians). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG PET/CT for the detection of disease recurrence were 94.5 %, 87.6 % and 89.6 % respectively. FDG PET/CT is a suitable modality for early detection of asymptomatic recurrence of malignant melanoma. Asymptomatic recurrence most commonly occurs in lymph nodes. Sex, nodal metastasis and tumour pathologic features are predictors of recurrence.

  11. SKIN MALIGNANT MELANOMA IN DERMATOVENEROLOGICAL PRACTICE AT THE GENERAL HOSPITAL SLOVENJ GRADEC IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN 1983–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jožica Kotnik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the recent decades the incidence of malignant melanoma has been rising. In dermatological practice at the General hospital in Slovenj Gradec three cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosted in 1983, but in the year 2000 we had ten patients with the same disease.Methods and results. During 17 years I treated 81 patients with malignant melanoma, 46 of them were females, 35 males. In my research I conducted retrospective analysis according to sex, age, duration of the disease before visiting dermatologist, melanoma site, size (at first visit, histological type of growth, invasion and thickness of melanoma. In 1991 I started dermatoscopy. The youngest patient was 17, the oldest 89 years old. The most threatened group considering age is between 50–59 years. The average time before visiting a dermatologist totals to 17.3 months for males and 20.8 months for females. The most common melanoma site in male is on the body (68.57% and in females on lower extremities (45.65%. Superficial spreading melanoma (39.2% and nodular type (36.49% are the most frequent types of growth. Considering the depth of invasion Clark 4 (37.83% predominates, regarding the thickness of the tumor (Breslow the group between 1.51–4 mm (40.54% prevails.Conclusions. Results of the research on malignant melanoma in dermatological practice at the General hospital in Slovenj Gradec are comparable with epidemiological characteristics in Slovenia, some statements could also be compared with findings in foreign studies.

  12. Photothermal therapy combined with dinitrophenyl hapten for the treatment of late stage malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosong; Du, Nan; Li, Haijun; Long, Shan; Chen, Dianjun; Zhou, Feifan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fuli; Chen, Wei R.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of photothermal with dinitrophenyl hapten (DNP) for patients with malignant melanoma (MM), Patients with pathology confirmed stage III or IV MM were enrolled. Seventy-two patients were randomized into two groups, DNP alone group (n=36) and DNP plus photothermal therapy group (n=36). The results showed that the patients in the combination treatment group had longer median progression-free survival time (19.0m vs. 12.0m, p=0.007). No severe adverse events were observed in both groups. Thus, the combination of photothermal therapy and DNP maybe a new therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced MM.

  13. Comparison of results with CO2 laser and traditional surgical treatment of stage I malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reali, U.M.; Donati, E.; Quercetani, R.; Ciardi, C.; Chiarugi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up data on 39 cases of stage I malignant melanoma treated with CO 2 laser are compared to those of an analogous group of cases treated by traditional surgical methods and selected for their clinical and pathologic similarities with the laser-treated group. The findings ware expressed in terms of tumor-free time and were evaluated by variance analysis. The data showed that traditional methods gave better results. CO 2 laser surgery requires longer headling time, which may have a negative effect on the course of the disease

  14. A Case Report on the Patient of Malignant Melanoma at Right Maxilla with the Treatment of Bee Venom Phamacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hwi Bang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : It is the aim of this study to derive further studies evaluating the effectiveness of bee-venom phamacopuncture on malignant melanoma patients. We present a patient of malignant melanoma at right maxilla who survives over one year with stable disease (SD by the treatment of Bee Venom Phamacopuncture (BVP. Method : We followed the treatment and examination. We prescribed to the patient what to be taken 1.5cc BVP once a day. Picture series, Head series were followed-up and Neck computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET CT were performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Results : The patient survives over one year and continued stable disease over 6 months. Picture series, Head series X-ray, neck CT and PET CT were shown no interval change. Conclusion : This case may give us the possibility that BVP offers potential benefits for patients with malignant melanoma.

  15. DNA level, tumor thickness, and stereological estimates of nuclear volume in stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. A comparative study with analysis of prognostic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kristensen, I B; Grymer, F

    1991-01-01

    The mutual relation and prognostic value of three quantitative variables were investigated in a retrospective series of 56 stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. Unbiased stereological estimates of nuclear volume, nuclear nu v were obtained along with measurements of melanoma thickness. The DNA......, nuclear nu v was the only independent, prognostically significant variable. Physical, three-dimensional nuclear volume is not solely a reflection of nuclear DNA content, and may represent a valuable, quantitative prognostic indicator in cutaneous malignant melanomas....

  16. Improved malignant melanoma prognosis at a consultant-delivered multidisciplinary pigmented lesion clinic in Cork.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Field, S

    2012-02-01

    Early detection and excision is the only effective treatment for malignant melanoma. To assess the effect of a consultant-delivered, rapid-access pigmented lesion clinic (PLC) established at the South Infirmary-Victoria University Hospital (SIVUH), we analyzed melanoma tumour-stage prior to (1998-2002) and after (2003-2007) the advent of the PLC. Patients attending SIVUH had a greater proportion of early-stage tumours (65.3%) compared to the rest of Cork (51.2%), County Cork as a whole (56.7%) and all of Ireland (57.4%). The proportion of SIVUH males with early-stage tumours was statistically significantly higher than the rest of County Cork (chi2 = 11.23, P < 0.05). The proportion of patients > 50y with early-stage tumours was also statistically significantly higher than the rest of County Cork (chi2 = 18.88, P < 0.05), the whole of County Cork (chi2 = 7.84, P < 0.05) and all of Ireland (chi2 = 9.67, P < 0.05). We believe that the early detection and improved prognosis of Cork melanoma patients is at least partly due to the PLC.

  17. Improved malignant melanoma prognosis at a consultant-delivered multidisciplinary pigmented lesion clinic in Cork.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Field, S

    2010-02-01

    Early detection and excision is the only effective treatment for malignant melanoma. To assess the effect of a consultant-delivered, rapid-access pigmented lesion clinic (PLC) established at the South Infirmary-Victoria University Hospital (SIVUH), we analyzed melanoma tumour-stage prior to (1998-2002) and after (2003-2007) the advent of the PLC. Patients attending SIVUH had a greater proportion of early-stage tumours (65.3%) compared to the rest of Cork (51.2%), County Cork as a whole (56.7%) and all of Ireland (57.4%). The proportion of SIVUH males with early-stage tumours was statistically significantly higher than the rest of County Cork (chi2 = 11.23, P < 0.05). The proportion of patients > 50y with early-stage tumours was also statistically significantly higher than the rest of County Cork (chi2 = 18.88, P < 0.05), the whole of County Cork (chi2 = 7.84, P < 0.05) and all of Ireland (chi2 = 9.67, P < 0.05). We believe that the early detection and improved prognosis of Cork melanoma patients is at least partly due to the PLC.

  18. Mitochondrial haplogroups, control region polymorphisms and malignant melanoma: a study in middle European Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ebner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because mitochondria play an essential role in energy metabolism, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis, sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome has been postulated to be a contributing factor to the etiology of multifactorial age-related diseases, including cancer. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR polymorphisms of patients with malignant melanoma (n = 351 versus those of healthy controls (n = 1598 in Middle Europe. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified all nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and known CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the major mitochondrial haplogroups did not differ significantly between patients and control subjects, whereas the frequencies of the one another linked CR polymorphisms A16183C, T16189C, C16192T, C16270T and T195C were significantly higher in patients with melanoma compared to the controls. Regarding clinical characteristics of the patient cohort, none of the nine major European haplogroups was associated with either Breslow thickness or distant metastasis. The CR polymorphisms A302CC-insertion and T310C-insertion were significantly associated with mean Breslow thickness, whereas the CR polymorphism T16519C was associated with metastasis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that mtDNA variations could be involved in melanoma etiology and pathogenesis, although the functional consequence of CR polymorphisms remains to be elucidated.

  19. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of silent metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, K

    2000-01-01

    Correct staging is crucial for the management and prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The aim of this prospective study was to compare staging by whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with staging by conventional methods. Thirty......-eight patients with malignant melanoma of clinical stage II (local recurrence, in-transit and regional lymph node metastases) or III (metastases to other sites than in stage II) were included in the study. The results of the PET scans were compared with those obtained by clinical examination, computed tomography...

  20. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of silent metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, A; Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, K

    2000-01-01

    Correct staging is crucial for the management and prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The aim of this prospective study was to compare staging by whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with staging by conventional methods. Thirty-eight pa......Correct staging is crucial for the management and prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The aim of this prospective study was to compare staging by whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with staging by conventional methods. Thirty...

  1. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babli Halder

    Full Text Available In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of a dermal malignant melanoma in an African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; Baine, Katherine; Ramsay, Edward C; Sura, Patricia; Hodshon, Rebecca; Donnell, Robert L; Lee, Nathan D

    2013-09-01

    A 13-yr-old intact male African lion (Panthera leo) presented with a 4-mo history of left maxillary lip swelling. On physical examination, a 10-cm-diameter, ulcerated, round, firm, and pigmented mass at the level of the left maxillary canine tooth was noticed. All other organ systems examined were within normal limits. Multiple biopsies of the mass were collected and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Histopathologic evaluation of the biopsies revealed a malignant dermal melanoma. Hematologic and plasma biochemical parameters were within normal reference ranges. Thoracic radiographs taken 3 days following initial presentation showed no evidence of metastasis of the tumor. Computed tomography of the skull and neck was performed to evaluate local tumor invasion and to plan for hypofractionated radiation therapy. Therapy included four weekly treatments of 8 gray external-beam hypofractionated radiation and four bimonthly immunotherapy treatments. Following this treatment regime, the tumor size was reduced by 50%, and surgical excision was performed. No major side effects associated with radiation or immunotherapy were seen. Six months after diagnosis, hematologic and plasma biochemical parameters were within normal limits, thoracic radiographs showed no evidence of metastasis, and the lion showed no clinical signs of disease. The lion will continue to receive immunotherapy every 6 mo for the rest of its life. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a successful treatment of a malignant dermal melanoma with external-beam hypofractionated radiation, immunotherapy, and surgical excision in an African lion.

  3. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity. Review of the literature and experience in a Peruvian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Canales, J-O; Gutiérrez-Morales, M-M; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, S-J; Sánchez-Lihón, J; Morales-Vadillo, R

    2012-03-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile of malignant melanoma cases treated at the National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases "Dr. Eduardo Caceres Graziani" (INEN) over the period 1952 to 2008. All clinical records with complete data of patients presenting a histopathological diagnosis of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity were reviewed. Data such as age, gender, location, tumor size, disease length, presence of metastasis, treatment received and year of admission were recorded. During the study period 97 cases were found. The average age of patients was 52.85±1.6 years old mostly between 50 and 59 years old; the predominant gender was the female. The most common location was the palate and there was 58.8% of cases with a tumor size bigger than or equal to 4 cm. The length of the disease in 38.1% of the cases was longer than a year and in great part of the cases (69.1%) there was no metastasis. The treatment of choice was the surgery plus radiotherapy in 38.1% of the cases. According to the admission date it was also noted that the number of cases is increasing. The results of this study demonstrate a late diagnosis and an increasing frequency of this neoplasia in the oral cavity.

  4. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Balloon Cell Malignant Melanoma in a Young Female: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Hattori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balloon cell malignant melanoma (BCMM is a very rare malignant melanoma subtype. The clinical appearance of BCMM varies; it may be nodular, ulcerated, polypoid, papillomatous and often non-pigmented. The tumor cells histologically appear large, polygonal or round and contain abundant granular or vacuolated cytoplasm. We herein report the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with a focal eccentric pigmented mass in the left lumbar region of 15 mm in diameter that had been present for several years. She underwent tumor excision. The histopathological analysis showed epithelioid melanocytes with clear cytoplasm. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the cells were positive for HMB-45 and S-100 protein and negative for cytokeratin. The balloon cell component stained negative for Fontana-Masson. A month later, the patient underwent excision of the bilateral inguinal lymph nodes and metastatic BCMM was revealed. The lymph node metastases showed the complete replacement of lymph nodes by balloon cells. A diagnosis of BCMM (Breslow depth 10 mm, Clark level V without ulcer was rendered. Staining with Ki-67 was positive in almost 44% of the balloon cells.

  6. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells.

  7. [MALIGNANT MELANOMA--THE INFLUENCE OF HORMONAL FACTORS ON THE PROGRESSION AND PROGNOSIS. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BASED ON TWO CLINICAL CASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayanova, E; Trayanov, I; Chokoeva, A; Tchernev, G

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer showing extremely high metastatic rate and leading to high levels of lethality. The continually growing incidence of malignant melanoma in the world and his difficult early diagnosis are the occasion for numerous studies. The individual risk for malignant transformation of melanocytes is determined by a number of etiologic factors--endogenous and exogenous. Ultraviolet radiation has a leading role in the group of exogenous factors. Within the group of endogenous factors, besides the well-known photo type skin, as well as genes mutations, are added and the sex hormones, with their significant prognostic importance. The differences, which are observed in the progression and prognosis of malignant melanoma in pre- and postmenopausal women, and men, have defined this cutaneous neoplasma as hormone-dependent tumor. We present two seemingly similar clinical cases of 52 year old woman and 53-year-old man diagnosed with malignant melanomas, developed on the basis of pigmented lesions located on the upper back, as we attempt a comparative analysis on etiopathogenetic factors led to radically different course and prognosis of the disease in these two patients.

  8. Paclitaxel-loaded star-shaped copolymer nanoparticles for enhanced malignant melanoma chemotherapy against multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yongsheng Su,1 Jian Hu,1 Zhibin Huang,1 Yubin Huang,1 Bingsheng Peng,1 Ni Xie,2 Hui Liu1 1Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Baoan Shenzhen Affiliated to Southern Medical University, 2Core Laboratory, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM is the most dangerous type of skin cancer with annually increasing incidence and death rates. However, chemotherapy for MM is restricted by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. In order to surmount the limitation and to enhance the therapeutic effect on MM, a new nanoformulation of paclitaxel (PTX-loaded cholic acid (CA-functionalized star-shaped poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS nanoparticles (NPs (shortly PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs was fabricated by a modified method of nanoprecipitation. The particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug release profile, drug encapsulation efficiency, and loading content of PTX-loaded NPs were detected. As shown by confocal laser scanning, NPs loaded with coumarin-6 were internalized by human melanoma cell line A875. The cellular uptake efficiency of CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs was higher than those of PLGA NPs and PLGA-TPGS NPs. The antitumor effects of PTX-loaded NPs were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that star-shaped PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs were significantly superior to commercial PTX formulation Taxol®. Such drug delivery nanocarriers are potentially applicable to the improvement of clinical MM therapy. Keywords: malignant melanoma, paclitaxel, nanoparticles, enhanced therapeutic effects, drug delivery

  9. Malignant melanoma: A retrospective series from a regional cancer center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Kuldeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To present our experience in treating malignant melanoma patients. Methods and Materials : All melanoma patients treated at the Department of Radiotherapy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2007 were studied retrospectively. The endpoints were loco-regional recurrence, distant recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS, and duration of follow-up (DOFU. RFS and DOFU were analyzed with respect to the factors like age, sex, tissue of origin, site of disease, number of nodes, lymphadenopathy, ulceration, stage, and operability to find out any association. Results : Seventy-two patients were found evaluable with 40 males and 32 females (median age 46.5 years. Eye was the commonest primary site with visual disturbance as the commonest symptom. Overall, 87% of the lesions were single, with most of the nonocular lesions presenting in the advanced stage. During the disease course, regional lymphadenopathy and distant metastases were seen in 33% and 32% of cases, respectively. Highest incidence of lymphadenopathy was seen in skin lesions and in primaries from trunk and extremities. Of all treated patients, 47% achieved complete response, 18% partial response, and others had either stable or progressive disease. The median DOFU was 6.2 months. RFS was studied only in curatively treated cases with a median of 10 months. Operability at presentation was the only prognostic factor influencing DOFU. Conclusion : Malignant melanoma is an uncommon disease in India carrying a lot of morbidity due to late presentation. Its management is still not clear regarding the optimum use and schedule of treatment modalities. More prospective studies in the future are required to come to a definite conclusion.

  10. Malignant melanoma slide review project: Patients from non-Kaiser hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-05

    This project was initiated, in response to concerns that the observed excess of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) might reflect the incidence of disease diagnostically different than that observed in the general population. LLNL sponsored a slide review project, inviting leading dermatopathology experts to independently evaluate pathology slides from LLNL employees diagnosed with melanoma and those from a matched sample of Bay Area melanoma patients who did not work at the LLNL. The study objectives were to: Identify all 1969--1984 newly diagnosed cases of malignant melanoma among LLNL employees resident in the San Francisco-Oakland Metropolitan Statistical Area, and diagnosed at facilities other than Kaiser Permanente; identify a comparison series of melanoma cases also diagnosed between 1969--1984 in non-Kaiser facilities, and matched as closely as possible to the LLNL case series by gender, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and hospital of diagnosis; obtain pathology slides for the identified (LLNL) case and (non-LLNL) comparison patients for review by the LLNL-invited panel of dermatopathology experts; and to compare the pathologic characteristics of the case and comparison melanoma patients, as recorded by the dermatopathology panel.

  11. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway with special reference to the effect of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study deals with the epidemiology of malignant melanoma of the skin with special reference to the effect of solar radiation. It studies the time trends and geographical variations in incidence and mortality, and the marked differences in the topographic distribution of the tumors according to sex and age. The study indicates that the increasing exposure of the human skin to sunlight leads to a substantial rise in the incidence of a serious malignant disease

  12. Cloudy and starry milia-like cysts: how well do they distinguish seborrheic keratoses from malignant melanomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, S M; Stoecker, W V; Oliviero, M C; Rabinovitz, H S; Mahajan, S K

    2011-10-01

    Seborrheic keratoses are the most common skin lesions known to contain small white or yellow structures called milia-like cysts (MLCs). Varied appearances can sometimes make it difficult to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions such as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer found in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistical occurrence of MLCs in benign vs. malignant lesions. A medical student with 10 months experience in examining approximately 1000 dermoscopy images and a dermoscopy-naïve observer analysed contact non-polarized dermoscopy images of 221 malignant melanomas and 175 seborrheic keratoses for presence of MLCs. The observers found two different types of MLCs present: large ones described as cloudy and smaller ones described as starry. Starry MLCs were found to be prevalent in both seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs, however, were found to have 99.1% specificity for seborrheic keratoses among this group of seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs can be a useful tool for differentiating between seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Association between lymph node size and metastasis in dogs with oral malignant melanoma: 100 cases (1987-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel E; Packer, Rebecca A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the association between lymph node size and metastasis and to assess measurement of lymph node size as an accurate and reliable means of tumor staging in dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Retrospective study. 100 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanoma. Clinical records for dogs with oral malignant melanoma were reviewed. Data regarding size and results of cytologic or histologic examination of lymph nodes were evaluated. The association between lymph node size and metastasis was determined. Forty-seven (47%) dogs, of which 23 (49%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, had no cytologic or histologic evidence of metastasis. Of 53 (53%) dogs with cytologic or histologic evidence of mandibular lymph node metastasis, 37 (70%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, and 16 (30%) had mandibular lymph nodes of normal size. Overall, 16 of the 40 (40%) dogs with normal-sized lymph nodes had microscopic evidence of metastatic disease. Sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis were 70 and 51%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 60%, respectively. Although a significant relationship was identified between lymph node size and metastasis to the lymph node, this association did not appear strong enough to be clinically relevant. Results suggest that lymph node size alone is insufficient for accurate clinical staging of oral malignant melanoma in dogs; cytologic or histologic examination of regional lymph nodes should routinely be performed, regardless of size of those nodes.

  14. Preparation of nano-hydroxyapatite particles with different morphology and their response to highly malignant melanoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bo [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterial, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Guo Bo [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterial, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); West China Eye Center of Huaxi Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Fan Hongsong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterial, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)], E-mail: leewave@126.com; Zhang Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterial, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2008-11-15

    To investigate the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with different morphology on highly malignant melanoma cells, three kinds of HA particles with different morphology were synthesized and co-cultured with highly malignant melanoma cells using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control. A precipitation method with or without citric acid addition as surfactant was used to produce rod-like hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with nano- and micron size, respectively, and a novel oil-in-water emulsion method was employed to prepare ellipse-like nano-HA particles. Particle morphology and size distribution of the as prepared HA powders were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering technique. The nano- and micron HA particles with different morphology were co-cultured with highly malignant melanoma cells. Immunofluorescence analysis and MTT assay were employed to evaluate morphological change of nucleolus and proliferation of tumour cells, respectively. To compare the effects of HA particles on cell response, the PBS without HA particles was used as control. The experiment results indicated that particle nanoscale effect rather than particle morphology of HA was more effective for the inhibition on highly malignant melanoma cells proliferation.

  15. Changes of proliferation kinetics after X-irradiation of a human malignant melanoma grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1984-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma grown in nude mice was exposed to single-dose X-irradiation and the effect on the proliferation kinetics was investigated by two methods. Flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed on tumour tissue obtained by sequential fine-needle aspirations after the treatment...

  16. Added clinical value of 'true' whole body F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Julie C.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Accurate and reliable staging of disease extent in patients with malignant melanoma is essential to ensure appropriate treatment planning. The detection of recurrent or residual malignancy after primary treatment allows for early intervention and optimises patient survival. FDG PET/CT is indicated for surveillance of malignant melanoma due to its high sensitivity and specificity for soft-tissue or nodal recurrences and metastases. It has been claimed that routinely scanning lower extremities and skull in addition to 'eyes to thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic melanoma is warranted. Whole-body PET/CT scan reports in patients with melanoma scanned from April 2005 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'expected'. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies and clinical follow-up. 94 PET/CT examinations in 268 patients with melanoma were included. 9 of 294 (3.1 %) scans showed brain/scalp abnormalities, with only 4 (1.3%) showing unexpected abnormalities. 24 of 294 (8.1 %) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities, with only 5 (1.6%) showing unexpected abnormalities. In no case was an unexpected solitary malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities. In patients with no known or suspected primary or metastatic melanoma involving the head or lower extremities, inclusion of these regions on PET/CT is of low yield and appears to seldom offer significant additional benefit, as detection of additional metastases in these patients is unlikely to change clinical management. Routine 'eyes to thighs' images is adequate for this subset of patients.

  17. Evaluation of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma according to Breslow and Clarke pathological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Safaii Naraghi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant melanoma is one of the fatal cutaneous neoplasms which are curable by early diagnosis. This neoplasm is diagnosed by the biopsy of the suspected lesion. It is essential to classify the tumor based on its histology, thickness, phase of growth, level of invasion, mitotic rate, presence of regression, inflammatory infiltration and ulceration. These descriptions yield some knowledge about the progression of disease and suggest an estimate of the status of the screening system for early diagnosis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study. Pathological slides with diagnosis of malignant melanoma from 1377 to 1379 that present in the pathology department were assessed according to mentioned pathological indices and the 10-year survival calculated in this regard. Results: We assessed 47 cases with mean age of 57.38 (SD=5.85 and the gender distribution was 51.1% male and 42.2% female. More than 42% of cases were in Clarke level I, 2.1% Clarke level II, 6.4% Clarke level III, 40.4% Clarke level IV and 8.5% Clarke level V. Fifty three percent of patients were breslow thickness equal to or less than 0.75 millimeter(mm , 8.5% between 0.76 to 1.69 mm , 27.7% between 1.7 to 3.6 mm and 10.6% greater than 3.61 mm. Mean breslow thickness show no significant difference between males and females but there is a significant relation between thickness and age of the patients. Mean 10-year survivals of patients were 75% and were greater in females than males. We found a linear relation between patient age and breslow thickness that is calculated by the following equation: Log Breslow thickness (mm = - 0.625 + 0.016×age (year Conclusion: Complete recording of clinical and pathological data of patients with malignant melanoma make a proper stream to reach a surveillance system.

  18. Clinical presentation, histology, and prognoses of malignant melanoma in ethnic Chinese: A study of 522 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mei

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asia, and knowledge on its characteristics and clinical outcome in Asian patients is limited. The purpose of this observational study was to determine the clinical presentation and outcome of patients with melanoma in China. Methods A database was prospectively established for the purpose of this analysis. The elements of the database included basic demographic data of patients and prognosticators previously reported in literature, as well as follow-up data including clinical outcome after treatment. Medical record of all patients with pathologically diagnosed malignant melanoma consulted in our center since 2006 were retrieved and reviewed. No patient was excluded in this study. Statistical analyses including survival and multivariate analyses of factors associated with survival were respectively performed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. Results A total of 522 consecutive and nonselected cases were evaluated. There were 218 cases (41.8% of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, 118 (22.6% of mucosal melanoma (MCM, 103 (19.7% of nodular melanoma (NM, 33 (6.3% of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM, and others were Lentigo maligna melanoma or unclassifiable disease. The proportion of patients with clinical stage I, II, III, and IV diseases were 6.1%, 55.9%, 25.1%, and 12.8%, respectively. Among the 357 cases of cutaneous melanoma, 234 patients (65.5% had ulceration. The 5-year overall survival rate of all 522 patients was 41.6%, and the median survival time was 3.92 years (95% CI, 3.282 to 4.558. Five-year survival rates of patients with stage I, II, III, and IV diseases were 94.1%, 44.0%, 38.4% and 4.6% respectively (P Conclusions Prognoses of patients with malignant melanoma diagnosed in China were suboptimal, and most patients were diagnosed with locally advanced disease (i.e., stage II or above. ALM and MCM are the two most commonly diagnosed pathological subtypes

  19. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  20. Relationship of total serum sialic acid to sialylglycoprotein acute-phase reactants in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, H. K.; Karim, K. A.; Salinas, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reported elevations of total serum sialic acid may be a result of shed tumour-related membrane sialyglycoprotein and/or concurrent elevation of non-specific, acute-phase reactant sialoglycoprotein. To clarify further the specificity and sensitivity of serum sialic acid monitoring, analyses of sialic acid by the thiobarbituric acid method and acute-phase reactants by radial immunodiffusion were made using the same malignant melanoma patients' sera. Preliminary studies of IgG, IgA, IgM, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein suggested that these would not be valuable monitors of tumour burden. Single serum samples from 59 melanoma patients and age- and sex-matched controls were further examined for sialic acid, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Patients were grouped according to tumour burden. In pairwise statistical tests, differences between groups tended to be greater for sialic acid than for acute-phase reactants. On discriminant analysis , sialic acid was clearly the most significant single discriminator between groups, with an F statistic of P < 0.00005. Although alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was quite strongly correlated with sialic acid, it was not such a good discriminator and did not add significantly to the predictive power of sialic acid alone. PMID:6158966

  1. Role of FDG-PET/CT in stage 1–4 malignant melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldon, Mai; Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Ørndrup, Mette Heisz

    2017-01-01

    /CT scanned in 2012 at a department of plastic surgery and to analyze the pattern of referral and outcome of PET/CT scans of these patients all back from early diagnosis of the patient in the period 2008–2012. Methods: All patients with MM stages 1–4 (AJCC stages) and melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) who......Background: The number of patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM) has increased over several years. Despite early diagnosis of MM and therefore better prognosis, the number of FDG-PET/CT scans (PET/CT) seems to be increasing. This study aimed to describe all MM patients who were PET...... were PET/CT scanned in 2012 were included. This resulted in a study group of 58 patients with 109 PET/CT scans during the study period 2008–2012. Results: Indications for referring stages 1 and 2 patients to PET/CT were usually based on subjective symptoms of disease, whilst patients in stages 3 and 4...

  2. Histological study of choroidal malignant melanoma treated by carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masatoshi; Kimura, Katsuaki; Goto, Masamichi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report, we believe for the first time, a histological study of choroidal malignant melanoma treated by carbon ion beam radiotherapy. A 75-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having a choroidal melanoma after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed a hot spot in the same location as the intraocular mass seen in MRI. Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed with a total dose of 77 Gy, and the hot spot seen by PET disappeared completely. At 15 months after carbon ion therapy, the eye had to be enucleated because of uncontrollable ocular hypertension. It was examined histologically in serial sections. A large tumor mass (15 x 12 mm) with high pigmentation was found in the vitreous space. Almost all tumor cells showed necrosis in every section. A small number of intact tumor cells were present at the periphery. The overlying retina did not show any necrosis, but showed mild to moderate gliosis. No intraretinal hemorrhage, lipid deposit, or protein exudate was apparent. Almost all tumor cells showed necrosis after radiotherapy with a carbon ion beam. However, the effect on the adjacent tissues was determined as minimal in histological analysis. (author)

  3. Increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunications industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, L; Theriault, G; Iturra, H; Provencher, S; Cyr, D; Case, B W

    1988-12-01

    In 1982 physicians at a hospital melanoma clinic in Montreal noticed that among their patients there had been seven men working in a single telecommunications company. This raised suspicions that working in that industry might be associated with development of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS). A preliminary gross comparison with general population rates indicated that there was an increased risk in this working group. To estimate the risk of MMS more accurately, a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated based on the rates of MMS in the local population of the Greater Metropolitan Montreal Area for the years 1976-83. During that period, among workers in all plants for the company, 10 male cases of MMS were observed for an expected number of 3.7 (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.31-5.02). No cases were observed among female workers (expected = 1.3). The excess was significant among cases with a short latency (less than 20 years since beginning of employment). There was no apparent pattern of exposure based on job titles or departments.

  4. Positron emission tomography / ultrasound fusion technique in patients with malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Winkens, Thomas; Elsner, Peter; Goetze, Steven; Kaatz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT is commonly used to assess tumour recurrence in high-risk patients with malignant melanoma (MM). However, results can be ambiguous either because of the CT's insufficient soft-tissue contrast or non-specific FDG accumulation caused by inflammation. Ultrasound (US) can provide additional morphologic information that is superior to CT. For precisely combining PET and US findings, we used a real-time fusion technique based on navigated US (PET/US fusion). Here, we describe our results from patients where PET/US fusion proved helpful in differentiating unclear PET/CT findings. This fusion technique is likely to be helpful for decision making in MM patients and biopsy guidance.

  5. The burden of occupationally-related cutaneous malignant melanoma in Britain due to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley; J Hutchings, Sally

    2017-02-14

    Increasing evidence highlights the association of occupational exposure and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We estimated the burden of CMM and total skin cancer burden in Britain due to occupational solar radiation exposure. Attributable fractions (AF) and numbers were estimated for CMM mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the published literature and national data sources for proportions exposed. We extended existing methods to account for the exposed population age structure. The estimated total AF for CMM is 2.0% (95% CI: 1.4-2.7%), giving 48 (95% CI: 33-64) deaths in (2012) and 241 (95% CI: 168-325) registrations (in 2011) attributable to occupational exposure to solar radiation. Higher exposure and larger numbers exposed led to much higher numbers for men than women. Industries of concern are construction, agriculture, public administration and defence, and land transport. These results emphasise the urgent need to develop appropriate strategies to reduce this burden.

  6. Childhood Body Size and the Risk of Malignant Melanoma in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyle, Kathrine D; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2017-01-01

    ), and body surface area (BSA) at ages 7-13 years and birth weight are associated with adult MM. Data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, containing annual height and weight measurements of 372,636 Danish children born in 1930-1989, were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression...... years and age 13 years had a significantly increased MM risk compared with children who grew taller between those ages. Birth weight was positively associated with MM. We conclude that associations between body size and MM originate early in life and are driven largely by height and birth weight......Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Adult anthropometry influences MM development; however, associations between childhood body size and future melanomagenesis are largely unknown. We investigated whether height, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2...

  7. Coexisting Malignant Melanoma and Blue Nevus of the Uterine Cervix: An Unusual Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM and blue nevi of the uterine cervix are an extremely rare neoplasm, probably derived from embryologic migration of melanocytes from the neural crest. MM displays aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 76-year-old postmenopausal woman abnormal vaginal bleeding. She underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with paraaortic-iliac lymphadenectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of MM and blue nevi in the uterine cervix. Although it is extremely rare, this case suggests that MM of the uterine cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasm. Early diagnosis is essential in order to warrant a better prognosis, although there are no cases of cure described.

  8. A 3-Year Follow-up of Sun Behavior in Patients With Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Luise Winkel; Datta, Pameli; Heydenreich, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING...... that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each...... suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays....

  9. FDG-PET and ultrasound as complementary modalities in malignant melanoma restaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, T.; Aigner, R.M.; Wolf, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Both FDG-PET and ultrasound are common modalities for restaging malignant melanoma patients although ultrasound is still the first quality in restaging lymph nodes (neck, axilla, inguen) and liver. The aim of our study was to show the benefit of complementary use of these modalities in patients with suspicious findings. In our study 37 patients were included. All of them were alter surgical and additionally zytostatic and/or Interferon therapy. Ultrasound and FDG-PET examination happened within 9 weeks. In 19 cases first ultrasound was done and afterwards FDG-PET, in 18 cases FDG-PET was the first examination. Criterion for suspiciousness in ultrasound was size and sonographic texture of lymph nodes and liver lesions relatively. Criterion for suspiciousness in FDG-PET was pathological FDG uptake. The results were verified by histology and /or CT, MR, long-term follow-up. In 22 cases highly suspicious (11) or non suspicious (11) findings in one examination were confirmed by the other one. FDG-PET showed additionally findings in 5 cases (lung/1, lien/2, liver/2) ultrasound in one case (suprarenal gland). In 8 cases suspicious findings in one examination (ultrasound 1/ FDG-PET 7) had been cleared up by the other one. Only 7 cases showed completely different findings (liver/3, lymph nodes/2) or in both modalities not clear findings (liver/1, lymph node/1). Complementary use of FDG-PET and ultrasound for restaging in malignant melanoma patients is a good chance to clear up suspect findings. FDG-PET as whole body examination in a higher rate than ultrasound has the opportunity of additional findings although ultrasound is even out of cost - effectiveness the first quality in restaging. (author)

  10. Claudin11 Promoter Hypermethylation Is Frequent in Malignant Melanoma of the Skin, but Uncommon in Nevus Cell Nevi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walesch, Sara K.; Richter, Antje M. [Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Helmbold, Peter [Department of Dermatology, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dammann, Reinhard H., E-mail: reinhard.dammann@gen.bio.uni-giessen.de [Institute for Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-07

    Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-related genes is an important characteristic in the pathology of human cancers, including melanomagenesis. We analyzed the epigenetic inactivation of Claudin 11 (CLDN11) in malignant melanoma (MM) of the skin, including six melanoma cell lines, 39 primary melanoma, 41 metastases of MM and 52 nevus cell nevi (NCN). CLDN11 promoter hypermethylation was found in 19 out of 39 (49%) of the primary MM and in 21 out of 41 (51%) of the MM metastases, but only in eight out of 52 (15%) of NCN (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0003, respectively). Moreover, a significant increase in the methylation level of CLDN11 from primary melanomas to MM metastases was revealed (p = 0.003). Methylation of CLDN11 was significantly more frequent in skin metastases (79%) compared to brain metastases (31%; p = 0.007). CLDN11 methylation was also found in five out of six MM cell lines (83%) and its promoter hypermethylation correlated with a reduced expression. Treatment of MM cell lines with a DNA methylation inhibitor reactivated CLDN11 transcription by its promoter demethylation. In summary, CLDN11 proved to be an epigenetically inactivated tumor related gene in melanomagenesis, and analysis of CLDN11 methylation level represents a potential tool for assisting in the discrimination between malignant melanoma and nevus cell nevi.

  11. Efficacy of systemic adjuvant therapies administered to dogs after excision of oral malignant melanomas: 151 cases (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Sarah E; Lu, Xiaomin; Culp, William T N; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Romanelli, Giorgio; Dudley, Robert M; Liptak, Julius M; Mestrinho, Lisa A; Buracco, Paolo

    2014-08-15

    To determine prognostic factors for and compare outcome among dogs with oral malignant melanoma following excision with or without various systemic adjuvant therapies. Retrospective case series. 151 dogs with naturally occurring oral malignant melanomas treated by excision with or without adjuvant therapies from 2001 to 2012. Case accrual was solicited from Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members via an email list service. Information collected from case records included signalment, tumor staging, tumor characteristics, type of surgical excision, histologic diagnosis, adjuvant therapy, and survival time. The overall median survival time was 346 days. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size, patient age, and intralesional excision (vs marginal, wide, or radical excision) were considered poor prognostic indicators. All other demographic and clinical variables were not significantly associated with survival time after adjusting for the aforementioned 3 variables. A clear survival benefit was not evident with any systemic adjuvant therapy, including vaccination against melanoma or chemotherapy; however, the number of dogs in each treatment group was small. Ninety-eight dogs received no postoperative adjuvant therapy, and there was no difference in survival time between dogs that did (335 days) and did not (352 days) receive systemic adjuvant therapy. For dogs with oral malignant melanoma, increasing tumor size and age were negative prognostic factors. Complete excision of all macroscopic tumor burden improved survival time. Long-term survival was possible following surgery alone. Although systemic adjuvant therapy was not found to improve survival time, this could have been due to type II error.

  12. Gallium-68-labeled DOTA-rhenium-cyclized {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog for imaging of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Lihui [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Miao Yubin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas P. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States); Welch, Michael J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Vavere, Amy L. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: j.s.lewis@wustl.edu

    2007-11-15

    Introduction: Diagnosis of malignant melanoma is critical, since a patient's prognosis is poor. Previous studies have shown that {sup 64}Cu- and {sup 86}Y-DOTA-ReCCMSH(Arg{sup 11}) have the potential for early detection of malignant melanoma by exploiting the sensitivity and high resolution of positron emission tomography (PET). This encouraged us to investigate DOTA-ReCCMSH(Arg{sup 11}) labeled with another {beta}{sup +}-emitting radionuclide, {sup 68}Ga. Methods: DOTA-ReCCMSH(Arg{sup 11}) was successfully labeled with {sup 68}Ga at pH 3.8-4 at 85{sup o}C. Acute biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging studies were performed in mice bearing B16/F1 melanoma tumor. Results: Biodistribution studies showed moderate receptor-mediated tumor uptake, fast nontarget organ clearance and high tumor to nontarget tissue ratios. Preadministration of D-lysine significantly reduced kidney uptake without affecting the uptake of the agent in the tumor. Small-animal PET images showed that the tumor could be clearly visualized at all time points examined (0.5-2 h) with the standardized uptake value analysis following a similar trend as the biodistribution data. Conclusions: The preliminary data obtained suggest that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-ReCCMSH(Arg{sup 11}) is a promising PET imaging agent for early detection of malignant melanoma.

  13. Incidence of different histologic types of malignant melanoma during the 1996-2006 period in the zenica area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Drljević

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of skin malign neoplasms is constantly increasing. Malignant melanoma has shown the greatest increase in its incidence. A retrospective and prospective, descriptive, targeted, controlled and open study covered the period from 1996-2006 and included all the patients with malignant melanoma verified and histologically confirmed by the Department for Pathological Anatomy and Histology of the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica. During the 1996-2006 period 99 melanoma have been detected. MM was found with equal frequency in males and females (p< 0,05. The most frequent clinical and histological type of melanoma was a nodular one found in 71,72% cases. The most frequent anatomic site of MM appearance was trunk in both sexes. The number of diagnosed MM increased with age and reached its peak in the 40-49 age group. The highest incidence was noted in Zenica which was 0.093 in 1998 to 0.201 in 2005 per 1,000 inhabitants. The results indicate the need for active prevention and educational programs in this population.

  14. PET/CT in malignant melanoma: contrast-enhanced CT versus plain low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, Thomas; Schneider, Vera; Fougere, Christian la; Bartenstein, Peter; Weiss, Mayo; Melzer, Henriette Ingrid; Coppenrath, Eva; Berking, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) versus non-enhanced low-dose CT (NECT) in the staging of advanced malignant melanoma with 18 F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In total, 50 18 F-FDG PET/CT examinations were performed in 50 patients with metastasized melanoma. For attenuation correction, whole-body NECT was performed followed by diagnostic CECT with contrast agent. For the whole-body PET, 18 F-FDG was applied. Criteria for evaluation were signs of vital tumour tissue (extent of lesions, contrast enhancement, maximum standardized uptake value >2.5). Findings suspicious for melanoma were considered lesions. NECT, CECT and 18 F-FDG PET were evaluated separately, followed by combined analysis of PET/NECT and PET/CECT. Findings were verified histologically and/or by follow-up (>6 months). Overall, 232 lesions were analysed, and 151 proved to be metastases. The sensitivity of NECT, CECT, PET, PET/NECT and PET/CECT was 62, 85, 90, 97 and 100%, and specificity was 52, 63, 88, 93 and 93%, respectively. Compared to CECT, NECT obtained additional false-negative results: lymph node (n = 19) and liver/spleen metastases (n = 9). Misinterpreted physiological structures mainly caused additional false-positive findings (n = 17). In combined analysis of PET/NECT, six false-positive [other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1), blood vessel (n = 1)] and five false-negative findings [liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 1), lymph node metastases (n = 1)] remained. On PET/CECT, six false-positive [inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 3), other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1)] and no false-negative findings occurred. However, additional false findings on PET/NECT (6 of 232) did not change staging compared to PET/CECT. Our results indicate that it is justified to perform PET/NECT instead of PET/CECT for melanoma staging. (orig.)

  15. Growth-Inhibitory and Antiangiogenic Activity of the MEK Inhibitor PD0325901 in Malignant Melanoma with or without BRAF Mutations

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    Ludovica Ciuffreda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is an importantmediator of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Here, weinvestigated the growth-inhibitory and antiangiogenic properties of PD0325901, a novel MEK inhibitor, in human melanoma cells. PD0325901 effects were determined in a panel of melanoma cell lines with different genetic aberrations. PD0325901 markedly inhibited ERK phosphorylation and growth of both BRAF mutant and wild-type melanoma cell lines, with IC50 in the nanomolar range even in the least responsive models. Growth inhibition was observed both in vitro and in vivo in xenograft models, regardless of BRAF mutation status, and was due to G1-phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle (cyclin D1, c-Myc, and p27KIP1 and apoptosis (Bcl-2 and survivin regulators were modulated by PD0325901 at the protein level. Gene expression profiling revealed profound modulation of several genes involved in the negative control of MAPK signaling and melanoma cell differentiation, suggesting alternative, potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Finally, PD0325901 inhibited the production of the proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8 at a transcriptional level. In conclusion, PD0325901 exerts potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activity in melanoma lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation status. Deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of MEK inhibitors will likely translate into more effective treatment strategies for patients experiencing malignant melanoma.

  16. "The malignant wart": a review of primary nodular melanoma of the foot and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Valerie L; Roukis, Thomas S; Homann, Joseph F; Brown, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    The reported incidence of melanoma is rapidly rising and second only to lung cancer. Primary melanoma of the lower extremity accounts for approximately 30% of all cases reported, with half of these cases localized to the foot itself. Unfortunately, melanoma can be misdiagnosed and treatment delayed, as they are usually not painful. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates improve with early diagnosis and aggressive treatment. This is a report of 2 cases of primary nodular melanoma of the foot initially misdiagnosed as a "wart." Following confirmation with biopsy, definitive surgical intervention in both cases consisted of resection of the primary malignancy and ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymph node basin resection using a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Given the rapid increase in incidence of melanoma in the general population, one must have a high index of suspicion and low threshold for excisional biopsy of concerning dermatopathology on the foot and lower extremity. Early detection and combined appropriate surgical resection and adjunctive chemotherapeutic treatment of melanoma in a multidisciplinary setting are paramount in decreasing mortality rates. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dermoscopic clues in the diagnosis of amelanotic and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma Pistas dermatoscópicas no diagnóstico de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bissacotti Steglich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical identification of amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma (HMM becomes difficult due to the lack of pigmentation and to the diverse clinical presentations. Dermoscopy is very useful in these cases, increasing the level of suspicion of malignancy. We report 4 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma with characteristic dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopy under polarized light demonstrates vascular polymorphism, globules and milky-red areas, in addition to chrysalis and multiple blue-gray dots.A identificação clínica de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico torna-se difícil devido à falta de pigmentação e às diversas apresentações desse tipo de tumor. A dermatoscopia é muito útil nestes casos, aumentando o grau de suspeição de malignidade. Relatamos 4 casos de melanoma maligno amelanótico e melanoma maligno hipomelanótico com achados dermatoscópicos característicos. A dermatoscopia com luz polarizada demonstra polimorfismo vascular, glóbulos e áreas vermelholeitosas, assim como crisálides e múltiplos pontos azul-acinzentados.

  18. Clinical presentation, histology, and prognoses of malignant melanoma in ethnic Chinese: A study of 522 consecutive cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asia, and knowledge on its characteristics and clinical outcome in Asian patients is limited. The purpose of this observational study was to determine the clinical presentation and outcome of patients with melanoma in China. Methods A database was prospectively established for the purpose of this analysis. The elements of the database included basic demographic data of patients and prognosticators previously reported in literature, as well as follow-up data including clinical outcome after treatment. Medical record of all patients with pathologically diagnosed malignant melanoma consulted in our center since 2006 were retrieved and reviewed. No patient was excluded in this study. Statistical analyses including survival and multivariate analyses of factors associated with survival were respectively performed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. Results A total of 522 consecutive and nonselected cases were evaluated. There were 218 cases (41.8%) of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), 118 (22.6%) of mucosal melanoma (MCM), 103 (19.7%) of nodular melanoma (NM), 33 (6.3%) of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), and others were Lentigo maligna melanoma or unclassifiable disease. The proportion of patients with clinical stage I, II, III, and IV diseases were 6.1%, 55.9%, 25.1%, and 12.8%, respectively. Among the 357 cases of cutaneous melanoma, 234 patients (65.5%) had ulceration. The 5-year overall survival rate of all 522 patients was 41.6%, and the median survival time was 3.92 years (95% CI, 3.282 to 4.558). Five-year survival rates of patients with stage I, II, III, and IV diseases were 94.1%, 44.0%, 38.4% and 4.6% respectively (P melanoma diagnosed in China were suboptimal, and most patients were diagnosed with locally advanced disease (i.e., stage II or above). ALM and MCM are the two most commonly diagnosed pathological subtypes. Clinical staging and presence of ulceration was significantly

  19. In vitro expansion and characterization of corneal stem cells isolated from an eye with malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilă, O; Soriţău, Olga; Călugăru, M; Totu, Lăcrămioara; Şuşman, S; Cristian, Cristina; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the identification, characterization and in vitro replication of the human corneal stem cells, taking into consideration the difficulties in obtaining sufficient corneal material from living donors. The study explored a variety of stem cell markers, usually found in embryonic or adult mesenchymal stem cells. Culture medium and replication substrates had to be identified, with no data available on this subject in our country (there are no other reports on corneal stem cells in Romania, to our knowledge). Corneal epithelial limbus was harvested from an enucleated eye, containing also a choroid malignant melanoma. Stem cells from the limbus were isolated and cultivated in vitro. Expression of specific stem cell markers was evaluated with immunocytochemistry. Corneal stem cell expansion in primary culture was slow, achieving 70-80% confluence after 28 days. Stem cells were easily isolated in standard medium, showed fibroblastoid morphology and were positive for certain stem cell specific markers in immunocytochemical staining: Oct3÷4, SOX2, Nanog, SSEA4, CD44, CD90, CD133, and CD34. They also expressed pan-cytokeratin. Donor age (72 years) and the presence of a malignant tumor close to limbal stem niche could have had an impact on the proliferation rate and the characteristics of the corneal stem cells. Isolated limbal cells were adult type stem cells with an epithelial orientation. The characterization of these cells with immunocytochemistry allowed us to observe surface markers that other stem cells also express.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Makiko; Horiuchi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Mika; Yamashita, Masao; Okano, Kumiko; Jikumaru, Yuri; Nariai, Yoko; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from patients with advanced-stage cancer have a poor immune response. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), characterized by the expression of a cluster of differentiation 4 and intracellular FoxP3 markers, can inhibit antitumor immunoresponse. In the present study, the prevalence of Tregs in peripheral blood and tumor tissue from dogs with oral malignant melanoma was evaluated by triple-color flow cytometry. The percentage of Tregs in the peripheral blood of the dogs with malignancy was significantly increased compared with healthy control dogs, and the percentage of Tregs within tumors was significantly increased compared with Tregs in peripheral blood of dogs with oral malignant melanoma. This finding suggests that the presence of tumor cells induced either local proliferation or selective migration of Tregs to tumor-infiltrated sites. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Treg regulation in patients with cancer may lead to an effective anticancer immunotherapy against canine malignant melanoma and possibly other tumors.

  1. Telomere length and the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in melanoma-prone families with and without CDKN2A mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Burke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests a link between constitutional telomere length (TL and cancer risk. Previous studies have suggested that longer telomeres were associated with an increased risk of melanoma and larger size and number of nevi. The goal of this study was to examine whether TL modified the risk of melanoma in melanoma-prone families with and without CDKN2A germline mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured TL in blood DNA in 119 cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM cases and 208 unaffected individuals. We also genotyped 13 tagging SNPs in TERT. RESULTS: We found that longer telomeres were associated with an increased risk of CMM (adjusted OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.02-7.72, P = 0.04. The association of longer TL with CMM risk was seen in CDKN2A- cases but not in CDKN2A+ cases. Among CMM cases, the presence of solar injury was associated with shorter telomeres (P = 0.002. One SNP in TERT, rs2735940, was significantly associated with TL (P = 0.002 after Bonferroni correction. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that TL regulation could be variable by CDKN2A mutation status, sun exposure, and pigmentation phenotype. Therefore, TL measurement alone may not be a good marker for predicting CMM risk.

  2. New malignancies after squamous cell carcinoma and melanomas: a population-based study from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robsahm, Trude E; Karagas, Margaret R; Rees, Judy R; Syse, Astri

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer survivors experience an increased risk for subsequent malignancies but the associated risk factors are poorly understood. This study examined the risk of a new primary cancer following an initial skin cancer and assessed risk factors associated with second primary cancers. All invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM, N = 28 069) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, N = 24 620) diagnosed in Norway during 1955–2008 were included. Rates of new primary cancers in skin cancer survivors were compared to rates of primary malignancies in the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Discrete-time logistic regression models were applied to individual-level data to estimate cancer risk among those with and without a prior skin cancer, accounting for residential region, education, income, parenthood, marital status and parental cancer status, using a 20% random sample of the entire Norwegian population as reference. Further analyses of the skin cancer cohort were undertaken to determine risk factors related to subsequent cancers. During follow-up, 9608 new primary cancers occurred after an initial skin cancer. SIR analyses showed 50% and 90% increased risks for any cancer after CMM and SCC, respectively (p < 0.01). The logistic regression model suggested even stronger increase after SCC (130%). The highest risk was seen for subsequent skin cancers, but several non-skin cancers were also diagnosed in excess: oral, lung, colon, breast, prostate, thyroid, leukemia, lymphoma and central nervous system. Factors that were associated with increased risk of subsequent cancers include male sex, older age, lower residential latitude, being married and low education and income. Parental cancer did not increase the risk of a subsequent cancer after SCC, but was a significant predictor among younger CMM survivors. Our results provide information on shared environmental and genetic risk factors for first and later cancers and may help to identify

  3. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  4. Variation in incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of skin by socioeconomic group in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Catherine S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer incidence varies by socioeconomic group and these variations have been linked with environmental and lifestyle factors, differences in access to health care and health seeking behaviour. Socioeconomic variations in cancer incidence by region and age are less clearly understood but they are crucial for targeting prevention measures and health care commissioning. Methods Data were obtained from all eight English cancer registries for patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2003, for all invasive cases of female breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50, lung cancer (ICD-10 codes C33-C34, cervical cancer (ICD-10 code C53, and malignant melanoma of the skin (ICD-10 code C43. Socioeconomic status was assigned to each patient based on their postcode of residence at diagnosis, using the income domain of the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004. We analysed the socioeconomic variations in the incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma of the skin for England, and regionally and by age. Results Incidence was highest for the most deprived patients for lung cancer and cervical cancer, whilst the opposite was observed for malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The difference in incidence between the most and the least deprived groups was higher for lung cancer patients aged under 65 at diagnosis than those over 65 at diagnosis, which may indicate a cohort effect. There were regional differences in the socioeconomic gradients with the gap being widest for lung and cervical cancer in the North (North East, North West and Yorkshire and Humberside and for malignant melanoma in the East and South West. There were only modest variations in breast cancer incidence by region. If the incidence of lung and cervical cancer were decreased to that of the least deprived group it would prevent 36% of lung cancer cases in men, 38% of lung cancer cases in women and 28% of cervical cancer cases. Incidence of breast cancer and melanoma was

  5. Primary Dermal Melanoma in a Patient with a History of Multiple Malignancies: A Case Report with Molecular Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Sini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary dermal melanoma (PDM is a recently described clinical entity accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Histologically, it is located in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, and it shows no connections with the overlying epidermis. The differential diagnosis is principally made along with that of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Case Report: A 72-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple cancers (metachronous bilateral breast cancer, meningioma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, uterine fibromatosis and intestinal adenomatous polyposis, came to our attention with a nodular lesion on her back. After removal of the lesion, the histology report indicated malignant PDM or metastatic malignant melanoma. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the patient did not reveal any other primary tumour, suggesting the primitive nature of the lesion. The absence of an epithelial component argued for a histological diagnosis of PDM. Subsequently, the patient underwent a wide surgical excision with sentinel node biopsy, which was positive for metastatic melanoma. Finally, the mutational status was studied in the main genes that regulate proliferation, apoptosis and cellular senescence. No pathogenetic mutations in CDKN2A, BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, cKIT, TP53 and PTEN genes were observed. This suggests that alternative pathways and low-frequency alterations may be involved. Conclusions: The differential diagnosis between PDM and isolated metastatic melanoma depends on the negativity of imaging studies and clinical findings for other primary lesions. This distinction is important because 5-year survival rates in such cases are higher than in metastatic cases (80-100 vs. 5-20%, respectively.

  6. Predictors of patient satisfaction with initial diagnosis and management of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, N; Sarker, S J; Harries, M; Healy, C; Russell-Jones, R; Acland, K

    2010-08-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM), accounts for around 10% of skin cancers. To date, there have been few data on patient satisfaction with initial management of MM. To identify the predictors of patient satisfaction with initial diagnosis and management of MM. Data on 214 patients were collected using a questionnaire filled in by a clinician during a face-to-face interview when the patient attended an appointment at a tertiary melanoma centre. Age, gender, ethnic origin, date of diagnosis, site of lesion, and overall stage at diagnosis and at interview were obtained from the hospital notes. Patients were asked about their satisfaction level at the end. In total, 64 (29.9%) patients were dissatisfied with the time they had to wait to receive a diagnosis. Patients whose initial biopsy was taken by a dermatologist were more satisfied than those whose biopsy was taken by a general practitioner (GP) (P < 0.003) and women were more dissatisfied than men (P = 0.04). Delay in diagnosis (P < 0.001) and number of visits (P < 0.001) were found to be predictors for dissatisfaction in univariate analysis, but in multivariate analysis, only the number of visits (P < 0.001) was a significant predictor of patient satisfaction. For each additional visit made by the patient, the odds of dissatisfaction increased by 3.5 times, irrespective of who did the initial biopsy, any delay in diagnosis, and the age and gender of the patient. Patients whose initial biopsy was taken by dermatologist were more satisfied than those with a biopsy taken by a GP. The number of visits was an important predictor of patient satisfaction.

  7. The Influence of HLA and KIR Genes on Malignant Melanoma Development and Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandilarova, Snezhina Mihailova; Paschen, Annette; Mihaylova, Anastassia; Ivanova, Milena; Schadendorf, Dirk; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have described the role of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their cognate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands in the immune protection against melanoma, but the effect of these markers on intra-individual variations in tumor development and progression has remained less clear. We performed KIR, HLA, and KIR/ligand analysis in 283 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate their integrated influence on disease stage and progression. The patients were grouped according to AJCC staging, histological type of the primary tumor, progression, and survival rate. Analysis of HLA class I alleles revealed positive association of HLA-C*14 (Pc = 0.026, OR = 5.99) and negative association of HLA-C*02 (Pc = 0.026, OR = 0.43) with the disease. Decreased frequency of KIR2DS5 was observed in patients with rapid progression, as compared to those with slow progression. KIR BB genotype was prevalent in patients with metastasis (p = 0.004, OR = 0.025). KIR AA genotype was nearly twice as frequent in rapidly progressive cases, but without statistical relevance (p = 0.055, OR = 2.6). Significantly increased frequency of KIR2DL2 in the presence of C1 ligand (strong inhibition) was found in patients with AJCC III and IV, as compared to individuals with AJCC I stage (p = 0.045, OR = 1.93). In summary, our data imply that KIR/ligand gene content in patients could modulate the disease course towards unfavorable tumor behavior.

  8. Malignant melanoma of the skin among workers in a telecommunications industry: mortality study 1976-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, L; Cyr, D; Thériault, G; Provencher, S; Iturra, H; Case, B W

    1992-10-01

    An incidence study of malignant melanoma of the skin (MMS), conducted previously among the workers of four plants of a large telecommunications industry located in Montreal, Canada, showed a standardised incidence ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-5.02) for the years 1976 to 1983. To describe more precisely the magnitude of the problem a mortality study was started among the same population (n = 9590) for the same period (1976-83). At the end of 1983, 9180 workers were alive, 261 were dead, and 149 (1.5%) were not traced. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes of death were surprisingly low for men (SMR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.50-0.64) and women (SMR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.82). The SMRs for major causes of death were also less than expected. These results may be explained by a pronounced selection bias (healthy worker effect) and by the short duration of follow up (eight years). For MMS, two deaths occurred among men (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI 0.24-7.22) and one among women (SMR = 4.81; 95% CI 0.12-26.78). A third man who died of MMS was miscoded as having a primary pulmonary melanoma. Including this case increased the SMR for MMS to 3.00 (95% CI 0.62-8.77; p = 0.08). Polyvinyl chloride and polychlorinated biphenyls were used in the plants and some of the workers did soldering. A planned case-control study will investigate other possible exposures at work.

  9. Effective local control of malignant melanoma by intratumoural injection of a beta-emitting radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Ryu, Y.H.; Yang, W.I.; Lee, M.G.; Park, J.H.; Shin, K.H.; Kim, G.E.; Suh, C.O.; Seong, J.S.; Han, B.H.; Choi, C.W.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, K.H.; Park, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    tumours demonstrated central necrosis and peripheral residual cells with progressive cytoplasmic and nuclear swelling without apoptotic features. Expression of proteins and mRNAs of p53 and bax increased until 3 days, as compared with 48 h for p21; thereafter, the expression gradually decreased. TUNEL-positive nuclei could be seen from 2 days until 2 weeks after treatment. Flow cytometry did not demonstrate an increase in apoptotic features as compared with the control animals. In conclusion, intratumoural injection of the unsealed beta-emitting radionuclide 166 Ho appears to be a promising alternative radiotherapeutic modality for the local control of malignant melanoma. The main cell death mechanisms with this technique seem to be radiation-induced central necrosis and peripheral growth arrest or secondary necrosis of tumour cells, rather than apoptosis. (orig/MG) (orig.)

  10. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B; da Motta, Leonardo L; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L; Durán, Hebe

    2016-07-05

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy.

  11. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B.; da Motta, Leonardo L.; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L.; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy. PMID:27206672

  12. [Reconstructive method for the repair of substantial loss of the head and neck area, following the excision of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniciaro, G; Franchelli, S; Rainero, M L; Santi, P L

    1995-04-01

    The general increase in the incidence of malignant melanoma has caused a more massive presence at the level of special sites such as the face, posing problems of the reconstruction from a cosmetic point of view. The widespread move away from large margins of exercise (3-5 cm) towards margins of approximately 1 cm surrounding the lesion, together with the improved prognosis for this pathology on the face compared to other sites, calls for greater attention to be paid to the reconstructive techniques used. Since surgery is the only solution "quoad vitam" for the patient, it is now preferable to attempt to offer the patient both a complete exeresis of the neoplasia and a satisfactory cosmetic result. In this study the authors report four cases involving the excision of malignant melanoma in the cervico-cephalic district and their consequent reconstruction using special surgical techniques.

  13. Miliary pattern of brain metastases – a case report of a hyperacute onset in a patient with malignant melanoma documented by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Florian P.; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Dorostkar, Mario M.; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Denk, Gerald U.; Heck, Suzette; Rieger, Christina T.; Pfister, Hans W.; Winkel, Mark op den

    2015-01-01

    Miliary brain metastases are a rare condition but associated with an exceedingly poor prognosis. We present the case of a patient suffering from malignant melanoma with an acute progressively worsening of neurological symptoms up to the loss of consciousness. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a new onset of disseminated, miliary spread of central nervous system metastases from a malignant melanoma within 4 days. We report on a 57-year-old woman suffering from metastatic malignant melanoma positive for BRAF-V600E mutation who developed an acute onset of neurological symptoms. The patient received vemurafenib and dacarbacin as chemotherapeutic regime for treatment of malignant melanoma. After admission to our hospital due to progressive disturbance of memory and speech difficulty a magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) was performed. This showed no evidence of cerebral tumour manifestation. The symptoms progressed until a loss of consciousness occurred on day five after admission and the patient was admitted to our intensive care unit for orotracheal intubation. No evidence for infectious, metabolic or autoimmune cerebral disorders was found. Due to the inexplicable acute worsening of the neurological symptoms a second MRI was performed on day five. This revealed a new onset of innumerable contrast-enhancing miliary lesions, especially in the grey matter which was proven as metastases from malignant melanoma on histopathology. This case describes an unique hyperacute onset of tumour progression correlating with an acute deterioration of neurological symptoms in a patient suffering from miliary brain metastasis from BRAF positive malignant melanoma

  14. Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wanessa Cardoso; Oshiro, Telma Miyuki; de Sá, Daniel Coelho; Franco, Dilcilea D G S; Festa Neto, Cyro; Pontillo, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    Sporadic melanoma malignancy is correlated with constitutive secretion of IL-1β in transformed melanocytes suggesting the involvement of inflammasome in melanoma. Common variants in inflammasome genes are known to affect IL-1β expression. To investigate the contribution of inflammasome genetics in melanoma development and progression and to identify a potential prognostic marker, the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs was analysed in a Brazilian case/control cohort of sporadic malignant melanoma (SMM) and then the expression of inflammasome components was evaluated in melanoma biopsies. Allele and gene-specific Taqman assays were implied for genotyping of case/control DNA samples and for relative expression analysis in skin biopsies respectively. CARD8 rs6509365 was found to be significantly more common in healthy volunteers than in SMM patients suggesting a protection effect of this variant towards melanoma development. Accordingly, CARD8 expression was found to be reduced in nevus compared to melanoma biopsies. Upon stratification, NLRP1 rs11651270 and CARD8 rs2043211 were found associated with nodular melanoma; IL1B rs1143643 to a lower value of Breslow index; IL18 rs5744256 to melanoma development in sun sensitive individuals. As expected, IL1B expression was up-regulated in tumour biopsies especially in metastatic samples, whereas IL18 was down-regulated compared to nevus. Our results demonstrated for the first time the contribution of inflammasome genes CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in SMM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Construction of recombinant lentiviral vector of Tie2-RNAi and its influence on malignant melanoma cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiu-ying; Liu, Zhao-liang; Wang, Biao; Guo, Guo-xiang; Wang, Mei-shui; Zhuang, Fu-lian; Cai, Chuan-shu; Zhang, Ming-feng; Zhang, Yan-ding

    2011-07-01

    To construct lentivector carrying Tie2-Small interfering RNA (SiRNA), so as to study its influence on malignant melanoma cells. Recombinant plasmid pSilencer 1.0-U6-Tie2-siRNA and plasmid pNL-EGFP were digested with XbaI, ligated a target lentiviral transfer plasmid of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I or pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II, and then the electrophoresis clones was sequenced. Plasmids of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II were constructed and combined with pVSVG and pHelper, respectively, to constitute lentiviral vector system of three plasmids. The Lentiviral vector system was transfected into 293T cell to produce pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2- I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II lentivirus. Then the supernatant was collected to determine the titer. Malignant melanoma cells were infected by both lentiviruses and identified by Realtime RT-PCR to assess inhibitory efficiency. The recombinant lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi were constructed successfully which were analyzed with restriction enzyme digestion and identified by sequencing. And the titer of lentiviral vector was 8.8 x 10(3)/ml, which was determined by 293T cell. The results of Realtime RT-PCR demonstrated that the lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi could infect malignant melanoma cells and inhibit the expression of Tie2 genes in malignant melanoma cells (P0.05) between the two lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi. Lentivector carrying Tie2-SiRNA can be constructed successfully and inhibit the expression of Tie2 gene in vitro significantly. The study will supply the theory basis for the further research on the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.

  16. A case-control study of malignant melanoma among Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory employees: A critical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupper, L.L.; Setzer, R.W.; Schwartzbaum, J.; Janis, J.

    1987-07-01

    This document reports on a reevaluation of data obtained in a previous report on occupational factors associated with the development of malignant melanomas at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current report reduces the number of these factors from five to three based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the original data. Recommendations include restructuring the original questionnaire and trying to contact more individuals that worked with volatile photographic chemicals. 17 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs. (TEM)

  17. A case-control study of malignant melanoma among Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory employees: A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupper, L.L.; Setzer, R.W.; Schwartzbaum, J.; Janis, J.

    1987-01-01

    This document reports on a reevaluation of data obtained in a previous report on occupational factors associated with the development of malignant melanomas at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current report reduces the number of these factors from five to three based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the original data. Recommendations include restructuring the original questionnaire and trying to contact more individuals that worked with volatile photographic chemicals. 17 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs

  18. Development of a practical guide for the early recognition for malignant melanoma of the foot and nail unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Berker David AR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant melanoma is a rare but potentially lethal form of cancer which may arise on the foot. Evidence suggests that due to misdiagnosis and later recognition, foot melanoma has a poorer prognosis than cutaneous melanoma elsewhere. Methods A panel of experts representing podiatry and dermatologists with a special interest in skin oncology was assembled to review the literature and clinical evidence to develop a clinical guide for the early recognition of plantar and nail unit melanoma. Results A systematic review of the literature revealed little high quality data to inform the guide. However a significant number of case reports and series were available for analysis. From these, the salient features were collated and summarised into the guide. Based on these features a new acronym "CUBED" for foot melanoma was drafted and incorporated in the guide. Conclusions The use of this guide may help clinicians in their assessment of suspicious lesions on the foot (including the nail unit. Earlier detection of suspicious pedal lesions may facilitate earlier referral for expert assessment and definitive diagnosis. The guide is currently being field tested amongst practitioners.

  19. A Case of Malignant Melanoma with In-Transit Metastasis That Responded to Intravenous Infusion of Interferon-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Arima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man with a history of surgical resection of malignant melanoma involving the fifth toe of his left foot 14 years ago presented at the Kariya Toyota General Hospital with a 3-month history of skin ulcer at the same site and red nodules on the lower left leg. Malignant melanoma was suspected, and the patient was referred to our department. On examination, a skin ulcer measuring 25 × 20 mm was observed at the amputation site on the left foot. In addition, multiple red nodules were observed on the lower left leg. Skin biopsies of the ulcer and nodules revealed recurrent malignant melanoma with in-transit metastasis. Two weeks later, he developed acute myocardial infarction and was hospitalized at the Kariya Toyota General Hospital. One month later, the myocardial infarction ameliorated, and he was transferred to our department. As the myocardial infarction had decreased the patient's tolerance to surgery, interferon-β was administered by intravenous infusion. The skin ulcer and red nodules on the lower left leg disappeared 26 weeks after infusion had been initiated. The patient's progress has been satisfactory, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis at 1 year and 9 months after the initiation of intravenous infusion.

  20. Advantages of preoperative ultrasound in conjunction with lymphoscintigraphy in detecting malignant melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes: a retrospective analysis in 221 patients with malignant melanoma AJCC Stages I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, I; Dissemond, J; Poeppel, T; Klötgen, K; Hillen, U; Körber, A; Schadendorf, D; Klode, J

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) for the detection of regional nodal metastases and staging of malignant melanoma has resulted in some controversies in international discussions as it is a surgical intervention with potential morbidity. The present retrospective study seeks to clarify the reliability of preoperative ultrasonography (US) in direct comparison to the result of SLNE and seeks to identify potential advantages of preoperative ultrasound if performed in conjunction with lymphoscintigraphy in detecting malignant melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph node (SLN). We retrospectively analysed data from 221 patients with primary malignant melanoma with a Breslow index of ≥ 1.0 mm. Of the 221 patients, 77.4% (n = 171) had a negative SLN. In 50 patients (22.6%), the histopathological investigation of 71 excised lymph nodes resulted in a positive SLN. The US examination demonstrated a sensitivity of 13.6%, a specificity of 96.9%, a positive predictive value of 97.2% and a negative predictive value of 12.6%. SLNE alone shows a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 98.3%. Preoperative US in conjunction with dynamic lymphoscintigraphy, followed by SLNE, demonstrated a detecting ratio of 100% (n = 28) for micrometastases and 98.6% (n = 42/43) for macrometastases. In conclusion, this study confirms that preoperative US alone cannot replace the vital information obtained during dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. But preoperative US is an important component of the staging procedure in melanoma patients and has clear advantages when performed in conjunction with dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Therefore, we recommend preoperative US before every SLNE. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Posterior uveal malignant melanoma: temporal stability and ethnic variation in rates in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Abdulrazik, M; Pe'Er, J

    2001-01-01

    In a population-based study of posterior uveal malignant melanoma (755 incidence cases), the authors found a stabilized incidence in Israel from 1961-1996. Overall, Jewish immigrants to Israel had a relative rate (RR) of 2.2 [95% confidence interval [1.5-2.6] as compared to the reference population (Israeli-born Jews with Israel-born parents, i.e. third generation). Whereas individuals born in Eastern Europe or the Americas experienced the highest age adjusted incidence rates per million [for example; from 1972-1996, 8.3 for those from Poland, 8.2 from Romania, 6.4 from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 7.6 from the Americas], the lowest incidence rates were observed among immigrants from Algeria-Morocco-Tunisia (rate of 2.8), Iraq (1.7), Iran (3.2). Jews born in Israel exhibited incidence patterns similar to those individuals from the place of their parent's birth; high rates were observed among individuals born of American- or European-born parents (rate of 7.2), and low rates among offspring of parents who migrated from Africa or Asia (2.6). A low incidence was found among Israeli-born Arabs (2.6 in men, and 2.0 in women). The stable differences in incidence rates, according to populations of Jews, and the persistence of these variations within the descendants of these populations suggest that underlying susceptibility states are related to an individual's origin.

  2. Peculiarities of lymphatic drainage in cutaneous malignant melanoma: clinical experience in 75 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, S; Sandru, A; Gherghe, M; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, the identification and biopsy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) has become standard in the treatment of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). In order to correctly apply the technique and to decrease the risk of false negatives,it is compulsory to track the lymphatic drainage of the primary tumor and to detect all SLN, regardless of their site. At the Bucharest Oncologic Institute, over the last three years, selective lymphadenectomy was performed in 75 patients with CMM, stages I and II (AJCC). In 39 cases, the primary tumor was at the level of the upper and lower limbs and in 36 on the trunk. In all patients, lymphoscintigraphy was performed through intradermal injection of Nanocoll,with dynamic follow up of the radiotracer, with the purpose of finding the possible unusual locations of the SLN. The sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 100%of the cases. In 63 patients (84%), the primary tumor drained in only one lymphatic field and in the other 12 the drainage was towards 2 or more lymphatic basins. The CMM situated on the trunk had a particular behaviour, presenting more often (33%) with multiple nodal basin drainage. CMM of the trunk, mostly those situated close to the midline, but others as well, tend to drain into several lymphatic areas. The existence of interval lymph nodes and atypical lymphatic drainage, in a minor lymphatic basin,must be determined preoperatively in order to allow the biopsy of all SLN and establish the right therapy. Celsius.

  3. Simultaneous surgical resections of two distant metastatic malignant melanoma lesions--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanei, Takafumi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Hirano, Masaki; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness, right hemiparesis, and symptoms of Gerstmann syndrome. She had a history of malignant melanoma resections of an ear mole and her right neck lymph nodes and parotid gland, with subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Computed tomography showed two large lesions in the right frontal and left parietal lobes surrounded by severe brain edema. Magnetic resonance images revealed that the two lesions were strongly enhanced with cystic change, and a small round lesion was located in the left head of the caudate nucleus. (18F) fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed high accumulation in both lesions, and no sign of metastatic lesions except within the brain. The two lesions were large, causing increased intracranial pressure. Simultaneous surgical resections were performed using two approaches. The patient's neurological symptoms were greatly improved after surgery, and her Karnofsky Performance Status improved from 20% to 90%. She was discharged to her home almost completely free of neurological deficits. Although, simultaneous one-stage tumor resections for multiple metastatic brain tumors do not extend the survival period, they improve the quality of the patient's limited remaining life, and may be a treatment choice for young patients with well-controlled systemic disease.

  4. PDGFRs expression in dogs affected by malignant oral melanomas: correlation with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iussich, S; Maniscalco, L; Di Sciuva, A; Iotti, B; Morello, E; Martano, M; Gattino, F; Buracco, P; De Maria, R

    2017-06-01

    Canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is the most common canine oral tumour, and up to 70-75% of dogs in stage II-III die within 1 year after surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of platelet-derived growth factors receptors (PDGFR)-α and -β in stage II and III CMMs and to correlate it with prognosis. PDGFRs expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 48 cases of formalin-fixed CMM samples and correlated with clinical-pathological findings and outcome after surgery. PDGFRs co-expression was observed in 37.5% of cases. Positivity for PDGFR-α and -β receptor was present in 54.2 and 47.9% of cases, respectively. Ki67 values >19.5% were ascertained in 66.7% of cases. Statistical analysis showed that PDGFRs co-expression and Ki67 values > 19.5% were both associated with worse prognosis. PDGFRs expression suggests a role in the pathogenesis and progression of CMM, and α and β co-expression appears to be associated to worse prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Methylene blue photodynamic therapy in malignant melanoma decreases expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and heparanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Suarez, E R; Theodoro, T R; Machado Filho, C D A S; Gama, M F M; Tardivo, J P; Paschoal, F M; Pinhal, M A S

    2012-07-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a very aggressive tumour. Although surgical excision of MM in the early stages has a very good prognosis, it often fails to completely inhibit tumour progression. Methylene blue photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) is a technique that induces tissue damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To investigate the efficacy of and potential use of MB-PDT in restraining the aggressiveness of MM by analysing levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and heparanase (HPSE, a molecular marker of cell invasion) in a mouse model. Expression of PCNA and two HPSE isoforms were analysed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) after MB-PDT in mice. Tumour volume and weight were also measured. Two treatments with MB-PDT promoted a decrease of 99% decrease in tumour volume and 75% in tumour weight compared with untreated mice (P < 0.05). Using IHC, a decrease in expression of 75% for PCNA and 95% for both HPSE isoforms (P < 0.05) was found. MB-PDT is a cheap and efficient method of decreasing MM volume and thus disease progression. This reduction is mediated by downregulation of PCNA and heparanases. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. IL-21 Modulates Activation of NKT Cells in Patients with Stage IV Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Jonathan M; Skak, Kresten; Davis, Ian D; Smyth, Mark J; Godfrey, Dale I

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a common γ-chain cytokine produced by T helper and natural killer T (NKT) cells. It has been shown to regulate the response of various lymphocyte subsets including NK, NKT, T and B cells. Owing to its potent anti-tumor function in preclinical studies and its ability to induce cytotoxicity and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in NK and CD8 T cells, recombinant IL-21 (rIL-21) was fast-tracked into early-phase clinical trials of patients with various malignancies. In a phase 2a trial of patients with metastatic melanoma, we analyzed the frequency and function of NKT cells in patients receiving rIL-21. NKT cells were present at a low frequency, but their levels were relatively stable in patients administered rIL-21. Unlike our observations in NK and CD8 T cells, rIL-21 appeared to reduce IFN-γ and TNF production by NKT cells, whereas it enhanced IL-4 production. It also modulated the expression of cell surface markers, specifically on CD4(-) NKT cells. In addition, an increase in CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells was observed over the course of rIL-21 administration. These results highlight that IL-21 is a potent regulator of NKT cell function in vivo.

  7. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma; Zerebrale MR-Bildgebung beim malignen Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckwoldt, M.; Bendszus, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered

  8. Surface modification of MPEG-b-PCL-based nanoparticles via oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine for malignant melanoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Xiong,1,2 Lixia Peng,1,2 Hongbo Chen,3 Qin Li1,2 1Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Plastic Surgery, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Life Sciences and Health, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To enhance the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on malignant melanoma, paclitaxel (PTX-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(ε-caprolactone nanoparticles (MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with polydopamine (PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs@PDA were prepared as drug vehicles. The block copolymer MPEG-b-PCL was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique. The PTX-loaded NPs and PTX-loaded NPs@PDA were characterized in terms of size and size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin-6-loaded NPs@PDA could be internalized by human melanoma cell line A875 cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was greatly enhanced after PDA modification. The antitumor efficacy of the PTX-loaded NPs@PDA was investigated in vitro by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and in vivo by a xenograft tumor model. The PTX-loaded NPs@PDA could significantly inhibit tumor growth compared to Taxol® and precursor PTX-loaded NPs. All the results suggested that the PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with PDA are promising nanocarriers for malignant melanoma therapy. Keywords: cancer nanotechnology, drug delivery, surface modification, polydopamine, malignant melanoma

  9. Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs--data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønden, Louise B; Eriksen, Thomas; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2009-12-18

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR) from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown) were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128). Of these, 64 (50%) were malignant and 44 (34%) benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant), OMM (13; 20% of malignant), soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant) and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant). The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign), polyps (6; 14% of benign) and fibroma (5; 11% of benign). In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans.Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a clinical model for OMM in humans.

  10. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  11. Treatment efficacy and immune stimulation by AdCD40L gene therapy of spontaneous canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Sara; Sadeghi, Arian; Svensson, Emma; Segall, Thomas; Dimopoulou, Maria; Korsgren, Olle; Hemminki, Akseli; Loskog, Angelica S I; Tötterman, Thomas H; von Euler, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious disease in both humans and dogs, and the high metastatic potential results in poor prognosis for many patients. Its similarities with human melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent model for comparative studies of novel therapies and tumor biology. We report a pilot study of local adenovector CD40L (AdCD40L) immunogene treatment in 19 cases of canine melanoma (14 oral, 4 cutaneous, and 1 conjunctival). Three patients were World Health Organization stage I, 2 were stage II, 10 stage III, and 4 stage IV. One to 6 intratumoral injections of AdCD40L were given every 7 days, followed by cytoreductive surgery in 9 cases and only immunotherapy in 10 cases. Tumor tissue was infiltrated with T and B lymphocytes after treatment, suggesting immune stimulation. The best overall response included 5 complete responses, 8 partial responses, and 4 stable and 2 progressive disease statuses according to the World Health Organization response criteria. Median survival was 160 days (range, 20-1141 d), with 3 dogs still alive at submission. Our results suggest that local AdCD40L therapy is safe and could have beneficial effects in dogs, supporting further treatment development. Clinical translation to human patients is in progress.

  12. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they're dark skinned, young, and have no family history. Even for them, behaviors like too much sun exposure and not enough skin protection are important risk factors. How Do People Know They Have It? Many melanomas start out as a mole or a bump ...

  13. The metastatic microenvironment: Claudin-1 suppresses the malignant phenotype of melanoma brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraely, Sivan; Sagi-Assif, Orit; Klein, Anat; Meshel, Tsipi; Ben-Menachem, Shlomit; Zaritsky, Assaf; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Prieto, Victor G; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Pirker, Christine; Berger, Walter; Nahmias, Clara; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hoon, Dave S B; Witz, Isaac P

    2015-03-15

    Brain metastases occur frequently in melanoma patients with advanced disease whereby the prognosis is dismal. The underlying mechanisms of melanoma brain metastasis development are not well understood. Identification of molecular determinants regulating melanoma brain metastasis would advance the development of prevention and therapy strategies for this disease. Gene expression profiles of cutaneous and brain-metastasizing melanoma variants from three xenograft tumor models established in our laboratory revealed that expression of tight junction component CLDN1 was lower in the brain-metastasizing variants than in cutaneous variants from the same melanoma. The objective of our study was to determine the significance of CLDN1 downregulation/loss in metastatic melanoma and its role in melanoma brain metastasis. An immunohistochemical analysis of human cells of the melanocyte lineage indicated a significant CLDN1 downregulation in metastatic melanomas. Transduction of melanoma brain metastatic cells expressing low levels of CLDN1 with a CLDN1 retrovirus suppressed their metastatic phenotype. CLDN1-overexpressing melanoma cells expressed a lower ability to migrate and adhere to extracellular matrix, reduced tumor aggressiveness in nude mice and, most importantly, eliminated the formation of micrometastases in the brain. In sharp contrast, the ability of the CLDN1-overexpressing cells to form lung micrometastases was not impaired. CLDN1-mediated interactions between these cells and brain endothelial cells constitute the mechanism underlying these results. Taken together, we demonstrated that downregulation or loss of CLDN1 supports the formation of melanoma brain metastasis, and that CLDN1 expression could be a useful prognostic predictor for melanoma patients with a high risk of brain metastasis. © 2014 UICC.

  14. Noncutaneous malignant melanoma: a prognostic model from a retrospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung Han

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed multicenter study to define clinical characteristics of noncutaneous melanomas and to establish prognostic factors patients who received curative resection. Methods Of the 141 patients who were diagnosed of non-cutaneous melanoma at 4 institutions in Korea between June 1992 and May 2005, 129 (91.5% satisfied the selection criteria. Results Of the 129 noncutaneous melanoma patients, 14 patients had ocular melanoma and 115 patients had mucosal melanoma. For mucosal melanoma, anorectum was the most common anatomic site (n = 39, 30.2% which was followed by nasal cavity (n = 30, 23.3%, genitourinary (n = 21, 16.3%, oral cavity (n = 14, 10.9%, upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 6, 4.7% and maxillary sinus (n = 5, 3.9% in the order of frequency. With the median 64.5 (range 4.3-213.0 months follow-up, the median overall survival were 24.4 months (95% CI 13.2-35.5 for all patients, and 34.6 (95% CI 24.5-44.7 months for curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients. Adverse prognostic factors of survival for 87 curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients were complete resection (R1 resection margin, and age > 50 years. For 14 ocular melanoma, Survival outcome was much better than mucosal melanoma with 73.3% of 2 year OS and 51.2 months of median OS (P = .04. Conclusion Prognosis differed according to primary sites of noncutaneous melanoma. Based on our study, noncutaneous melanoma patients should be treated differently to improve survival outcome.

  15. Intracranial Tumor Cell Migration and the Development of Multiple Brain Metastases in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude G. Simonsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A majority of patients with melanoma brain metastases develop multiple lesions, and these patients show particularly poor prognosis. To develop improved treatment strategies, detailed insights into the biology of melanoma brain metastases, and particularly the development of multiple lesions, are needed. The purpose of this preclinical investigation was to study melanoma cell migration within the brain after cell injection into a well-defined intracerebral site. METHODS: A-07, D-12, R-18, and U-25 human melanoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein were injected stereotactically into the right cerebral hemisphere of nude mice. Moribund mice were killed and autopsied, and the brain was evaluated by fluorescence imaging or histological examination. RESULTS: Intracerebral inoculation of melanoma cells produced multiple lesions involving all regions of the brain, suggesting that the cells were able to migrate over substantial distances within the brain. Multiple modes of transport were identified, and all transport modes were observed in all four melanoma lines. Thus, the melanoma cells were passively transported via the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the meninges and ventricles, they migrated actively along leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal blood vessels, and they migrated actively along the surfaces separating different brain compartments. CONCLUSION: Migration of melanoma cells after initial arrest, extravasation, and growth at a single location within the brain may contribute significantly to the development of multiple melanoma brain metastases.

  16. Conjunctival malignant melanoma in Denmark: epidemiology, treatment and prognosis with special emphasis on tumorigenesis and genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann-Cathrine

    2016-05-01

    Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a rare disease associated with considerable mortality. Most published data have been based on case reports or series of referred patients. In addition, very little is known about the genetic and epigenetic profile of conjunctival melanoma and the resemblance to uveal, cutaneous and mucosal melanoma. The aim was to determine the incidence rate of conjunctival melanoma, and to relate clinicopathological features and treatment to prognosis. A further aim was to determine the prevalence of BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma, to determine whether BRAF mutations are early events in pathogenesis, and relate clinicopathological features and prognosis to BRAF-mutation status. Finally, we wanted to identify tumour-specific and prognostic microRNAs in conjunctival melanoma, and to compare these with the microRNA expression of other melanoma subtypes. In order to investigate these rare tumours, we studied all the conjunctival melanomas that had been surgically removed in Denmark over a period of 52 years (1960-2012). Tissue samples, clinical files, pathology reports and follow-up data were collected and re-evaluated. Using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we investigated BRAF mutations; and using microRNA expression profiling, we investigated differentially expressed microRNAs. The overall incidence of conjunctival melanoma was 0.5/1 000 000/year, and it increased in Denmark over 52 years. The increase was mainly caused by an increase in older patients (>65 years) and bulbar lesions. Clinicopathological features significantly associated with a poor prognosis were extrabulbar location, involvement of adjacent tissue structures, tumour thickness exceeding 2 mm and local tumour recurrence. Patients undergoing incisional biopsy and/or treatment involving excision without adjuvant therapy fared worse than patients treated with excision and any type of adjuvant treatment. We found that 35% (39/110) of

  17. A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of Oncept vaccine for the adjunct treatment of canine oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottnod, J M; Smedley, R C; Walshaw, R; Hauptman, J G; Kiupel, M; Obradovich, J E

    2013-09-01

    Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) in the dog is often locally aggressive with a high metastatic potential and there are few treatment options that have been demonstrated to improve outcome of this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adjunctive treatment with the Oncept melanoma vaccine affected the outcome of dogs with OMM that had achieved loco-regional cancer control. Medical records from 45 dogs that presented to the Animal Cancer and Imaging Center were reviewed, including 30 dogs with stage II and III disease. Dogs that received the vaccine did not achieve a greater progression-free survival, disease-free interval or median survival time than dogs that did not receive the vaccine. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cytoplasmic BRMS1 expression in malignant melanoma is associated with increased disease-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipicevic Ana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/aims Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1 blocks metastasis in melanoma xenografts; however, its usefulness as a biomarker in human melanomas has not been widely studied. The goal was to measure BRMS1 expression in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanomas and evaluate its impact on disease progression and prognosis. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue from 155 primary melanomas, 69 metastases and 15 nevi was examined for BRMS1 expression using immunohistochemistry. siRNA mediated BRMS1 down-regulation was used to study impact on invasion and migration in melanoma cell lines. Results A significantly higher percentage of nevi (87%, compared to primary melanomas (20% and metastases (48%, expressed BRMS1 in the nucelus (p Waf1/Cip1 (p = 0.009. Cytoplasmic score index was inversely associated with nuclear p-Akt (p = 0.013 and positively associated with cytoplasmic p-ERK1/2 expression (p = 0.033. Nuclear BRMS1 expression in ≥ 10% of primary melanoma cells was associated with thicker tumors (p = 0.016 and decreased relapse-free period (p = 0.043. Nuclear BRMS1 was associated with expression of fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7; p = 0.011, a marker of invasion in melanomas. In line with this, repression of BRMS1 expression reduced the ability of melanoma cells to migrate and invade in vitro. Conclusion Our data suggest that BRMS1 is localized in cytoplasm and nucleus of melanocytic cells and that cellular localization determines its in vivo effect. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic BRMS1 restricts melanoma progression while nuclear BRMS1 possibly promotes melanoma cell invasion. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/19

  19. ZNF23 Suppresses Cutaneous Melanoma Cell Malignancy via Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cutaneous melanoma is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths with an increasing incidence worldwide. A KRAB-containing zinc finger protein member, zinc finger 23 (ZNF23, was reduced in some types of tumors and inhibited cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest. However, the role of ZNF23 expression is still poorly understood in melanoma. Methods: The level of ZNF23 expression was detected in cutaneous melanoma, adjacent normal skin tissues and cutaneous melanoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The correlations between ZNF23 expression and other clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in melanoma patients. Ectopic expression of ZNF23 plasmid was transfected into melanoma cells, SK-MEL-1 and SK-MEL-28. MTT, flow cytometry and transwell assay were used to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration abilities, respectively. Mitochondrial functions and structures were detected by mitochondrial membrane potential assay and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM method in melanoma cells transfected with overexpressing ZNF23 plasmid or empty vector. Western blotting was performed to detect the levels of ZNF23, p53, p27, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 after overexpressing of ZNF23 in melanoma cells. Results: ZNF23 was elevated in adjacent normal skin tissues compared with melanoma tissues. Patients with low level of ZNF23 expression exhibited higher incidence of lymphoid metastasis, thicker size of tumors and worse outcome. By using Cox’s regression analysis, ZNF23 expression, tumor thickness and lymph node metastasis were the independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p < 0.05. Results from cellular experiments indicated that ectopic expression of ZNF23 induced cell apoptosis by activation of caspase-3, p27, p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 through mitochondria-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Decreased ZNF23 was contributed to melanoma progression and poor survival

  20. Local recurrent and metastatic malignant melanoma. Long-term results and prognostic factors following percutaneous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Alfried-Krupp-von-Bohlen-und-Halbach-Krankenhaus, Essen; Keilholz, L.; Pieritz, A.; Urban, A.; Sauer, R.; Altendorf-Hofmann, A.; Hohenberger, W.; Schell, H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is used as last resort for patients with advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM). Herein our 20-year clinical experience is presented analyzing different endpoints and prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic MM. Patients and Methods: From 1977 to 1995, 2,917 consecutive patients were entered in the MM registry of our university hospital. RT was indicated in 121 patients (56 females, 65 males) for palliation in locally advanced recurrent and metastatic MM stages UICC IIB to IV. At the time of RT initiation, 11 patients had primary or recurrent lesions which were either not eligible for surgery or had residual disease (R2) after resection of a primary or recurrent MM lesion (UICC IIB); 57 patients had lymph node (n=33) or in-transit metastases (n=24) (UICC III), and 53 had distant organ metastases (7 M1a, 46 M1b) (UICC IV). The time from first diagnosis to on-study RT averaged overall 19 months (median: 18; range: 3 to 186 months). In 77 patients conventional RT and in 44 patients hypofractionated RT was applied with 2 to 6 Gy fractions up to a mean total RT dose of 45 (median: 48; range: 20 to 66) Gy. Results: At 3 months follow-up, complete response (CR) was achieved in 7 (64%), overall response (CR+PR) in all (100%) UICC IIB patients, in 25 (44%) and 44 (77%) of 57 UICC III patients, and in 9 (17%) and 26 (49%) of 53 UICC IV patients. Tumor progression during RT occurred in 25 (21%) patients. Patients with CR survived longer (median: 40 months) than those without CR (median 10 months) (p 40 Gy (all p [de

  1. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Liu

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM risk.Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model.Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999 for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326. Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake.This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David L; Zhao, Zhen Z; Sturm, Richard A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W

    2010-02-01

    We have previously described the role of red hair (melanocortin-1 receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (oculocutaneous albinism type II, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye, and skin color. In this paper, we test a selected set of polymorphisms in pigmentation loci (ASIP (Agouti signalling protein, nonagouti homolog (mouse) gene), TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1), MC1R, OCA2, IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4), SLC24A4 (solute carrier family 24, member 4), and SLC45A2 (solute carrier family 45, member 2)) for association with CMM risk in a large Australian population-based case-control study. Variants in IRF4 and SLC24A4, despite being strongly associated with pigmentation in our sample, did not modify CMM risk, but the other six did. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs28777, rs35391, and rs16891982) in the MATP gene (SLC45A2) exhibited the strongest crude association with risk, but this was attenuated to approximately the same effect size as that of a MC1R red hair color allele by controlling for ancestry of cases and controls. We also detected significant epistatic interactions between SLC45A2 and OCA2 alleles, and MC1R and ASIP alleles. Overall, these measured variants account for 12% of the familial risk of CMM in our population.

  3. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Methods Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Results Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68–0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912–0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81–1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26816289

  4. Role of PET in the initial staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Bruno; Crott, Ralph; Lonneux, Max; Baurain, Jean-François; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Vander Borght, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    To calculate summary estimates of the diagnostic performance of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in the initial staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), following the new American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging classification on per-patient and per-lesion bases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases, and reference lists of reviews and included papers were searched, without any language restrictions, for relevant articles published before March 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and methodologic quality by using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies checklist. A pooled random effect was estimated and a fixed coefficient regression model was used to explore the existing heterogeneity. Twenty-eight studies involving 2905 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates of FDG PET for the detection of metastasis in the initial staging of CMM were sensitivity, 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 81%, 84%); specificity, 85% (95% CI: 83%, 87%); positive likelihood ratio (LR), 4.56 (95% CI: 3.12, 6.64); negative LR, 0.27 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.40); and diagnostic odds ratio, 19.8 (95% CI: 10.8, 36.4). Results from eight studies suggested that FDG PET was associated with 33% disease management changes (range, 15%-64%). There is good preliminary evidence that FDG PET is useful for the initial staging of patients with CMM, especially as adjunctive role in AJCC stages III and IV, to help detect deep soft-tissue, lymph node, and visceral metastases. FDG PET-computed tomographic imaging seemed to be more precise than PET alone, as suggested by four eligible studies. Further evaluation by using a well-designed prospective study, with clinical outcome-focused measures and cost effectiveness analysis, is needed to clarify the appropriate role of FDG PET in CMM staging. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/249/3/836/DC

  5. Novel enriched pathways in superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours and spindle/desmoplastic melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jour, George; Andeen, Nicole K; Al-Rohil, Rami; Aung, Phyu P; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Duose, Dzifa; Hoch, Benjamin; Argenyi, Zolt; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Prieto, Victor G

    2018-01-01

    Superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare, soft tissue neoplasm that shares morphological features and some molecular events with spindle/desmoplastic melanoma (SDM). Herein, we sought to identify molecular targets for therapy by using targeted RNA/DNA sequencing and gene expression of key immunological players. DNA and RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue were extracted and processed. Massive high-throughput deep parallel sequencing was performed with the Oncomine comprehensive panel, enabling detection of relevant single-nucleotide variants, copy number variations, gene fusions and indels for 143 unique genes on the Ion torrent sequencer for clinical trial research programmes. Gene expression analysis was carried out with a customized 770-gene expression panel combining markers for 24 different immune cell types and 30 common cancer antigens, including key checkpoint blockade genes analysed with the Ncounter system. Fifty-one patients (SDM, 16/11; MPNST, 24; male, n = 37; female, n = 16) had sufficient DNA and RNA for testing. NF1 deleterious mutations and/or deep/homozygous deletions were identified in 73% of MPNSTs and 67% of SDMs, with 50% of the mutations involving the RAS-binding domain. Inactivating/deleterious mutations of TSC1/TSC2 were identified in 40% and 41% of MPNSTs and SDMs, respectively. Activating mutations affecting the EGFR-like and the negative regulatory domains of NOTCH1 and KDR (VEGFR2) were identified in 45% and 40% of SDMs and in 30% and 8% of MPNSTs, respectively. Differential gene expression and gene clustering analysis showed significantly perturbed immune pathway components, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), JAK-STAT, and CXCL12-CXCR4, and differentially expressed CD274 and CTLA4, in both SDM and MPNST. Angiogenesis (KDR and NOTCH1) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) pathways offer a rationale for anti-angiogenic and selective mTORC inhibition as treatment strategies for

  6. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Żmijewski, Michał A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM) analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2) induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH)2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH)2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl) and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification), the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM). Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs. PMID:26760999

  7. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH2D2 induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification, the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM. Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs.

  8. Dacarbazine DTIC and carboplatin as an outpatient treatment for disseminated malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; Mulder, NH; Van Der Graaf, WTA; Willemse, PHB; Hospers, GAP

    2001-01-01

    Occasionally long-term survival in disseminated melanoma can be obtained through chemotherapy, We treated 22 patients with disseminated melanoma with an outpatient regimen consisting of dacarbazine (DTIC) and carboplatin. Three patients had a complete response lasting 4+, 9 and 9 months (survival

  9. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acral lentiginous melanomas develop on palmar, plantar and subungual skin and are, with few exceptions, the only form of melanoma occurring in black people. Most South African black patients present late for treatment, are in an advanced stage of the disease, and are therefore candidates for palliative rather than ...

  10. Objective histopathologic grading of cutaneous malignant melanomas by stereologic estimation of nuclear volume. Prediction of survival and disease-free period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1989-01-01

    and two-dimensional morphometric estimates. The averaged Vv was 226 microns3 and 457 microns3 in Stage I and II melanomas, respectively. The Vv was significantly increased in the case of ulceration, nodular melanoma, and Clark's level greater than III. The Vv showed only poor correlation to two......Modern stereologic techniques enable unbiased and shape-independent estimation of the three-dimensional nuclear volume (Vv). This study investigates the prognostic impact of Vv in 47 patients with malignant melanomas (10 years of follow-up) and compares Vv to traditional prognostic parameters...... independent prognostic significance, which may be due to attributes of the small data base. It is concluded that Vv may be a powerful prognostic indicator in cutaneous melanomas, suitable for objective malignancy grading. The clinical and prognostic value of nuclear Vv needs further investigation in a larger...

  11. Use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the detection of silent metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, K

    2000-01-01

    -eight patients with malignant melanoma of clinical stage II (local recurrence, in-transit and regional lymph node metastases) or III (metastases to other sites than in stage II) were included in the study. The results of the PET scans were compared with those obtained by clinical examination, computed tomography......, ultrasound, radiography, and liver function tests and histology or clinical follow-up. With 18F-FDG PET we found for all foci a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 56%, compared with 62% and 22%, respectively, when using routine methods. For intra-abdominal foci, the sensitivity and specificity were 100...

  12. Malignant melanoma-Risk factors and the CDKN2A mutation in relation to phenotypes and other cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is an increasingly common cancer in fair-skinned people. The purpose of this thesis was to study high-risk patients with multiple tumours including a CMM, high-risk families with the unique Swedish germline mutation in CDKN2A(113insArg), as well as study risk factors for CMM in women. Methods: Tumours associated with CMM, in individuals/probands with four or more primary tumours including at least one CMM were genotyped. The probands were fur...

  13. Characterization of human γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating primary malignant melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cordova

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are often induced naturally in melanoma patients and infiltrate tumors. Given that γδ T cells mediate antigen-specific killing of tumor cells, we studied the representation and the in vitro cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of tumor infiltrating γδ T cells from 74 patients with primary melanoma. We found that γδ T cells represent the major lymphocyte population infiltrating melanoma, and both Vδ1(+ and Vδ2(+ cells are involved. The majority of melanoma-infiltrating γδ cells showed effector memory and terminally-differentiated phenotypes and, accordingly, polyclonal γδ T cell lines obtained from tumor-infiltrating immune cells produced IFN-γ and TNF-α and were capable of killing melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 cell lines was further improved by pre-treatment of tumor target cells with zoledronate. Moreover, higher rate of γδ T cells isolation and percentages of Vδ2 cells correlate with early stage of development of melanoma and absence of metastasis. Altogether, our results suggest that a natural immune response mediated by γδ T lymphocytes may contribute to the immunosurveillance of melanoma.

  14. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  15. The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, Babak; Vujic, Marin; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Sesti, Alma; Oberaigner, Willi; Vujic, Igor; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Posch, Christian; Feichtinger, Hans; Hackl, Monika; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria. We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs. A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical value of FDG-PET in cutaneous malignant melanoma: First experience in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Niin, M.; Paats, A.; Tonnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In November 2002 first 18F-FDG-PET was performed in Estonia using a mobile truck-mounted scanning technology (Accel, Siemens) provided by the International Healthcare Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, (Helsinki, Finland). In 2003 this scheme was repeated for further scanning sessions. Evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) using nuclear technique is of particular interest in Estonia as its incidence is on the rise. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in CMM has a well-documented high diagnostic accuracy, especially in staging of the disease. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of 18F-FDG-PET on detailed staging and clinical management in CMM. 30 patients of CMM, 16 males and 14 females, all non-diabetic, in the age range of 26 to 69 years were studied. Of these 30 patients, 12 were of high risk primary CMM, 7 had regional lymph node metastases and 11 had distant metastases. Patients were asked to consume a low-carbohydrate diet 3 days prior to the FDG-PET scan. 194 to 410 MBq (average 335 MBq) 18F-FDG was administered to the patients who were asked to come fasting for a minimum of 6 hours. Whole body scan was performed 40 to 65 minutes after the administration of FDG on the mobile PET. In 13 of the 30 patients (43%) 18F-FDG-PET changed the staging. In remaining 17 patients (57%) 18F-FDG-PET increased confidence level for the chosen treatment. Lymphadenectomy was planned in 2 patients showing lymph node involvement on FDG-PET. In other 2 patients, one with small pulmonary and other with a liver lesions found on PET but negative on radiological examination 'wait-and-watch' strategy was chosen. An unexpected hypermetabolic lesion seen in 1 case turned out to be a benign focus of connective tissue. One patient shown to have multiple distant metastases was started on chemotherapy. Finally in 8 of the 30 (27%) patients an immediate positive

  17. In vivo skin fluorescence imaging in young Caucasian adults with early malignant melanomas

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    Piérard GE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,2 Sébastien L Piérard,3 Lucas Dewalque,4 Corinne Charlier,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont,2 Philippe Delvenne2 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, 2Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, 3INTELSIG Laboratory, Montefiore Institute, University of Liège, 4Department of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological increase has been disclosed in young women. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of chronic sun exposures in order to rate the extend of melanocytic stimulations in the vicinity of CMM. Methods: The study was designed to evaluate the melanin distribution and density using ultraviolet light illumination. The present study was performed on surgical excision specimens of thin CMM lesion removed from the upper limbs of 55 Caucasian adults (37 women and 18 men. Two control groups comprised 23 men and 21 women of similar ages who had medium-size congenital melanocytic nevi, also present on the upper limbs. The peritumoral skin was scrutinized using a Visioscan® VC98 device, revealing the faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM pattern that grossly indicates early signs of chronic photodamage in epidermal melanin units. Results: The median extent of relative FMM was significantly higher in the CMM male group. By contrast, the CMM female group showed a reverse bimodal distribution in FMM size. Only 12/37 (32.5% of the CMM female group had an increased FMM size, whereas 25/37 (67.5% of females with CMM had a global FMM extent in the normal range, relative to the controls. Conclusion: Thin CMM supervening in young women appear unrelated to repeat

  18. Estudo comparativo da flarefotometria em pacientes com melanoma maligno e nevo de coróide Comparative study of flare photometry in patients with choroidal malignant melanoma and choroidal nevus

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    Priscilla Luppi Ballalai

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores malignos intra-oculares estão associados com um aumento do "flare" na câmara anterior, causado por uma quebra na barreira hemato-aquosa, que pode ocorrer por vários mecanismos. Estudos utilizando a flarefotometria confirmam o aumento do "flare" em olhos com tumores intra-oculares malignos e benignos. Objetivo: Avaliar a flarefotometria como auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial de melanoma maligno e nevo de coróide, comparando-se com olhos contralaterais normais. Métodos: Foram avaliados olhos com melanoma maligno e olhos com nevo de coróide diagnosticados por meio de oftalmoscopia indireta e/ou ultra-sonografia. Os olhos normais contralaterais foram utilizados como controles. A flarefotometria foi realizada em todos os pacientes, sob midríase bilateral, utilizando equipamento Laser Flare Meter (FC 500, Kowa. Foram aplicados os testes de Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, e Spearman para análise estatística. Resultados: A média da flarefotometria nos olhos com melanoma maligno de coróide foi 17,1 ph/ms e nos olhos normais contralaterais foi 4,06 ph/ms. Nos olhos com nevo de coróide o valor da flarefotometria foi 6,12 ph/ms e nos olhos contralaterais normais foi 4,47 ph/ms. O valor da flarefotometria foi maior nos olhos com melanoma maligno e nevo quando comparado com os olhos contralaterais normais (pIntroduction: Malignant intraocular tumors are associated with an increase in the aqueous flare, caused by alterations of the blood-ocular barriers through various mechanisms. Several studies have demonstrated an ocular flare increase using flare photometry in eyes with benign and malignant tumors. Purpose: To evaluate flare photometry as an adjunct method in the differential diagnosis of choroidal malignant melanoma and choroidal nevus comparing to normal control eyes. Methods: Eyes with melanoma and nevus were diagnosed by indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy and/or ultrasound were evaluated. The fellow normal eyes were used

  19. Selective thermal neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma using melanogenesis-seeking 10B-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1991-11-01

    This issue is the Part B of the Progress Report (III) which includes our latest research results focusing mainly on the successful treatment of the first human melanoma patient who had metastasis in the scalp region. We also include the subsequent clinical treatment of various types of human primary melanoma lesions and the additional basic investigations necessary to perform the treatment. (J.P.N.)

  20. Human malignant melanoma-derived progestagen-associated endometrial protein immunosuppresses T lymphocytes in vitro.

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    Suping Ren

    Full Text Available Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP is a glycoprotein of the lipocalin family that acts as a negative regulator of T cell receptor-mediated activation. However, the function of tumor-derived PAEP on the human immune system in the tumor microenvironment is unknown. PAEP is highly expressed in intermediate and thick primary melanomas (Breslow's 2.5mm or greater and metastatic melanomas, correlating with its expression in daughter cell lines established in vitro. The current study investigates the role of melanoma cell-secreted PAEP protein in regulating T cell function. Upon the enrichment of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, each subset was then mixed with either melanoma-derived PAEP protein or PAEP-poor supernatant of gene-silenced tumor cells. IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion of CD4+ T cells significantly decreased with the addition of PAEP-rich supernatant. And the addition of PAEP-positive cell supernatant to activated lymphocytes significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T cell activity, while increasing lymphocyte apoptosis. Our result suggests that melanoma cell-secreted PAEP protein immunosuppresses the activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes, which might partially explain the mechanism of immune tolerance induced by melanoma cells within the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Age-specific acceleration in malignant melanoma [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Brian L Diffey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall incidence of melanoma has increased steadily for several years. The relative change in incidence at different ages has not been fully described. Objective: To describe how incidence at different ages has changed over time and to consider what aspects of tumour biology may explain the observed pattern of change in incidence. Methods: The slope of incidence vs age measures the acceleration of cancer incidence with age. We described the pattern of change over time in the overall incidence of melanoma, as well as in acceleration. We used data for males and females from 3 different countries in the 17 sequential 5-year birth-cohort categories from 1895-99 to 1975-79, from which we derived the incidence patterns. Results: Over time, there has been a tendency for the overall incidence of melanoma to increase and for the acceleration (slope of the age-incidence curves to decline. The changing patterns of melanoma incidence and acceleration differ between males and females and between the countries analysed. Conclusions: The observed pattern in melanoma of rising incidence and declining acceleration occurs in other cancers in response to genetic knockouts of mechanisms that protect against cancer. Perhaps some protective mechanism with respect to melanoma may be less effective now than in the past, possibly because of more intense environmental challenges.

  2. An improved synthesis of [125I]N-(diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide: a potential ligand for imaging malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.S.; Reba, R.C.; Varma, V.M.; McAfee, J.G.; Saga, T.; Kinuya, S.; Le, N.; Jeong, J.M.; Paik, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    To improve the radiolabeling yield and the specific activity of [ 125 I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide(DAB), the aryltributyltin precursor was synthesized from the N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-bromobenzamide derivative by palladium catalyzed stannylation using bis(tributyltin). The radiolabeled product, [ 125 I]DAB, was obtained by an iododestannylation reaction in high radiochemical yields (85-94%, radiochemical purity, > 98%) using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent. The specific activity was greater than 1600 Ci/mmol. The biodistribution studies in nude mice implanted with human malignant melanoma xenograft showed a good tumor uptake (6.14% ID/g at 1 h, 2.81% ID/g at 6 h and 0.42% ID/g at 24 h) of [ 125 I]DAB. Unfortunately, a high uptake in the non-target organs, such as liver and lung was found. At 1 h post-injection the activity level in liver and lung was 11.76 and 7.58% ID/g, respectively. A slow clearance of activity from liver and lung was observed at 6 h (3.43 and 0.49% ID/g). These results demonstrate that iodinated IDAB is a potential radiopharmaceutical for the management of patients with malignant melanoma. (Author)

  3. An improved synthesis of [[sup 125]I]N-(diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide: a potential ligand for imaging malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.S.; Reba, R.C.; Varma, V.M.; McAfee, J.G. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Saga, T.; Kinuya, S.; Le, N.; Jeong, J.M.; Paik, C.H. (National Insts. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To improve the radiolabeling yield and the specific activity of [[sup 125]I]N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide(DAB), the aryltributyltin precursor was synthesized from the N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-bromobenzamide derivative by palladium catalyzed stannylation using bis(tributyltin). The radiolabeled product, [[sup 125]I]DAB, was obtained by an iododestannylation reaction in high radiochemical yields (85-94%, radiochemical purity, > 98%) using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent. The specific activity was greater than 1600 Ci/mmol. The biodistribution studies in nude mice implanted with human malignant melanoma xenograft showed a good tumor uptake (6.14% ID/g at 1 h, 2.81% ID/g at 6 h and 0.42% ID/g at 24 h) of [[sup 125]I]DAB. Unfortunately, a high uptake in the non-target organs, such as liver and lung was found. At 1 h post-injection the activity level in liver and lung was 11.76 and 7.58% ID/g, respectively. A slow clearance of activity from liver and lung was observed at 6 h (3.43 and 0.49% ID/g). These results demonstrate that iodinated IDAB is a potential radiopharmaceutical for the management of patients with malignant melanoma. (Author).

  4. Neurocutaneous melanosis in an adult patient with intracranial primary malignant melanoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mian; Ding, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Gang; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Peng; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2018-03-09

    To explore the clinical characteristics of neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) in adult patients in order to help improve diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We present a rare case of an adult patient suffering from neurocutaneous melanosis with malignant melanoma as well as a review Chinese and English literature, and analyze their clinical features. There were thirty adult NCM patients, aged 19 to 65 years old, average 27.9 years old, twenty males (66.7%), ten females (33.3%); Twenty-four cases of malignant melanoma (80.0%), three cases of melanocytoma (10.0%), two cases of diffuse melanocytosis (6.7%), and one case pathology unknown (3.3%). Twenty-five cases showed satellite nevi (83.3%), five cases unknown (16.7%). Twenty-eight cases had intracranial lesions (93.3%) and two cases had intraspinal lesions (6.7%). Four cases combined hydrocephalus (13.3%), and two cases combined Dandy-Walker deformity (6.7%). NCM is a rare disease, especially in adults. With the onset symptoms, the diagnosis is generally confirmed. For children with congenital giant nevus, there should be regular periodic surveys of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) MRI or cerebrospinal fluid examination to diagnosis. Active treatment should be undertaken to improve the prognosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Malignant Melanoma in Southwest China: A Single-Center Series of 82 Consecutive Cases and a Meta-Analysis of 958 Reported Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Luo, Xue; Huang, Hui; Zhai, Zhifang; Shen, Zhu; Lin, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with malignant melanoma based on a series of 82 cases from January 2009 to December 2014 in Southwest Hospital and a meta-analysis (including 12 articles) involving 958 patients in China. The database elements included basic demographic data and prognosticators which were extracted from medical records. Statistical analyses of survival, and multivariate analyses of factors associated with survival were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. Literatures were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu database (VIP) database for the period from inception to December 2015. The meta-analysis was conducted using R 3.1.1 meta-analysis software. In this series of 82 cases, the median age of the patients was 57.50 years. Melanoma was located in the foot in 79% of patients. Sixty-one patients (74.4%) were classified as stage II-III. Thirty-two patients (39.0%) had acral malignant melanoma, and 31 patients (37.8%) had nodular malignant melanoma. The clinical characteristics of melanoma were similar to those in areas outside southwest China (from results of the meta-analysis). The median survival time was 29.50 months. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 84.1%, 39.0% and 10.9%, respectively. COX regression following multi-factor analysis showed that ulcer, tumor boundary and lymph node metastasis were associated with prognosis. The clinical characteristics of melanoma in Chinese were different from those in Caucasians. Ulcer, tumor margins, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with prognosis. Immune therapy may prolong the median survival time of patients with acral melanoma, nodular melanoma, or stage I-III disease, although these differences were not statistically significant.

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Malignant Melanoma in Southwest China: A Single-Center Series of 82 Consecutive Cases and a Meta-Analysis of 958 Reported Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yu

    Full Text Available The present study determined the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with malignant melanoma based on a series of 82 cases from January 2009 to December 2014 in Southwest Hospital and a meta-analysis (including 12 articles involving 958 patients in China.The database elements included basic demographic data and prognosticators which were extracted from medical records. Statistical analyses of survival, and multivariate analyses of factors associated with survival were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. Literatures were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Weipu database (VIP database for the period from inception to December 2015. The meta-analysis was conducted using R 3.1.1 meta-analysis software.In this series of 82 cases, the median age of the patients was 57.50 years. Melanoma was located in the foot in 79% of patients. Sixty-one patients (74.4% were classified as stage II-III. Thirty-two patients (39.0% had acral malignant melanoma, and 31 patients (37.8% had nodular malignant melanoma. The clinical characteristics of melanoma were similar to those in areas outside southwest China (from results of the meta-analysis. The median survival time was 29.50 months. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 84.1%, 39.0% and 10.9%, respectively. COX regression following multi-factor analysis showed that ulcer, tumor boundary and lymph node metastasis were associated with prognosis.The clinical characteristics of melanoma in Chinese were different from those in Caucasians. Ulcer, tumor margins, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with prognosis. Immune therapy may prolong the median survival time of patients with acral melanoma, nodular melanoma, or stage I-III disease, although these differences were not statistically significant.

  7. Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs - data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Methods Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR) from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown) were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128). Of these, 64 (50%) were malignant and 44 (34%) benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant), OMM (13; 20% of malignant), soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant) and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant). The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign), polyps (6; 14% of benign) and fibroma (5; 11% of benign). Conclusions In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans. Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a

  8. Treatment with Ipilimumab: A Case Report of Complete Response in a Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Patient

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    Alfredo Addeo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past year, 3 agents have been approved for the treatment of melanoma by the Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon α-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Case Presentation: We present here the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with advanced melanoma in April 2011 and treated with ipilimumab (Yervoy®, a monoclonal antibody targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, as second-line treatment after progression with dacarbazine, for (wild-type BRAF metastatic melanoma. The patient was referred to us for several painful lumps on his right arm. A biopsy of one of them revealed melanoma. CT and PET scans did not show any other lesions or a primary site. The patient was started on first-line chemotherapy with dacarbazine 850 mg/m2 on day 1, every 3 weeks. After 3 cycles, the patient showed disease progression with an increase in size of the skin metastasis. Second-line treatment was started with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg on day 1, every 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment, after 4 cycles, we documented a complete clinical response with total resolution of the skin metastasis. At the time of writing this paper, our patient had finished his treatment more than 9 months earlier and is still in complete remission. Conclusion: This is a paradigmatic case where, despite extensive metastatic disease, treatment with ipilimumab has confirmed its efficacy. It is still an open question why only a minority of patients have such a remarkable response, and further trials are warranted to address this important question.

  9. Frequent Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Localization of β-Catenin without Exon 3 Mutations in Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, David L.; Caca, Karel; Hu, Gang; Harrison, Frank B.; Fearon, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    β-Catenin has a critical role in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and it also functions as a downstream signaling molecule in the wnt pathway. Mutations in the putative glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation sites near the β-catenin amino terminus have been found in some cancers and cancer cell lines. The mutations render β-catenin resistant to regulation by a complex containing the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, adenomatous polyposis coli, and axin proteins. As a result, β-catenin accumulates in the cytosol and nucleus and activates T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor transcription factors. Previously, 6 of 27 melanoma cell lines were found to have β-catenin exon 3 mutations affecting the N-terminal phosphorylation sites (Rubinfeld B, Robbins P, Elgamil M, Albert I, Porfiri E, Polakis P: Stabilization of beta-catenin by genetic defects in melanoma cell lines. Science 1997, 275:1790–1792). To assess the role of β-catenin defects in primary melanomas, we undertook immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing studies in 65 melanoma specimens. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin, a potential indicator of wnt pathway activation, was seen focally within roughly one third of the tumors, though a clonal somatic mutation in β-catenin was found in only one case (codon 45 Ser→Pro). Our findings demonstrate that β-catenin mutations are rare in primary melanoma, in contrast to the situation in melanoma cell lines. Nonetheless, activation of β-catenin, as indicated by its nuclear and/or cytoplasmic localization, appears to be frequent in melanoma, and in some cases, it may reflect focal and transient activation of the wnt pathway within the tumor. PMID:10027390

  10. Diminished levels of the soluble form of RAGE are related to poor survival in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nikolaus B; Weide, Benjamin; Reith, Maike; Tarnanidis, Kathrin; Kehrel, Coretta; Lichtenberger, Ramtin; Pflugfelder, Annette; Herpel, Esther; Eubel, Jana; Ikenberg, Kristian; Busch, Christian; Holland-Letz, Tim; Naeher, Helmut; Garbe, Claus; Umansky, Viktor; Enk, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Gebhardt, Christoffer

    2015-12-01

    RAGE is a central driver of tumorigenesis by sustaining an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. This study links the soluble forms of RAGE (sRAGE and esRAGE) with clinical outcome of melanoma patients. Moreover, tissue expression of RAGE was analyzed using immunohistochemistry on two independent tissue microarrays (TMA) containing 35 or 257 primary melanomas, and 41 or 22 benign nevi, respectively. Serum concentrations of sRAGE and esRAGE were measured in 229 Stage III-IV patients using ELISA and plasma concentrations of sRAGE were analyzed in an independent second cohort with 173 samples of Stage I-IV patients. In this cohort, three well-described SNPs in the RAGE gene were analyzed. RAGE protein expression was highly upregulated in primary melanomas compared to benign nevi in the two TMA (p melanomas (p = 0.046). sRAGE and esRAGE were identified as prognostic markers for survival as diminished sRAGE (p = 0.034) and esRAGE (p = 0.012) serum levels correlated with poor overall survival (OS). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that diminished serum sRAGE was independently associated with poor survival (p = 0.009). Moreover, diminished sRAGE was strongly associated with impaired OS in the second cohort (p forms of RAGE and variants in its genetic locus are prognostic markers for survival in melanoma patients with high risk for progression. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Ultrasound-mediated interferon β gene transfection inhibits growth of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuki; Feril, Loreto B.; Tachibana, Katsuro; Takahashi, Akira; Matsuo, Miki; Endo, Hitomi; Harada, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Successful ultrasound-mediated transfection of melanoma (C32) cells with IFN-β genes both in vitro and in vivo. → Ultrasound-mediated IFN-β transfection inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. → Ultrasound-mediated IFN-β transfection inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of ultrasound-mediated transfection (sonotransfection) of interferon β (IFN-β) gene on melanoma (C32) both in vitro and in vivo. C32 cells were sonotransfected with IFN-β in vitro. Subcutaneous C32 tumors in mice were sonicated weekly immediately after intra-tumor injection with IFN-β genes mixed with microbubbles. Successful sonotransfection with IFN-β gene in vitro was confirmed by ELISA, which resulted in C32 growth inhibition. In vivo, the growth ratio of tumors transfected with IFN-β gene was significantly lower than the other experimental groups. These results may lead to a new method of treatment against melanoma and other hard-to-treat cancers.

  12. Evaluation of IGF1 serum levels in malignant melanoma and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Radek; Treskova, Inka; Vrzalova, Jindra; Svobodova, Sarka; Topolcan, Ondrej; Fuchsova, Radka; Rousarova, Milena; Treska, Vladislav; Kydlicek, Tomas

    2014-09-01

    There were two aims in the present study. The first was to evaluate the usefulness of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) for melanoma detection. The second was to correlate changes of serum levels of IGF1 with the Breslow score and sentinel node metastasis positivity. We examined a group of 216 cases, 77 patients with melanomas and 139 healthy probands. We determined the serum IGF1 levels of each patient using an IRMA radioisotope IGF1 assay kit. Serum samples were collected prior to surgery or any other form of treatment. All melanoma diagnoses were histologically verified. Based on the statistical evaluation between the melanoma group and group of healthy individuals, we observed statistically significant differences in IGF1 serum levels. The median IGF1 levels in the melanoma group was 154.1 ng/ml compared to 111.2 ng/ml in the group of healthy individuals (p=0.0036). The changes of the IGF1 levels related to the Breslow score categories were statistically significant (p=0.0027). Lastly, we compared the results between the positive and negative metastatic affection of the sentinel nodes. The median IGF1 levels in the negative group was 173.5 ng/ml compared to 205.8 ng/ml in the positive group. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.0407). Serum levels of IGF1 were significantly higher in patients diagnosed with melanoma compared to the healthy control group. The changes of the IGF1 levels related to the Breslow score categories were statistically significant. Serum levels of IGF1 were significantly higher in the group with the positive metastatic affection of the sentinel nodes than in negative patients. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is an independent predictor of survival in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Gerald; Joshi, Kushal; Lawes, Kathryn; Bamford, Mark; Moosa, Farhaan; Teo, Kah Wee; Pringle, J Howard

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes for melanoma patients vary within cancer stage. Prognostic biomarkers are potential adjuncts to provide more precise prognostic information. Simple, low-cost biomarker assays, such as those based on immunohistochemistry, have strong translational potential. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) shows prognostic potential in melanoma but prior studies were small. We, therefore, analysed 5 hmC in a retrospective cohort to provide external validation of its prognostic value. Two hundred primary melanomas were evaluated for 5 hmC expression using immunohistochemistry. The primary objective was to assess the effect on overall survival while controlling for important confounders. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. REMARK guidelines were followed. The 5 hmC immunohistochemistry scoring showed very strong inter-observer agreement (ICC 0.88) and expression was significantly related to age, site, Breslow thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, and stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 5 hmC was associated with metastasis-free, melanoma-specific, and overall survival, PhmC hazard ratios were significant and remained so in a multivariable model. A two-step cox model was created using stage and 5 hmC, as stage is the gold standard for clinical practice. The addition of 5 hmC produced significant improvement in the model and 5 hmC and stage were independent significant predictors. This is the largest study of the prognostic value of 5 hmC immunohistochemistry in melanoma. The 5 hmC scoring was easily and reproducibly performed and it was an independent predictor of metastasis-free survival, melanoma-specific survival, and overall survival. This work supports further development of 5 hmC as a prognostic biomarker and suggests that it could add more precision to American Joint Committee on Cancer staging.

  14. Malignant melanoma of the eyelid in a red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris orientis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Kosuge, Masao; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kadota, Koichi

    2002-03-01

    A 6-year-old male red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris orientis) developed bilateral tumors of upper and lower eyelids. The tumors in the left lid recurred despite surgical removal. Necropsy revealed metastasis to the lung. The neoplastic cells were epithelioid and highly pleomorphic, and only a few cells contained melanin granules. Occasionally melanoma cells were immunoreactive for S100, neuron-specific enolase and vimentin, and a small number of cells for cytokeratin. Ultrastructurally, the presence of premelanosomes was confirmed in the cytoplasm. Possible presence of cytokeratin-positive neoplastic melanocytes should be taken into account when differentiating a nonpigmented epithelioid melanoma from other tumors such as anaplastic carcinomas.

  15. The Pathophysiological Impact of HLA Class Ia and HLA-G Expression and Regulatory T Cells in Malignant Melanoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Lindholm Johansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, a very common type of cancer, is a rapidly growing cancer of the skin with an increase in incidence among the Caucasian population. The disease is seen through all age groups and is very common in the younger age groups. Several studies have examined the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms of malignant melanoma, which have enlightened our understanding of the development of the disease, but we have still to fully understand the complex immunological interactions. The examination of the interaction between the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and prognostic outcome has shown interesting results, and a correlation between the down- or upregulation of these antigens and prognosis has been seen through many different types of cancer. In malignant melanoma, HLA class Ia has been seen to influence the effects of pharmaceutical drug treatment as well as the overall prognosis, and the HLA class Ib and regulatory T cells have been correlated with tumor progression. Although there is still no standardized immunological treatment worldwide, the interaction between the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and tumor progression seems to be a promising focus in the way of optimizing the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  16. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, P A; Knudsen, L; Gniadecka, M

    2013-01-01

    and skin tumour diagnostics in vivo. We obtained Raman spectra in vivo from the normal skin of 55 healthy persons with different skin pigmentation (Fitzpatrick skin type I-VI) and in vivo from 25 basal cell carcinomas, 41 pigmented nevi and 15 malignant melanomas. Increased skin pigmentation resulted...

  17. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    In two identical and simultaneously performed case-control studies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) with age-matched, sex-matched and residence-matched controls, skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 145 BCC patients...

  18. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To document the anatomical distribution of melanoma, extent of disease, results of treatment and survival among black patients in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Methods. All available histological material was reviewed. All available addresses of patients were consulted to establish the status of patients treated ...

  19. New diagnostic techniques in staging in the surgical treatment of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; Koopal, S; Tiebosch, ATMG; Jager, PL; Elsinga, PH; Wobbes, T; Hoekstra, HJ

    2002-01-01

    The emphasis of the research on the surgical treatment of melanoma has been on the resection margins, the role of elective lymph node dissection. in high risk patients and the value of adjuvant regional treatment with hyperthermic isolated lymph perfusion with melphalan. Parallel to this research,

  20. PARP-1 Regulates Metastatic Melanoma through Modulation of Vimentin-induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Valle, Francisco; Rodriguez-Vargas, José Manuel; Gonzalez-Flores, Ariannys; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; López, Laura; Serrano, Santiago; de Herreros, Antonio García; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Rubén; del Moral, Raimundo G.; de Almodóvar, José Mariano; Oliver, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    PARP inhibition can induce anti-neoplastic effects when used as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy in various tumor settings; however, the basis for the anti-metastasic activities resulting from PARP inhibition remains unknown. PARP inhibitors may also act as modulators of tumor angiogenesis. Proteomic analysis of endothelial cells revealed that vimentin, an intermediary filament involved in angiogenesis and a specific hallmark of EndoMT (endothelial to mesenchymal transition) transformation, was down-regulated following loss of PARP-1 function in endothelial cells. VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker of vascular normalization, was up-regulated in HUVEC treated with PARP inhibitors or following PARP-1 silencing; vimentin over-expression was sufficient to drive to an EndoMT phenotype. In melanoma cells, PARP inhibition reduced pro-metastatic markers, including vasculogenic mimicry. We also demonstrated that vimentin expression was sufficient to induce increased mesenchymal/pro-metastasic phenotypic changes in melanoma cells, including ILK/GSK3-β-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation, Snail1 activation and increased cell motility and migration. In a murine model of metastatic melanoma, PARP inhibition counteracted the ability of melanoma cells to metastasize to the lung. These results suggest that inhibition of PARP interferes with key metastasis-promoting processes, leading to suppression of invasion and colonization of distal organs by aggressive metastatic cells. PMID:23785295

  1. PARP-1 regulates metastatic melanoma through modulation of vimentin-induced malignant transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PARP inhibition can induce anti-neoplastic effects when used as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy in various tumor settings; however, the basis for the anti-metastasic activities resulting from PARP inhibition remains unknown. PARP inhibitors may also act as modulators of tumor angiogenesis. Proteomic analysis of endothelial cells revealed that vimentin, an intermediary filament involved in angiogenesis and a specific hallmark of EndoMT (endothelial to mesenchymal transition transformation, was down-regulated following loss of PARP-1 function in endothelial cells. VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker of vascular normalization, was up-regulated in HUVEC treated with PARP inhibitors or following PARP-1 silencing; vimentin over-expression was sufficient to drive to an EndoMT phenotype. In melanoma cells, PARP inhibition reduced pro-metastatic markers, including vasculogenic mimicry. We also demonstrated that vimentin expression was sufficient to induce increased mesenchymal/pro-metastasic phenotypic changes in melanoma cells, including ILK/GSK3-β-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation, Snail1 activation and increased cell motility and migration. In a murine model of metastatic melanoma, PARP inhibition counteracted the ability of melanoma cells to metastasize to the lung. These results suggest that inhibition of PARP interferes with key metastasis-promoting processes, leading to suppression of invasion and colonization of distal organs by aggressive metastatic cells.

  2. Evaluation of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in Malignant Melanoma Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Radek; Topolcan, Ondrej; Treskova, Inka; Kinkorova, Judita; Windrichova, Jindra; Fuchsova, Radka; Svobodova, Sarka; Treska, Vladislav; Babuska, Vaclav; Novak, Jaroslav; Smejkal, Jiri

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of four interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) for melanoma detection and correlate these interleukins with sentinel node metastasis positivity. A group of 236 persons was assessed: 175 patients with melanomas and 61 healthy persons. Melanoma patients were divided to four groups according to Breslow score. We determined IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in each plasma sample. Interleukin plasma levels were assayed using a Human Cytokine Milliplex Map kit. Measurements were performed using the Bio-Plex MAGPIX Multiplex Reader. Plasma samples were collected prior to surgery or any other form of treatment. All melanoma diagnoses were histologically verified. We compared interleukin plasma levels in the healthy group and plasma levels in each Breslow score stage. In the first Breslow score stage, IL-2 (pmelanoma. IL-2 and IL-6 appear to be prognostic biomarkers. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. CNS metastasis from malignant uveal melanoma: a clinical and histopathological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, S K; Lindegaard, J; Isager, P

    2008-01-01

    was observed in two cases (14%). The amount of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes was pronounced in three cases (23%). CONCLUSION: The proportion of uveal melanoma patients having CNS metastasis was 0.7%. Eleven patients had multiple organ metastases, and the average time from the initial CNS symptoms to death...

  4. Scintimetric detection of choroidal malignant melanoma with [123I]-5-iodo-2-thiouracil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van Delft, J. L.; van Langevelde, A.; Bleeker, J. C.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; van Best, J. A.; Bouwhuis-Hoogerwerf, M. L.; Oosterhuis, J. A.; Pauwels, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    [123I]-5-iodo-2-thiouracil (123I-ITU) was evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical for tumor detection in 10 patients with proven choroidal melanoma. Uptake of 123I-ITU was measured with a specially designed single eye probe collimator, 24 h after administration of 123I-ITU. Increased uptake in the

  5. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation treatment of experimental malignant melanoma in the anterior chamber of the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, K. A.; van Delft, J. L.; Dubbelman, T. M.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; Oosterhuis, J. A.; Star, W. M.; Marijnissen, H. P.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Hematoporphyrin Derivative Photoradiation Therapy (HpD-PRT) on Greene's amelanotic melanoma implanted into the anterior chamber of rabbits have been examined by biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography and histopathology. The tumors were irradiated 24 hours after injection of HpD when

  6. CD207+/langerin positive dendritic cells in invasive and in situ cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dyduch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Dendritic cells are crucial for cutaneous immune response. Their role in melanoma progression is however a matter of controversy. Material and methods : The number of dendritic cells within epidermis and in peri- and intratumoral location was analyzed using CD207 immunostain in 17 cases of in situ and 25 case of invasive melanoma. Results : Average peritumoral CD207+ cells count was 22.88 for all cases, 17.94 for in situ lesions and 26.24 for invasive cases. Average epidermal CD207+ cells count was 164.47 for all cases, 183.00 for in situ lesions and 150.78 – for invasive cases. In case of invasive melanomas, peritumoral CD207+ cells count was positively correlated with Breslow stage (R = 0.59 mitotic activity within the tumor (R = 0.62. Invasive cases with regression showed higher intratumoral and epidermal CD207+ cells count than the ones without (275.00 vs. 95.32 and 173.20 vs. 148.35 but lower peritumoral CD207+ cells count (17.60 vs. 27.26. Invasive cases with ulceration showed higher intratumoral and peritumoral CD207+ cells count than the ones without ulceration (220.08 vs. 55.67 and 44.17 vs. 9.69. Conclusions : CD207+ cells play a role in both progression and regression of melanoma but their exact role needs further studies.

  7. A phase II study of thalidomide in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestermark, Lene; Larsen, Susanne; Lindeløv, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Brain metastases develop in nearly half of the patients with advanced melanoma and in 15 to 20% of these patients CNS is the first site of relapse. Overall median survival is short, ranging from 2 to 4 months. Thalidomide has antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory effects. Results...

  8. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  9. Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Oh, Taek-In; Kim, Byeong Mo; Lim, Beong-Ou; Lim, Ji-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 ( FN1 ), lysyl oxidase-like 2 ( LOXL2 ), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor ( uPAR ). It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), on HIF1A . Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  10. How gender, age, and geography influence the utilization of radiation therapy in the management of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, John; McGahan, Colleen; Duncan, Graeme; Lengoc, Sonca; Soo, Jenny; Cannon, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Comparing radiation therapy utilization rates (RTUR) to those predicted by best evidence is a useful measure of the equity and accessibility of service delivery. In this study the RTUR for melanoma was established for British Columbia, Canada, and compared with the rate suggested by the evidence. Demographic variables, specifically age, gender, and geography that influenced the RTUR were examined with a view to identifying methods of improving underutilization. Methods and Materials: The RTUR in the management of malignant melanoma was taken from British Columbia Cancer registry data for 1986 to 1998. Variations in utilization based on age, gender, health authority, stage of disease, and referral patterns were analyzed. Results: An RTUR of 11% was identified. This was consistent over time. Referral rates decreased between 1986 and 1998. RT is used mostly for later stage disease. Males were more likely to receive RT than females, related to later stage of disease in men. Referral rates decreased, but RTUR for referred cases increased, in health authorities that did not have a cancer center. Conclusions: Use of RT is influenced by age and by stage of disease. Overall RTUR in British Columbia is lower than suggested by best evidence. Referral patterns are influenced by geography. RTUR was higher in males, consistent with a different pattern of disease in males compared with females

  11. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  12. Dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation makes malignant melanoma cells addicted to glycolysis driven by the V600EBRAF oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Meyle, Kathrine Damm; Lange, Marina Krarup

    2013-01-01

    Oncogene addiction describes how cancer cells exhibit dependence on single oncogenes to escape apoptosis and senescence. While oncogene addiction constitutes the basis for new cancer treatment strategies targeting individual kinases and pathways activated by oncogenic mutations, the biochemical...... basis for this addiction is largely unknown. Here we provide evidence for a metabolic rationale behind the addiction to V600EBRAF in two malignant melanoma cell lines. Both cell lines display a striking addiction to glycolysis due to underlying dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Notably......, even minor reductions in glycolytic activity lead to increased OXPHOS activity (reversed Warburg effect), however the mitochondria are unable to sustain ATP production. We show that V600EBRAF upholds the activity of glycolysis and therefore the addiction to glycolysis de facto becomes an addiction to V...

  13. Complications after proton beam therapy for uveal malignant melanoma. A clinical and histopathologic study of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, M.C.; Folberg, R.; Torczynski, E.; Zakov, Z.N.; Shore, J.W.; Liu, S.J.; Planchard, T.A.; Weingeist, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Proton beam therapy for uveal malignant melanoma has been advocated as effective therapy because of documented reduction in tumor size and few clinical complications. However, some eyes have been removed because of adverse effects. The authors report the clinical courses and pathologic findings of five eyes enucleated after proton beam irradiation. Neovascular glaucoma had developed in three eyes, two eyes had vitreous hemorrhage, and two had extraocular extension. The tumors in the radiation treatment field showed continued postirradiation growth clinically in four of the five eyes, and mitotic activity histologically in all five cases. Two and one half years after irradiation, and nearly 2 years after subsequent enucleation, one of those two patients had biopsy-proven liver metastases, and later died. Despite the considerable success rate of proton beam irradiation, the potential for clinical complications and subsequent tumor growth remains

  14. Ultraviolet-induced formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, M.; Boehm, A.O.; Oldigs, M.; Weichenthal, M.; Reimers, U.; Schmidt-Preuss, U.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Genetically enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may play an important role in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). This was studied in cultured fibroblasts of 26 CMM patients and controls by micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after UV irradiation (375 J/m2). Sister chromatid exchange and MN formation were used as parameters to detect the UV-induced genotoxic damage in the individual cell strains. We found that the UV-induced level of MN was significantly increased in CMM patients (p = 0.0005), being most pronounced in the familial cases (p = 0.0001). Ultraviolet-induced SCE was also elevated in CMM patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between familial and nonfamilial cases. The present findings indicate that genetic predisposition contributes to the development of CMM in a subset of CMM patients and may be due to an enhanced susceptibility to UV light

  15. Dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation makes malignant melanoma cells addicted to glycolysis driven by the (V600E)BRAF oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Meyle, Kathrine Damm; Lange, Marina Krarup

    2013-01-01

    ). Notably, even minor reductions in glycolytic activity lead to increased OXPHOS activity (reversed Warburg effect), however the mitochondria are unable to sustain ATP production. We show that (V600E)BRAF upholds the activity of glycolysis and therefore the addiction to glycolysis de facto becomes......Oncogene addiction describes how cancer cells exhibit dependence on single oncogenes to escape apoptosis and senescence. While oncogene addiction constitutes the basis for new cancer treatment strategies targeting individual kinases and pathways activated by oncogenic mutations, the biochemical...... basis for this addiction is largely unknown. Here we provide evidence for a metabolic rationale behind the addiction to (V600E)BRAF in two malignant melanoma cell lines. Both cell lines display a striking addiction to glycolysis due to underlying dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS...

  16. Non-malignant migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells in the neural crest and invasive growth in the eye cup of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppitz, Matthias; Busch, Christian; Schriek, Gernot; Metzger, Marco; Just, Lothar; Drews, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Melanocytes originate from the neural crest. In a previous study, we observed that human SK-Mel 28 human melanoma cells resumed neural crest cell migration after transplantation into the chick embryo neural tube. Here, we used transgenic mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein-vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein construct to extend these observations. After the injection of a cell suspension into the trunk neural tube of E2 chick embryos, the migration of melanoma cells was followed by live fluorescence microscopy. Within 12 h, the melanoma cells formed clusters in the neural tube at the levels of the intersegmental clefts between somites. After 24 h, a segmental pattern of emigration was visible. Emigrated melanoma cells were identified in serial paraffin sections by immunohistochemistry with ab732 as a marker for melanoma cells and by in-situ hybridization of mouse-specific repetitive genomic sequence mL1. After 24 h, melanoma cells were found along the medial neural crest pathway and in the sympathetic trunk ganglia and, after 48 h, also in the lateral melanocytic pathway. During migration along the neural crest pathways, mouse melanoma cells underwent apoptosis, which was assessed by anti-caspase 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling staining. To prove the ablation of malignant behavior after back-transplantation into the original embryonic neural crest environment, we injected the same cell suspension into the eye cup of the E3 embryo. In this location, invasive melanomas formed.

  17. Clinicopathological correlation for the role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in detection of choroidal malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ogino, Yuka; Ichimura, Kouichi; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kaji, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to redefine the role of whole-body 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography fused with computed tomography (PET/CT) in the clinical diagnosis of choroidal malignant melanoma. The study design was a retrospective case series involving 7 consecutive patients with choroidal malignant melanoma who underwent enucleation to reach the final pathological diagnosis. FDG-PET/CT was performed together with magnetic resonance imaging and ophthal-mological examinations before the surgery. The area, thickness, longest diameter, and circumference of the tumor mass were measured on pathological sections, and were correlated with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the tumors on FDG-PET/CT. Abnormally high uptake of FDG was noted in the affected eyes of 5 patients, but not in the eyes of 2 patients. The 5 patients with high uptake showed nodular tumors extruding into the vitreous cavity while the 2 patients with absence of uptake showed diffusely infiltrating tumors in the wide area of the choroid with or without a small mushroom-like protrusion. One patient with diffuse infiltration showed concurrent liver metastases with high uptake on PET/CT while another patient with a nodular tumor developed liver metastases a year later. The tumors with higher SUVmax had a tendency to have a wider area and greater thickness on pathological sections (p=0.775, P=0.0557, Spearman rank correlation test). FDG-PET/CT showed correlation of the uptake with tumor sizes but was limited in detecting diffusely infiltrating tumors in the choroid without nodular formation. (author)

  18. Melanoma de canal anal simulando doença hemorroidária: relato de caso Melanoma of the anal canal simulating hemorrhoidal disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Reuter Motta Gama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Melanoma Anorretal é um tumor maligno raro com a possibilidade de simular uma doença anorretal, tornando o diagnóstico difícil. Tem baixos índices de cura e elevados índices de mortalidade em curto prazo. Os autores descrevem um caso de melanoma de canal anal cuja interpretação por parte do paciente tratava-se de uma doença hemorroidária que exteriorizava às evacuações. Os autores fazem uma extensa revisão da literatura dando ênfase aos sintomas e a melhor opção terapêutica a ser instituída.Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignant tumor with the small chance of simulating anorectal disease, making the diagnosis hard. There is a low rate of cure and high rate of short term mortality. The authors describe a case of anal melanoma which by the patient's interpretation was hemorrhoid disease that exteriorized evacuations. The authors do an extensive evaluation of the literature, giving emphasis to the symptoms and the best therapeutic option to be used.

  19. Generation of blood-derived dendritic cells in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, B; Stell, A J; Dobson, J M

    2002-01-01

    Advances in treatment of human melanoma indicate that immunotherapy, particularly dendritic cell (DC) immunization, may prove useful. The aim of this study was to investigate whether blood-derived DCs could be generated from canine melanoma patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from three such dogs and cultured with recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), canine interleukin 4 and human Flt3-ligand for 7 days. The resulting cells demonstrated a typical dendritic morphology, and were enriched for cells expressing CD1a, CD11c and MHC II by flow cytometric analysis. Thus, canine blood-derived DCs can be generated in vitro and DC immunization should be feasible in dogs. Copyright Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Malignant melanoma arising in congenital melanocytic nevi: clinical and dermoscopic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN are visible pigmented lesions in the skin that are present at birth. CMN are benign malformations resulting from defective development of melanocyte precursors in the embryo. Six MMs from six patients were analyzed by clinical and dermoscopic examination. Of the patients, 33.3% were female (N = 2 and 66.6% were male (N = 4. Of the MMs, four (66.6% were superficial spreading MM and two (33.3 % were in situ MM. A reticular pattern was present in the MMs of three patients (50%, a homogeneous pattern was present in the other patients (50% at the base of the MMs. Superficial spreading melanomas and in situ melanomas with atypical dots and globules and a blue-white veil were the most common dermoscopic features of MMs found in CMN.

  1. Lymphatic drainage to the popliteal basin in distal lower extremity malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menes, Tehillah S; Schachter, Jacob; Steinmetz, Adam P; Hardoff, Ruth; Gutman, Haim

    2004-09-01

    Hypotheses Melanoma of the distal lower extremity may drain to the popliteal basin. Drainage pathways and retrieval of the popliteal sentinel nodes may affect patient outcome. Retrospective analysis of popliteal involvement in patients with stage IB or higher melanoma, operated on from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 2003. Tertiary referral, university-affiliated medical center. One hundred six melanoma patients who underwent combined lymphoscintigraphy and blue dye-guided sentinel node biopsy, radical popliteal dissection, or both. Incidence and patterns of drainage to popliteal nodes; effect on staging and outcome. Lymphoscintigraphy (n = 8) and physical examination (n = 2) identified 10 cases (9%) of draining to the popliteal basin, with concurrent drainage to the groin. Three distinct drainage patterns were identified, with different popliteal node locations. Seven of 8 popliteal sentinel nodes were retrieved, 1 of which was metastatic with no groin metastasis. Two patients had synchronous palpable popliteal and groin metastases and underwent radical groin and popliteal dissection. All 3 patients with popliteal metastases relapsed early with synchronous systemic and in-transit disease. One of 7 patients with negative sentinel nodes is alive with in-transit disease; all others are disease free. According to this series, the popliteal basin is the site of first drainage in about 9% of patients, with concurrent drainage to the groin. The 3 distinct patterns of drainage to the popliteal region and the presence of isolated popliteal metastases may affect the surgical treatment. Therefore, drainage to popliteal sentinel nodes and the pattern of this drainage should be noted in all distal lower extremity melanomas.

  2. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. An ethical dilemma: malignant melanoma in a 51-year-old patient awaiting simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, L C; Banerjee, A; Augustine, T; Douglas, J F

    2016-07-01

    Malignant melanoma is a high-risk skin cancer that, in potential transplant recipients, is considered a substantial contraindication to solid organ transplantation due to significant risk of recurrence with immunosuppression. Current guidelines stipulate waiting between 3 and 10 years after melanoma diagnosis. However, in young patients with end-stage organ failure and malignant melanoma, complex ethical and moral issues arise. Assessment of the true risk associated with transplantation in these patients is difficult due to lack of prospective data, but an autonomous patient can make a decision that clinicians may perceive to be high risk. The national and worldwide shortage of available organs also has to be incorporated into the decision to maximize the net benefit and minimize the risk of graft failure and mortality. The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide is increasing faster than that of any other cancer and continues to pose ethically challenging decisions for transplant specialists evaluating recipients for solid organ transplantation. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Malignant melanoma incidence trends in a Mediterranean population following socioeconomic transition and war: results of age-period-cohort analysis in Croatia, 1989-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaric, Jelena; Laversanne, Mathieu; Znaor, Ariana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse trends of malignant melanoma incidence in Croatia for men and women of different age groups by birth cohorts and time periods, and to interpret them in the context of national socioeconomic changes over time and the possible implications for future prevention in South-Eastern European postcommunist countries with high mortality rates. We used the Croatian National Cancer Registry data to analyse incidence trends of malignant melanoma of the skin (ICD-9 code 172 and ICD-10 code C43) in men and women aged 25-79 years by age-period-cohort modelling. Over the 25-year period, the incidence was increasing by 5.0% annually in men and 4.6% in women. The age-period model provided the best fit for data in both sexes, with steeply increasing incidence rates, followed by a stabilization after the 2000s. On the cohort scale, incidence rates increased in successive generations of men, whereas in women, the risk of malignant melanoma attenuated in recent cohorts. Even if some progress has been achieved in recent years, the increasing melanoma incidence without concomitant declines in mortality would indicate a need to rekindle prevention efforts in the country taking the specific socioeconomic context into account.

  5. Malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity: a case report with examination of KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although several clinicopathological studies of malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity have been reported, there are no studies of the expression and gene mutation of KIT and platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA in melanoma of the nasal cavity. A 92-year-old Japanese woman consulted to our hospital because of right nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Physical examination and imaging modalities showed a tumor of the right nasal cavity. A biopsy was taken, and it showed malignant epithelioid cells with melanin deposition. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for S100 protein, HMB45, p53, Ki-67 (labeling=20%, KIT and PDGFRA. The tumor was negative for cytokeratins (AE1/3 and CAM5.2. A genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing revealed no mutation of KIT gene (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 or the PDGFRA gene (exons 12 and 18. The pathological diagnosis was primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity. The tumor was reduced in size by local resection and chemotherapy (Darthmose regimen: dacarbazine, carmustine, cisplatine, and tamoxifen, and the patient is now alive and free from metastasis 9 months after the first manifestation. In conclusion, the author reported a case of melanoma of the nasal cavity expressing KIT and PDGFRA without gene mutations of KIT and PDGFRA.

  6. Ultraviolet damage, DNA repair and vitamin D in nonmelanoma skin cancer and in malignant melanoma: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Rass, Knuth

    2014-01-01

    -induced tumorigenesis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. An interesting new perspective in DNA damage and repair research lies in the participation of mammalian mismatch repair (MMR) in UV damage correction. As MMR enzyme hMSH2 displays a p53 target gene, is induced by UVB radiation and is involved in NER pathways, studies have now been initiated to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological role of MMR in malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer development. Interestingly, increasing evidence now demonstrates an important function of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for prevention of BCC, SCC and melanoma, identifying the vitamin D receptor as a tumor suppressor in the skin.

  7. Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masamoto; Wada, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2007-12-01

    The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult. We report here a case of nodular melanoma that was extremely difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically. The primary tumor was a blackish nodule on the scalp and biopsy was performed for pathological diagnosis. Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus. Faced with this clinical dilemma, an operation was performed with sentinel node biopsy. Only one sentinel node suggested a metastasis. Histopathological diagnosis to establish whether it was a melanoma metastasis or nodal nevi was also difficult, and we again asked for second opinions from another dermatopathologist in the USA. According to its clinical course and the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node with additional immunohistochemistry, this case was finally diagnosed as a nodular melanoma (T4aN1aM0, stage IIIA). To date, the patient has been given five courses of chemotherapy at 6-month intervals, with no local recurrence or distant metastases so far.

  8. Expression and prognostic role of MMP2, MMP9, MMP13, and MMP14 matrix metalloproteinases in sinonasal and oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiev, Svetlana; Gnepp, Douglas R; Yakirevich, Evgeny; Sabo, Edmond; Annino, Donald J; Rebeiz, Elie; Laver, Nora V

    2008-03-01

    Sinonasal and oral malignant melanomas are rare malignancies accounting for less than 2% of all melanomas. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes required for extracellular matrix degradation in a variety of physiological and pathologic processes including wound healing, embryogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastases. We studied the correlation between expression of MMPs, nucleolar diameter of melanoma cells, different clinical and histologic parameters, and patient's outcome. Seventeen cases of sinonasal and oral malignant melanoma were studied. The expression of MMP2, MMP9, MMP13, and MMP14 was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffinized sections and measured by computer morphometry as well as silver-stained nucleolar diameter. A significant correlation was found between MMP2 and MMP14 expression and patient's outcome. Greater overall survival was seen in patients with average MMP2 expression less than 8000 microm(2)/x20 high-power field (P = .016). In patients with negative MMP14 staining, survival rate by the end of the follow-up was 38% compared with patients with positive MMP14 staining where survival rate was 0 (P = .03). A correlation with age at onset was also found; patients younger than 66 years had better overall survival rates than patients aged 66 years or older (P = .03). The maximal nucleolar diameter (MaxND) was another parameter that significantly correlated with clinical outcome. Patients with MaxND of 8 microm or larger showed a significant worse prognosis compared with the group with MaxND less than 8 microm (P = .0009). Our pilot study demonstrates that MMP2, MMP14, MMP9, and MaxND might be used as prognostic markers in patients with sinonasal and oral malignant melanoma.

  9. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappa, Germana [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Le, Thuc T. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Johlfs, Mary G. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Fiscus, Ronald R. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Corbeil, Denis [Tissue Engineering Laboratories (BIOTEC) and DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Tatzberg 47–49, 01307 Dresden, Germany Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Lorico, Aurelio, E-mail: alorico@roseman.edu [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  10. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; Johlfs, Mary G.; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  11. Skin cancer and melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author discusses various types of non-melanoma malignant skin cancer, as well as malignant melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer, such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, occasionally metastasize, but only late in the course of the disease. On the other hand, even relatively small primary melanomas tend to disseminate to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites. The author presents various treatment plans, including radiation therapy. Cutaneous melanomas have been considered relatively radioresistant. This is the rationale for the use of large fraction radiation therapy in the treatment of melanomas with the fraction sizes varying from 4--8 Gy

  12. DNA from BK Virus and JC Virus and from KI, WU, and MC Polyomaviruses as Well as from Simian Virus 40 Is Not Detected in Non-UV-Light-Associated Primary Malignant Melanomas of Mucous Membranes ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Géraldine; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel; Dalianis, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The single most important causative factor for malignant melanomas of the skin is UV radiation. However, this is not true for melanomas on body surfaces sheltered from the sun; thus, it is important to seek new causative factors of melanoma genesis. Human papillomaviruses and gammaherpesviruses are associated with human skin cancer; for example, human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 are associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and human herpesvirus 8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. ...

  13. Múltiplos melanomas malignos em área de cicatriz de queimadura: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Multiple malignant melanomas at burn scar: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Maion

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alterações neoplásicas malignas podem ocorrer em aproximadamente 2% dos casos de cicatrizes de queimaduras. As lesões neoplásicas se apresentam mais freqüentemente como carcinoma espinocelular. Neste artigo descreve-se o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, na sexta década de vida, com melanomas malignos múltiplos que se desenvolveram em uma antiga área de cicatriz de queimadura no tronco. Melanomas malignos múltiplos que se desenvolvem em região de cicatriz de queimadura são extremamente raros, e apenas quatro casos foram descritos na literatura até o presente momento.Malignant changes in burn scars can develop in approximately 2% of patients. The majority of these lesions are squamous cell carcinomas. In this article we present the case of a female patient, in the sixth decade, with multiple melanomas arising in the setting of an extensive old truncal burn scar. Multiple malignant melanomas arising in a burn scar are extremely uncommon and only four previous cases have been described in literature.

  14. Ascorbic acid, but not dehydroascorbic acid increases intracellular vitamin C content to decrease Hypoxia Inducible Factor -1 alpha activity and reduce malignant potential in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adam P; Miles, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in malignant tissue is known to contribute to oncogenic progression and is inversely associated with patient survival. Ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in malignant tissue may contribute to aberrant normoxic activity of HIF-1α. While AA supplementation has been shown to attenuate HIF-1α function in malignant melanoma, the use of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as a therapeutic means to increase intracellular AA and modulate HIF-1α function is yet to be evaluated. Here we compared the ability of AA and DHA to increase intracellular vitamin C content and decrease the malignant potential of human melanoma by reducing the activity of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein accumulation was evaluated by western blot and transcriptional activity was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a HIF-1 HRE-luciferase plasmid. Protein expressions and subcellular localizations of vitamin C transporters were evaluated by western blot and confocal imaging. Intracellular vitamin C content following AA, ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P), or DHA supplementation was determined using a vitamin C assay. Malignant potential was accessed using a 3D spheroid Matrigel invasion assay. Data was analyzed by One or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test as appropriate with pascorbic acid as an adjuvant cancer therapy remains under investigated. While AA and A2P were capable of modulating HIF-1α protein accumulation/activity, DHA supplementation resulted in minimal intracellular vitamin C activity with decreased ability to inhibit HIF-1α activity and malignant potential in advanced melanoma. Restoring AA dependent regulation of HIF-1α in malignant cells may prove beneficial in reducing chemotherapy resistance and improving treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Objective histopathologic grading of cutaneous malignant melanomas by stereologic estimation of nuclear volume. Prediction of survival and disease-free period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1989-01-01

    Modern stereologic techniques enable unbiased and shape-independent estimation of the three-dimensional nuclear volume (Vv). This study investigates the prognostic impact of Vv in 47 patients with malignant melanomas (10 years of follow-up) and compares Vv to traditional prognostic parameters...... and two-dimensional morphometric estimates. The averaged Vv was 226 microns3 and 457 microns3 in Stage I and II melanomas, respectively. The Vv was significantly increased in the case of ulceration, nodular melanoma, and Clark's level greater than III. The Vv showed only poor correlation to two......-dimensional morphometric estimates. Cox regression analysis indicated Vv to possess excellent prognostic information, only rivaled by tumor ulceration, the latter being a 100% predictor of metastatic spread. Histologic type, Clark's level of invasion, tumor thickness (according to Breslow), and patient sex were without...

  16. Spre[ing amelanotic malignant melanoma: A rare differential diagnosis with tumors of the glandula submandibularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, C.; Helmberger, H.

    1998-01-01

    The case reported emphasizes the importance of immediate performance of imaging scans in case of the slightest suspicion that clinical symptoms might indicate malignancy of a detected lesion. Despite the superficially only marginal macroscopic findings, MR imaging as well as the CT scans revealed an [vanced, malignant process that h[ been spre[ing. Particularly the soft tissue differential diagnosis obtained with MRI yields the information required for diagnostic characterization of the space occupying tumor mass. It will however be necessary in any case to verify the diagnosis by biopsy or extirpation and cytologic examination of tissue, as the imaging methods do not always unambigiously reveal the malignant dignity of the tumor. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Do perinatal and early life exposures influence the risk of malignant melanoma? A Northern Ireland birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, M A; Black, C; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Gavin, A T; Cantwell, M M

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine, early life and maternal exposures may have important consequences for cancer development in later life. The aim of this study was to examine perinatal and birth characteristics with respect to Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk. The Northern Ireland Child Health System database was used to examine gestational age adjusted birth weight, infant feeding practices, parental age and socioeconomic factors at birth in relation to CMM risk amongst 447,663 infants delivered between January 1971 and December 1986. Follow-up of histologically verified CMM cases was undertaken from the beginning of 1993 to 31st December 2007. Multivariable adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CMM risk. A total of 276 CMM cases and 440,336 controls contributed to the final analysis. In reference to normal (gestational age-adjusted) weight babies, those heaviest at birth were twice as likely to develop CMM OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). Inverse associations with CMM risk were observed with younger (birth and both a higher birth order and greater household density OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.99) and OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.30-1.0) respectively. This large study of early onset melanoma supports a positive association with higher birth weight (imperatively gestational age adjusted) and CMM risk which may be related to factors which drive intrauterine foetal growth. Strong inverse associations observed with higher birth order and household density suggest that early-life immune modulation may confer protection; findings which warrant further investigation in prospective analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Unusual Case of Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Pseudomesothelioma with Intense Diffuse Pleural FDG Uptake Demonstrated on FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamma Bency

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old male, non-smoker with history of asbestos exposure, and excision of 2 mm Clark IV cutaneous malignant melanoma 15 months earlier, presented with rapidly progressive dyspnea, left pleuritic chest pain, and weight loss. CT Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA demonstrated bilateral pulmonary emboli and findings suspicious of mesothelioma. There was no evidence of infection or malignancy in the hemorrhagic pleural fluid aspirate. FDG PET-CT revealed extensive intense FDG uptake throughout the pleura of left hemi-thorax, bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, bilateral adrenals and left gluteal musculature. Subsequent pleural biopsy was consistent with metastatic melanoma. The patient was referred for palliative therapy but died 10 days later

  19. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  20. Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva – successful surgical excision of the primary tumor and reconstruction by conjunctival auto transplantation from the contralateral eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, N; Chokoeva, A A; Dobrev, H; Staribratova, D; Belovezhdov, V; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva is a rare tumor with incidence of 0.5 cases/year per million population. It may also occur as de novo, as on the basis of preexisting melanocytic lesions (nevus or freckle) or most often from the so-called primary acquired melanosis of the conjuctiva (PAM). It metastasizes mainly lymphogenic and hematogenous. The size of the primary tumor lesion, histopathological findings and absolute tumor thickness are essential for unfavorable prognosis. Conjunctival auto transplantation from the other eye is modern and innovative, but also a seldomly feasible method of reconstruction after conjunctival excision of tumors in this area. We present a rare case of a 75-year-old patient with epithelioid cell malignant melanoma of the bulbar conjunctiva of the right eye, which de novo occurred, successfully treated by excision of the primary tumor and subsequent reconstruction by conjunctival auto transplant from the other eye. A very good therapeutic and aesthetic result was achieved.

  1. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... carcinoma and 174 matched controls, and 168 cases with cutaneous malignant melanoma and 176 matched controls. Controls were matched on age, gender and place of residence. Subjects indicated their hair colour before 7 years of age, and at 25 years of age and their skin phototype. Interviewers assessed...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...

  2. Thin melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David E

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing and a preponderance of the melanomas diagnosed today are "thin in terms of Breslow criteria. Although thin melanomas, as a group, are associated with a very good prognosis, a subset of these tumors may metastasize and cause death. These cases can be identified by using prognostic models, including the "standard" American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria, and other attributes identified in follow-up studies. To review the history of concepts of prognostic modeling in melanoma, focusing on thin melanomas. Selected literature. About 40 years ago, it was realized that malignant melanoma, once almost uniformly fatal, could be divided into categories with better or worse prognosis through the use of prognostic models. The first simple models, Clark levels of invasion and Breslow thickness, are still in use. Thickness remains the single most useful variable. Breslow recognized that melanomas less than 0.76 mm in thickness were associated with a very good prognosis, with no metastases in his limited initial study. The American Joint Committee on Cancer selected a cutoff of 1.0 mm, which achieves a similar result, with stage modifiers, although some metastases and deaths do occur with stage I lesions. Clark demonstrated an almost equally good prognosis for his level II invasive melanomas and recognized that most of these lesions, although invasive, lacked the ability to form tumors or to undergo mitosis in the dermis and were therefore "nontumorigenic" and "nonmitogenic" and lacked competence for metastasis. Studies of these low-risk melanomas have led to the development of criteria for earlier diagnosis and a steady, but still inadequate, improvement in prognosis for melanoma overall. Multivariable models currently can identify groups of patients within the "thin melanoma" category whose prognosis varies, from a disease-free survival of close to 100% to about 70%. Prognosis declines more or less linearly with increasing

  3. Concordance in BRAF V600E status over time in malignant melanoma and corresponding metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Bjerrehave; Dabrosin, Nina; Sloth, Karen

    2017-01-01

    of inter-tumour heterogeneity between the primary tumour and the corresponding metastases, time as a factor was also investigated. METHODS: In total, 227 samples from 224 melanoma patients were analysed using both the Cobas® 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation test and IHC anti-BRAF V600E staining. In 82 primary......AIMS: The present study analysed the usability of an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis compared to a frequently used mutation detection analysis and examined the extent of intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity of BRAF V600E in primary tumours and their corresponding metastases. In the development...... tumours and 224 corresponding metastases, the extent of inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity was investigated using IHC staining. RESULTS: In 15 cases, disagreement between IHC analysis and the Cobas test was seen. In all but one of the examined patients, homogeneity between the primary tumour...

  4. Concordance in BRAF V600E status over time in malignant melanoma and corresponding metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line B; Dabrosin, Nina; Sloth, Karen; Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Steiniche, Torben; Lade-Keller, Johanne

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyse the usability of an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis as compared with a frequently used mutation detection analysis, and to examine the extent of intratumour and intertumour heterogeneity of BRAF V600E in primary tumours and their corresponding metastases. In the development of intertumour heterogeneity between the primary tumour and the corresponding metastases, time as a factor was also investigated. In total, 227 samples from 224 melanoma patients were analysed with both the Cobas 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test and IHC anti-BRAF V600E staining. In 82 primary tumours and 224 corresponding metastases, the extents of intertumour and intratumour heterogeneity were investigated with IHC staining. In 15 cases, disagreement between IHC analysis and the Cobas test was seen. In all but one of the examined patients, homogeneity between the primary tumour and the corresponding metastasis was found. Except for this one case, no heterogeneity developed over longer periods. IHC analysis can be safely used as a BRAF pretreatment screening tool, and no additional test is needed when staining is positive. However, if stains are negative, additional tests are essential for detection of other BRAF mutations. We suggest that using primary melanoma tissues is just as safe as using metastatic tissue for detection of BRAF V600E, as BRAF intertumour heterogeneity is extremely rare. In addition, the time between diagnosis of the primary tumour and diagnosis of the corresponding metastasis seems not to increase the risk of intertumour heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death of human malignant melanoma cells following photodynamic therapy using an amphiphilic photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Satoshi; Obana, Akira; Gohto, Yuko; Nakajima, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the phototoxic effect on and cell death modes of human malignant melanoma cells following photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ATX-S10(Na), an amphiphilic photosensitizer. Cultured human malignant melanoma cells were incubated in a medium containing various concentrations of ATX-S10(Na) and irradiated with a 670 nm wavelength diode laser. Phototoxicity was analyzed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium inner salt (MTS) assay, and cell death modes were investigated by fluorescence microscopy using a Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide double-staining method as well as by static gel electrophoresis. The subcellular localization of ATX-S10(Na) and mitochondrial destabilization following PDT were observed by fluorescence microscopy. Higher phototoxicity was obtained with higher dye and/or laser doses. Most of the dead cells appeared apoptotic with dye and irradiation doses that induced less than 70% cytotoxicity. In contrast, most of them appeared necrotic with doses that induced 99% cytotoxicity. Cells receiving PDT showed disturbances of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, although the primary site of ATX-S10(Na) accumulation was in lysosomes. ATX-S10(Na) has a phototoxic effect on malignant melanoma cells and, therefore, potential as a photosensitizing agent for PDT designed to kill these cells. Apoptotic pathways may be activated via mitochondrial destabilization following the damage of lysosomes by PDT. Further study, including investigation of therapeutic efficacy in vivo, is warranted. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...... colour and skin type were found to be independent risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma; red hair vs. black/brown: OR >9.7, blond hair vs. brown/black: OR = 2.4, and skin type 11 vs. type IV: OR=2.0. There were no gender-related differences in risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous......To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  7. Effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide with piroxicam on tumour neovascularization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisunirachon, N; Jaroensong, T; Yoshida, K; Saeki, K; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Nakagawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Low-dose cyclophosphamide (CyLD) has shown promise in the treatment of several cancers; however, the effect of CyLD on canine oral malignant melanoma has never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of CyLD with or without piroxicam (Px) on tumour neovascularization and vascular normalization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mice model. After treatment with CyLD, Px or a combination of both (CyPx), the growth of the tumour in the treatment groups was significantly suppressed compared to the control group at 30 days of treatment. Proliferation index was also significantly reduced by all treatments, only CyPx significantly lowered microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Additionally, CyLD significantly reduced the proportion of normal vessels and caused an imbalance between VEGF and thrombospondin-1. These results suggested that CyPx has potent anti-angiogenic effects in terms of both the number and quality of blood vessels in xenografted canine oral malignant melanoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High MCM3 expression is an independent biomarker of poor prognosis and correlates with reduced RBM3 expression in a prospective cohort of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodin Björn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer with a variable clinical course even in patients with thin melanomas and localized disease. Despite increasing insights into melanoma biology, no prognostic biomarkers have yet been incorporated into clinical protocols. Reduced expression of the RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3 has been shown to correlate with tumour progression and poor prognosis in melanoma and several other cancer forms. In ovarian cancer, an inverse association was found between expression of RBM3 and the minichromosome maintenance 3 (MCM3 gene and protein. In melanoma, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical validation has uncovered MCM3 as a putative prognostic biomarker. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of MCM3 expression with clinical outcome and RBM3 expression in a prospective, population-based cohort of melanoma. Methods Immunohistochemical MCM3 expression was examined in 224 incident cases of primary melanoma from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, previously analysed for RBM3 expression. Spearman´s Rho and Chi-Square tests were used to explore correlations between MCM3 expression, clinicopathological factors, and expression of RBM3 and Ki67. Kaplan Meier analysis, the log rank test, and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the impact of MCM3 expression on disease-free survival (DFS and melanoma-specific survival (MSS. Results High MCM3 expression was significantly associated with unfavourable clinicopathological features and high Ki67 expression. A significant inverse correlation was seen between expression of MCM3 and RBM3 (p = 0.025. High MCM3 expression was associated with a reduced DFS (HR = 5.62 and MSS (HR = 6.03, and these associations remained significant in multivariable analysis, adjusted for all other factors (HR = 5.01 for DFS and HR = 4.96 for MSS. RBM3 expression remained

  9. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the three most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first two conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should not be avoided, and surgery has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. PMID:27712641

  10. An incidental finding of a nodal recurrence of cutaneous malignant melanoma after a 45-year disease-free period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Jenny; Cozon, Caroline Louise; Liew, Se Hwang

    2014-06-03

    We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who had a nodal recurrence of melanoma 45 years after the primary diagnosis of an extremity cutaneous melanoma. It is believed to be the longest disease-free latency period reported between primary melanoma diagnosis and recurrence to date. Late recurrences of melanoma are rare and recurrence after four decades extremely rare. This article suggests melanoma is a disease with a potentially lifelong risk of recurrence and thus clinicians and patients must be vigilant and aware of this risk, particularly if late recurrences are to be recognised early and management optimised. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Malignant Melanoma in African-Americans: A Population-Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 1106 African-American Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1988-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendraraj, Krishnaraj; Sidhu, Komal; Lau, Christine S M; McRoy, Georgia J; Chamberlain, Ronald S; Smith, Franz O

    2017-04-01

    Malignant melanoma accounts for 75% of all skin cancer deaths and is potentially curable if identified early. Although melanoma is rare in African-Americans (AA), it is associated with a worse prognosis than in Caucasians. This study examines the demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors impacting AA melanoma outcomes.Data for 1106 AA and 212,721 Caucasian cutaneous melanoma patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1988-2011). Data were grouped on the basis of histological subtypes: "Superficial Spreading" (SS), "Nodular" (NM), "Lentigo Maligna" (LM), "Acral Lentiginous" (AL), and "Not otherwise specified" (NOS).Cutaneous malignant melanoma occurs most commonly in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Caucasian patients presented most commonly with trunk melanomas (34.5%), while lower extremity melanomas were more common in AAs (56.1%), P melanoma on the lower extremities, and with deeper and more advanced stage lesions. AAs have higher cancer-specific mortality for NM and LM than Caucasians. Melanoma education for AA patients and health care providers is needed to increase disease awareness, facilitate early detection, and promote access to effective treatment.

  12. Acne in late adolescence is not associated with a raised risk of subsequent malignant melanoma among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Garcia, Teresa; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the association of acne in late adolescence with the risk for subsequent malignant melanoma (MM) in men. Swedish register-based cohort study of 242,096 males born between 1952 and 1956, who took part in compulsory assessments for Swedish military conscription in late adolescence between 1969 and 1975, with subsequent diagnoses of MM (n=1,058) up to December 31, 2009. Covariates included measures of childhood circumstances and information from adolescence on presence of acne, physical fitness, cognitive function, body mass index (BMI), and a summary of diagnoses. Cox regression was used for the analysis. In total 1,058 men were diagnosed with MM. Acne was not associated with subsequent MM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 0.95 (0.61 to 1.49). Men with parents who were agricultural workers, and men who lived in northern Sweden, had lower physical fitness, or lower cognitive function had a lower risk of MM. Overweight and obesity was associated with a raised risk, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.39 (1.14, 1.71). Acne in late adolescence is unlikely to represent a raised risk for subsequent MM in men. Overweight or obesity was identified as a raised risk for MM, possibly due to the associated increased skin surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Burden of Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Holterhues (Cynthia)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. More than 95% of all melanomas occur in the skin, but rarely in the pigmented cells of the eye, meninges or mucosa. This thesis will only regard the invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas.

  14. [Analysis of ocular surface alterations following proton beam radiation in eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westekemper, H; Anastassiou, G; Sauerwein, W; Chauvel, P; Bornfeld, N; Steuhl, K-P; Meller, D

    2006-07-01

    In cases of large, diffuse or multilocular growth pattern of conjunctival melanoma, proton beam irradiation can serve as an alternative therapy to exenteration. In extended tumours, ocular surface problems can result after therapy. In this study we examined ocular surface integrity of ten patients who underwent proton beam radiation between 1996 and 2002. The patients were examined during their follow-up. Eight of the ten cases who underwent proton radiotherapy were recurrent tumours, which were previously treated with other adjuvant therapies. We performed a standard ophthalmological examination and detailed tear film diagnostics. The follow-up was 17-87 months (mean: 40.9+/-20.1). In six cases more than 50% of the upper and lower eyelids were included in the radiation field. All of these cases showed moderate to severe sicca symptoms. The impression cytology revealed squamous metaplasia of conjunctival cells in nine of ten cases. Squamous metaplasia of conjunctival epithelia indicates a radiogenic, persisting disturbance of differentiation of the conjunctival epithelial cells. The tear film instability correlates with the loss of mucin-secreting goblet cells and meibomian gland dysfunction.

  15. Skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals with a strong family history of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, N A; McLoone, J K; Meiser, B; Butow, P N; Simpson, J M; Mann, G J

    2010-11-09

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals at high risk of developing melanoma due to strong family history. A total of 120 individuals with a known family-specific CDKN2A mutation (72% response rate) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing annual frequency of skin self-examination (SSE), clinical skin examination (CSE) and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychosocial correlates. In the past 12 months, 50% of participants reported engaging in SSE at least four times, and 43% of participants had undergone at least one CSE. Engagement in SSE was associated with doctor recommendation (β=1.77, P=0.001), confidence in one's ability to perform SSE (β=1.44, Pmelanoma treatment (β=0.77, P=0.002) and intention to perform SSE in the future (β=1.69, Pmelanoma engage in suboptimal levels of skin surveillance. Improved doctor-patient communication, as well as psycho-education and behavioural support, may be viable means of improving early skin cancer detection behaviours in this high-risk population.

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1 is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  18. Retrospective analysis of drug utilization, health care resource use, and costs associated with IFN therapy for adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ≥Ying Zhang,1 Trong Kim Le,1 James W Shaw,2 Srividya Kotapati31Center for Observational Research and Data Sciences, Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Hopewell, NJ, USA; 2Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Wallingford Center, CT, USABackground: This study examines real-world drug utilization patterns, health care resource use, and costs among patients receiving adjuvant treatment with IFN versus patients receiving no treatment ("observation" for malignant melanoma following surgery.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims from Truven Health Analytics (MarketScan® to identify all adjuvant melanoma patients (aged ≥18 years diagnosed between June 2007 and June 2011 who had a lymph node dissection (ie, index surgery and were treated with IFN or subsequently observed. Health care resource use and costs of services were converted to 2012 US dollars and were evaluated and compared using multivariable regression.Results: Of 1,999 eligible subjects with melanoma surgery claims, 179 (9.0% were treated with IFN and 1,820 (91.0% were observed. The median duration (days and number of doses of IFN therapy were 73 and 36, respectively. Among IFN-treated patients, only 10.6% completed ≥80% of maintenance therapy. The total average cost for patients treated with IFN was US$60,755±$3,972 (n=179; significantly higher than for patients undergoing observation ($31,641±$2,471; P<0.0001. Similar trends were observed when evaluating total cost components, including melanoma-related and non-melanoma–related medical costs. Among the melanoma-related medical costs, outpatient services, including office visits and laboratory testing, represented between 33% and 53% of total costs and

  19. 20-year long-term results of the use of external beam radiotherapy for primary advanced, recurrent and metastatic malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Keilholz, Ludwig; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Schell, Hermann; Wittekind, Christian; Sauer, Rolf

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The use of external beam radiotherapy (RT) is regarded only as 'last resort' approach in the multidisciplinary management of malignant melanoma (MM). We have analyzed the initial tumor response and the long-term local control, survival rate and relevant prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced, recurrent and metastatic MM who have been treated at our institution over the past 20 years. Methods: Between 1977 - 1995, a total of 2917 consecutive patients have been entered in the malignant melanoma registry of our university hospital. Just 121 (4%) out of these 2917 (4%) consecutive patients, i.e. 56 females and 65 males with histologically proven and clinically staged malignant melanoma (MM), have been selected during their disease process to receive external beam RT due to their advanced stage of the disease. The primary histology was nodular melanoma (NM) in 51 (47%) pts., superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) in 35 (32%) pts.; acral-lentiginous melanoma (ALM) in 8 (7%) pts. and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) in 4 (5%) pts.. The specific clinical indication for the application of RT was primarily for palliative reasons in the advanced clinical UICC stages II and IV: (a) 11 (9%) pts had residual disease (R1-2) after resection of a primary or recurrent MM (UICC II); (b) 57 (47%) pts suffered from regional lymph node metastases (33 pts.) or in-transit metastases (24 pts.) (UICC III); and (c) 53 (44%) pts had distant metastases at various body sites (7 pts. with M1a; 46 pts. with M1b) (UICC IV). The mean interval between the first diagnosis and actual application of the external beam radiotherapy (RT) was 19 months (range: 3 - 186 months). In most cases conventional RT and only in a few cases hypofractionated RT was applied with 2 - 6 Gy single dose fractions up to a median total RT dose of 48 Gy (range: 20 - 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up of the patients (FU) was 9 years (range: 0.3 - 15.5 yrs.). With regard to UICC stages, an initial

  20. Palliative radiotherapy for recurrent and metastatic malignant melanoma: prognostic factors for tumor response and long-term outcome: a 20-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Keilholz, Ludwig; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Urban, Anna; Schell, Hermann; Hohenberger, Werner; Sauer, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is used as a 'last resort' for patients with advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma. We have analyzed our 20-year clinical experience with respect to different endpoints and prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic malignant melanoma. Methods: From 1977 to 1995, 2,917 consecutive patients were entered in the melanoma registry of our hospital. Radiotherapy was indicated in 121 patients (56 females, 65 males) for palliative reasons in advanced malignant melanoma stages UICC IIB/III/IV. The histology of the primary lesion was nodular in 51 patients, superficial spreading in 35, acral-lentiginous in 8, and lentigo maligna melanoma in 4 patients. Eleven patients had primary or recurrent lesions which were either not eligible for surgery or had residual disease (R2) after resection of a primary or recurrent lesion (UICC IIB); 57 patients had lymph node (n = 33) or in-transit metastases (n = 24) (UICC III), and 53 had distant organ metastases (7 M1a; 46 M1b) (UICC IV). Time from first diagnosis to on-study radiotherapy averaged 19 (median: 18; range: 3-186) months. In most cases, conventional RT was applied with 2-6 Gy single fractions up to a median total radiation dose of 48 (mean: 45; range: 20-66) Gy. Results: At 3 months follow-up, complete response (CR) was achieved in 7 (64%) and overall response [complete (CR) and partial response (PR)] in all (100%) UICC IIB patients, in 25 (44%) and 44 (77%) of 57 UICC III patients, and in 9 (17%) and 26 (49%) of 53 UICC IV patients. Tumor progression during radiotherapy occurred in 25 (21%) patients. Patients with CR survived longer (median: 40 months) than those without CR (median 10 months) (p < 0.01). At last follow-up (Dec 31, 1996), 26 patients were still alive: 6 (55%) UICC IIB, 17 (30%) UICC III, and 3 (6%) UICC IV patients (p < 0.01). Univariate analysis revealed the following prognostic factors for complete response and long-term survival: UICC stage (p < 0