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Sample records for anopheline mosquito recta

  1. Larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela.

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    Rejmánková, E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Villegas, L

    1999-12-01

    Survey of larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes was conducted in Ocamo in the State of Amazonas, southern Venezuela. The sampled habitats belonged to three different hydrological types: lagoons (26 habitats), forest pools including flooded forest (16 habitats), and forest streams (4 habitats). Out of 46 habitats surveyed, 31 contained anopheline larvae. Six species were found: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles peryassui, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles mediopunctatus. Anopheles triannulatus was the most abundant species. Significantly higher numbers of anopheline larvae, in general, and of An. triannulatus specifically were found in lagoons with submersed macrophytes and sparse emergent graminoids than in forest pools with detritus.

  2. Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?

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    Goodman Steven M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.

  3. Evidence of anopheline mosquito resistance to agrochemicals in northern Thailand.

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    Overgaard, Hans J; Sandve, Simen R; Suwonkerd, Wannapa

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess insecticide resistance in anopheline mosquito populations in agroecosystems with high and low insecticide use in a malaria endemic area in Chiang Mai province in northern Thailand. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected in May and June 2004 from two locations with different agricultural insecticide intensity (HIGH and LOW), but similar in vector control strategies. The F1-generation of Anopheles maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni were subjected to diagnostic doses of methyl parathion (MeP) and cypermethrin (Cyp), both commonly used insecticides in fruit orchards in Thailand. An. minimus A from the HIGH location was subjected to diagnostic doses to Cyp. CDC bottle bioassays were used to determine insecticide susceptibility. Time-mortality data were subjected to Probit analyses to estimate lethal time values (LT50 and LT90). Lethal time ratios (LTR) were computed to determine differences in lethal time response between populations from HIGH and LOW locations. The mortality of An. maculatus to MeP was 74% and 92% in the HIGH and LOW locations, respectively. The corresponding figures for An. sawadwongporni were 94% and 99%. There was no indication of resistance to Cyp for all species tested in either location. The LT90 and LT50 values of An. maculatus s.s. subjected to diagnostic doses of MeP were significantly different between locations (p<0.05). Reduced susceptibility to MeP in mosquito populations in the HIGH location is caused by intensive agricultural pest control and not by vector control activities, because organophosphates have never been used for vector control in the area. Our results indicate that there are still susceptible anopheline populations to pyrethroids, which is consistent with other research from the region. Therefore, there is presently no direct threat to vector control. However increased use of pyrethroids in agriculture may cause problems for future vector control.

  4. Malaria infectivity of xanthurenic acid-deficient anopheline mosquitoes produced by TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis.

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    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Anopheline mosquitoes are major vectors of malaria parasites. When the gametocytes of the malaria parasite are transferred from a vertebrate to mosquitoes, they differentiate into gametes, and are fertilized in the midguts of mosquitoes. Xanthurenic acid (XA), a waste product of the ommochrome synthesis pathway, has been shown to induce exflagellation during microgametogenesis in vitro; however, it currently remains unclear whether endogenous XA affects the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems such as a XA-deficient line. In the present study, we produced a XA-deficient line in Anopheles stephensi using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting (knockout) of the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kmo) gene, which encodes an enzyme that participates in the ommochrome synthesis pathway. The knockout of kmo resulted in the absence of XA, and oocyst formation was inhibited in the midguts of these XA-deficient mosquitoes, which, in turn, reduced sporozoite numbers in their salivary glands. These results suggest that endogenous XA stimulates exflagellation, and enhances the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo. The XA-deficient line of the anopheline mosquito provides a useful system for analyzing and understanding the associated factors of malaria gametogenesis in the mosquito midgut.

  5. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

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    Yamamoto, Daisuke S.; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary glan...

  6. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

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    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  7. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

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    Daisuke S Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control.

  8. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control.

  9. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

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    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  10. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Traps Improve the Light-Trapping of Anopheline Mosquitoes.

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    Costa-Neta, B M; da Silva, A A; Brito, J M; Moraes, J L P; Rebêlo, J M M; Silva, F S

    2017-11-07

    Numerous advantages over the standard incandescent lamp favor the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative and inexpensive light source for sampling medically important insects in surveillance studies. Previously published studies examined the response of mosquitoes to different wavelengths, but data on anopheline mosquito LED attraction are limited. Center for Disease Control and Prevention-type light traps were modified by replacing the standard incandescent lamp with 5-mm LEDs, one emitting at 520 nm (green) and the other at 470 nm (blue). To test the influence of moon luminosity on LED catches, the experiments were conducted during the four lunar phases during each month of the study period. A total of 1,845 specimens representing eight anopheline species were collected. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (35.2%) was the most frequently collected, followed by An. (Nys.) triannulatus (21.9%), An. (Nys.) goeldii (12.9%), and An. (Nys.) argyritarsis (11.5%). The green LED was the most attractive light source, accounting for 43.3% of the individuals collected, followed by the blue (31.8%) and control (24.9%) lights. The LED traps were significantly more attractive than the control, independent of the lunar phase. Light trapping of anopheline mosquitoes was more efficient when the standard incandescent lamp was replaced with LEDs, regardless of the moon phase. The efficiency of LEDs improves light trapping results, and it is suggested that the use of LEDs as an attractant for anopheline mosquitoes should be taken into consideration when sampling anopheline mosquitoes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification of a fibrinogen-related protein (FBN9) gene in neotropical anopheline mosquitoes.

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    Oliveira, Sabrina B; Ibraim, Izabela C; Tadei, Wanderli P; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Nahum, Laila A; Brito, Cristiana F A; Moreira, Luciano A

    2011-02-02

    Malaria has a devastating impact on worldwide public health in many tropical areas. Studies on vector immunity are important for the overall understanding of the parasite-vector interaction and for the design of novel strategies to control malaria. A member of the fibrinogen-related protein family, fbn9, has been well studied in Anopheles gambiae and has been shown to be an important component of the mosquito immune system. However, little is known about this gene in neotropical anopheline species. This article describes the identification and characterization of the fbn9 gene partial sequences from four species of neotropical anopheline primary and secondary vectors: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles aquasalis, and Anopheles albitarsis (namely Anopheles marajoara). Degenerate primers were designed based on comparative analysis of publicly available Aedes aegypti and An. gambiae gene sequences and used to clone putative homologs in the neotropical species. Sequence comparisons and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were then performed to better understand the molecular diversity of this gene in evolutionary distant anopheline species, belonging to different subgenera. Comparisons of the fbn9 gene sequences of the neotropical anophelines and their homologs in the An. gambiae complex (Gambiae complex) showed high conservation at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, although some sites show significant differentiation (non-synonymous substitutions). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of fbn9 nucleotide sequences showed that neotropical anophelines and African mosquitoes form two well-supported clades, mirroring their separation into two different subgenera. The present work adds new insights into the conserved role of fbn9 in insect immunity in a broader range of anopheline species and reinforces the possibility of manipulating mosquito immunity to design novel pathogen control strategies.

  12. Identification of a fibrinogen-related protein (FBN9 gene in neotropical anopheline mosquitoes

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    Brito Cristiana FA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a devastating impact on worldwide public health in many tropical areas. Studies on vector immunity are important for the overall understanding of the parasite-vector interaction and for the design of novel strategies to control malaria. A member of the fibrinogen-related protein family, fbn9, has been well studied in Anopheles gambiae and has been shown to be an important component of the mosquito immune system. However, little is known about this gene in neotropical anopheline species. Methods This article describes the identification and characterization of the fbn9 gene partial sequences from four species of neotropical anopheline primary and secondary vectors: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles aquasalis, and Anopheles albitarsis (namely Anopheles marajoara. Degenerate primers were designed based on comparative analysis of publicly available Aedes aegypti and An. gambiae gene sequences and used to clone putative homologs in the neotropical species. Sequence comparisons and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were then performed to better understand the molecular diversity of this gene in evolutionary distant anopheline species, belonging to different subgenera. Results Comparisons of the fbn9 gene sequences of the neotropical anophelines and their homologs in the An. gambiae complex (Gambiae complex showed high conservation at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, although some sites show significant differentiation (non-synonymous substitutions. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of fbn9 nucleotide sequences showed that neotropical anophelines and African mosquitoes form two well-supported clades, mirroring their separation into two different subgenera. Conclusions The present work adds new insights into the conserved role of fbn9 in insect immunity in a broader range of anopheline species and reinforces the possibility of manipulating mosquito immunity to design novel pathogen control strategies.

  13. Characterisation of breeding sites of anopheline mosquitoes in District Bannu, KPK, Pakistan.

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    Khan, Sadiq Ullah; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2018-02-01

    To highlight the role of habitat evaluation in reducing the potential transmission risk of malaria. This study was conducted from January to June, 2015, in District Bannu in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, where 64 larval habitats were characterised in 10 villages of the district. The larvae habitat features, like its permanent or temporary nature, artificial or natural, basic type, substrate type and vegetation, anopheline and culicine larval presence and density, were noted. ArcGIS 9.2 was used to map the mosquitoe breeding sites. Data was analysed related to the effect of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on larval occurrence and density.. Of the 64 breeding habitats characterised, 26(40.6%) were temporary, while the remaining 38(59.4%) were permanent. Anopheline larvae were found in different types of habitats and occurred in man-made and temporary habitats with high population density. The marshlands (rice fields, sugarcane and open drains) were positive for anopheline larvae. The climatic factors like rain and humidity positively affected the larval density. The larval density was high in March and April at temperatures ranging from 16.1Co-23.45oC. Targeting the man-made and temporary larval habitats could results in the effective anopheline mosquitoes larvae control.

  14. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands

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    Beck Louisa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya

  15. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

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    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  16. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

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    B Farzinnia

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.

  17. Molecular characterization of Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from eight geographical locations of Sri Lanka.

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    Weeraratne, Thilini C; Surendran, Sinnathambi N; Reimer, Lisa J; Wondji, Charles S; Perera, M Devika B; Walton, Catherine; Parakrama Karunaratne, S H P

    2017-06-02

    Genus Anopheles is a major mosquito group of interest in Sri Lanka as it includes vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. Taxonomy of the group is mainly based on morphological features, which are not conclusive and can be easily erased while handling the specimens. A combined effort, using morphology and DNA barcoding (using the markers cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, was made during the present study to recognize anophelines collected from eight districts of Sri Lanka for the first time. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and ITS2 regions of morphologically identified anopheline mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were sequenced. These sequences together with GenBank sequences were used in phylogenetic tree construction and molecular characterization of mosquitoes. According to morphological identification, the field-collected adult mosquitoes belonged to 15 species, i.e., Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles karwari, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles pallidus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles varuna. However, analysis of 123 COI sequences (445 bp) (16 clades supported by strong bootstrap value in the neighbour joining tree and inter-specific distances of >3%) showed that there are 16 distinct species. Identity of the morphologically identified species, except An. subpictus, was comparable with the DNA barcoding results. COI sequence analysis showed that morphologically identified An. subpictus is composed of two genetic entities: An. subpictus species A and species B (inter-specific K2P distance 0.128). All the four haplotypes of An. culicifacies discovered during the present study belonged to a single species. ITS2 sequences (542 bp) were obtained for all the species except for An. barbirostris, An

  18. Can Mosquito Magnet® substitute for human-landing catches to sample anopheline populations?

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    Yasmin Rubio-Palis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty PlusTM (MMLP trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI: 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57. There were significant correlations (p < 0.01 between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R² = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48. These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.

  19. Can Mosquito Magnet® substitute for human-landing catches to sample anopheline populations?

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    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Moreno, Jorge E; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Cárdenas, Lya; Martínez, Angela; Medina, Domingo

    2012-06-01

    The efficiency of the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus™ (MMLP) trap was evaluated in comparison to human-landing catches (HLCs) to sample anopheline populations in Jabillal, state of Bolivar, southern Venezuela. The village comprised 37 houses and a population of 101; malaria in this village is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax and the Annual Parasite Index is 316.8 per 1,000 population. A longitudinal study was conducted between June 2008-January 2009 for three nights per month every two months between 17:30 pm-21:30 pm, a time when biting mosquitoes are most active. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most common species collected by both methods, whereas Anopheles marajoara was more abundant according to the HLC method. The MMLP trap was more efficient for collecting An. nuneztovari [63%, confidence interval (CI): 2.53] than for collecting An. darlingi (31%, CI: 1.57). There were significant correlations (p < 0.01) between the two methods for An. darlingi [Pearson correlation (R²) = 0.65] and An. nuneztovari (R² = 0.48). These preliminary results are encouraging for further investigations of the use of the MMLP trap for monitoring anopheline populations in remote malaria-endemic areas in the Amazon Basin.

  20. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

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    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2010-08-26

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas. Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.

  1. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia

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    Ndoen Ermi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.

  2. Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran.

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    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Sedaghat, M M; Abedi, F; Soltani, M; Raeisi, A

    2012-06-01

    Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in south to southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriate management of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran. This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization of larval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district. The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthly during 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded and water samples were analyzed. A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies in February and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity index ranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vector species. Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and clay beds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped. Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.

  3. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan Highlands

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    Krief Sabrina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp., including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour in which they consume plant parts of low nutritional value but that contain compounds with anti-malarial properties suggests that the apes health might be affected by the parasite. The avoidance of the night-biting anopheline mosquitoes is another potential behavioural adaptation that would lead to a decrease in the number of infectious bites and consequently malaria. Methods Mosquitoes were collected over two years using suction-light traps and yeast-generated CO2 traps at the nesting and the feeding sites of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park. The species of the female Anopheles caught were then determined and the presence of Plasmodium was sought in these insects by PCR amplification. Results The mosquito catches yielded a total of 309 female Anopheles specimens, the only known vectors of malaria parasites of mammalians. These specimens belonged to 10 species, of which Anopheles implexus, Anopheles vinckei and Anopheles demeilloni dominated. Sensitive DNA amplification techniques failed to detect any Plasmodium-positive Anopheles specimens. Humidity and trap height influenced the Anopheles capture success, and there was a negative correlation between nest numbers and mosquito abundance. The anopheline mosquitoes were also less diverse and numerous in sites where chimpanzees were nesting as compared to those where they were feeding. Conclusions These observations suggest that the sites where chimpanzees build their nests every night might be

  4. Protein kinase C-dependent signaling controls the midgut epithelial barrier to malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes.

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    Nazzy Pakpour

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the primary vectors of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria. Malaria parasites undergo a series of complex transformations upon ingestion by the mosquito host. During this process, the physical barrier of the midgut epithelium, along with innate immune defenses, functionally restrict parasite development. Although these defenses have been studied for some time, the regulatory factors that control them are poorly understood. The protein kinase C (PKC gene family consists of serine/threonine kinases that serve as central signaling molecules and regulators of a broad spectrum of cellular processes including epithelial barrier function and immunity. Indeed, PKCs are highly conserved, ranging from 7 isoforms in Drosophila to 16 isoforms in mammals, yet none have been identified in mosquitoes. Despite conservation of the PKC gene family and their potential as targets for transmission-blocking strategies for malaria, no direct connections between PKCs, the mosquito immune response or epithelial barrier integrity are known. Here, we identify and characterize six PKC gene family members--PKCδ, PKCε, PKCζ, PKD, PKN, and an indeterminate conventional PKC--in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the anopheline PKCs support most subfamily assignments. All six PKCs are expressed in the midgut epithelia of A. gambiae and A. stephensi post-blood feeding, indicating availability for signaling in a tissue that is critical for malaria parasite development. Although inhibition of PKC enzymatic activity decreased NF-κB-regulated anti-microbial peptide expression in mosquito cells in vitro, PKC inhibition had no effect on expression of a panel of immune genes in the midgut epithelium in vivo. PKC inhibition did, however, significantly increase midgut barrier integrity and decrease development of P. falciparum oocysts in A. stephensi, suggesting that PKC

  5. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

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    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a

  6. The fauna, monthly activity and species composition of anophelines mosquito larva in breeding places, Qom province

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is need to develop updated database related to malaria mosquito, because there is back prevalence of malaria in the past two decades in some areas of north and northwest of Iran categorized as epidemiologically clean areas previously. Vectors control is one of the main strategies in controlling the epidemics. In this study, species composition and monthly activity of anopheles mosquito larva in different breeding places in Qom province was assessed. Material and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional one. It was carried out in all 5 parts of geographical areas of Qom province. Samples were collected every 15 days from the natural and artificial breeding places from April to October 2010, using dipping standard method of WHO. Mosquito larvae conserved in lactophenol medium. In the laboratory, the specimens were mounted in likidophor medium and microscopic slides were prepared from larvae, and identified using illustrated keys for Iranian mosquitoes. Results: A total of 298 larvae samples were collected and identified from different breeding places in various areas of Qom province. This larvae belonged to two subgenus of Anopheles and Cellia and including four species of An.(Ano.marteri, An.(Ano.claviger, An.(Cel.superpictus, and An.(Cel.turkhudi. An.(Ano. claviger, An.(Ano.marteri, and An.(Cel.turkhudi are reported for the first time in this province. An.(Ano.claviger was dominant species of larvae in the breeding places in Qom province and found in different larva habitats. The peak of activity of recent species is in late July and early August and its seasonal activity is in late April to late October. Conclusion: An.(Cel.superpictus which is Malaria vector in different parts of the world and Iran is the dominant species of the area had the second frequency. Having high potential for transmission and possibility of establishing a transmission cycle with low abundance is the characteristics of first species. Anopheles

  7. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

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    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  8. Drosophila as a model for the study of sex determination in anopheline and aedine mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuti, A.; Kocacitak, T.; Lucchesi, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Sterile insect technique control strategies consist of releasing laboratory produced male insects that have been sterilised by irradiation. These strategies require the production of massive quantities of males. Population-replacement strategies rely on the genetically engineered interruption of that portion of the malaria parasite's life cycle that occurs in the mosquito. This could be achieved by the inundative introduction of transformed males or the more limited introduction of males carrying an infective agent capable of driving a parasite-inhibiting transgene into the vector population. Once again, the release of genetically engineered males would require genetic systems for their mass production. Mass production of males can be accomplished most effectively through genetic sexing techniques. Genetic sexing can be achieved by identifying the key steps in the genetic regulation of sex differentiation and by modifying one or more of these steps so that their execution would result in sex-specific lethality. As the necessary and seminal first step towards this goal, we set out to identify and isolate a gene whose primary transcript is processed differently in males and females of Anopheles gambiae Giles. A survey of sex determination among insects reveals a vast array of different mechanisms. Our understanding of these mechanisms consists only of information derived from classical cytological and genetic studies. Using the knowledge derived from the study of Drosophila, it has been possible to discern a fundamental pattern in the sex determining mechanisms of many diverse insect species (Noethiger and Steinmann-Zwicky 1985). The challenge now, is to determine if there has been an evolutionary conservation of the genes responsible for the fundamental pattern, i.e., if the molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination in Drosophila are the same in other insects of interest or if in these insects, the apparent fundamental pattern is achieved by completely

  9. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond

  10. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  11. Blood Meal Preference of Some Anopheline Mosquitoes in Command and Non-command Areas of Rajasthan, India

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    Kailash Kumar Swami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the entomological situation by analyzing the bloodmeal of mosquitoes of canal irrigated and non-irrigated areas of Bikaner in order to explore scientific information onthe vector biology and malaria burden profile and to plan proper strategies for malaria control and eradication.Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected and the abdomen of the blood fed females were crushed on a filter paperfor blood meal analysis and subjected to precipitin test.Results: The blood meal analysis showed that Anopheles subpictus had a preference towards cattle blood, An.culicifacies and An. stephensi preferred human blood, while, An. annularis was noted to feed only on bovine blood.Conclusion: Although An. annularis, has been recently reported from the area, was found to feed exclusively onbovine blood, earlier reports suggest that this species is a vector of malaria and therefore preventive measuresshould be taken well in advance before this species gets established in the area.

  12. An experimental hut evaluation of Olyset® nets against anopheline mosquitoes after seven years use in Tanzanian villages

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    Mosha Frank W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are advocated by WHO for protection against malaria. Of the three brands of LLINs currently approved by WHO, Olyset® is the only one currently granted full recommendation. With this type of LLIN, the insecticide (permethrin is incorporated into the polyethylene fibre during manufacture and diffuses from the core to the surface, thereby maintaining surface concentrations. It has not been determined for how long Olyset nets remain protective against mosquitoes in household use. Methods Examples of Olyset nets, which had been in use in Tanzanian villages for seven years, were tested in experimental huts against naturally entering Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes. Performance was compared with new Olyset nets, conventionally treated ITNs (either newly treated with alphacypermethrin or taken from local villages after 1.5 years of use and untreated nets. All nets were artificially holed except for the seven-year Olyset nets, which had developed holes during prolonged domestic use. Results Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae in NE Tanzania are susceptible to pyrethroids. The new Olyset nets caused high mortality against An. funestus (73.9% and An. gambiae (62.7% in experimental huts. The seven-year Olyset nets caused 58.9% mortality against An. funestus and 40.0% mortality against An. gambiae. The freshly treated alphacypermethrin nets also caused high mortality against An. funestus (70.6% and An. gambiae (72.0%; this decreased to 58.4% and 69.6% respectively after 1.5 years of use. The new Olyset nets inhibited blood-feeding by 40–50%. The 7 year Olyset nets showed no feeding inhibition over that shown by the untreated nets. The alphacypermethrin treated nets failed to inhibit blood-feeding after 1.5 years of use. However iHhhdn laboratory tunnel tests samples of all types of treated net including the 7 year Olyset inhibited blood-feeding by more than 95%. Conclusion After

  13. Field efficacy of Vectobac GR as a mosquito larvicide for the control of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in natural habitats in Benin, West Africa.

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    Armel Djènontin

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg, a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin.In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m² against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m² against Cx. quinquefasciatus according to manufacturer's product label recommendations. The dosage giving optimum efficacy under simulated field conditions were evaluated in the field. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in terms of emergence inhibition in simulated field conditions and of reduction of larval and pupal densities in rice fields and urban cesspits was measured following WHO guidelines for testing and evaluation of mosquito larvicides.Vectobac GR caused emergence inhibition of ≥80% until 21 [20]-[22] days for An. gambiae at 1.2 g/m² dose and 28 [27-29] days for Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2 g/m² in simulated field habitats. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in natural habitats was for 2 to 3 days against larvae and up to 10 days against pupae.Treatment with Vectobac GR caused complete control of immature mosquito within 2-3 days but did not show prolonged residual action. Larviciding can be an option for malaria and filariasis vector control particularly in managing pyrethroid-resistance in African malaria vectors. Since use of larvicides among several African countries is being emphasized through Economic Community of West Africa States, their epidemiological impact should be carefully investigated.

  14. Seasonal abundance of anopheline mosquitoes and their association with rainfall and malaria along the Matapí River, Amapá, [corrected] Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardo, A K R; Zimmerman, R H; Lounibos, L P; Young, L J; Galardo, C D; Arruda, M; D'Almeida Couto, A A R

    2009-12-01

    Three communities separated by 1.5-7.0 km, along the Matapí River, Amapá State, Brazil, were sampled monthly from April 2003 to November 2005 to determine relationships between seasonal abundance of host-seeking anophelines, rainfall and malaria cases. Out of the 759 821 adult female anophelines collected, Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) was the most abundant (56.2%) followed by An. marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (24.6%), An. nuneztovari Gabaldón (12.4%), An. intermedius (Chagas) (4.4%) and An. triannulatus (Neiva and Pinto) (2.3%). Vector abundance, as measured by human landing catches, fluctuated during the course of the study and varied in species-specific ways with seasonal patterns of rainfall. Anopheles darlingi and An. triannulatus were more abundant during the wet-dry transition period in June to August, whereas An. marajoara began to increase in abundance in February in two villages, and during the wet-dry transition in the other village. Anopheles nuneztovari and An. intermedius increased in abundance shortly after the rains began in January to February. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) analysis of 32 consecutive months of collections showed significant differences in abundance for each species by village and date (P < 0.0001). Correlations between lagged rainfall and abundances also differed among species. A strong positive correlation of An. darlingi abundance with rainfall lagged by 4 and 5 months (Pearson's r = 0.472-0.676) was consistent among villages and suggests that rainfall may predict vector abundance. Significant correlations were detected between numbers of malaria cases and abundances of suspected vector species. The present study shows how long-term field research may connect entomological and climatological correlates with malaria incidence.

  15. Spatial-temporal analysis of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall

  16. Human exposure to anopheline mosquitoes occurs primarily indoors, even for users of insecticide-treated nets in Luangwa Valley, South-east Zambia

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    Seyoum Aklilu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current front line malaria vector control methods such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, rely upon the preference of many primary vectors to feed and/or rest inside human habitations where they can be targeted with domestically-applied insecticidal products. We studied the human biting behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus Giles and the potential malaria vector Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald in Luangwa valley, south-east Zambia. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch in blocks of houses with either combined use of deltamethrin-based IRS and LLINs or LLINs alone. Human behaviour data were collected to estimate how much exposure to mosquito bites indoors and outdoors occurred at various times of the night for LLIN users and non-users. Results Anopheles funestus and An. quadriannulatus did not show preference to bite either indoors or outdoors: the proportions [95% confidence interval] caught indoors were 0.586 [0.303, 0.821] and 0.624 [0.324, 0.852], respectively. However, the overwhelming majority of both species were caught at times when most people are indoors. The proportion of mosquitoes caught at a time when most people are indoors were 0.981 [0.881, 0.997] and 0.897 [0.731, 0.965], respectively, so the proportion of human exposure to both species occuring indoors was high for individuals lacking LLINs (An. funestus: 0.983 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.970, respectively. While LLIN users were better protected, more than half of their exposure was nevertheless estimated to occur indoors (An. funestus: 0.570 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.584. Conclusions The proportion of human exposure to both An. funestus and An. quadriannulatus occuring indoors was high in the area and hence both species might be responsive to further peri-domestic measures if these mosquitoes are susceptible to insecticidal products.

  17. The impact of pyrethroid resistance on the efficacy of insecticide-treated bed nets against African anopheline mosquitoes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Clare Strode

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes.We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization-recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut, deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs using the risk difference (RD. Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01; moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95. For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87; moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60; high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54. For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68; moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; high resistance, RD 0

  18. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, O Ahmedou Salem Mohamed; Khadijetou, M Lekweiry; Moina, M Hasni; Lassana, Konate; Sébastien, Briolant; Ousmane, Faye; Ali, O Mohamed Salem Boukhary

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001). The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs) could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM) approach.

  19. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank...

  20. Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh

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    Alam Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009 -June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples

  1. Genome content analysis yields new insights into the relationship between the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its anopheline vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; DeSalle, Rob

    2017-02-27

    The persistent and growing gap between the availability of sequenced genomes and the ability to assign functions to sequenced genes led us to explore ways to maximize the information content of automated annotation for studies of anopheline mosquitos. Specifically, we use genome content analysis of a large number of previously sequenced anopheline mosquitos to follow the loss and gain of protein families over the evolutionary history of this group. The importance of this endeavor lies in the potential for comparative genomic studies between Anopheles and closely related non-vector species to reveal ancestral genome content dynamics involved in vector competence. In addition, comparisons within Anopheles could identify genome content changes responsible for variation in the vectorial capacity of this family of important parasite vectors. The competence and capacity of P. falciparum vectors do not appear to be phylogenetically constrained within the Anophelinae. Instead, using ancestral reconstruction methods, we suggest that a previously unexamined component of vector biology, anopheline nucleotide metabolism, may contribute to the unique status of anophelines as P. falciparum vectors. While the fitness effects of nucleotide co-option by P. falciparum parasites on their anopheline hosts are not yet known, our results suggest that anopheline genome content may be responding to selection pressure from P. falciparum. Whether this response is defensive, in an attempt to redress improper nucleotide balance resulting from P. falciparum infection, or perhaps symbiotic, resulting from an as-yet-unknown mutualism between anophelines and P. falciparum, is an open question that deserves further study. Clearly, there is a wealth of functional information to be gained from detailed manual genome annotation, yet the rapid increase in the number of available sequences means that most researchers will not have the time or resources to manually annotate all the sequence data they

  2. Anophelines species and the receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission in the Pantanal wetlands, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-E-Silva, Mariana; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND Studies on malaria vectors in the Pantanal biome, Central Brazil, were conducted more than half a century ago. OBJECTIVES To update anopheline records and assess receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. METHODS Five-day anopheline collections were conducted bimonthly in Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul state, for one year. Indoors, mosquitoes were collected from their resting places, while in open fields, they were captured using protected human-baited and horse-baited traps near the house and at the Miranda River margin, respectively. Hourly biting activity outdoors was also assessed. Secondary data were collected on the arrival of tourists, economic projects, and malaria cases. FINDINGS A total of 24,894 anophelines belonging to 13 species were caught. The main Brazilian malaria vector Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. triannulatus s.l. Hourly variation in anopheline biting showed three main peaks occurring at sunset, around midnight, and at sunrise, the first and last being the most prominent. The highest density of all species was recorded near the river margin and during the transition period between the rainy and early dry seasons. This coincides with the time of main influx of outsider workers and tourists, whose activities mostly occur in the open fields and frequently start before sunrise and last until sunset. Some of these individuals originate from neighbouring malaria-endemic countries and states, and are likely responsible for the recorded imported and introduced malaria cases. MAIN CONCLUSION Pantanal is a malaria-prone area in Brazil. Surveillance and anopheline control measures must be applied to avoid malaria re-emergence in the region.

  3. Rapid Detection of Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    in ELISA testing. A cone-shaped plastic pestle is attached to a Dremel drill and the mosquito is homogenized. At a laboratory, each Eppendorf tube is...understanding of the current practice for obtaining mosquitoes for testing. We recieved a plastic eppendorf tube and a plastic pestle used to homogenize...circumsporozoite antigen in Anopheline Mosquitoes collected in Southern Thailand . Lee, M., B. A. Harrison, G. E. Lewis, Jr. Am J. Trop Med Hyg 42(4), 1990

  4. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood

    OpenAIRE

    Marrelli, Mauro T.; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgeni...

  5. Caspar controls resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in diverse anopheline species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey S Garver

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway-mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort

  6. Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J

    2004-01-01

    Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culici...... transmission than we observed. To assess the overall importance of irrigation-related sites in the epidemiology of malaria in the Punjab, more studies are needed to compare irrigated and non-irrigated areas.......Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera......: Culicidae) could be related to malaria transmission in rural areas with intensive irrigation and a history of malaria epidemics. In this paper we present our observations from three villages located along an irrigation canal in South Punjab. The study was carried out from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000...

  7. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection statu...

  8. Transgenic mosquitoes and malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophides, George K

    2005-03-01

    As the malaria burden persists in most parts of the developing world, the concept of implementation of new strategies such as the use of genetically modified mosquitoes to control the disease continues to gain support. In Africa, which suffers most from malaria, mosquito vector populations are spread almost throughout the entire continent, and the parasite reservoir is big and continuously increasing. Moreover, malaria is transmitted by many species of anophelines with specific seasonal and geographical patterns. Therefore, a well designed, evolutionarily robust and publicly accepted plan aiming at population reduction or replacement is required. The task is twofold: to engineer mosquitoes with a genetic trait that confers resistance to malaria or causes population suppression; and, to drive the new trait through field populations. This review examines these two issues, and describes the groundwork that has been done towards understanding of the complex relation between the parasite and its vector.

  9. MAPK ERK signaling regulates the TGF-beta1-dependent mosquito response to Plasmodium falciparum.

    OpenAIRE

    Win Surachetpong; Naresh Singh; Kong Wai Cheung; Shirley Luckhart

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Although a variety of anti-parasite effector genes have been identified in anopheline mosquitoes, little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate these responses during parasite development. Here we demonstrate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in Anopheles is controlled by ingested human TGF-beta1 and finely tunes mosquito innate immunity to parasit...

  10. [Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: culicidae), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Maria da Graça Teixeira; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Nascimento, João Cezar do; Zeccer, Suzana; Silva, Luis Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000); the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC); and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC). These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7%) and 764 others (6.2%) were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  11. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S Wildman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  12. Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  13. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....

  14. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  15. Impact of dams and irrigation schemes in Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae bionomics and malaria epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sanchez-Ribas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation schemes and dams have posed a great concern on public health systems of several countries, mainly in the tropics. The focus of the present review is to elucidate the different ways how these human interventions may have an effect on population dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes and hence, how local malaria transmission patterns may be changed. We discuss different studies within the three main tropical and sub-tropical regions (namely Africa, Asia and the Pacific and the Americas. Factors such as pre-human impact malaria epidemiological patterns, control measures, demographic movements, human behaviour and local Anopheles bionomics would determine if the implementation of an irrigation scheme or a dam will have negative effects on human health. Some examples of successful implementation of control measures in such settings are presented. The use of Geographic Information System as a powerful tool to assist on the study and control of malaria in these scenarios is also highlighted.

  16. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats.

  17. Textual alchemy: the transformation of pseudo-Albertus Magnus's Semita recta into the Mirror of Lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This article explores the strategies of and the reasons behind the reworking of pseudo-Albertus Magnus's Semita recta into the Mirror of Lights. I argue that the redactor sought to provide a more comprehensive defence of the legitimacy of alchemy than found in the Semita recta. In the process of doing so, he reshaped the original text so as to present three units that addressed different parts of the alchemical opus: first, theory and justification of alchemy; second, basic information on substances and procedures; and, third, practice. The redactor employed sophisticated textual tools identical to those seen in scholastic texts. These strategies, I argue, constitute part of the redactor's attempt to bring authority and credibility to his project and to alchemy in general. Certainly, much more attention needs to be paid to these experiments of textual alchemy in order to understand the practice of alchemy in the late medieval period.

  18. MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti

    2017-03-01

    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. darlingi, an anthropophilic mosquito species considered the main vector in Brazil but is present in low-density conditions in the area. The HLC showed a higher efficiency in collecting An. darlingi in these low-density conditions. The MosqTent is light (<1 kg), portable (comes as a bag with two handles), flexible (can be used with other attractants), adaptable (can be deployed in a variety of environmental settings and weather conditions), and it can be used in the intra-, peri-, and in the extradomicile. Also, the MosqTent collected similar portions of parous females and anthropophilic mosquito species and collects specimens suitable for downstream analysis. Further developments may include testing for other fabric colors, different mesh sizes and dimensions for other hematophagous insects and conditions, additional chemical mosquito attractants, and even the replacement of the human attractant in favor of other attractants. MosqTent modifications that would allow the trap to be applied as a vector control tool with killing action could also be explored.

  19. MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC, thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. darlingi, an anthropophilic mosquito species considered the main vector in Brazil but is present in low-density conditions in the area. The HLC showed a higher efficiency in collecting An. darlingi in these low-density conditions. The MosqTent is light (<1 kg, portable (comes as a bag with two handles, flexible (can be used with other attractants, adaptable (can be deployed in a variety of environmental settings and weather conditions, and it can be used in the intra-, peri-, and in the extradomicile. Also, the MosqTent collected similar portions of parous females and anthropophilic mosquito species and collects specimens suitable for downstream analysis. Further developments may include testing for other fabric colors, different mesh sizes and dimensions for other hematophagous insects and conditions, additional chemical mosquito attractants, and even the replacement of the human attractant in favor of other attractants. MosqTent modifications that would allow the trap to be applied as a vector control tool with killing action could also be explored.

  20. Investigations of the Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae fauna from three areas belonging to the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCUTA Elena

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The survey focused on the comparative analyses of the anopheline fauna belonging to the maculipennis group between three areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, two of them situated near theRazim-Sinoe lagoonal complex and one belonging to the fluvial delta. The study that was carried out during 2006 and 2007 intended to establish the composition of the anopheline fauna as well as the longevity of the various species in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. A number of 2437 mosquitoes, belonging to Anopheles maculipennis group were collected. The presence of the former vector species was pointed up: Anopheles atroparvus, Anophelesmesseae and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto. The investigations of the number of egg batches laid by a female have shown the physiological age of the respective female and namely if the female could infect or not the humans.

  1. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...

  2. Environmental variables associated with anopheline larvae distribution and abundance in Yanomami villages within unaltered areas of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many indigenous villages in the Amazon basin still suffer from a high malaria burden. Despite this health situation, there are few studies on the bionomics of anopheline larvae in such areas. This publication aims to identify the main larval habitats of the most abundant anopheline species and to assess their associations with some environmental factors. Methods We conducted a 19-month longitudinal study from January 2013 to July 2014, sampling anopheline larvae in two indigenous Yanomami communities, comprised of four villages each. All natural larval habitats were surveyed every two months with a 350 ml manual dipper, following a standardized larval sampling methodology. In a third study area, we conducted two field expeditions in 2013 followed by four systematic collections during the long dry season of 2014–2015. Results We identified 177 larval habitats in the three study areas, from which 9122 larvae belonging to 13 species were collected. Although species abundance differed between villages, An. oswaldoi (s.l. was overall the most abundant species. Anopheles darlingi, An. oswaldoi (s.l., An. triannulatus (s.s. and An. mattogrossensis were primarily found in larval habitats that were partially or mostly sun-exposed. In contrast, An. costai-like and An. guarao-like mosquitoes were found in more shaded aquatic habitats. Anopheles darlingi was significantly associated with proximity to human habitations and larval habitats associated with river flood pulses and clear water. Conclusions This study of anopheline larvae in the Brazilian Yanomami area detected high heterogeneities at micro-scale levels regarding species occurrence and densities. Sun exposure was a major modulator of anopheline occurrence, particularly for An. darlingi. Lakes associated with the rivers, and particularly oxbow lakes, were the main larval habitats for An. darlingi and other secondary malaria vectors. The results of this study will serve as a

  3. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  4. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya.A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines.These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control programme should be targeted with larval

  5. Determination of the foraging behaviour and blood meal source of malaria vector mosquitoes in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Denipitiya, Thanuja; Hapugoda, Menaka; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2016-04-26

    Studies of host preference patterns in blood-feeding anopheline mosquitoes are crucial to incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Sri Lanka. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from five selected sentinel sites in Trincomalee District during June-September 2011. Each blood-fed mosquito was processed on filter papers. DNA was extracted using the dried blood meal protocol of the QIAmp DNA mini kit. A multiplexed, real-time PCR assay targeting eight animals was developed for two panels to identify the host meal of Anopheles. Human blood index (HBI), forage ratio (FR) and host feeding index (HFI) were calculated. A total of 280 field-caught, freshly engorged female mosquitoes belonging to 12 anopheline species were analysed. The overall HBI and HFI in the present study were low indicating that humans were not the preferred host for the tested anopheline species. Nevertheless, a small proportion engorged Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, and Anopheles barbumbrosus contained human blood. The presence of human blood in mosquito species indicates the possibility of them transmitting malaria. Further studies on vector competence are needed to determine the role of each of the above anopheline species as efficient vectors of malaria.

  6. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Shimada, Yohei; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Ghosh, Anil K; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Sinden, Robert E

    2007-12-01

    The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50) of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions.

  7. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeto Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50 of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions.

  8. Metagenomics, paratransgenesis and the Anopheles microbiome: a portrait of the geographical distribution of the anopheline microbiota based on a meta-analysis of reported taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Luis Martínez; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2014-08-01

    Anophelines harbour a diverse microbial consortium that may represent an extended gene pool for the host. The proposed effects of the insect microbiota span physiological, metabolic and immune processes. Here we synthesise how current metagenomic tools combined with classical culture-dependent techniques provide new insights in the elucidation of the role of the Anopheles-associated microbiota. Many proposed malaria control strategies have been based upon the immunomodulating effects that the bacterial components of the microbiota appear to exert and their ability to express anti-Plasmodium peptides. The number of identified bacterial taxa has increased in the current "omics" era and the available data are mostly scattered or in "tables" that are difficult to exploit. Published microbiota reports for multiple anopheline species were compiled in an Excel® spreadsheet. We then filtered the microbiota data using a continent-oriented criterion and generated a visual correlation showing the exclusive and shared bacterial genera among four continents. The data suggested the existence of a core group of bacteria associated in a stable manner with their anopheline hosts. However, the lack of data from Neotropical vectors may reduce the possibility of defining the core microbiota and understanding the mosquito-bacteria interactive consortium.

  9. Metagenomics, paratransgenesis and the Anopheles microbiome: a portrait of the geographical distribution of the anopheline microbiota based on a meta-analysis of reported taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martínez Villegas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anophelines harbour a diverse microbial consortium that may represent an extended gene pool for the host. The proposed effects of the insect microbiota span physiological, metabolic and immune processes. Here we synthesise how current metagenomic tools combined with classical culture-dependent techniques provide new insights in the elucidation of the role of the Anopheles-associated microbiota. Many proposed malaria control strategies have been based upon the immunomodulating effects that the bacterial components of the microbiota appear to exert and their ability to express anti-Plasmodium peptides. The number of identified bacterial taxa has increased in the current “omics” era and the available data are mostly scattered or in “tables” that are difficult to exploit. Published microbiota reports for multiple anopheline species were compiled in an Excel® spreadsheet. We then filtered the microbiota data using a continent-oriented criterion and generated a visual correlation showing the exclusive and shared bacterial genera among four continents. The data suggested the existence of a core group of bacteria associated in a stable manner with their anopheline hosts. However, the lack of data from Neotropical vectors may reduce the possibility of defining the core microbiota and understanding the mosquito-bacteria interactive consortium.

  10. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March.......6%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.8%), An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.3%) and An. nigerrimus Giles (0.1%). The four most abundant species were significantly associated with waterlogged fields and communal village drinking-water tanks. Habitat characteristics most correlated with occurrence of anophelines......, mainly in irrigated and waterlogged fields. In South Punjab, where rainfall is very low, it should be possible to reduce anopheline breeding through water management, as larvae develop mainly in water bodies that are directly or indirectly related to the extensive canal-irrigation system....

  11. Indoor resting heights of some anophelines in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, M L; Suarez, M F

    1990-12-01

    The nocturnal, indoor resting behavior of female anophelines in Colombia was studied. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had a tendency to rest close to the ground, but An. oswaldoi and An. rangeli rested higher up. This behavior was independent of bloodfed status (except for An. oswaldoi) and whether the surface had been sprayed with DDT. With this information it should be possible to modify insecticide applications to coincide with the resting preferences of these species.

  12. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-03-27

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes when fed on noninfected mice. Here we show that when fed on mice infected with P. berghei, these transgenic mosquitoes are more fit (higher fecundity and lower mortality) than sibling nontransgenic mosquitoes. In cage experiments, transgenic mosquitoes gradually replaced nontransgenics when mosquitoes were maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-producing parasites (strain ANKA 2.34) but not when maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-deficient parasites (strain ANKA 2.33). These findings suggest that when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood, transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a selective advantage over nontransgenic mosquitoes. This fitness advantage has important implications for devising malaria control strategies by means of genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  13. Conceptualización y representación de fracciones en la recta numérica

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Moreno, Jhon Eduin

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Este trabajo se trató de una experiencia de intervención de aula en el grado noveno de la Institución Educativa San Juan Bosco de la ciudad de Medellín, sobre el concepto de fracción y algunos de sus diferentes significados (la fracción como parte de un todo, la fracción como cociente, la fracción como razón, fracción como porcentaje, la fracción como probabilidad, la fracción como Operador), así como su representación en la recta numérica (la fracción como un punto en la recta); tod...

  14. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin George

    Full Text Available Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

  15. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbahale, S.S.; Mweresa, C.K.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects

  16. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-07-03

    Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population.

  17. Spatial variability in the density, distribution and vectorial capacity of anopheline species in a high transmission village (Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buatiche Jesús N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission varies from one country to another and there are also local differences in time and space. An important variable when explaining the variability in transmission is the breeding behaviour of the different vector species and the availability of breeding sites. The aim of this study was to determine the geographical variability of certain entomological parameters: human biting rate (HBR, sporozoitic index (SI for Plasmodium falciparum and entomological inoculation rate (EIR. Methods The study was carried out in a small village in the mainland region of Equatorial Guinea. Adult mosquitoes were collected by CDC light traps. Polymerase Chain Reaction was employed to identify the species within the Anopheles gambiae complex and to detect P. falciparum sporozoites. The geographical position of all the dwellings in the village were taken using a global positioning system receiver unit. Data relating to the dwelling, occupants, use of bednets and the mosquitoes collection data were used to generate a geographical information system (GIS. This GIS allowed the minimum distance of the dwellings to the closest water point (potential breeding sites to be determined. Results A total of 1,173 anophelines were caught: 279 A. gambiae s.l. (217 A. gambiae s.s. and one Anopheles melas, 777 Anopheles moucheti and 117 Anopheles carnevalei. A. moucheti proved to be the main vector species and was responsible for 52.38 [95% IC: 33.7–71] night infective bites during this period. The highest SI was found in A. carnevalei (24%, even though the HBR was the lowest for this species. A significant association was found between the distance from the dwellings to the closest water point (River Ntem or secondary streams and the total HBR. Conclusion A clear association has been observed between the distance to potential breeding sites and the variability in the anopheline density, while the other parameters measured do not seem to

  18. [Prevalence of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) during sunset in areas of the Itaipu Hydroelectric plant in Guaíra county, state of Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A E; de Mello, R P; Lopes, C M; Alencar, J; Gentile, C

    1997-01-01

    Systematic collections of anophelines were conducted from November 1994 to August 1995 from 18:00 to 20:00 hr using Shannon traps and human-bait along the lake margin which forms the Itaipu Hydroelectric reservoir, State of Paraná, Brazil. Species prevalence was studied at 15 min intervals. Anopheles albitarsis sensu latu and An. galvaoi, were the most frequently collected mosquitoes. All Anopheles species populations peaked between 18:45 and 19:30 hr. The observations illustrate the existence of a haematophagic activity cycle during the early evening hours: exogenous stimulus (the beginning of sunset)-->Shannon trap (light attraction)-->human bait (haematophagy)-->rest and digestion-->exogenous stimulus-->Shannon trap or surrounding vegetation. The greater abundance of An. albitarsis collected in human-bait and Shannon trap suggests it may be a potential malaria vector in the region.

  19. Differential attraction of Venezuelan Anophelines to human collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Palis, Y

    1995-12-01

    During a longitudinal study on vector biology and malaria transmission in western Venezuela the degree of attraction of mosquitoes to 4 people who carried out landing catches was evaluated. An analysis of variance of the log(x + 1)-transformed data showed that there were no significant differences in attractiveness of various individuals to Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles marajoara, or Anopheles triannulatus.

  20. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in still or stagnant water. The mosquito ... mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  1. Flying vaccinator; a transgenic mosquito delivers a Leishmania vaccine via blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, D S; Nagumo, H; Yoshida, S

    2010-06-01

    'Flying vaccinator' is the concept of using genetically engineered hematophagous insects to deliver vaccines. Here we show the generation of a transgenic anopheline mosquito that expresses the Leishmania vaccine candidate, SP15, fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein (mDsRed) in its salivary glands. Importantly, mice bitten repeatedly by the transgenic mosquitoes raised anti-SP15 antibodies, indicating delivery of SP15 via blood feeding with its immunogenicity intact. Thus, this technology makes possible the generation of transgenic mosquitoes that match the original concept of a 'flying vaccinator'. However, medical safety issues and concerns about informed consent mitigate the use of the 'flying vaccinator' as a method to deliver vaccines. We propose that this expression system could be applied to elucidate saliva-malaria sporozoite interactions.

  2. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  3. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NorParina Ismail

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37% of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90% of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7% Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

  4. Molecular identification of Plasmodium spp. and blood meal sources of anophelines in environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-04-26

    Considering the diversity of feeding habits that females of some species of anophelines present, it is important to understand which vertebrates are part of blood food sources and how important is the role of each in the ecoepidemiology of malaria. There are many vector species for Plasmodium spp. in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. In São Luís Island, Anopheles aquasalis is the main vector for human malaria; this species is abundant in areas with primates that are positive for Plasmodium. Anopheles aquasalis has natural exophilic and zoophilic feeding behavior, but in cases of high density and absence of animals, presents quite varied behavior, and feeds on human blood. In this context, the objective of the present study was to identify Plasmodium spp. and the blood meal sources of anophelines in two environmental reserves on São Luís Island, state of Maranhão, using molecular methods. Between June and July 2013, female anophelines were collected in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve, in the municipality of São José de Ribamar, and in the Sítio Mangalho Reserve, located within the Maracanã Environmental Protection Area, in the municipality of São Luís. CDC-type light traps, Shannon traps and protected human bait were used during three consecutive hours in peridomestic and wooded areas. Pools of anophelines were formed using mosquitoes of the same species that had been caught at the same site on the same date. A genus-specific amplification protocol based on the 18S rRNA gene was used for qPCR and cPCR. A total of 416 anophelines were collected, of the following species: An. aquasalis (399), An. mediopunctatus (3), An. shannoni (1), An. nuneztovari (sensu lato) (1), An. goeldii (1), An. evansae (2) and An. (Nyssorhynchus) sp. (9), comprising 54 pools. Two pools were positive for Plasmodium (2/54) based on the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis using the maximum likelihood method, based on a 240 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene, it was found that

  5. Redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 inhabiting the recta of Hylarana guentheri and Pelophylax nigromaculatus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A redescription of Protoopalina pingi Nie, 1935 is presented in this paper to complete Nie’s description at both light and scanning electron microscope levels. These organisms were collected from the recta of the frogs Hylarana guentheri Boulenger, 1882 and Pelophylax nigromaculatus Hallowell, 1861 from Jialing River, Sichuan Province and Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, respectively, in China. This is the first record of its occurrence in H. guentheri and P. nigromaculatus. The body of P. pingi is elongated and somewhat spindle-like in shape, slightly narrowed and bluntly rounded at the anterior extremity, while the posterior end is tapering or sharply pointed. The body surface is thickly flagellated, with the caudal tip being barren. The falx, located at the margin of the anterior end, is composed of a narrow band of kinetosomes. Four round or oval-shaped nuclei, usually arranged in a straight line, are situated in the middle region of the body. Comparisons are made between P. pingi and its congeners.

  6. IGF-II receptors in luminal and basolateral membranes isolated from pars convoluta and pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian; Jessen, H; Flyvbjerg, A

    1995-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-II (125I-IGF-II) to luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from pars convoluta and the straight part (pars recta) of rabbit proximal tubule was investigated. Analyses of the binding data by use of the general stoichiometric binding...... equation revealed, that in all preparations IGF-II was bound to one high-affinity binding site and other sites with lower affinities. The specificity of the high-affinity 125I-IGF-II binding to the membrane vesicles assessed by displacement by unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I and insulin showed that IGF-I displaced...... 125I-IGF-II in the range 22.5-47.9 nM (IC50) whereas insulin did not effect 125I-IGF-II binding at all. beta-Galactosidase inhibited the 125I-IGF-II binding with half-maximal inhibition of 20-30 nM beta-galactosidase. D-Mannose 6-phosphate increased the binding of 125I-IGF-II and reversed...

  7. Pollination Biology of Potentilla recta (Sulfur Cinquefoil and Its Cooccurring Native Congener Potentilla gracilis in Northeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McIver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination biology of the invasive plant sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta L. and it's native cooccurring congener slender cinquefoil (P. gracilis Dougl. ex. Hook. was studied from 2002–2004, at four sites in northeastern Oregon, USA The native cinquefoil flowered first for five weeks, followed by the invasive for five weeks, with two weeks overlap in mid-June. Invasive flowers attracted 74 species and 543 individuals; the native attracted 93 species and 619 individuals. The most important pollinators for the invasive, in order of importance, were: Apis mellifera, Ceratina nanula, Halictus tripartitus, Lasioglossum sisymbrii, and Bombus rufocinctus; for the native: C. nanula, Trichodes ornatus, H. ligatus, L. sisymbrii, and L. olympiae. The invasive produced higher numbers of seeds per plant, having greater mass per unit vegetation. Mean seed size was lower for the invasive when pollinators were allowed access to flowers, but seed size increased linearly with more complete exclusion of pollinators; the native showed no such response to pollinator exclusion. Compared to the native, nearly twice as many seeds germinated for sulfur cinquefoil (35.0% versus 19.5%, with seeds germinating over a longer period of time. Results are discussed as they relate to the invasiveness of sulfur cinquefoil relative to the native.

  8. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from mosquitoes inside your home or hotel, sleep under a mosquito bed net. For more ... Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  9. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  10. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  11. Understanding the long-lasting attraction of malaria mosquitoes to odor baits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins K Mweresa

    Full Text Available The use of odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria mosquitoes requires robust dispensing tools. In this study, the residual activity of a synthetic mosquito attractant blend dispensed from nylon or low density polyethylene (LDPE sachets was evaluated at weekly intervals for one year without re-impregnation. The potential role of bacteria in modulating the attraction of mosquitoes to odor-treated nylon that had been used repeatedly over the one year study period, without re-impregnation, was also investigated. Significantly higher proportions of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were consistently attracted to treated nylon strips than the other treatments, up to one year post-treatment. Additional volatile organic compounds and various bacterial populations were found on the treated nylon strips after one year of repeated use. The most abundant bacteria were Bacillus thuringiensis and Acinetobacter baumannii. Autoclaving of treated nylon strips prior to exposure had no effect on trap collections of laboratory-reared female An. Gambiae (P = 0.17 or wild female An. Gambiae sensu lato (P = 0.26 and Mansonia spp. (P = 0.17 mosquitoes. Trap catches of wild female An. Funestus (P < 0.001 and other anophelines (P < 0.007 were higher when treated strips had been autoclaved prior to deployment as opposed to when the treated nylon strips were not autoclaved. By contrast, wild female Culex mosquitoes were more strongly attracted to non-autoclaved compared to autoclaved treated nylon strips (P < 0.042. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using odor baits for sampling and surveillance of malaria as well as other mosquito vectors over prolonged periods of time. Preliminary evidence points towards the potential role of bacteria in sustaining prolonged use of nylon material for dispensing synthetic attractant odorants for host-seeking malaria and other mosquito vectors but further investigations are required.

  12. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  13. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage mosquitoes from landing on you. Tips include removing mosquito habitats such as standing water, minimizing exposed skin, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active.

  14. Resting behaviour of endophilic anopheline vectors in three ecological zones of southern Ghana and its implications for the use of entomopathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osae, M. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the resting behaviour and factors that influence the choice of resting sites by endophilic anopheline mosquitoes in southern Ghana. The study was carried out in six villages across three ecological zones of Southern Ghana, including: the forest ecological zone (FEZ), the coastal savannah ecological zone (CSEZ) and the forest-transition ecological zone (FTEZ). For every mosquito collected, the indoor resting sites was characterised and microclimate at the actual resting site recorded using a data logger. In the laboratory, full diagnostics was carried out on a sub-sample. Resting devices constructed from different materials were tested in a screen house and in village rooms. The dominant anopheline vectors include Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii and An.funestus. An gambiae s.s. was the most dominant species in the villages from the FEZ and FTEZ, whereas An. coluzzii was most dominant in the CSEZ. An funestus was present in the FEZ and CSEZ but almost absent from the FTEZ. The two kdr mutations (L1014F and L1014S) were present in all the ecological zones and in both An. gambiae s.s. and An.coluzzii. This is the first report of the L1014S mutation from Ghana. The populations were highly anthropophagic and plasmodium falciparum was present in populations from all the villages studied. Woody materials appeared to be the most preferred resting materials for An. gambiae, accounting for 47% of all the resting sites for that species. They were also found on fabrics (26%), wall materials (12%), and roof materials (10%). Similarly, An. funestus preferred to rest on woody materials (58%), followed by wall materials (21%), fabrics (11%) and roofing materials (7%). For An.coluzzii, fabrics were the most preferred resting materials (38%) followed by roof materials (21%), wooden materials (19%) and wall materials (9%). All the three vector species preferred to rest higher up the room and closer to the walls, with large proportions of An

  15. Small-scale land-use variability affects Anopheles spp. distribution and concomitant Plasmodium infection in humans and mosquito vectors in southeastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Headrick, Emily G; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-02-24

    Deforestation and land-use change have the potential to alter human exposure to malaria. A large percentage of Madagascar's original forest cover has been lost to slash-and-burn agriculture, and malaria is one of the top causes of mortality on the island. In this study, the influence of land-use on the distribution of Plasmodium vectors and concomitant Plasmodium infection in humans and mosquito vectors was examined in the southeastern rainforests of Madagascar. From June to August 2013, health assessments were conducted on individuals living in sixty randomly selected households in six villages bordering Ranomafana National Park. Humans were screened for malaria using species-specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and surveyed about insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. Concurrently, mosquitoes were captured in villages and associated forest and agricultural sites. All captured female Anopheline mosquitoes were screened for Plasmodium spp. using a circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (csELISA). Anopheles spp. dominated the mosquito communities of agricultural and village land-use sites, accounting for 41.4 and 31.4 % of mosquitoes captured respectively, whereas Anopheles spp. accounted for only 1.6 % of mosquitoes captured from forest sites. Interestingly, most Anopheles spp. (67.7 %) were captured in agricultural sites in close proximity to animal pens, and 90.8 % of Anopheles mosquitoes captured in agricultural sites were known vectors of malaria. Three Anopheline mosquitoes (0.7 %) were positive for malaria (Plasmodium vivax-210) and all positive mosquitoes were collected from agricultural or village land-use sites. Ten humans (3.7 %) tested were positive for P. falciparum, and 23.3 % of those surveyed reported never sleeping under ITNs. This study presents the first report of malaria surveillance in humans and the environment in southeastern Madagascar. These findings suggest that even during the winter, malaria species are present in both

  16. Multiple resistances and complex mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis mosquito: a major obstacle to mosquito-borne diseases control and elimination in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. The overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. Pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate insecticide resistance, including rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. Anopheles sinensis, an important malaria and filariasis vector in Southeast Asia, represents an interesting mosquito species for examining the consequences of long-term insecticide rotation use on resistance. We examined insecticide resistance in two An. Sinensis populations from central and southern China against pyrethroids, organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates, which are the major classes of insecticides recommended for indoor residual spray. We found that the mosquito populations were highly resistant to the four classes of insecticides. High frequency of kdr mutation was revealed in the central population, whereas no kdr mutation was detected in the southern population. The frequency of G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene was moderate in both populations. The classification and regression trees (CART statistical analysis found that metabolic detoxification was the most important resistance mechanism, whereas target site insensitivity of L1014 kdr mutation played a less important role. Our results indicate that metabolic detoxification was the dominant mechanism of resistance compared to target site insensitivity, and suggests that long-term rotational use of various insecticides has led An. sinensis to evolve a high insecticide resistance. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring

  17. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  18. Mosquito inspired medical needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas; Drakidis, Alexandros Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The stinging proboscis in mosquitos have diameters of only 40-100 μm which is much less than the thinnest medical needles and the mechanics of these natural stinging mechanisms have therefore attracted attention amongst developers of injection devises. The mosquito use a range of different...

  19. Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile and Zika. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard teaches his neighbors, the Smith family, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes inside their home.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  20. Field evaluation of two commercial mosquito traps baited with different attractants and colored lights for malaria vector surveillance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Khongtak, Patcharee; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Pongsiri, Arissara; Evans, Brian P

    2017-08-07

    Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO 2 ) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO 2 , BGS Trap with CO 2 , CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO 2 , and CDC LT with CO 2 . The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P BGS Trap captured many anophelines but was significantly less than the CDC LT. The CDC LT, when baited with BG-lure plus CO 2 captured the greatest number of anopheline females with a catch rate significantly higher than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure or CO 2 alone (P < 0.05). The number of anopheline females collected from the CDC LT baited with CO 2 was greater than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure (646 vs 409 females). None of the alternative lights evaluated exceeded the performance of the incandescent light bulb in terms of the numbers of anopheline and An. minimus collected. We conclude that the CDC LT augmented with an incandescent light shows high potential for malaria vector surveillance when baited with CO 2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the new gold standard

  1. MAPK ERK signaling regulates the TGF-beta1-dependent mosquito response to Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Singh, Naresh; Cheung, Kong Wai; Luckhart, Shirley

    2009-04-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Although a variety of anti-parasite effector genes have been identified in anopheline mosquitoes, little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate these responses during parasite development. Here we demonstrate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in Anopheles is controlled by ingested human TGF-beta1 and finely tunes mosquito innate immunity to parasite infection. Specifically, MEK-ERK signaling was dose-dependently induced in response to TGF-beta1 in immortalized cells in vitro and in the A. stephensi midgut epithelium in vivo. At the highest treatment dose of TGF-beta1, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation increased TGF-beta1-induced expression of the anti-parasite effector gene nitric oxide synthase (NOS), suggesting that increasing levels of ERK activation negatively feed back on induced NOS expression. At infection levels similar to those found in nature, inhibition of ERK activation reduced P. falciparum oocyst loads and infection prevalence in A. stephensi and enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated control of P. falciparum development. Taken together, our data demonstrate that malaria parasite development in the mosquito is regulated by a conserved MAPK signaling pathway that mediates the effects of an ingested cytokine.

  2. MAPK ERK Signaling Regulates the TGF-β1-Dependent Mosquito Response to Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Singh, Naresh; Cheung, Kong Wai; Luckhart, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Although a variety of anti-parasite effector genes have been identified in anopheline mosquitoes, little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate these responses during parasite development. Here we demonstrate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in Anopheles is controlled by ingested human TGF-β1 and finely tunes mosquito innate immunity to parasite infection. Specifically, MEK-ERK signaling was dose-dependently induced in response to TGF-β1 in immortalized cells in vitro and in the A. stephensi midgut epithelium in vivo. At the highest treatment dose of TGF-β1, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation increased TGF-β1-induced expression of the anti-parasite effector gene nitric oxide synthase (NOS), suggesting that increasing levels of ERK activation negatively feed back on induced NOS expression. At infection levels similar to those found in nature, inhibition of ERK activation reduced P. falciparum oocyst loads and infection prevalence in A. stephensi and enhanced TGF-β1-mediated control of P. falciparum development. Taken together, our data demonstrate that malaria parasite development in the mosquito is regulated by a conserved MAPK signaling pathway that mediates the effects of an ingested cytokine. PMID:19343212

  3. Mosquito-parasite interactions can shape filariasis transmission dynamics and impact elimination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available The relationship between mosquito vectors and lymphatic filariasis (LF parasites can result in a range of transmission outcomes. Anophelines are generally characterized as poor vectors due to an inability to support development at low densities. However, it is important to understand the potential for transmission in natural vectors to maximize the success of elimination efforts. Primary vectors in Papua New Guinea (n = 1209 were dissected following exposure to microfilaremic blood (range 8-233 mf/20 µl. We examined density dependent and species-specific parasite prevalence, intensity and yield, barriers to parasite development as well as impacts on mosquito survival. We observed strikingly different parasite prevalence and yield among closely related species. Prevalence of infective stage larvae (L3s ranged from 4.2% to 23.7% in An. punctulatus, 24.5% to 68.6% in An. farauti s.s. and 61.9% to 100% in An. hinesorum at low and high density exposures, respectively. Injection experiments revealed the greatest barrier to parasite development involved passage from the midgut into the hemocoel. The ratio of L3 to ingested mf at low densities was higher in An. hinesorum (yield = 1.0 and An. farauti s.s. (yield = 0.5 than has been reported in other anopheline vectors. There was a negative relationship between mosquito survival and bloodmeal mf density. In An. farauti s.s., increased parasite yield and survival at low densities suggest greater competence at low microfilaremias. In Papua New Guinea the likelihood of transmission will be strongly influenced by vector composition and changes in the mf reservoir as a result of elimination efforts. Global elimination efforts will be strengthened by the knowledge of transmission potential in the context of current control measures.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of anopheline larvae in two malarious areas in Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, J; Zimmerman, R; Amarista, J

    1993-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of anopheline larvae was studied in two coastal malarious areas of Sucre, State, Venezuela. Seven habitat types were sampled in the village of Guayana and eight species of Anopheles were collected. Anopheles aquasalis was the predominant species collected and was most abundant in the brackish marsh habitat (71 larvae per 100 samples). It was most abundant during the rainy season. At the second location, Santa Fé, six habitat types were sampled and four anopheline species were collected. Habitats where An. aquasalis was most abundant were temporary freshwater ponds (34 larvae per 100 samples) and mangroves (10.5 larvae per 100 samples). At this location it was also most abundant in the rainy season. During the dry season it was collected in small numbers in river pools (1.3 larvae per 100 samples) along with large numbers of An. pseudopunctipennis (479 larvae per 100 samples). Larval control could be an important component of the malaria control program because major habitats could be defined and presence and abundance of larvae was limited to specific times of year.

  5. An appraisal on occurrence of anopheline species as a marker of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquitoes that received blood meal were used to determine man biting rate. Blood fed were seen in both mosquitoes' species in irrigation system with man biting rate (MBR) per day, per month and per year 8.03, 240.6 and 2887.2 respectively. It was concluded that Bunkure LGA irrigation system area has high malaria ...

  6. Diversity of mosquitoes and larval breeding preference based on physico-chemical parameters in Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan

    2015-06-01

    areas at higher risk of disease transmission. The study identifies mosquito species density and diversity of culicine and anopheline larvae. Hence, this research contribution has more significance for basic biological research and developing control strategies for vector borne diseases.

  7. Rapid and high throughput molecular identification of diverse mosquito species by high resolution melting analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species. High resolution melting (HRM analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes. We validated the use of PCR-HRM analyses to differentiate species within Anopheles and within each of six genera of culicine mosquitoes, comparing primers targeting cytochrome b (cyt b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1, intergenic spacer region (IGS and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI gene regions. HRM analyses of amplicons from all the six primer pairs successfully differentiated two or more mosquito species within one or more genera (Aedes (Ae. vittatus from Ae. metallicus, Culex (Cx. tenagius from Cx. antennatus, Cx. neavei from Cx. duttoni, cryptic Cx. pipiens species, Anopheles (An. gambiae s.s. from An. arabiensis and Mansonia (Ma. africana from Ma. uniformis based on their HRM profiles. However, PCR-HRM could not distinguish between species within Aedeomyia (Ad. africana and Ad. furfurea, Mimomyia (Mi. hispida and Mi. splendens and Coquillettidia (Cq. aurites, Cq. chrysosoma, Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. metallica, Cq. microannulatus, Cq. pseudoconopas and Cq. versicolor genera using any of the primers. The IGS and COI barcode region primers gave the best and most definitive separation of mosquito species among anopheline and culicine mosquito genera, respectively, while the other markers may serve to confirm identifications of closely related sub

  8. A Molecular Phylogeny of Anopheles Annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: The Most Species-Rich Anopheline Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-27

    proportion of nucleotide diVerences were calcu- lated by MEGA 3.0 (Kumar et al., 2004). 2.5. Phylogenetic analysis Preliminary analysis indicated that...Waterson, D.G.E., Frances, S.P., Beebe, N.W., Sweeney, A.W., 2006. The anopheline fauna of Papua New Guinea. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 22, 213–221

  9. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and Ur. pandani) and one subspecies (Ae. vigilax vansomerenae) are considered as endemic. Two illustrated identification keys, one for adult females and the other for larval stages, are presented. Conclusions The knowledge of the culicidian fauna in the Seychelles has been notably updated. The number of mosquito species is relatively large with regards to land surface and distances to continental Africa, although the anophelines are totally lacking. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides examples of both vicariance- and dispersal-mediated divergences. They present superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology. PMID:22999320

  10. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani and one subspecies (Ae. vigilax vansomerenae are considered as endemic. Two illustrated identification keys, one for adult females and the other for larval stages, are presented. Conclusions The knowledge of the culicidian fauna in the Seychelles has been notably updated. The number of mosquito species is relatively large with regards to land surface and distances to continental Africa, although the anophelines are totally lacking. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides examples of both vicariance- and dispersal-mediated divergences. They present superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology.

  11. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    adeloupe, 1964-1966. S Cova Garcia, Pablo, Division de Endemias Rurales, Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Mara- cay, Venezuela...Central America. Diaz Najerra , Alfonso, Laboratorio de En tomologia, Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Trop- icales.— Mosquitoes of Mexico , loan of...Saneamiento Ambiental. Minister io de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Caracas , Venezuela. — Organization of topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Vene zuela

  12. Highly Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Malaria Mosquitoes Using CRISPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles mosquitoes transmit at least 200 million annual malaria infections worldwide. Despite considerable genomic resources, mechanistic understanding of biological processes in Anopheles has been hampered by a lack of tools for reverse genetics. Here, we report successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for highly efficient, site-specific mutagenesis in the diverse malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus, A. coluzzii, and A. funestus. When guide RNAs (gRNAs and Cas9 protein are injected at high concentration, germline mutations are common and usually biallelic, allowing for the rapid creation of stable mutant lines for reverse genetic analysis. Our protocol should enable researchers to dissect the molecular and cellular basis of anopheline traits critical to successful disease transmission, potentially exposing new targets for malaria control.

  13. Study of mosquito attractants for photo catalytic mosquito trap

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Tristantini; Slamet -; Angela Jessica Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Photo catalytic mosquito trap is made of TiO2-Activated Carbon (AC) with a certain composition of AC. Research concerns on the heat spectrum which is produced by combination process of existing CO2 and humid air. The purpose of performance testing is to observe capability of this device in trapping mosquitoes related to the air temperature profile for heat spectrum is play important role for attracting mosquitoes. Result shows photo catalytic mosquito trap is more effective than devices which...

  14. Cloning, characterization, and expression of microRNAs from the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that are now recognized as a major class of gene-regulating molecules widely distributed in metozoans and plants. miRNAs have been found to play important roles in apoptosis, cancer, development, differentiation, inflammation, longevity, and viral infection. There are a few reports describing miRNAs in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, on the basis of similarity to known miRNAs from other species. An. stephensi is the most important malaria vector in Asia and it is becoming a model Anopheline species for physiological and genetics studies. Results We report the cloning and characterization of 27 distinct miRNAs from 17-day old An. stephensi female mosquitoes. Seventeen of the 27 miRNAs matched previously predicted An. gambiae miRNAs, offering the first experimental verification of miRNAs from mosquito species. Ten of the 27 are miRNAs previously unknown to mosquitoes, four of which did not match any known miRNAs in any organism. Twenty-five of the 27 Anopheles miRNAs had conserved sequences in the genome of a divergent relative, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Two clusters of miRNAs were found within introns of orthologous genes in An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, and Drosophila melanogaster. Mature miRNAs were detected in An. stephensi for all of the nine selected miRNAs, including the four novel miRNAs (miR-x1- miR-x4, either by northern blot or by Ribonuclease Protection Assay. Expression profile analysis of eight of these miRNAs revealed distinct expression patterns from early embryo to adult stages in An. stephensi. In both An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, the expression of miR-x2 was restricted to adult females and predominantly in the ovaries. A significant reduction of miR-x2 level was observed 72 hrs after a blood meal. Thus miR-x2 is likely involved in female reproduction and its function may be conserved among divergent mosquitoes. A mosquito homolog of miR-14, a

  15. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity.

  16. Repelling mosquitoes with essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquitoes carry diseases than can lead to serious illness and death. According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue Fever, two life threatening diseases vectored by mosquitoes. Although insecticides are the most effective way to control mosquitoes, they are not always environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative tactics should be considered. In this study, we looked at the repellency of various essential oils on female Aedes aegypti through a series of laboratory assays.

  17. Efficient uptake of blood-borne BK and JC polyomavirus-like particles in endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and renal vasa recta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaione Simon-Santamaria

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min, and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed

  18. Next-generation sequencing reveals recent horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon between divergent mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupu Diao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (TEs. For example, a DNA transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. Here we report the discovery and characterization of an ITmD37D transposon, MJ1, in Anopheles sinensis. We show that some MJ1 elements in Aedes aegypti and An. sinensis contain intact open reading frames and share nearly 99% nucleotide identity over the entire transposon, which is unexpectedly high given that these two genera had diverged 145-200 million years ago. Chromosomal hybridization and TE-display showed that MJ1 copy number is low in An. sinensis. Among 24 mosquito species surveyed, MJ1 is only found in Ae. aegypti and the hyrcanus group of anopheline mosquitoes to which An. sinensis belongs. Phylogenetic analysis is consistent with horizontal transfer and provides the basis for inference of its timing and direction. Although report of horizontal transfer of DNA transposons between higher eukaryotes is accumulating, our analysis is one of a small number of cases in which horizontal transfer of nearly identical TEs among highly divergent species has been thoroughly investigated and strongly supported. Horizontal transfer involving mosquitoes is of particular interest because there are ongoing investigations of the possibility of spreading pathogen-resistant genes into mosquito populations to control malaria and other infectious diseases. The initial indication of horizontal transfer of MJ1 came from comparisons between a 0.4x coverage An. sinensis 454 sequence database and available TEs in mosquito genomes. Therefore we have shown that it is feasible to use low coverage sequencing to systematically uncover horizontal transfer events. Expanding such efforts across a wide range of species will generate novel insights into the relative frequency of horizontal transfer of

  19. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-04

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  20. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  1. Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae on different types of aqueous substrates

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Methods Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water, swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure. Results The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P P Conclusion This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat.

  2. Transposable elements in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulesteix, M; Biémont, C

    2005-01-01

    We describe the current state of knowledge about transposable elements (TEs) in different mosquito species. DNA-based elements (class II elements), non-LTR retrotransposons (class I elements), and MITEs (Miniature Inverted Repeat Transposable Elements) are found in the three genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, whereas LTR retrotransposons (class I elements) are found only in Anopheles and Aedes. Mosquitoes were the first insects in which MITEs were reported; they have several LTR retrotransposons belonging to the Pao family, which is distinct from the Gypsy-Ty3 and Copia-Ty1 families. The number of TE copies shows huge variations between classes of TEs within a given species (from 1 to 1000), in sharp contrast to Drosophila, which shows only relatively minor differences in copy number between elements (from 1 to 100). The genomes of these insects therefore display major differences in the amount of TEs and therefore in their structure and global composition. We emphasize the need for more population genetic data about the activity of TEs, their distribution over chromosomes and their frequencies in natural populations of mosquitoes, to further the current attempts to develop a transgenic mosquito unable to transmit malaria that is intended to replace the natural populations.

  3. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  4. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flies short time after emerging and after its body parts have hardened. The first three stages occur in water, but the adult is an active flying insect. Only the female mosquito bites and feeds on the blood of humans or other animals. After she obtains a blood ...

  5. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

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    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  6. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  7. Un estudio histórico del problema de las piezas prismáticas rectas sometidas a compresión. Parte I

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    de la Rosa, Emilio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical overview of the key questions that have marked the evolution of the study of straight prismatic elements subjected to compression loads. Straight prismatic elements are researched considering the practical problems on the basis of which models and the theory explaining their behaviour have been developed.The problems that give rise to the origin of the theory of the beam-column are reviewed in the fi rst section (buckling loads and stability and their subsequent developments: imperfections, large deformations, shear deformation and asymmetries. On the other hand, new problems in relationship to the behavior of the material (plasticity, rheology and its three dimensional nature are considered. Finally, the application of fracture and damage theory to the study of the behaviour of the columns is mentioned.En el presente artículo se recogen, desde una perspectiva histórica, las cuestiones básicas que han marcado la evolución del estudio de piezas prismáticas rectas sometidas a compresión. Dicho estudio se lleva a cabo considerando los problemas prácticos en relación con los cuales se han desarrollado tanto los modelos como la teoría que explica su comportamiento.En un primer apartado se recogen los primeros problemas que dan origen al nacimiento de la teoría de la viga-columna (cargas de pandeo y estabilidad y sus posteriores desarrollos: imperfecciones, grandes deformaciones, deformación por cortante y asimetrías. Por otra parte se recogen nuevos problemas en relación con el comportamiento de los materiales (plasticidad, reología y su carácter tridimensional. Por último se menciona la aplicación de la teoría de la fractura y daño al estudio del comportamiento de los pilares.

  8. Large-scale control of mosquito vectors of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.F.; Andreasen, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    By far the most important vector borne disease is malaria transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes causing an estimated 300-500 million clinical cases per year and 1.4-2.6 million deaths, mostly in tropical Africa (WHO 1995). The second most important mosquito borne disease is lymphatic filariasis, but there are now such effective, convenient and cheap drugs for its treatment that vector control will now have at most a supplementary role (Maxwell et al. 1999a). The only other mosquito borne disease likely to justify large-scale vector control is dengue which is carried in urban areas of Southeast Asia and Latin America by Aedes aegypti L. which was also the urban vector of yellow fever in Latin America. This mosquito was eradicated from most countries of Latin America between the 1930s and 60s but, unfortunately in recent years, it has been allowed to re-infest and cause serious dengue epidemics, except in Cuba where it has been held close to eradication (Reiter and Gubler 1997). In the 1930s and 40s, invasions by An. gambiae Giles s.l., the main tropical African malaria vector, were eradicated from Brazil (Soper and Wilson 1943) and Egypt (Shousha 1947). It is surprising that greatly increased air traffic has not led to more such invasions of apparently climatically suitable areas, e.g., of Polynesia which has no anophelines and therefore no malaria. The above mentioned temporary or permanent eradications were achieved before the advent of DDT, using larvicidal methods (of a kind which would now be considered environmentally unacceptable) carried out by rigorously disciplined teams. MALARIA Between the end of the Second World War and the 1960s, the availability of DDT for spraying of houses allowed eradication of malaria from the Soviet Union, southern Europe, the USA, northern Venezuela and Guyana, Taiwan and the Caribbean Islands, apart from Hispaniola. Its range and intensity were also greatly reduced in China, India and South Africa and, at least temporarily, in

  9. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  10. Transglutaminase-mediated semen coagulation controls sperm storage in the malaria mosquito.

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    David W Rogers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect seminal fluid proteins are powerful modulators of many aspects of female physiology and behaviour including longevity, egg production, sperm storage, and remating. The crucial role of these proteins in reproduction makes them promising targets for developing tools aimed at reducing the population sizes of vectors of disease. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, seminal secretions produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs are transferred to females in the form of a coagulated mass called the mating plug. The potential of seminal fluid proteins as tools for mosquito control demands that we improve our limited understanding of the composition and function of the plug. Here, we show that the plug is a key determinant of An. gambiae reproductive success. We uncover the composition of the plug and demonstrate it is formed through the cross-linking of seminal proteins mediated by a MAG-specific transglutaminase (TGase, a mechanism remarkably similar to mammalian semen coagulation. Interfering with TGase expression in males inhibits plug formation and transfer, and prevents females from storing sperm with obvious consequences for fertility. Moreover, we show that the MAG-specific TGase is restricted to the anopheline lineage, where it functions to promote sperm storage rather than as a mechanical barrier to re-insemination. Taken together, these data represent a major advance in our understanding of the factors shaping Anopheles reproductive biology.

  11. Vertical stratification of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) within a tropical rainforest in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Hayley L; Ewers, Robert M; Vythilingam, Indra; Drakeley, Chris; Benedick, Suzan; Mumford, John D

    2016-07-19

    Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes. Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah. Collections were conducted along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient (primary forest, lightly logged virgin jungle reserve and salvage logged forest) between 18:00 and 22:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis, a vector of P. knowlesi, was the predominant species in all collection areas, accounting for 70 % of the total catch, with a peak landing time of 18:30-20:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis had a preference for landing on humans at ground level compared to the canopy (p Sabah. This study provides essential data on anthropophily for the principal vector of P. knowlesi which is important for the planning of vector control strategies.

  12. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

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    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. METHODS: The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000; the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC; and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC. These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. RESULTS: Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7% and 764 others (6.2% were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  13. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil

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    Sirlei Antunes Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  14. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  15. [Malaria indices, larval ecology and trophic activity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Djohong (Adamaoua, Cameroon) in the rainy season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Bourianne, C; Lambert, M T; Tribouley, J; Mandji, O; Amadou, A; Bouloumie, J; Ripert, C

    1993-01-01

    In Djohong in the wet season the prevalence of malaria is 17.5% for Plasmodium falciparum and 1.1% for Plasmodium malariae. In children 2 to 9 years of age the plasmodic index is 38.6% (mesoendemicity) for the children of the peasants and 9.4% for those belonging to other socioeconomical groups. In infants less than 12 months old, the plasmodic index is 9.3%, this relatively high rate corresponding to the high transmission period of the rainy season. Anopheles gambiae is the mosquito species most often found in the area (2/3 of the mosquitoes caught in the houses). The breeding sites in he surrounding of the houses are rainwater holes linked to human activity. At a larger distance from the houses, in the valley, the breeding sites are water holes borrowed for the retting of cassava tubercle or natural rock pools found in the basaltic shores of the Mbere river. The trophic activity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus is high between 0 and 4 hours a.m. In October the mean number of anopheline mosquitoes bites per night per inhabitant is 33 inside the houses and 7 outside.

  16. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

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    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies

  17. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J Guillermo; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Marina, Carlos F; Ulloa, Armando; Orozco-Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz, Miguel; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-22

    The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Oviposition sites were sampled during 2-3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H' = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 1.61) and Michoacán (H' = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H' = 1.93), Colima (H' = 1.95), Sinaloa (H' = 1.99) and Jalisco (H' = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H' = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico's National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection.

  18. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon--II. Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Luz, S L

    1996-01-01

    An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  19. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon - II: Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.

  20. Quantifying seasonal and diel variation in Anopheline and Culex human biting rates in Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Lippi, Catherine A; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Heydari, Naveed; Silva, Mercy; Adrian, Jefferson; Noblecilla, Leonardo F; Ayala, Efraín B; Encalada, Mayling D; Larsen, David A; Krisher, Jesse T; Krisher, Lyndsay; Fregosi, Lauren; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M

    2017-11-22

    Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011). This study presents an analysis of data collected during the elimination period. Human landing catch (HLC) data for three mosquito taxa: two malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles punctimacula, and grouped Culex spp. were examined for this study. These data were collected by the National Vector Control Service of the Ministry of Health over a 5-year time span (2007-2012) in five cities in southern coastal Ecuador, at multiple households, in all months of the year, during dusk-dawn (18:00-6:00) hours, often at both indoor and outdoor locations. Hurdle models were used to determine if biting activity was fundamentally different for the three taxa, and to identify spatial and temporal factors influencing bite rate. Due to the many different approaches to studying and quantifying bite rates in the literature, a glossary of terms was created, to facilitate comparative studies in the future. Biting trends varied significantly with species and time. All taxa exhibited exophagic feeding behavior, and outdoor locations increased both the odds and incidence of bites across taxa. Anopheles albimanus was most frequently observed biting, with an average of 4.7 bites/h. The highest and lowest respective months for significant biting activity were March and July for An. albimanus, July and August for An. punctimacula, and February and July for Culex spp. Fine-scale differences in endophagy and exophagy, and temporal differences among months and hours exist in biting patterns among

  1. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vamsi P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions

  2. Mosquitoes as a Part of Wetland Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Martina

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands contain both aquatic and terrestrial environments which generates high biodiversity. However, they are commonly associated with mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), and mosquitoes are usually regarded as negative by humans because they can cause nuisance and transmit diseases. This thesis aimed to clarify the association between mosquitoes and wetlands and to achieve a more balanced view of biodiversity in wetlands by including mosquito diversity. Studies on adult mosquito diversity and ...

  3. Seasonal Abundance and Host-Feeding Patterns of Anopheline Vectors in Malaria Endemic Area of Iran

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    Hamidreza Basseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area.

  4. THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA

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    FIGUEIREDO Regina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2 was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

  5. Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbale, Fredrick G; Akol, Anne M; Kaddu, John B; Onapa, Ambrose W

    2013-12-05

    We investigated the biting patterns and seasonal abundances of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Hourly indoor and outdoor catches of human biting mosquitoes were sampled from 19.00 to 07.00 hours for four consecutive nights each month using bed net traps in forty-eight houses randomly selected from Bugabula county where insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) had been used for at least five years and Budiope county where ITNs had not been used. The indoor and outdoor human-biting fractions, time of biting of the anophelines and climatic data were recorded from January to December 2010. Data were analysed using Multi-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-wallis rank sum test and Pearson correlation. The number of mosquitoes caught biting humans and resting indoors, the indoor and outdoor human biting densities and biting rates during different hours of the night, and mosquito abundances for a twelve-month sampling period in both zones are reported. Approximately four times more Anopheles mosquitoes were caught biting humans in Budiope County than in the Bugabula zone, with An. gambiae s. l. catches exceeding those of An. funestus. In both zones, peak night biting occurred between 23.00 and 05.00 hours. The majority of bites occurred between 03.00 and 06.00 hours for both Anopheles gambiae s. l. and funestus group. Outdoor biting densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. exceeded the indoor biting densities throughout the night in both zones, while the indoor and outdoor human biting densities of An. funestus group were apparently equal. The outdoor and indoor human biting rates were similar in both zones. In Bugabula county, the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. was rainfall-dependent, while the An. funestus group could thrive with or without rain fall. In Budiope county, both An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes thrived all year round regardless of the amount of rainfall. Considering the biting patterns, and seasonal

  6. Antennal sensilla of two female anopheline sibling species with differing host ranges

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    Zwiebel Laurence J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile odors are important sensory inputs that shape the behaviour of insects, including agricultural pests and disease vectors. Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a highly anthropophilic mosquito and is the major vector for human malaria in sub-Sahara Africa, while Anopheles quadriannulatus, largely due to its zoophilic behaviour, is considered a non-vector species in the same region. Careful studies of olfaction in these sibling species may lead to insights about the mechanisms that drive host preference behaviour. In the present study, the external anatomy of the antenna, the principle olfactory organ in the female mosquito of both species, was examined as an initial step toward more detailed comparisons. Methods Scanning electron and light microscopy were used to examine the antennae ultrastructures of adult female An. gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus. Sensory structures, called sensilla, were categorized and counted; their distributions are reported here as well as densities calculated for each species. Results Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus bear five classes of sensilla on their antennae: chaetica (bristles, trichodea (hairs, basiconica (pegs, coeloconica (pitted pegs, and ampullacea (pegs in tubes. Female An. quadriannulatus antennae have approximately one-third more sensilla, and a proportionally larger surface area, than female An. gambiae s.s. antennae. Conclusion The same types of sensilla are found on the antennae of both species. While An. quadriannulatus has greater numbers of each sensilla type, sensilla densities are very similar for each species, suggesting that other factors may be more important to such olfactory-driven behaviours as host preference.

  7. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

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    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  8. Comparison of capture methods for the diagnosis of adult anopheline populations from State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Nanci Akemi Missawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study compares human landing catches of primary malaria vectors with two alternative methods of capture: the Shannon trap and the Mosquito magnet. METHODS: This study used regression models to adjust capture data to a negative binominal distribution. RESULTS: Capture numbers and relative percentages obtained from the three methods vary strongly between species. The highest overall captures were obtained for Anopheles triannulatus with captures for the Shannon trap and the Mosquito magnet measuring more than 330% higher than captures obtained by human landings. For Anopheles darlingi, captures by the Shannon trap and the Mosquito magnet were about 14% and 26% of human landing catches, respectively. Another species with malaria transmission potential that was not sampled by human landing captures weascaptured by the Shannon trap and the Mosquito magnet (Anopheles oswaldoi. Both alternative sampling techniques can predict the human landing of Anopheles triannulatus, but without proportionality. Models for Anopheles darlingi counts, after totaling daily captures, are significant and proportional, but prediction models are more reliable when using the Shannon trap compared with the Mosquito magnet captures. CONCLUSIONS: These alternative capture methods can be partially recommended for the substitution of human landing captures or, at least, as complementary forms of monitoring for malarial mosquitoes.

  9. Radiation biology of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Parker, Andrew G; Knols, Bart G J

    2009-11-16

    There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  10. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  11. Transgenic Mosquitoes - Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André B B; Beier, John C; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-03-08

    Technologies for controlling mosquito vectors based on genetic manipulation and the release of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are gaining ground. However, concrete epidemiological evidence of their effectiveness, sustainability, and impact on the environment and nontarget species is lacking; no reliable ecological evidence on the potential interactions among GMMs, target populations, and other mosquito species populations exists; and no GMM technology has yet been approved by the WHO Vector Control Advisory Group. Our opinion is that, although GMMs may be considered a promising control tool, more studies are needed to assess their true effectiveness, risks, and benefits. Overall, several lines of evidence must be provided before GMM-based control strategies can be used under the integrated vector management framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GLOBE Goes GO with Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.

    2016-12-01

    The GLOBE Mosquito Larvae protocol and a new citizen science initiative, GLOBE Observers (GO), were both launched in Summer 2016. While the GLOBE Mosquito Larvae Protocol and associated educational materials target K-16 student inquiry and research, the GO protocol version is simplified to enable citizen scientists of all ages from all walks of life to participate. GO allows citizen scientists to collect and submit environmental data through an easy-to-use smart phone app available for both Apple and Android mobile devices. GO mosquito asks for photos of larvae mosquito genus or species, location, and type of water source (e.g., container or pond) where the larvae were found. To initiate the new mosquito GLOBE/GO opportunities, workshops have been held in Barbuda, Thailand, West Indies, US Gulf Coast, New York City, and at the GLOBE Annual Meeting in Colorado. Through these venues, the protocols have been refined and a field campaign has been initiated so that GO and GLOBE citizen scientists (K-16 students and all others) can contribute data. Quality assurance measures are taken through the online training required to participate and the validation of identification by other citizen sciences and mosquito experts. Furthermore, initial research is underway to develop optical recognition software starting with the species that carry the Zika virus (Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus). With this launch, we plan to move forward by providing opportunities throughout the world to engage people in meaningful environmental and public health data collection and to promote citizen scientists to become agents of change in their communities.

  13. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rohani; Ali, Wan N W M; Nor, Zurainee M; Ismail, Zamree; Hadi, Azahari A; Ibrahim, Mohd N; Lim, Lee H

    2011-12-13

    The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  14. The contribution of aestivating mosquitoes to the persistence of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamou, Abdoulaye; Dao, Adama; Timbine, Seydou; Kassogué, Yaya; Yaro, Alpha Seydou; Diallo, Moussa; Traoré, Sékou F; Huestis, Diana L; Lehmann, Tovi

    2011-06-06

    Persistence of African anophelines throughout the long dry season (4-8 months) when no surface waters are available remains one of the enduring mysteries of medical entomology. Recent studies demonstrated that aestivation (summer diapause) is one mechanism that allows the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to persist in the Sahel. However, migration from distant localities - where reproduction continues year-round - might also be involved. To assess the contribution of aestivating adults to the buildup of populations in the subsequent wet season, two villages subjected to weekly pyrethrum sprays throughout the dry season were compared with two nearby villages, which were only monitored. If aestivating adults are the main source of the subsequent wet-season population, then the subsequent wet-season density in the treated villages will be lower than in the control villages. Moreover, since virtually only M-form An. gambiae are found during the dry season, the reduction should be specific to the M form, whereas no such difference is predicted for S-form An. gambiae or Anopheles arabiensis. On the other hand, if migrants arriving with the first rain are the main source, no differences between treated and control villages are expected across all members of the An. gambiae complex. The wet-season density of the M form in treated villages was 30% lower than that in the control (P Sahel primarily by aestivation, whereas the S form and An. arabiensis rely on migration from distant locations. Implications for malaria control are discussed.

  15. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

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    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  16. Generation, annotation, and analysis of ESTs from midgut tissue of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

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    Bhagwat Bhakti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoan parasite, Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans by various species of female anopheline mosquitoes. Anopheles stephensi is one such major malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. Unlike Anopheles gambiae, an African malaria vector, transcriptome of A. stephensi midgut tissue is less explored. We have therefore carried out generation, annotation, and analysis of expressed sequence tags from sugar-fed and Plasmodium yoelii infected blood-fed (post 24 h adult female A. stephensi midgut tissue. Results We obtained 7061 and 8306 ESTs from the sugar-fed and P. yoelii infected mosquito midgut tissue libraries, respectively. ESTs from the combined dataset formed 1319 contigs and 2627 singlets, totaling to 3946 unique transcripts. Putative functions were assigned to 1615 (40.9% transcripts using BLASTX against UniProtKB database. Amongst unannotated transcripts, we identified 1513 putative novel transcripts and 818 potential untranslated regions (UTRs. Statistical comparison of annotated and unannotated ESTs from the two libraries identified 119 differentially regulated genes. Out of 3946 unique transcripts, only 1387 transcripts were mapped on the A. gambiae genome. These also included 189 novel transcripts, which were mapped to the unannotated regions of the genome. The EST data is available as ESTDB at http://mycompdb.bioinfo-portal.cdac.in/cgi-bin/est/index.cgi. Conclusion 3946 unique transcripts were successfully identified from the adult female A. stephensi midgut tissue. These data can be used for microarray development for better understanding of vector-parasite relationship and to study differences or similarities with other malaria vectors. Mapping of putative novel transcripts from A. stephensi on the A. gambiae genome proved fruitful in identification and annotation of several genes. Failure of some novel transcripts to map on the A. gambiae genome

  17. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging Š Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on ... percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection Some brand name examples* (Insect repellents may be sold under ...

  18. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Long, Torturous Struggle with Mosquitoes

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    Gordon M. Patterson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three eras: mechanical, chemical, and integrated mosquito control. Mosquito control in the 21st century faces the challenge of emerging pathogens, invasive mosquito species, and balancing concerns about the environment with effective control strategies.

  19. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

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    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  20. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  1. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  2. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac?) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex?, Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a

  3. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the mosquito net. The chromatographic technique has been used for quantitative estimation of deltamethrin extracted by two different solvents from the net. It has been found that the determination of deltamethrin in mosquito nets can vary with the method of extraction used. While extraction with acetone is good enough for estimating the chemical adsorbed on the surface, extraction with xylene provides complete information about the chemical present even in the bulk of the material.

  4. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

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    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  5. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  6. Mosquito age and avian malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, Romain; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Rivero, Ana

    2015-09-30

    The immune system of many insects wanes dramatically with age, leading to the general prediction that older insects should be more susceptible to infection than their younger counterparts. This prediction is however challenged by numerous studies showing that older insects are more resistant to a range of pathogens. The effect of age on susceptibility to infections is particularly relevant for mosquitoes given their role as vectors of malaria and other diseases. Despite this, the effect of mosquito age on Plasmodium susceptibility has been rarely explored, either experimentally or theoretically. Experiments were carried out using the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum and its natural vector in the field, the mosquito Culex pipiens. Both innate immune responses (number and type of circulating haemocytes) and Plasmodium susceptibility (prevalence and burden) were quantified in seven- and 17-day old females. Whether immunity or Plasmodium susceptibility are modulated by the previous blood feeding history of the mosquito was also investigated. To ensure repeatability, two different experimental blocks were carried out several weeks apart. Haemocyte numbers decrease drastically as the mosquitoes age. Despite this, older mosquitoes are significantly more resistant to a Plasmodium infection than their younger counterparts. Crucially, however, the age effect is entirely reversed when old mosquitoes have taken one previous non-infected blood meal. The results agree with previous studies showing that older insects are often more resistant to infections than younger ones. These results suggest that structural and functional alterations in mosquito physiology with age may be more important than immunity in determining the probability of a Plasmodium infection in old mosquitoes. Possible explanations for why the effect is reversed in blood-fed mosquitoes are discussed. The reversal of the age effect in blood fed mosquitoes implies that age is unlikely to have a

  7. The impact of transgenic mosquitoes on dengue virulence to humans and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-10-01

    Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for example, a trade-off between dengue transmission rate and its virulence to humans. Our results indicate that strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting impose selection on dengue virulence in humans. This selection can be for either higher or lower virulence, depending on the interaction between the effect of the transgene and the trade-offs in epidemiological traits, highlighting the need for detailed quantitative data to understand more fully the impact of mosquito transgenesis on dengue virulence. Dengue virulence in mosquitoes can be selected on by transgenic strategies of blocking transmission, decreased mosquito biting, increased mosquito background mortality, and increased mosquito infection-induced mortality. Our results suggest that dengue control strategies that raise mosquito background mortality or mosquito infection-induced mortality pose less risk of causing increased virulence to humans than strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting.

  8. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tyagi; T. Sharma; M. Singh; K. Fatma; V. S. Rawat; M. Aggarwal; R. K. Khandal

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the m...

  9. INFLUENCIA DEL PROCEDIMIENTO EMPLEADO PARA DETERMINAR LA RECTA DE ECONOMÍA DE PEDALEO EN EL CÁLCULO DEL DÉFICIT MÁXIMO DE OXÍGENO ACUMULADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Para determinar la influencia que tienen en los valores de DMO, el número, intensidad y duración de las cargas submáximas utilizadas para calcular la recta de economía, 6 varones acudieron al laboratorio en 8 ocasiones. Tras la familiarización, se determinó el VO2 pico, y el el VO2 a 80, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 180, 200 y nuevamente 100 w. Se calcularon 4 rectas diferentes por regresión lineal: R1, R2, R3, R4. Las rectas R1, R2 y R4 se obtuvieron a partir de la relación VO2/intensidad, entre 80 y 130 w (R1, n=5, entre 140 y 200 w (R2, n=5 y entre 80 y 200 w (R4, n=10, tomando como valor de VO2 correspondiente a cada carga el valor medio alcanzado en los minutos 5 y 6. R3 se calculó a partir de la relación VO2/intensidad, entre 80 y 200 w en test incremental hasta el agotamiento (n=4, tomando como valor de VO2 correspondiente a cada carga el valor medio alcanzado en el 3er min. Finalmente, se calculó el déficit máximo de O2 (DMO en un test de Wingate de 45 s.

    R4 y R3 presentaron parámetros similares, que no se correlacionaron entre sí. Las pendientes fueron un 15 % inferiores en R1 que en R2 (9.591 ± 1.236 y 11.261 ± 0.878 ml.min-1, respectivamente, p<0.05, mientras la ordenada en el origen fue mayor en R1 que en R2 (709.216 ± 154.808 y 510.583 ± 114.204 ml.min-1, respectivamente, p<0.05. Entre R1 y R2 tampoco se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas ni entre pendientes, ni entre puntos de intercepción. Los valores de DMO fueron un 18 % superiores, cuando la recta de economía se obtuvo mediante cargas altas (R2 que cuando se obtuvo mediante cargas bajas (R1; p=0.06. El índice de correlación del DMO calculado con R3 y R4 no fue significativo (r=0.76, p=0.08. Sin embargo, se obtuvo una correlación muy alta entre los valores de DMO

  10. The Influence of Antibodies to Selected Mosquito Immunogens on Mosquitoes Following Ingestion of Blood from an Immune Vertebrate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-05

    mosquito parts. Female Aedes aegypt ] (Rockefeller Strain) mosquitoes were used in this study. They were reared from eggs hatched In deoxygenated water... Aedes aegypti. We immunized mice with mosquito antigens prepared from sugar-fed and blood-fed mosquitoes as follows: heads and thoraces, abdomens, and...34 antigens on the life processes of Aedes aegypti. We have immunized mice with mosquito antigens prepared from both sugar-fed and blood-fed mosquitoes

  11. Host preferences of blood-feeding mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Verhulst, N.O.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes use plant sugars and vertebrate blood as nutritional resources. When searching for blood hosts, some mosquitoes express preferential behavior for selected species. Here, we review the available knowledge on host preference, as this is expected to affect the life history and transmission

  12. Microorganism-mediated behaviour of malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busula, Annette O.

    2017-01-01

    Host-seeking is an important component of mosquito vectorial capacity on which the success of the other behavioural determinants depends. Blood-seeking mosquitoes are mainly guided by chemical cues released by their blood hosts. This thesis describes results of a study that determined the effect

  13. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the population density of mosquitoes was higher in the animal pen than the human room and among the preventive measures employed by the respondents, most used smoke to repel mosquitoes from both animal pen and human room. It can therefore be concluded that there exists a link between ...

  14. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth / For Kids / Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Print en español ¡ ...

  15. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  16. Ovipositional Behavior of Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Jeffrey; Chabi, Joseph; Ablorde, Aikins; Kartey, Worlasi D; Osei, Joseph H N; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Dadzie, Samuel; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Hadi, Melinda P; Suzuki, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito eggs laid within two hours are necessary for transgenic (injection) studies, because mosquito eggs become hard after that period. Thus, in order to have eggs available within this two-hour window, it is important to understand the ovipositional behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. In the present study, the ovipositional behavior of An. gambiae s.s. (Kisumu) was investigated in several different conditions: age of mosquitoes, time post blood meal to access oviposition substrate, and light conditions. Two groups of mosquitoes, 3-5 days old and 9-11 days old were blood-fed. For those mosquito groups, an oviposition dish was set either at 48 hours or 72 hours after the blood meal either in a light condition or in an artificial dark condition. The number of laid eggs was compared among the different conditions. The 3-5 day-old mosquitoes apparently produced a higher number of eggs than 9-11 day-old mosquitoes, while there was no significant difference between the two groups. The number of laid eggs per one surviving blood-fed mosquito in the dark condition was significantly higher than that in the light condition (p = 0.03). Providing an oviposition dish at 72 hours after blood meal resulted in a significantly higher number of laid eggs per one surviving blood-fed mosquito than at 48 hours after blood meal (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the optimal condition to have readily available egg supply for transgenic analysis was as follows: 3-5 day-old mosquitoes with an oviposition dish placed at 72 hours after the blood meal in a dark environment.

  17. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  18. Culex Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

  19. Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadipinayakanahalli Munikrishnappa Guruprasad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

  20. The influence of the area of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Plant, State of Goiás, on the frequency and diversity of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae): a study on the effect of a reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Alencar, Jerônimo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2015-01-01

    Bioecological aspects of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) near areas under the direct influence of the hydroelectric plant reservoir of Serra da Mesa in Goiás, Brazil, were analyzed. Samples were collected at the surrounding dam area during the phases before and after reservoir impoundment. The influence of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albitarsis, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles evansae was assessed using Pearson's correlations with indicators for richness and diversity as well as the index of species abundance (ISA) and the standardized index of species abundance (SISA). The highest anopheline density occurred during the phase after filling the tank; however, no direct correlation with the climatic factors was observed during this stage. The reservoir formation determined the incidence of the anopheline species. An. darlingi was the predominant species (SISA = 1.00). The significant difference (p < 0.05) observed between the species incidence during the different reservoir phases demonstrates the environmental effect of the reservoir on anophelines.

  1. Mosquito immune defenses against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirimotich, Chris M; Dong, Yuemei; Garver, Lindsey S; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2010-04-01

    The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium, has to undergo complex developmental transitions and survive attacks from the mosquito's innate immune system to achieve transmission from one host to another through the vector. Here we discuss recent findings on the role of the mosquito's innate immune signaling pathways in preventing infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the identification and mechanistic description of novel anti-parasite molecules, the role that natural bacteria harbored in the mosquito midgut might play in this immune defense and the crucial parasite and vector molecules that mediate midgut infection.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Samson, R.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito

  3. Nanoparticles for mosquito control: Challenges and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control programs are facing important and timely challenges, including the recent outbreaks of novel arbovirus, the development of resistance in several Culicidae species, and the rapid spreading of highly invasive mosquitoes worldwide. Current control tools mainly rely on the employment of (i synthetic or microbial pesticides, (ii insecticide-treated bed nets, (iii adult repellents, (iv biological control agents against mosquito young instars (mainly fishes, amphibians and copepods (v Sterile Insect Technique (SIT, (vi “boosted SIT”, (vii symbiont-based methods and (viii transgenic mosquitoes. Currently, none of these single strategies is fully successful. Novel eco-friendly strategies to manage mosquito vectors are urgently needed. The plant-mediated fabrication of nanoparticles is advantageous over chemical and physical methods, since it is cheap, single-step, and does not require high pressure, energy, temperature, or the use of highly toxic chemicals. In the latest years, a growing number of plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles effective against mosquitoes at very low doses (i.e. 1–30 ppm. In this review, we focused on the promising potential of green-fabricated nanoparticles as toxic agents against mosquito young instars, and as adult oviposition deterrents. Furthermore, we analyzed current evidences about non-target effects of these nanocomposites used for mosquito control, pointing out their moderate acute toxicity for non-target aquatic organisms, absence of genotoxicity at the doses tested against mosquitoes, and the possibility to boost the predation rates of biological control agents against mosquitoes treating the aquatic environment with ultra-low doses (e.g. 1–3 ppm of green-synthesized nanoparticles, which reduce the motility of mosquito larvae. Challenges for future research should shed light on (i the precise mechanism(s of action of

  4. Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ledayane Mayana Costa; Souto, Raimundo Nonato Picanço; Dos Anjos Ferreira, Ricardo Marcelo; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Collections of four hours for three consecutive nights each month and four 12-h collections, comprising two in the rainy season and two in the dry season, were performed. Furthermore, to infer the anthropophily and zoophily indexes, four additional four-hour collections were performed. The samples were also evaluated for parity rate and natural infectivity for Plasmodium spp. A total of 1689 anophelines were captured, comprising of nine species and two subgenera (Nyssorhynchus - six species, and Anopheles - three species). Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant and widely distributed species in the area, followed by A. braziliensis and A.marajoara. Anopheles darlingi and A. marajoara were the only species present in the four collections of 12-h, but only A. darlingi showed activity throughout night. Anopheles darlingi was the most anthropophilic species (AI=0.40), but the zoophily index was higher (ZI=0.60), revealing an eclectic and opportunistic behavior. Of the six most frequent species, A. nuneztovari s.l. was the most zoophilic species (ZI=1.00). All captured species showed predominance towards biting in outdoor environments. Anopheles darlingi and A. braziliensis showed multimodal biting peaks, whereas A. marajoara revealed a stable pattern, with the biting peak after sunset. Using the PCR technique, no anopheline was found infected with the malaria parasite. Since A. darlingi and A. marajoara are recognized as important vectors in this region, the district of Coração may be considered as

  5. Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    per ml. . h Tabl , Yellow fever virus infection rates obtained with heparinized Vertebrate bloods Blood Source Rabbit Guinea g Chicken tk~nkcy Aedes ...were similar. A mosquito inoculation-headsquash-immuno]uflorosecncr te(hni(que was found to L be more sensitive than Aedes albopictus cells(C6/306...12 B. Efficiency of per os infection studies . . . . . .. 13 C. Comparison of Aedes albopictus (C6/3A) cell line and mosquito

  6. [Light and electron microscopic studies of the structure and histochemistry of the oviduct epithelial cells (pars recta and pars convoluta I, II, III) in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, H

    1980-01-01

    The oviduct of the ovoviviparous Salamandra salamandra is differentiated into five readily distinguishable regions (1. pars recta, 2. p. convoluta I, 3. p. convoluta II, 4. p. convoluta III, 5. p. convoluta IV or uterus) due to the structure of its epithelial cells and the carbohydrate histochemistry of their secretory products. The epithelium of region 1-4 is mono-layered and exhibits ciliated and rather undifferentiated cells which both may contain small amounts of secretory material. Large amounts, however, are present in different gland cells restricted to discrete regions of the oviduct: microgranulocytes occur in the p. convoluta I, II, III, microspongiocytes in the p. convoluta II, III, groups of voluminous spongiocytes and granulocytes which form crypts are found in the p. convoluta I (spongiocytes I), in the p. convoluta II (granulocytes), and in the p. convoluta III (spongiocytes II). The uterine epithelium consists of a uniform cell type described elsewhere. All secretory cells contain neutral mucosubstances (in particular the granulocytes and microgranulocytes) and acid mucosubstances with carboxyl- and sulphate-groups. Sulphate ester groups are common in the mucigen globules of the spongiocytes and the microgranulocytes, whereas carboxylgroups and a demonstrable protein component seem to be predominant in the seromucous granulocytes. The secretory product of the microspongiocytes could not be characterized clearly. The ultrastructural features of the gland cells resemble those of other mucus secreting cells. The Golgi apparatus is the most prominent cell organelle of the spongiocytes and granulocytes. In the latter cells granular endoplasmic reticulum is invariable abundant. The secretory granules of all epithelial cells including the content of the vacuoles of the microspongiocytes as well as substances within the dictyosomes and associated vesicles are stained with the periodic acid--chromic acid--methenamine silver (PACAMS) technique suggesting

  7. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  8. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  9. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being. PMID:27690112

  10. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM, has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being.

  11. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  12. Engineered mosquitoes to fight mosquito borne diseases: not a merely technical issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases pose dramatic problems of public health, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Historically, vector control has been one of the most successfully strategies to eradicate some mosquito-borne diseases, as witnessed by malaria eradication in Mediterranean regions such as Italy and Greece. Vector control through insecticides has been used worldwide; unfortunately, it is losing effectiveness due to spread of resistances. Control of mosquito-borne diseases through field-releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes is an innovative and now feasible approach. Genetically modified mosquitoes have already been released into the wild in some regions, and protocols for this release are on hand in others. Local authorities are vigilant that transgenic insects in the field are safe for human and animal populations, and the public engagement in every control program is assuming a central role.

  13. Controle los mosquitos que están en el exterior (Controlling Mosquitoes Outside)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-11

    Los mosquitos pueden transmitir virus como el del zika. En este podcast, el Sr. Francisco le enseñará a usted y a su vecina Adriana diferentes maneras para ayudar a reducir la cantidad de mosquitos fuera de su casa. Los consejos incluyen eliminar áreas de agua estancada donde los mosquitos ponen sus huevos, usar larvicidas para matar mosquitos jóvenes, y reparar grietas y cubrir las ventilaciones de los pozos sépticos. También aprenderá cómo se usan los aviones que ayudan a rociar insecticida para los mosquitos.  Created: 7/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2016.

  14. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR < 0.08 for all). For Anopheles funestus, relative catch rates were high for ITT (RR = 1.21); moderate for HLC outdoor (RR = 0.47), CDC-LT (RR = 0.69), and WET (RR = 0.49); and low for all resting traps (RR < 0.02 for all). At finer geographic scales, however, efficacy of each trap type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in

  15. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR, mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g. Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored

  16. Does mosquito control have an effect on mosquito-borne disease? The case of Ross River virus disease and mosquito management in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil

    2011-03-01

    We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

  17. Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela F; Nimmo, Derric; McKemey, Andrew R; Kelly, Nick; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Beech, Camilla; Petrie, William D; Alphey, Luke

    2011-10-30

    Dengue is the most medically important arthropod-borne viral disease, with 50-100 million cases reported annually worldwide. As no licensed vaccine or dedicated therapy exists for dengue, the most promising strategies to control the disease involve targeting the predominant mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. However, the current methods to do this are inadequate. Various approaches involving genetically engineered mosquitoes have been proposed, including the release of transgenic sterile males. However, the ability of laboratory-reared, engineered male mosquitoes to effectively compete with wild males in terms of finding and mating with wild females, which is critical to the success of these strategies, has remained untested. We report data from the first open-field trial involving a strain of engineered mosquito. We demonstrated that genetically modified male mosquitoes, released across 10 hectares for a 4-week period, mated successfully with wild females and fertilized their eggs. These findings suggest the feasibility of this technology to control dengue by suppressing field populations of A. aegypti.

  18. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  19. New State Records of Mosquitoes for Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dominic A; Kondratieff, B C; Weissmann, M J

    2015-06-01

    The 1967 treatment of the Mosquitoes of Colorado by Harmston and Lawson and subsequent publications have recorded 46 culicid species from Colorado. As part of a study to create an updated synopsis of the mosquitoes of Colorado, adult trapping at numerous localities was conducted in Colorado during the summers of 2013 and 2014. This review also included an examination of mosquito specimens in various relevant museum collections. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) niphadopsis and Ae. (Och.) spencerii spencerii were collected during the 2013 and 2014 field seasons. Records for Ae. (Och.) canadensis canadensis, Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti, and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) anhydor syntheta were obtained from examination of museum specimens. These species constitute new state records for Colorado, with 51 species now known from the state.

  20. Human to mosquito transmission of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Carrington

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic anti-virals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito’s susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host.

  1. [Reevaluation of the biological control of vector mosquitoes using predatory larvae of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, M; Horio, M

    1985-09-01

    Attempts to control mosquito-borne disease using predatory mosquitoes such as Toxorhynchites larvae have led to indefinite results for many years, mainly because of the lack of adequate species or strains of Toxorhynchites. Recent improvements of natural and artificial matings of adults in the laboratory and of mass breeding of larvae, however, have made it possible to establish laboratory colonies of most Toxorhynchites species whenever and wherever necessary. Effects of biological control by releasing large numbers of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes should be reevaluated from a new concept of comparing the usual chemical insecticides with the living and flying "insecticides" which cause no environmental pollution.

  2. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  3. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  4. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  5. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dame, David A.; Curtis, Christopher F.; Benedict, Mark Q.; Robinson, Alan S.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito

  6. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  7. Evaluating the effects of mosquito control adulticides on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    While mosquito control adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission, the impacts of these control measures on pollinators has been of recent interest. The purpose of our study was to evaluate mosquito and honey bee mortality using ...

  8. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Anil K; Coppens, Isabelle; Gårdsvoll, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is an essential step for the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito. Invasion involves recognition between a presumed mosquito midgut receptor and an ookinete ligand. Here, we show that enolase lines the ookinete surface. An antienolase antibo...

  9. Modelling the dynamics of Chikungunya in human and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we developed and qualitatively analyzed a model for the transmission dynamics of chikungunya virus in a human a nd mosquito populations. The chikungunya virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes usually Aedes albopictus mosquito and it is of big threat to global public health. Rigorous analysis of the ...

  10. Agricultural chemicals: life changer for mosquito vectors in agricultural landscapes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kibuthu, Tabitha W.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mbugua, Amos K.; Muturi, Ephantus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many mosquito species develop within agricultural landscapes where they are potentially exposed to agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), the effects of these chemicals on mosquito biology remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of four agricultural chemicals on the life history traits of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Methods Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to exam...

  11. Can transgenic mosquitoes afford the fitness cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Louis; Koella, Jacob C; Boëte, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In a recent study, SM1-transgenic Anopheles stephensi, which are resistant partially to Plasmodium berghei, had higher fitness than non-transgenic mosquitoes when they were maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. This result should be interpreted cautiously with respect to malaria control using transgenic mosquitoes because, despite the evolutionary advantage conferred by the transgene, a concomitant cost prevents it from invading the entire population. Indeed, for the spread of a resistance transgene in a natural situation, the transgene's fitness cost and the efficacy of the gene drive will be more crucial than any evolutionary advantage.

  12. Protection Ability Comparison of Several Mosquito Repellent Lotion Incorporated with Essential Oils of Mosquito Repellent Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most mosquito repellent lotions available on the market today contain the active ingredient diethyltoluamide (DEET which is very harmful to the skin. Natural mosquito repellent research using various essential oils (geranium oil, lemon oil, citronella oil and lavender oil as the active ingredient and the addition of aloe vera gel as a moisturizer has been done on a laboratory scale. The purpose of this study was to compare the protection ability of the mosquito repellent plants in Indonesia. The results showed that geranium oil, lemongrass oil, lavender oil and lemon oil could act as mosquito repellent. Best lotion formula all containing 15% essential oils have the effectiveness above 50% until the sixth hour were geranium oil, citronella oil and lavender oil while lemon oil only giving effectiveness above 50% until the second hour.

  13. Cómo controlar los mosquitos en interiores (Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Los mosquitos pueden portar virus como el del Nilo Occidental o del Zika. En este podcast, Don Francisco le muestra a sus vecinos formas en las que pueden reducir el número de mosquitos dentro de su casa.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  14. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, C.A.; Reiner Jr, R.C.; Perkins, T.A.; Lindsay, S.W.; Midega, J.T.; Brady, O.J.; Barker, C.M.; Reisen, W.K.; Harrington, L.C.; Takken, W.; Kitron, U.; Lloyd, A.L.; Hay, S.I.; Scott, T.W.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency

  15. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  16. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Beijleveld, Hans; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem; Schraa, Gosse; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Smallegange, Renate C.

    2009-01-01

    Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours.

  17. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  18. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  19. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215 ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 1- Parity of blood seeking Anopheles (Kerteszia in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992 at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. Indoor and outdoor collections were made on human bait at evening crepuscular period. The Polovodova technique for age grading was applied to 3,501 females of Anopheles cruzii and to 416 females of An. bellator. That sample represented 34.4% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. The most abundant species found was An. cruzii. However, An. bellator showed an endophagy that was almost three times greater than that of An. cruzii. The overall parous rate was 25.4% and uniparity was practically dominant one. A proportion of 26.9% of An. cruzii and 12.0% of An. bellator were found to be uniparous. Only three outdoor females of the former species (0.1% showed biparity. Parity of An. cruzii was higher in females caught outdoors than in those caught indoors. Nevertheless, 497 nulliparous females examined (417 cruzii and 80 bellator had ovaries that had advanced to Christophers and Mer stages III to V. These results imply that these females had already practised hematophagy. Relating these results to those from the parous females, a high statistical significance was found, leading to the conclusion that gonothophic discordance is a common pattern among these anophelines. Further, these results obtained with human bait catches strongly suggest that nearly 38.0% of these host-seeking females had already taken at least one previous blood-meal. So it is possible that enough time could thus be available for the plasmodian development in the vectors.

  1. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  2. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  3. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  4. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-06-24

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  5. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits)were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut(Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S.)...

  6. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, ...

  7. Mosquito age and avian malaria infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeault, Romain; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Rivero, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background The immune system of many insects wanes dramatically with age, leading to the general prediction that older insects should be more susceptible to infection than their younger counterparts. This prediction is however challenged by numerous studies showing that older insects are more resistant to a range of pathogens. The effect of age on susceptibility to infections is particularly relevant for mosquitoes given their role as vectors of malaria and other diseases. Despite this, the e...

  8. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  9. Manipulating insulin signaling to enhance mosquito reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasgon Jason L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrond In the mosquito Aedes aegypti the insulin/insulin growth factor I signaling (IIS cascade is a key regulator of many physiological processes, including reproduction. Two important reproductive events, steroidogenesis in the ovary and yolk synthesis in the fat body, are regulated by the IIS cascade in mosquitoes. The signaling molecule phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a key inhibitor of the IIS cascade that helps modulate the activity of the IIS cascade. In Ae. aegypti, six unique splice variants of AaegPTEN were previously identified, but the role of these splice variants, particularly AaegPTEN3 and 6, were unknown. Results Knockdown of AaegPTEN or its specific splice variant AaegPTEN6 (the splice variant thought to regulate reproduction in the ovary and fat body using RNAi led to a 15–63% increase in egg production with no adverse effects on egg viability during the first reproductive cycle. Knockdown of AaegPTEN3, expressed predominantly in the head, had no effect on reproduction. We also characterized the protein expression patterns of these two splice variants during development and in various tissues during a reproductive cycle. Conclusion Previous studies in a range of organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, have demonstrated that disruption of the IIS cascade leads to decreased reproduction or sterility. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown of the IIS inhibitor PTEN can actually increase reproduction in the mosquito, at least during the first reproductive cycle.

  10. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, Christopher M.; Azar, Sasha R.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Huang, Jing H.; Leal, Grace; Yun, Ruimei; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Vitek, Christopher J.; Paploski, Igor A.D.; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Weaver, Scott C.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican...

  11. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory...

  12. Differential utilization of blood meal amino acids in mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Miesfeld, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Guoli Zhou, Roger MiesfeldDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Amino acids in the mosquito blood meal have two forms, protein-bound and plasma-free amino acids. To determine if the metabolic fate and flux of these two forms of blood meal amino acids are distinct, we fed mosquitoes eight [14C]-labeled amino acids, seven of which are essential for mosquitoes (leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, histidine), and one th...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important single group ofinsects in terms of public health importance, whichtransmit a number of diseases, such as malaria, filariasis,dengue, Japanese encephalitis, etc. causing millionsof deaths every year. Repeated use of syntheticinsecticides for mosquito control has disrupted naturalbiological control systems and led to resurgencesin mosquito populations. It has also resulted in thedevelopment of resistance1, undesirable effects onnon-target organisms and fostered...

  14. The immune strategies of mosquito Aedes aegypti against microbial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Chang, Meng-Meng; Wang, Xue-Li; Zheng, Ai-Hua; Zou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits many devastating arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus, which cause great concern to human health. Mosquito control is an effective method to block the spread of infectious diseases. Ae. aegypti uses its innate immune system to fight against arboviruses, parasites, and fungi. In this review, we briefly summarize the recent findings in the immune response of Ae. aegypti against arboviral and entomopathogenic infections. This review enriches our understanding of the mosquito immune system and provides evidence to support the development of novel mosquito control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  16. DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

  17. Impact of vegetable crop agriculture on anopheline agressivity and malaria transmission in urban and less urbanized settings of the South region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, Patrick Ntonga; Mbida, Jean Arthur Mbida; Tonga, Calvin; Belong, Philippe; Ngo Hondt, Odette Etoile; Magne, Gaëlle Tamdem; Peka, Marie Florence; Lehman, Leopold Gustave

    2015-05-28

    The use of inland valley swamps for vegetable crop agriculture contributes to food security in urban and less urbanized settings in Africa. The impact of this agriculture on aggressive mosquitoes' diversity and malaria transmission in central Africa is poorly documented. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of vegetable crop agriculture on these entomological parameters in urban and less urbanized settings of the forest area, south of Cameroon. The human bait technique was used for the capture of aggressive mosquitoes from January to December 2012. For three consecutive days each month, captures were performed on volunteers in hydro-agricultural and river bank sites of Akonolinga and Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding sites were recorded. Molecular alongside morpho-taxonomic techniques were used for the identification of mosquito species; ELISA test was used to reveal Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes through the detection of CSP. Mosquito diversity, aggressivity and malaria transmission in sites and settings were determined and compared. Biting rates were higher in hydro-agricultural sites of less urbanized and urban settings (31.8 b/p/n and 28.6 b/p/n respectively) than in river banks sites (6.83 b/p/n and 3.64 b/p/n respectively; p agricultural sites 2 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 in the less urbanized setting, meanwhile in river bank sites, 3 species were captured in the urban setting versus 4 species in the less urbanized setting. An. nili s.s. was found in river banks only. An. hancocki was not found to insure Plasmodium falciparum Welch transmission. EIR in hydro-agricultural sites varied from 1.86 ib/p/n (urban area) to 2.13 ib/p/n (less urbanized area) with higher rates in April/May and August. Overall, EIR was higher in less urbanized areas (p agriculture (p = 0.2). These results highlight the need for specific preventive measures that take into account the ecological peculiarities

  18. Variação da densidade anofélica com o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina em uma área endêmica de malária na Amazônia Brasileira Variation of anopheles density with deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets in an endemic malaria area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barberino Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992, foi realizado um ensaio de campo com mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, em uma área endêmica de malária no Município de Costa Marques, Rondônia. No período de baixa transmissão, os mosquiteiros impregnados (MI diminuíram a densidade vetorial no intradomicílio, de modo semelhante, porém, aos mosquiteiros não impregnados (NI na maioria das avaliações-controle. Por outro lado, na época de alta transmissão, os MI provocaram diminuição significante da média horária de anofelinos capturados, ao passo que, nas casas com NI, verificou-se aumento do número de mosquitos capturados. No peridomicílio, em geral, não houve diferença do número de anofelinos capturados entre MI e NI. No grupo MI, a espécie mais capturada foi o An. darlingi (63,2%, mais freqüente no peridomicílio, seguida pelo An. deaneorum (35,3%, mais freqüente no intradomicílio. Os MI diminuíram a densidade vetorial no intradomicílio pelo efeito excito-repelente, sem diminuí-la, contudo, no peridomicílio.In 1992 a survey on the use of deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets was conducted in the municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia. In the intradomicile, impregnated nets decreased the vector density at rates similar to those for non-impregnated nets during low-transmission periods; during high anopheline density periods, they led to a significant reduction in vector density, while in the non-impregnated net group there was an increase in the number of anophelines captured. There was no change in vector density in the peridomicile. In the impregnated net group, the most frequently captured species was Anopheles darlingi (63.2%, found mostly in the peridomicile, while Anopheles deaneorum (35.3% was most frequent indoors. The impregnated mosquito nets' excitatory-repellent effect decreased the intradomiciliary vector density but did not alter density in the peridomicile.

  19. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  20. Targeting the breeding sites of malaria mosquitoes: biological and physical control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.

    2011-01-01


    Malaria causes an estimated 225 million cases and 781,000 deaths every year. About 85% of the deaths are in children under five years of age. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite which is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito vector. Mainly two methods of intervention are used for

  1. MosquitoNet: investigating the use of UAV and artificial neural networks for integrated mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, E.; Ren, Y.; Shragai, T.; Erickson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated mosquito control is expensive and resource intensive, and changing climatic factors are predicted to expand the habitable range of disease-carrying mosquitoes into new regions in the United States. Of particular concern in the northeastern United States are aedes albopictus, an aggressive, invasive species of mosquito that can transmit both native and exotic disease. Ae. albopictus prefer to live near human populations and breed in artificial containers with as little as two millimeters of standing water, exponentially increasing the difficulty of source control in suburban and urban areas. However, low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to photograph large regions at centimeter-resolution, and can image containers of interest in suburban neighborhoods. While proofs-of-concepts have been shown using UAVs to identify naturally occurring bodies of water, they have not been used to identify mosquito habitat in more populated areas. One of the primary challenges is that post-processing high-resolution aerial imagery is still time intensive, often labelled by hand or with programs built for satellite imagery. Artificial neural networks have been highly successful at image recognition tasks; in the past five years, convolutional neural networks (CNN) have surpassed or aided trained humans in identification of skin cancer, agricultural crops, and poverty levels from satellite imagery. MosquitoNet, a dual classifier built from the Single Shot Multibox Detector and VGG16 architectures, was trained on UAV­­­­­ aerial imagery taken during a larval study in Westchester County in southern New York State in July and August 2017. MosquitoNet was designed to assess the habitat risk of suburban properties by automating the identification and counting of containers like tires, toys, garbage bins, flower pots, etc. The SSD-based architecture marked small containers and other habitat indicators while the VGG16-based architecture classified the type of

  2. Mosquito-disseminated pyriproxyfen yields high breeding-site coverage and boosts juvenile mosquito mortality at the neighborhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2015-04-01

    Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear. We conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 'dissemination stations' (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a >10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000-3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination. By expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies

  3. Ecological aspects for application of genetically modified mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Scott, T.W.; Rogers, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of using genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) to reduce vector-borne diseases is founded on the notion that genetic constructs that will render mosquitoes incapable of pathogen transmission can be driven into vector populations. Conceptually, this is an exciting and novel approach to

  4. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Biological control of mosquito larvae by using fish has shown many advantages over ... number of malaria cases in India that has been reduced from 75 million to 150,000 and deaths from 750,000 to ... aquatic weeds and G. affinis on the mosquito larvae. In addition to that G. affinis has some adverse effects ...

  5. Relative abundance of mosquito species in Katsina Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the relative abundance of mosquito species, around selected areas of Katsina metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria during the months of January, February, April and June 2010. Mosquitoes were collected from five sampling sites: Kofar Durbi, Kofar Kaura, Kofar Marusa, GRA and Layout. These were ...

  6. Statistical Survey of Mosquito Vectors in the Vicinity of Waldhuni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant vectors, and they transmit parasites and pathogens, which have major impact on the human population. The vector borne diseases caused by mosquitoes, such as dengue, malaria, yellow fever, chickungunya and filariasis, the major health problems in India.

  7. The occurrences and habitat characteristics of mosquitoes in Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to assess mosquito species occurrences and the effects of some ecological characteristics on their breeding was undertaken in Accra. Five species of mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae s.l, Culex decens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles melas and Aedes aegyptii were found occurring in a wide variety of places.

  8. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation presents a challenge to chemicals that are currently used to control mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African. Furthermore, there is limited ... Results: Mosquito species tested were Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus species. Real-time PCR have showed that the main ...

  9. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  10. Advances in insect physiology. Progress in mosquito research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book review briefly summarizes the most interesting topics/chapters from the book: "Advances in Insect Physiology: Progress in mosquito Research". The book is an excellent overview of the recent advances in mosquito biology. This volume encompasses 13 chapters from 32 contributing authors who ...

  11. Mosquito larval habitats and public health implications in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in Abeokuta, Nigeria in order to determine the breeding sites of the existing mosquito fauna and its possible public health implications on the residents of the City. The habitats were sampled between August 2005 and July 2006 using plastic dippers and a pipette.

  12. Mosquitoes as vectors of human disease in South Africa | Jupp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in South Africa, there are also several mosquito-borne viruses that also cause human disease. The most significant are chikungunya, West Nile, Sindbis and Rift Valley fever viruses. In this review these are compared with malaria, mainly in regard to their ecology ...

  13. Mosquito fauna of a tropical museum and zoological garden complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mosquito fauna of Museum and Zoological Garden Complex (JZC), a major tourist attraction inJos Metropolis of Nigeria, was studied The choice of the complex was out of public health curiosity. A total of 627 mosquitoes comprising 4 genera, Aedes, Culex, Coquilletidia and Eretmapodites, and9 species were caught n ...

  14. Analysis of a malaria model with mosquito-dependent transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    parasites in their blood stream and can pass the infection to mosquitoes. After sometime they lose their immunity and return to the susceptible class. Humans leave the population through emigration from one class to the other or by natural death. The mosquito population N2 is divided into two classes: susceptible X2 and ...

  15. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  16. Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Nath, D R; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    1999-12-01

    Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.

  17. Does polyandrous impede mosquito control by autocidal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Jayaprakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vector mosquito control by releasing genetically altered males has been attempted under the presumption that the females are monandrous. The present observation was through the sex–linked inheritance pattern of eye-colour and the estimation of polyandrous in in-vitro mating. A small proportion (18.2% of the female Anopheles stephensi population exhibited polyandrous on examination of 850 F1 adults when two types of males (white and black eyed where allowed to mate with homozygous white eyed females. The above results were discussed with relation to the consequences of the polyandrous trait in sterile insect technique, genetic control programmes.

  18. The mosquito problem in Oxidation Pounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loedolff, C.J

    2011-01-20

    Full Text Available accepted iii Southern Airica for nianv reasons, the most important hieing the low cost when compared with the conventional sewage works. Va nous aspects tf the system Inn e been investigated, (lie work having been co ordinated by (lie South Airic...~ui Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. In tropical and sub—tropical areas, such as in Southern Africa, (lie problem of mosquito breeding is of considerable importance and requires i,itinediate solution. \\iosquitoes are an i iitercstiig group...

  19. Extractos del diario de un mosquito moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B. Leslie

    1943-01-01

    que desempeñamos en la guerra con España. Matamos más soldados y produjimos más enfermedades, penalidades y devastación en el ejército que las mismas balas. No cabe duda de que nuestra reputación como combatientes es internacional y digna de la primera página de los diarios. ¿ En honor de quién y por qué creen ustedes que se bautizaron los botes y las flotas "Mosquito"?

  20. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  1. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  2. High efficiency germ-line transformation of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neil F; Clayton, John R; Fraser, Malcolm J; Kafatos, Fotis C; Collins, Frank H

    2006-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the mosquito genome through germ-line transformation provides us with a powerful tool for investigating gene structure and function. It is also a valuable method for the development of novel approaches to combating the spread of mosquito-vectored diseases. To date, germ-line transformation has been demonstrated in several mosquito species. Transgenes are introduced into pre-blastocyst mosquito embryos using microinjection techniques that take a few hours, and progeny are screened for the presence of a marker gene. The microinjection protocol presented here can be applied to most mosquitoes and contains several improvements over other published methods that increase the survival of injected embryos and, therefore, the number of transformants. Transgenic lines can be established in approximately 1 month using this technique.

  3. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Rossi, Shannan L; Huang, Jing H; Leal, Grace; Yun, Ruimei; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Vitek, Christopher J; Paploski, Igor A D; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Hanley, Kathryn A; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican Republic transmitted the Cambodia and Mexica strains. However, blood meals from viremic mice were more infectious than artificial blood meals of comparable doses; the Cambodia strain was not transmitted by mosquitoes from Brazil after artificial blood meals, whereas 61% transmission occurred after a murine blood meal (saliva titers up to 4 log 10 infectious units/collection). Although regional origins of vector populations and virus strain influence transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be competent vectors of Zika virus in several regions of the Americas.

  4. [The biocontrol of container-breeding mosquitoes by using Toxorhynchites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C C

    1990-07-01

    Container-breeding mosquitoes not only bite people but also transmit many human and animal diseases. The problem with chemical control of these mosquitoes is that the breeding sites are always well dispersed and not easily located, and more manenergy and money are required to treat them individually. Since the adverse effects of pesticides on vector control have been recognized, Toxorhynchites mosquitoes are being reconsidered as a means of reducing the populations of other mosquito species. The bionomic interaction of predator and prey, mass rearing, and some examples of biological control of Toxorhynchites are discussed in this article. Integrated controls combining periodic mass release of gravid Toxorhynchites females and ULV pesticide applications can be used to suppress container-breeding mosquitoes.

  5. Citizen Science as a Tool for Mosquito Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Sorensen, Amanda E; Ladeau, Shannon

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we share our findings from a 2-year citizen science program called Mosquito Stoppers. This pest-oriented citizen science project is part of a larger coupled natural-human systems project seeking to understand the fundamental drivers of mosquito population density and spatial variability in potential exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens in a matrix of human construction, urban renewal, and individual behaviors. Focusing on residents in West Baltimore, participants were recruited through neighborhood workshops and festivals. Citizen scientists participated in yard surveys of potential mosquito habitat and in evaluating mosquito nuisance. We found that citizen scientists, with minimal education and training, were able to accurately collect data that reflect trends found in a comparable researcher-generated database.

  6. Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae AChE (AgAChE reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.

  7. Freqüência ao ambiente humano e dispersão de mosquitos Culicidae em área adjacente à mata atlântica primitiva da planície Frequency of occurrence in the human environment dispersal of Culicidae mosquitoes in an area adjacent to a primitive Atlantic plain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-04-01

    shelters was recorded for this species. Peridomiciliar human bait catches showed regular occurrence of Ae. scapularis, Anopheles bellator, An. cruzii and Culex sacchettae, but anophelines abandoned the human environment for the surrounding forest. Feeding index showed clearly a preference on the part of Ae. scapularis for bovine hosts. The peridomiciliar frequency of Cx. sacchettae suggests a domiciliary tendency. The influence of large domestic animals in the human environment surrounded by primitive Atlantic plain forests, on the domiciliation of the sylvatic mosquitoes, is emphasized.

  8. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia , were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided...carboxa- mide], mosquito repellents, Culex annulirostris, Australia INTRODUCTION The use of personal protection measures, particularly the application...Queensland, Australia . MATERIALS AND METHODS Test mosquitoes Female mosquitoes used in the laboratory evaluation study were Ae. aegypti (Townsville

  9. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  10. Effects of rainfall on Culex mosquito population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, L D; Sibona, G J; Diaz, L A; Contigiani, M S; Condat, C A

    2017-05-21

    The dynamics of a mosquito population depends heavily on climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation. Since climate change models predict that global warming will impact on the frequency and intensity of rainfall, it is important to understand how these variables affect the mosquito populations. We present a model of the dynamics of a Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population that incorporates the effect of rainfall and use it to study the influence of the number of rainy days and the mean monthly precipitation on the maximum yearly abundance of mosquitoes M max . Additionally, using a fracturing process, we investigate the influence of the variability in daily rainfall on M max . We find that, given a constant value of monthly precipitation, there is an optimum number of rainy days for which M max is a maximum. On the other hand, we show that increasing daily rainfall variability reduces the dependence of M max on the number of rainy days, leading also to a higher abundance of mosquitoes for the case of low mean monthly precipitation. Finally, we explore the effect of the rainfall in the months preceding the wettest season, and we obtain that a regimen with high precipitations throughout the year and a higher variability tends to advance slightly the time at which the peak mosquito abundance occurs, but could significantly change the total mosquito abundance in a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampton, J.M.; Lycett, G.J.; Warren, A.

    1998-01-01

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author)

  12. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  13. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  14. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-10-15

    Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. - 6 p.m.), and dark (6 p.m. - 6 a.m.) phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05) throughout the study period. the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  15. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  16. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  17. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Ion K; Toderas, Lidia G

    2013-06-01

    The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.

  19. Behaviors and Numerical Simulations of Malaria Dynamic Models with Transgenic Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiongwei; Xu, Junjun; Wang, Xiao; Cheng, Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    The release of transgenic mosquitoes to interact with wild ones is a promising method for controlling malaria. How to effectively release transgenic mosquitoes to prevent malaria is always a concern for researchers. This paper investigates two methods of releasing transgenic mosquitoes and proposes two epidemic models involving malaria patients, anopheles, wild mosquitoes, and transgenic mosquitoes based on system of continuous differential equations. A basic reproduction number ${\\mathbf{R}}...

  20. Can urban planning reduce the risks of mosquito-borne disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Cameron; Russell, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne disease impacts many communities in Australia on an annual basis. While increasing urbanisation is bringing the community closer to productive mosquito habitats, environmental management of local wetlands is often in conflict with effective mosquito control strategies and abundant mosquito populations increase the risks of disease caused by Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus. Wetland conservation projects are increasing the availability of productive mosquito habitat whil...

  1. Field evaluation of CDC and Mosquito Magnet X traps baited with dry ice, CO2 sachet, and octenol against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation (granular) of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated against adult mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%) only. The CDC traps baited with dry ice (64%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (11%) or octenol (23%). The MMX traps baited with dry ice (85.5%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (6.5%) or octenol (9%). The CDC traps baited with the formulations of normal and slow release CO2 sachets collected more mosquitoes than the formulation of fast release sachets. The CDC traps baited with fresh sachets and 24-h-exposed sachets collected significantly more mosquitoes than the traps baited with 48-h- and 72-h-exposed sachets.

  2. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  3. A Chlorfenapyr Mixture Net Interceptor® G2 Shows High Efficacy and Wash Durability against Resistant Mosquitoes in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N'Guessan

    Full Text Available Malaria control through use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN is threatened by the selection of anopheline mosquitoes strongly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides. To sustain future effectiveness it is essential to identify and evaluate novel insecticides suitable for nets. Mixtures of two insecticides with contrasting mode of action have the potential to kill resistant vectors and restore transmission control provided the formulation can withstand regular washing over the net's life span.The efficacy of a novel mixture LN, Interceptor® G2, that combines the pyrrole chlorfenapyr and pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin was evaluated under controlled household conditions (experimental hut trial and by laboratory bioassay against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae in Benin before and after standardized washing. Comparison arms included standard alpha-cypermethrin LN, nets hand-treated with chlorfenapyr-only and untreated nets.The chlorfenapyr-alphacypermethrin LN demonstrated improved efficacy and wash resistance compared to a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes (resistance ratio 207. In experimental hut trial alpha-cypermethrin LN killed only 20% (95% CI 15-26% of host-seeking An. gambiae whilst mixture LN killed 71% (95% CI 65-77%. Mixture LN washed 20 times killed 65% (95% CI 58-71%, and thus intensive washing reduced efficacy by only 6% (95% CI 1.3-11%. The chlorfenapyr net killed 76% (95% CI 70-81%. Personal protection and blood feeding inhibition did not differ between mixture and pyrethroid LN; however, the mixture LN was 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-3.1 times more protective than untreated nets. Standard WHO cone bioassays conducted during day time hours failed to anticipate field efficacy but overnight tunnel tests successfully predicted mixture LN and chlorfenapyr net efficacy in field trials.Interceptor® G2 LN demonstrates the potential to control transmission and provide community protection over the normal

  4. Microinjection of A. aegypti Embryos to Obtain Transgenic Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, dessicating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  5. Microinjection of A. aegypti embryos to obtain transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, desiccating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  6. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  7. Cacipacore virus as an emergent mosquito-borne Flavivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cacipacore virus (CPCV, a possible bird-associated flavivirus, has yet to be detected in mosquitoes. Our purpose is examining CPCV in mosquitoes from the Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Approximately 3,253 Culicidae (grouped into 264 pools were collected from the Amazon region during 2002-2006 and analyzed using a Flavivirus genus-specific reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction followed by nested polymerase chain reaction assay and by nucleotide sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: Nucleotide sequences from five mosquito samples showed high similarity to the those of CPCV originally isolated in the Amazon region. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of CPCV-infected mosquitoes which has implications on the arbovirus maintenance in nature and transmission to man.

  8. Aerial Application of Malathion: Information for Mosquito Control Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recently completed the malathion draft human health risk assessment for all uses. This letter to mosquito control professionals provides modifications to application directions that can reduce malathion deposition while maintaining effectiveness.

  9. Biodiversity of mosquitoes in Manipur State and their medical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Khan, A M; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, J

    2005-07-01

    Entomological studies conducted during monsoon and post-monsoon season in Manipur State revealed the presence of fifty-five species of mosquitoes under ten genera. Out of the seventeen Anopheles species recorded, Anopheles aconitus, An. dirus and An. nivipes were recorded for the first time from the state. The present study has confirmed the existence of An. dirus, the major malaria vector in the Northeast from a selected area of the state. Among Culicines, four species viz., Aedes nigrostriatus, Malaya genurostris, Aediomyia catasticta and Toxorhynchites splendens which were not reported earlier from this state have been recorded in the present study. With the addition of these seven species of mosquitoes to the earlier record of mosquitoes so far reported from Manipur, the mosquito fauna swells up to one hundred and eleven including the major vectors of malaria of the Northeast and the potential vectors of Japanese encephalitis and dengue virus transmission in India.

  10. Stress Hormones Bring Birds, Pathogens and Mosquitoes Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A; Dobson, Andrew P

    2017-05-01

    Do stress hormones, such as corticosterone, enhance bird susceptibility to mosquitoes in ways that enhance rates of co-infection? Does this then enhance pathogen emergence? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs is available for most of these diseases andvectorcontrolisstillthemainformofprevention. Thelimitationsoftraditionalinsecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In thisreview, weoutline non-insecticide basedstrategiesthat havebeenimplemented orare currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies.

  12. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim

    2007-01-01

    the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds.......Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...

  13. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  14. Fungal infection counters insecticide resistance in African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Mouatcho, Joel C.; Kikankie, Christophe K.; Brooke, Basil D.; Hunt, Richard H.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Coetzee, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is threatening the effectiveness and sustainability of malaria control programs in various parts of the world. Through their unique mode of action, entomopathogenic fungi provide promising alternatives to chemical control. However, potential

  15. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes nanoparticles containing essential oil are a promising source of eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  16. Novel Viruses Isolated from Mosquitoes in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Solberg, Owen; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Nogueira, Rita Maria; Langevin, Stanley; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-11-03

    Genomic sequences are described from five novel viruses and divergent strains of Brejeira and Guaico Culex viruses from mosquitoes collected in Pantanal, Brazil, in 2010. Copyright © 2016 Pauvolid-Corrêa et al.

  17. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  18. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant base...

  19. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-09-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  20. Mini Review: Mode of Action of Mosquito Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes vector numerous diseases including malaria , den- gue, west nile virus and yellow fever. Even in the absence of disease, mosquitoes are an...labellum of the fly responded to both DEET and other bitter feeding deterrents such as quinine . These ef- fects were determined to be mediated by direct...activated by sucrose (Fig. 3D), while the smallest amplitude action potential was activated by the feeding deterrent, quinine (Fig. 3E). This neuron with

  1. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rozo-Lopez; Ximo Mengual

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 reco...

  2. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne-Marie Linton; James E Pecor; Charles H Porter; Luke Brett Mitchell; Andres Garzon-Moreno; Desmond H Foley; David Brooks Pecor; Richard C Wilkerson

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level...

  3. The impact of metagenomic interplay on the mosquito redox homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Cody J; Xu, Jiannong

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes are exposed to oxidative challenges throughout their life cycle. The primary challenge comes from a blood meal. The blood digestion turns the midgut into an oxidative environment, which imposes pressure not only on mosquito fecundity and other physiological traits but also on the microbiota in the midgut. During evolution, mosquitoes have developed numerous oxidative defense mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in the midgut. In addition to antioxidants, SOD, catalase, and glutathione system, sufficient supply of the reducing agent, NADPH, is vital for a successful defense against oxidative stress. Increasing evidence indicates that in response to oxidative stress, cells reconfigure metabolic pathways to increase the generation of NADPH through NADP-reducing networks including the pentose phosphate pathway and others. The microbial homeostasis is critical for the functional contributions to various host phenotypes. The symbiotic microbiota is regulated largely by the Duox-ROS pathway in Drosophila. In mosquitoes, Duox-ROS pathway, heme-mediated signaling, antimicrobial peptide production and C-type lectins work in concert to maintain the dynamic microbial community in the midgut. Microbial mechanisms against oxidative stress in this context are not well understood. Emerging evidence that microbial metabolites trigger host oxidative response warrants further study on the metagenomic interplay in an oxidative environment like mosquito gut ecosystem. Besides the classical Drosophila model, hematophagous insects like mosquitoes provide an alternative model system to study redox homeostasis in a symbiotic metagenomic context. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  6. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Piermarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure. To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K+ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K+ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH3, reactive oxygen species. The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens.

  7. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Esquivel, Carlos J; Denton, Jerod S

    2017-01-24

    The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure). To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae . Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K⁺ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K⁺ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus , before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH₃, reactive oxygen species). The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens.

  8. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Non-genetic determinants of mosquito competence for malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies revealing a great diversity of ways in which non-genetic factors can interfere with mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. Here, we review the current evidence for such environmentally mediated effects, including ambient temperature, mosquito diet, microbial gut flora, and infection history, and we identify additional factors previously overlooked in mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. We also discuss epidemiological implications, and the evolutionary consequences for vector immunity and parasite transmission strategies. Finally, we propose directions for further research and argue that an improved knowledge of non-genetic influences on mosquito-Plasmodium interactions could aid in implementing conventional malaria control measures and contribute to the design of novel strategies.

  10. GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper: Geoscience and Public Health Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Boger, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global health crisis posed by vector-borne diseases is so great in scope that it is clearly insurmountable without the active help of tens-or hundreds- of thousands of individuals, working to identify and eradicate risk in communities around the world. Mobile devices equipped with data collection capabilities and visualization opportunities are lowering the barrier for participation in data collection efforts. The GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper (MHM) provides citizen scientists with an easy to use mobile platform to identify and locate mosquito breeding sites in their community. The app also supports the identification of vector taxa in the larvae development phase via a built-in key, which provides important information for scientists and public health officials tracking the rate of range expansion of invasive vector species and associated health threats. GO Mosquito is actively working with other citizen scientist programs across the world to ensure interoperability of data through standardization of metadata fields specific to vector monitoring, and through the development of APIs that allow for data exchange and shared data display through a UN-sponsored proof of concept project, Global Mosquito Alert. Avenues of application for mosquito vector data-both directly, by public health entities, and by modelers who employ remotely sensed environmental data to project mosquito population dynamics and epidemic disease will be featured.

  11. New host and distribution for the mosquito parasite Strelkovimermis spiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO P. LOPEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strelkovimermis spiculatus , Poinar & Camino 1986 (Nematoda: Mer - mithidae ha sido encontrado parasitando algunos géneros de mosquitos tales como Aedes ( Ochlerotatus , Culex y Psorophora. En un proyecto sobre distribución de mosquitos en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, fueron encontradas especies de mosquitos parasitadas por nematodos en criaderos naturales, en los alrededores de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar este parási - to detectado en esta área de distribución y determinar las especies de mosquitos hospedadoras. Se describe la utilidad de secuencias correspondientes a los genes COI y 18S RNAr-ITS1-5.8S RNAr-ITS2-28S RNAr, en la identificación molecular de este nematodo, como complemento de la identificación de acuerdo con caracteres morfológicos, confirmando la identidad de S. spiculatus. En este trabajo se describe por primera vez a este nematodo infestando larvas de Culex eduardoi en un criadero natural de mosquitos, registrando la expansión de la distribución sudeste de este agente de control biológico de poblaciones de mosquitos de importancia sanitaria.

  12. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  13. Disrupting Mosquito Reproduction and Parasite Development for Malaria Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Buckee, Caroline O.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The control of mosquito populations with insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual sprays remains the cornerstone of malaria reduction and elimination programs. In light of widespread insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, however, alternative strategies for reducing transmission by the mosquito vector are urgently needed, including the identification of safe compounds that affect vectorial capacity via mechanisms that differ from fast-acting insecticides. Here, we show that compounds targeting steroid hormone signaling disrupt multiple biological processes that are key to the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. When an agonist of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is applied to Anopheles gambiae females, which are the dominant malaria mosquito vector in Sub Saharan Africa, it substantially shortens lifespan, prevents insemination and egg production, and significantly blocks Plasmodium falciparum development, three components that are crucial to malaria transmission. Modeling the impact of these effects on Anopheles population dynamics and Plasmodium transmission predicts that disrupting steroid hormone signaling using 20E agonists would affect malaria transmission to a similar extent as insecticides. Manipulating 20E pathways therefore provides a powerful new approach to tackle malaria transmission by the mosquito vector, particularly in areas affected by the spread of insecticide resistance. PMID:27977810

  14. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities.

  15. Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo C; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J

    2014-11-12

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.

  16. Developmental succession of the microbiome of Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Dagne; Hall, Michael W; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Stouthamer, Richard; Terenius, Olle; Neufeld, Josh D; Walton, William E

    2015-07-24

    The native microflora associated with mosquitoes have important roles in mosquito development and vector competence. Sequencing of bacterial V3 region from 16S rRNA genes across the developmental stages of Culex mosquitoes (early and late larval instars, pupae and adults) was used to test the hypothesis that bacteria found in the larval stage of Culex are transstadially transmitted to the adult stage, and to compare the microbiomes of field-collected versus laboratory-reared mosquitoes. Beta diversity analysis revealed that bacterial community structure differed among three life stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of Culex tarsalis. Although only ~2% of the total number of bacterial OTUs were found in all stages, sequences from these OTUs accounted for nearly 82% of the total bacterial sequences recovered from all stages. Thorsellia (Gammaproteobacteria) was the most abundant bacterial taxon found across all developmental stages of field-collected Culex mosquitoes, but was rare in mosquitoes from laboratory-reared colonies. The proportion of Thorsellia sequences in the microbiomes of mosquito life stages varied ontogenetically with the greatest proportions recovered from the pupae of C. tarsalis and the lowest from newly emerged adults. The microbiome of field-collected late instar larvae was not influenced significantly by differences in the microbiota of the habitat due to habitat age or biopesticide treatments. The microbiome diversity was the greatest in the early instar larvae and the lowest in laboratory-reared mosquitoes. Bacterial communities in early instar C. tarsalis larvae were significantly more diverse when compared to late instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults. Some of the bacterial OTUs found in the early instar larvae were also found across developmental stages. Thorsellia dominated the bacterial communities in field-collected immature stages but occurred at much lower relative abundance in adults. Differences in microbiota observed in larval

  17. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature. Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 10(7) PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 10(4)-10(1) PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 10(9), 10(7), 10(5) PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection. All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 10(9) PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 10(9) and 10(7) PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively. The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    where epidemics of dengue fever occur repeatedly. Bagg, C.P. 1917. from Guam). (Collection record for Reties caZopu8 (Cedes aegypt In L.O. Howard...Guam, Marianas Islands (Diptera: Culicidae). Philipp. Ent. 2(1):57-61. Aedes (Stegomyia) bwwi n.sp., p. 58; Anophdes bueaai, A. test&, and A...are identified. Aedes gt&~me?28ɠ and A. pan&n4 account for 75% of the 5,831 mosquitoes identified. Bohart, G.E. and 3.L. Gressitt. 1951. Filth

  19. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  20. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

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    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments.As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  1. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, Jawwad H; Khan, Arif M; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  2. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  3. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-07-16

    The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003-2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011-2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect

  4. Response of the mosquito protein interaction network to dengue infection

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    Pike Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two fifths of the world's population is at risk from dengue. The absence of effective drugs and vaccines leaves vector control as the primary intervention tool. Understanding dengue virus (DENV host interactions is essential for the development of novel control strategies. The availability of genome sequences for both human and mosquito host greatly facilitates genome-wide studies of DENV-host interactions. Results We developed the first draft of the mosquito protein interaction network using a computational approach. The weighted network includes 4,214 Aedes aegypti proteins with 10,209 interactions, among which 3,500 proteins are connected into an interconnected scale-free network. We demonstrated the application of this network for the further annotation of mosquito proteins and dissection of pathway crosstalk. Using three datasets based on physical interaction assays, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens and microarray assays, we identified 714 putative DENV-associated mosquito proteins. An integrated analysis of these proteins in the network highlighted four regions consisting of highly interconnected proteins with closely related functions in each of replication/transcription/translation (RTT, immunity, transport and metabolism. Putative DENV-associated proteins were further selected for validation by RNAi-mediated gene silencing, and dengue viral titer in mosquito midguts was significantly reduced for five out of ten (50.0% randomly selected genes. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of common host requirements for DENV in mosquitoes and humans. We discuss the significance of our findings for pharmacological intervention and genetic modification of mosquitoes for blocking dengue transmission.

  5. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.

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    Bree Cummins

    Full Text Available Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

  7. Vision-Based Perception and Classification of Mosquitoes Using Support Vector Machine

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    Masataka Fuchida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a novel automated mosquito perception and classification method is becoming increasingly essential in recent years, with steeply increasing number of mosquito-borne diseases and associated casualties. There exist remote sensing and GIS-based methods for mapping potential mosquito inhabitants and locations that are prone to mosquito-borne diseases, but these methods generally do not account for species-wise identification of mosquitoes in closed-perimeter regions. Traditional methods for mosquito classification involve highly manual processes requiring tedious sample collection and supervised laboratory analysis. In this research work, we present the design and experimental validation of an automated vision-based mosquito classification module that can deploy in closed-perimeter mosquito inhabitants. The module is capable of identifying mosquitoes from other bugs such as bees and flies by extracting the morphological features, followed by support vector machine-based classification. In addition, this paper presents the results of three variants of support vector machine classifier in the context of mosquito classification problem. This vision-based approach to the mosquito classification problem presents an efficient alternative to the conventional methods for mosquito surveillance, mapping and sample image collection. Experimental results involving classification between mosquitoes and a predefined set of other bugs using multiple classification strategies demonstrate the efficacy and validity of the proposed approach with a maximum recall of 98%.

  8. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  9. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

  10. Bee venom phospholipase inhibits malaria parasite development in transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luciano A; Ito, Junitsu; Ghosh, Anil; Devenport, Martin; Zieler, Helge; Abraham, Eappen G; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2002-10-25

    Malaria kills millions of people every year, and new control measures are urgently needed. The recent demonstration that (effector) genes can be introduced into the mosquito germ line to diminish their ability to transmit the malaria parasite offers new hope toward the fight of the disease (Ito, J., Ghosh, A., Moreira, L. A., Wimmer, E. A. & Jacobs-Lorena, M. (2002) Nature, 417, 452-455). Because of the high selection pressure that an effector gene imposes on the parasite population, development of resistant strains is likely to occur. In search of additional antiparasitic effector genes, we have generated transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene from the gut-specific and blood-inducible Anopheles gambiae carboxypeptidase (AgCP) promoter. Northern blot analysis indicated that the PLA2 mRNA is specifically expressed in the guts of transgenic mosquitoes with peak expression at approximately 4 h after blood ingestion. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses detected PLA2 protein in the midgut epithelia of transgenic mosquitoes from 8 to 24 h after a blood meal. Importantly, transgene expression reduced Plasmodium berghei oocyst formation by 87% on average and greatly impaired transmission of the parasite to naive mice. The results indicate that PLA2 may be used as an additional effector gene to block the development of the malaria parasite in mosquitoes.

  11. Recent entomological enquiry on mosquito fauna in Circeo National Park

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    Claudio De Liberato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Circeo National Park (Lazio region, Central Italy, in order to collect data about mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae fauna in a protected area for biodiversity. From 2003 to 2004 seasonal surveys allowed to collect and to identify 380 larvae and 713 adult mosquitoes in 6 sites. A total of 15 mosquito species belonging to 6 genera were recorded; the most abundant species were Culex pipens Linnaeus, 1758 known as the main West Nile virus vector, Ochlerotatus detritus (Haliday, 1933 and Culiseta annulata (Dhrank, 1776. Present data show a noteworthy number of other mosquito species, even if less abundant, reflecting the considerable environmental richness. Respect to the past collections of Anophelinae mosquitoes carried out in the same area once affected by malaria, the present research represents the first monitoring of the whole Culicidae Family in Circeo National Park, up to now. This paper reports the collected data as a first base for a future checklist in this protected area.

  12. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

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    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  14. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  15. Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K.; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A.; Lampe, David J.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)4, four copies of Plasmodium enolase–plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria. PMID:22802646

  16. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

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    Raylea Rowbottom

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission.

  17. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  18. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  19. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  20. Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Bossin, H.C.; Mukabana, W.R.; Robinson, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission

  1. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  2. Biodiversity and ecosystem risks arising from using guppies to control mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W.; Frauendorf, Therese C.; Marques, Piata S.; Mackenzie, Richard A.; Manna, Luisa R.; Mazzoni, Rosana; Phillip, Dawn A. T.; Warbanski, Misha L.; Zandonà, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Deploying mosquito predators such as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) into bodies of water where mosquitoes breed is a common strategy for limiting the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Here, we draw on studies from epidemiology, conservation, ecology and evolution to show that the evidence for the effectiveness of guppies in controlling mosquitoes is weak, that the chances of accidental guppy introduction into local ecosystems are large, and that guppies can easily establish populations ...

  3. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  4. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C. Osório

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III. Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.

  5. Gradual diffusive capture: slow death by many mosquito bites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redner, S; Bénichou, O

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a ‘man’) with diffusivity D M that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a ‘mosquito’) with fixed diffusivity D m . Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance ±a with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when D M reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements x is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as x −2 , while the distribution of times t when the man dies decays asymptotically as t −3/2 , which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability. (paper)

  6. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Correa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer. Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

  7. Mosquito attractant blends to trap host seeking Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nisha; Ayyanar, Elango; Shanmugavelu, Sabesan; Muthuswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2013-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases -dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. To identify volatile chemicals which could be used in odour based traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance, a few synthetic compounds and compound blends have been evaluated in an indigenously designed olfactometer. A total of 24 compounds and seven compound blends were screened against unfed adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes for attraction and compared with control group. The attractancy or repellency index of the test material to mosquitoes was calculated and rated them as class-1, class-2 and class-3 with rating values ranging 1-15, 16-33 and 34-100 respectively. Out of the 24 compounds tested, six were showing significant attractancy (P attractancy with a rating value of 57.81. Sixteen compounds showed significant repellency (P attractancy (P attractancy.

  8. Periodic dynamic systems for infected hosts and mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Oliva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the purpose of analysing the dynamic of the populations of infected hosts anf infected mosquitoes when the populations of mosquitoes are periodic in time is here presented. By the computation of a parameter lambda (the spectral radius of a certain monodromy matrix one can state that either the infection peters out naturally (lambda 1 the infection becomes endemic. The model generalizes previous models for malaria by considering the case of periodic coefficients; it is also a variation of that for gonorrhea. The main motivation for the consideration of this present model was the recent studies on mosquitoes at an experimental rice irrigation system, in the South-Eastern region of Brazil.

  9. Periodic dynamic systems for infected hosts and mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva W. M.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the purpose of analysing the dynamic of the populations of infected hosts anf infected mosquitoes when the populations of mosquitoes are periodic in time is here presented. By the computation of a parameter lambda (the spectral radius of a certain monodromy matrix one can state that either the infection peters out naturally (lambda 1 the infection becomes endemic. The model generalizes previous models for malaria by considering the case of periodic coefficients; it is also a variation of that for gonorrhea. The main motivation for the consideration of this present model was the recent studies on mosquitoes at an experimental rice irrigation system, in the South-Eastern region of Brazil.

  10. Visualization and live imaging analysis of a mosquito saliva protein in host animal skin using a transgenic mosquito with a secreted luciferase reporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, D S; Yokomine, T; Sumitani, M; Yagi, K; Matsuoka, H; Yoshida, S

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes inject saliva into a vertebrate host during blood feeding. The analysis of mosquito saliva in host skin is important for the elucidation of the inflammatory responses to mosquito bites, the development of antithrombotic drugs, and the transmission-blocking of vector-borne diseases. We produced transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing the secretory luciferase protein (MetLuc) fused to a saliva protein (AAPP) in the salivary glands. The transgene product (AAPP-MetLuc) of transgenic mosquitoes exhibited both luciferase activity as a MetLuc and binding activity to collagen as an AAPP. The detection of luminescence in the skin of mice bitten by transgenic mosquitoes showed that AAPP-MetLuc was injected into the skin as a component of saliva via blood feeding. AAPP-MetLuc remained at the mosquito bite site in host skin with luciferase activity for at least 4 h after blood feeding. AAPP was also suspected of remaining at the site of injury caused by the mosquito bite and blocking platelet aggregation by binding to collagen. These results demonstrated the establishment of visualization and time-lapse analysis of mosquito saliva in living vertebrate host skin. This technique may facilitate the analysis of mosquito saliva after its injection into host skin, and the development of new drugs and disease control strategies. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  12. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  13. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  14. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of Mayotte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Le Goff

    Full Text Available A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species

  15. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  16. Biodiversity and ecosystem risks arising from using guppies to control mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana W. El-Sabaawi; Therese C. Frauendorf; Piata S. Marques; Richard A. Mackenzie; Luisa R. Manna; Rosana Mazzoni; Dawn A. T. Phillip; Misha L. Warbanski; Eugenia Zandon

    2016-01-01

    Deploying mosquito predators such as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) into bodies of water where mosquitoes breed is a common strategy for limiting the spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Here, we draw on studies from epidemiology, conservation, ecology and evolution to show that the evidence for the effectiveness of guppies in controlling...

  17. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Gangoso de la Colina, L.E.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Soriguer, R.; Figuerola, J.

    2017-01-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we

  18. EPA Registers the Wolbachia ZAP Strain in Live Male Asian Tiger Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registered a new mosquito biopesticide – ZAP Males® - that can reduce local populations of the type of mosquito (Aedes albopictus, or Asian Tiger Mosquitoes) that can spread numerous diseases of significant human health concern, including the Zika viru

  19. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an

  20. Fauna de mosquitos asociada con Aedes aegypti en Guaduas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante un estudio sobre la ecología del Aedes aegypti llevado a cabo en el área urbana de Guaduas, Colombia, se hallaron un total de siete especies de mosquitos que compartían hábitats con esta especie. Los criaderos en los cuales se encontró un mayor número de mosquitos asociados con el Aedes aegypti fueron los tanques bajos (albercas. Larvas de Toxorhynchites spp. se encontraron en tanques elevados. Se discute la importancia de estos hallazgos con relación a los aspectos de ecología y control del Aedes aegypti.

  1. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo eChoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects’ survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional antenna has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum towards blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol, CquiOR99, and a receptor for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated

  2. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species). © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host.

  4. Malaria model with periodic mosquito birth and death rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Friedman, Avner; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of malaria, a disease that involves a complex life cycle of parasites, requiring both human and mosquito hosts. The novelty of the model is the introduction of periodic coefficients into the system of one-dimensional equations, which account for the seasonal variations (wet and dry seasons) in the mosquito birth and death rates. We define a basic reproduction number R(0) that depends on the periodic coefficients and prove that if R(0)1 then the disease is endemic and may even be periodic.

  5. Emerging mosquito species in Germany-a synopsis after 6 years of mosquito monitoring (2011-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Helge; Schuhbauer, Astrid; Walther, Doreen

    2017-12-01

    Globalisation and climate change are the main drivers of invasion of non-endemic regions by mosquitoes. Mass transportation of people, animals and goods facilitate accidental long-distance displacement while climate warming supports active spread and establishment of thermophilic species. In the framework of a mosquito-monitoring programme, eight non-indigenous culicid species have been registered in Germany since 2011, with four of them being more or less efficient vectors of disease agents and another four now considered established. The eight newly emerged species include Aedes albopictus, Ae. japonicus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. koreicus, Ae. berlandi, Ae. pulcritarsis, Anopheles petragnani and Culiseta longiareolata. We here review recent findings and at the same time present new findings of specimens of non-native mosquito species in Germany.

  6. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  7. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the most important yellow fever and dengue virus vectors in most of the world. Although Ae. aegypti prefer- entially...EVALUATION OF SIX MOSQUITO TRAPS FOR COLLECTION OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND ASSOCIATED MOSQUITO SPECIES IN A SUBURBAN SETTING IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA1 D...F. HOEL,1 D. L. KLINE2 AND S. A. ALLAN2 ABSTRACT. We compared 6 adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban

  8. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to give an account on the recent advances on the killifish Aphanius dispar dispar as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. Thirty six (36) articles of literature (scientific papers, technical and workshop reports) on this subject covering the period between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed.

  9. Analysis of a malaria model with mosquito-dependent transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transmission coefficient or the interaction coefficient of humans is considered to be dependent on the mosquito population. It is seen that as the factors governing the transmission coefficient of humans increase, so does the number of infected humans. Further, it is observed that as the immigration constant increases, ...

  10. Chemical compositions and mosquito repellency of essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , respectively against female Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. The repellency activity of essential oil from leaves were significantly higher than from stem bark, but less than that of the standard citronella oil used (RC50 = 4.1×10-6 mg/cm2).

  11. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

  12. Gene vector and transposable element behavior in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brochta, David A; Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Wilson, Raymond; Hice, Robert H; Pinkerton, Alexandra C; Levesque, Cynthia S; Bideshi, Dennis K; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Coates, Craig J; James, Anthony A; Lehane, Michael J; Atkinson, Peter W

    2003-11-01

    The development of efficient germ-line transformation technologies for mosquitoes has increased the ability of entomologists to find, isolate and analyze genes. The utility of the currently available systems will be determined by a number of factors including the behavior of the gene vectors during the initial integration event and their behavior after chromosomal integration. Post-integration behavior will determine whether the transposable elements being employed currently as primary gene vectors will be useful as gene-tagging and enhancer-trapping agents. The post-integration behavior of existing insect vectors has not been extensively examined. Mos1 is useful as a primary germ-line transformation vector in insects but is inefficiently remobilized in Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti. Hermes transforms D. melanogaster efficiently and can be remobilized in this species. This element is also useful for creating transgenic A. aegypti, but its mode of integration in mosquitoes results in the insertion of flanking plasmid DNA. Hermes can be remobilized in the soma of A. aegypti and transposes using a common cut-and-paste mechanism; however, the element does not remobilize in the germ line. piggyBac can be used to create transgenic mosquitoes and occasionally integrates using a mechanism other than a simple cut-and-paste mechanism. Preliminary data suggest that remobilization is infrequent. Minos also functions in mosquitoes and, like the other gene vectors, appears to remobilize inefficiently following integration. These results have implications for future gene vector development efforts and applications.

  13. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  14. RNA interference, arthropod-borne viruses, and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Travanty, Emily A; Keene, Kimberly M; Franz, Alexander W E; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; Olson, Ken E

    2004-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) probably functions as an antiviral mechanism in most eukaryotic organisms. Variations in the activity of this antiviral pathway in mosquitoes could explain, in part, why some mosquitoes are competent vectors of medically important, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and others are not. There are three lines of evidence that show the RNAi pathway exists in Aedes species that transmit arboviruses. The first is that recombinant Sindbis viruses expressing a RNA fragment from a genetically unrelated dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) interfere with DENV-2 replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by a mechanism similar to virus-induced gene silencing described in plants. The second is that transfection of C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells with either double-stranded RNA or synthetic small interfering RNAs derived from an arbovirus genome interferes with replication of the homologous virus. The third is that a hairpin DENV-2-specific RNA transcribed from a plasmid can generate virus-resistant C6/36 cells. We hypothesize that genetically modified mosquitoes can be generated that transcribe a flavivirus-specific dsRNA, triggering the RNAi response soon after ingestion of a blood meal. This could induce the RNAi pathway in the midgut prior to establishment of virus infection and profoundly change vector competence. Towards this goal, we are developing transgenic A. aegypti lines that are refractory to DENV by exploiting the RNAi pathway.

  15. Factors Influencing the Usage of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Incidence remains very high especially among pregnant women and children under five. study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the usage of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for prevention of malaria among pregnant women.

  16. Applications of natural products in the control of mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... there are many alternatives to synthetic, chemical pesticides that await discovery and development. Although some natural products have ... indices for insecticide evaluation: namely, the LD50 and the test period, respectively. ... Biological control of mosquito larvae has been mana- ged through the use of ...

  17. Surveillance of mosquito vectors in some habitats of Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of species in Awka metropolis of Anambra Sae, Nigeria was studied using sweeping hand nets. The study was carried ou between August and December, 2004. Seven locations were selected in the study area. A total of 2099 adult mosquitoes comprising five species were caught in the seven locations of ...

  18. Species\\' identification of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (66.7%) and Anopheles gambiae s.s.(6.7%). The study shows that Anopheles and Culex mosquito species abound in the study area with potential health consequences in the transmission of malaria and filariasis all year round. Keywords: gravid, Anopheles, Culex, identification, PCR. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  19. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in ...

  20. Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of mosquito species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections with mosquito-borne parasites are common in human populations inhabiting tropical regions of the world. Malaria is endemic along Kenyan Lake Victoria basin and its vectors are fresh water breeders. However, much less is known about the current spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of ...

  1. Assessment of Mosquito Diversity and Evaluation of Impact of House ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria, a disease that has increasingly been ravaging human population still has no sustainable remedy. Therefore, mosquito diversity and impact of house treatment with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) on their population were investigated by the use of miniature Centre for Disease Control light trap (model 512) ...

  2. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  3. Insecticide resistance and glutathione S-transferases in mosquitoes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of GST activity have been reported in organophosphate, organochlorine and pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes. Particulary ... To date different GST enzymes structurally conserved have been identified suggesting that they may have an important role on common pathways of compound detoxification. In this ...

  4. Adult Mosquito Populations and Their Health Impact around and far ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    A total of 1436 children, 888 from intervention and 548 from control villages were examined for malaria parasitology. ... The high growth rate of the Ethiopian population and the recurrent drought especially in. Northern ... the best way to reduce malaria transmission is to target adult female mosquito with insecticides that can ...

  5. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    temperature and humidity, respectively. Dead and surviving mosquitoes at the end of an experiment were kept in separate Eppendorf tubes ..... levels or differential efficacy of metabolic genes (Lima et al., 2011). Additionally, Ae. aegypti formosus exhibited possible resistance to DDT. The findings of the present study are ...

  6. Susceptibility of some species of mosquitoes to permethrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus 1762, Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 and Anopheles gambiae Giles 1902 was tested on 0.75 % permethrin pyrethroid in the laboratory. All Larval and pupal stages of the mosquitoes were collected from different localities within Zaria, Nigeria and reared to adulthood in the ...

  7. Mosquito-larvicidal efficacy of the extract of Musca domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intolerably high burdens of mosquito-borne diseases will be reduced sustainably through the development of integral eco-friendly alternative insecticides of natural products origin. The need to broaden the global search for such insecticidal lead-agents, especially , those that will be less vulnerable to resistance, was ...

  8. Determination of toxic effects of commercial and local mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase were seen with statistical significance at P < 0.05 between the group exposed to rice husk and the control and also between the rice husk and mosquito coil groups respectively. The results showed increased levels of alanine aminotransferase which could indicate acute liver ...

  9. Influence of climatic changes on biodiversity of mosquitoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minář, Jan; Gelbič, Ivan; Olejníček, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2004), s. 215-223 ISSN 0323-0082 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Diptera * mosquitoes * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice About Malaria, the Mosquito and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community perceptions relating to causation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are the main socio-cultural factors which can influence malaria prevention and control. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a rural community on malaria, the mosquito vector and antimalarial drugs.

  11. Impact of insecticide treated mosquito nets and low dose monthly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the poverty related neglected tropical diseases earmarked for elimination using mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. Additional use of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) might enhance elimination of LF infection. Between August 1998 and July 1999, all individuals aged ≥ 8 ...

  12. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  13. Potential of some Nigerian plants as mosquito larvicides | Agboola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude ethanolic extracts of thirteen plants from Nigeria were screened for larvicidal activity against fourth instar Aedes aegypti mosquito. Only seven of these were active (LC50 ≤ 6.25ppm). Activity of the solvent partitioned-extracts derived from the more active plants was in the order: EtOAc < BuOH 2O (for Pseudocedrela ...

  14. Larvicidal effects of lemon peels on mosquito larvae | ANYANWU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the dry peels of the common edible plant, Citrus limon (family, Rutaceae), was obtained using a Soxhlet extractor and its larviciding effect evaluated against the larvae of two household mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each batch of larvae (20-30) were treated with 3.90, 15.63, ...

  15. Financing and delivery mechanisms for mosquito control tools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financing and delivery mechanisms for mosquito control tools in Sudan: A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis. ... However, it is not clear which options or mix of options present the most economically viable means in terms of financing and delivery, for malaria control. Methods: The study ...

  16. Acoustic control of mosquito larvae in artificial drinking water containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acoustic larvicide devices are part of an emerging technology that provides a non-chemical and non-biological means to reduce larval populations of key medically important mosquito species such as Aedes aegypti in containers or catchments of water. These devices could benefit integrated vector manag...

  17. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    herbivorous insects [8] and was shown to have mosquito repellent properties at high concentrations [9]. In 2007, 2-U was incorporated in the insect...KJ, Vosshall LB (2005) Functional conservation of an insect odorant receptor gene across 250 million years of evolution . Curr Biol 15: R119–121. 27

  18. A mosquito mediator of parasite-induced immune priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria L; Dimopoulos, George

    2015-09-01

    Immune memory is a central feature of the mammalian adaptive immune system. The more primitive innate immune system of insects has also been shown to comprise memory, or immune priming. A recent study has shed new light on how Plasmodium primes the mosquito immune system for greater resistance to a subsequent infection with the same pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHOEBE

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-.

  20. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in. Ngorongoro District ... Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral zoonotic disease of mainly human ..... A.S., Rollin, P.E., Swanepoel, R., Ksiazek, T.G. & Nichol, S.T. (2002) Genetic analysis of viruses.

  1. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies malaria prevalence and the abundance of indoor-biting mosquito vectors in Ogbunike community, Oyi Local Government Area of. Anambra State, Nigeria between May and September 2010. Blood samples were collected from 208 healthy participants (94 males and 114 females) selected from the six ...

  2. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... selected from the six villages of the town. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with Field's stains A and B and examined microscopically. Indoor-biting mosquito vectors were collected using Pyrethrum Knockdown. Collection method (PKC). Of the 208 participants, 121 (58.2%) were malaria ...

  3. The use of sterilized mosquito nets for hernioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C G; Rosenberg, J

    2012-01-01

    Hernia repair is among the most frequent surgeries performed. Surgeons prefer the tension-free mesh repair, but in large parts of the world, commercial meshes are unavailable or unaffordable. Consequently, surgeons have been experimenting with insertion of inexpensive non-commercial meshes, the m......, the most common being a non-impregnated, sterilized mosquito net....

  4. A Statewide Survey for Container-Breeding Mosquitoes in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome; Moraru, Gail M; Mcinnis, Sarah J; Portugal, J Santos; Yee, Donald A; Deerman, J Hunter; Varnado, Wendy C

    2017-09-01

    Container-breeding mosquitoes are important in public health due to outbreaks of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. This paper documents the distribution of container-breeding mosquito species in Mississippi, with special emphasis on the genus Aedes. Five sites in each of the 82 Mississippi counties were sampled monthly between May 1 and August 31, 2016, and 50,109 mosquitoes in 14 species were collected. The most prevalent and widely distributed species found was Ae. albopictus, being found in all 82 counties, especially during July. A recent invasive, Ae. japonicus, seems to be spreading rapidly in Mississippi since first being discovered in the state in 2011. The most abundant Culex species collected were Cx. quinquefasciatus (found statewide), Cx. salinarius (almost exclusively in the southern portion of the state), and Cx. restuans (mostly central and southern Mississippi). Another relatively recent invasive species, Cx. coronator, was found in 20 counties, predominantly in the southern one-third of the state during late summer. Co-occurrence data of mosquito species found in the artificial containers were also documented and analyzed. Lastly, even though we sampled extensively in 410 sites across Mississippi, no larval Ae. aegypti were found. These data represent the first modern statewide survey of container species in Mississippi, and as such, allows for better public health readiness for emerging diseases and design of more effective vector control programs.

  5. Community awareness about malaria, its treatment and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the rapid expansion of malaria into highland areas of Ethiopia and the movement of malaria inexperienced people to endemic areas, there is no enough information about how highland communities perceive malaria. Objective: To assess communities' awareness of malaria and its mosquito vector in ...

  6. Analysis of a Malaria Model with Mosquito-Dependent Transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we discuss an ordinary differential equation mathematical model for the spread of malaria in human and mosquito population. We suppose the human population to act as a reservoir. Both the species follow a logistic population model. The transmission coefficient or the interaction coefficient of humans is ...

  7. Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes at 5 selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The application of insecticides targeted at vector mosquitoes through Indoor Residual Spraying has been adopted as one of the most effective ways of reducing the burden of malaria. However, key to the success of such a strategy is baseline information about local vector population and their profiles to any of ...

  8. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-meal sources is ...

  9. Applications of natural products in the control of mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases remain one of the most significant causes of mortality in the African continent, despite successes in controlling these diseases in other regions of the world. The disproportionate impact in areas of poverty suggests a need for control that is efficient and does not require complex technological ...

  10. 12 Statistical Survey of Mosquito Vectors.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Microbiology, Smt. Chandibai Himathmal Mansukhani College, India, .... the degree of pollution might be one of the ... Similar values of mean mosquito population of Aedes and. Culex were observed (Table 2). More Aedes population and less Culex population were observed in June, October and December.

  11. Impact of road construction on malaria incidence and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the impact of road construction on the incidence of malaria cases reported at Primary Health Centres (PHCs) as well as vector abundance in Abeokuta South and North Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ogun State. Mosquito larvae were collected from randomly selected four road construction sites ...

  12. [Mosquito complex (Diptera, Culicidae) in a West Nile fever focus in the Volgograd Region. II. Host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes in different habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, O V; Fedorova, M V; Lopatina, Iu V; Bezzhonova, O V; Bulgakova, T V; Platonov, A E

    2007-01-01

    Host preference of the mosquitoes collected in the urban and rural habitats of Volgograd and its suburbs was studied by the precipitation reaction test. Human and avian blood was detected in Cx. pipiens, Cx. modestus, Ae. vexans, Ae. behningi, Ae. caspius, Ae. sticticus, and females of the Anopheles maculipennis. The proportion of the mosquitoes fed on birds was similar in the urban and rural biotopes whereas that of the mosquitoes feeding on humans was significantly higher in Volgograd than in its environs. The increase in the number of human blood-fed mosquitoes in the city resulted mainly from the females collected in its multi-storied buildings.

  13. Aparelho de sucção tipo aspirador para captura de mosquitos A "vacuum-cleaner" type of suction apparatus for the collection of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délsio Natal

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available É feita a descrição de aparelho portátil de sucção tipo aspirador, para captura de mosquitos Culicidae. São sugeridas adaptações para coletas em diferentes situações. São feitos comentários sobre sua aplicação em pesquisa de mosquitos.A portable suction apparatus, which functions like a vacuum cleaner used for the collection of Culicidae mosquitoes is described. Adaptations for collecting in differents situations are suggested and some comments about its application in mosquitoes surveys are made.

  14. A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

  15. Mosquito population dynamics during the construction of Three Gorges Dam in Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuhong; Lai, ShengJie; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Qiyong; Zhang, Huaiqing; Ren, Zhoupeng; Mao, Deqiang; Luo, Chao; He, Yuanyuan; Wu, Haixia; Li, Guichang; Ren, Dongsheng; Liu, Xiaobo; Chang, Zhaorui

    2018-06-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spreading many diseases and their populations are susceptible to environmental changes. The ecosystems in the Three Gorges Region were probably altered because of changes to the environment during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydroelectric dam by generating capacity. We selected three sites at which to monitor the mosquitoes from 1997 to 2009. We captured adult mosquitoes with battery-powered aspirators fortnightly between May and September of each year in dwellings and sheds. We identified the mosquito species, and examined changes in the species density during the TGD construction. We monitored changes in the species and density of mosquitoes in this area for 13 years during the TGD construction and collected information that could be used to support the control and prevention of mosquito-borne infections. We found that the mosquito species composition around the residential areas remained the same, and the density changed gradually during the TGD construction. The changes in the populations tended to be consistent over the years, and the densities were highest in July, and were between 3 and 5 times greater in the sheds than in the dwellings. The mosquito species and populations remained stable during the construction of the TGD. The mosquito density may have increased as the reservoir filled, and may have decreased during the clean-up work. Clean-up work may be an effective way to control mosquitoes and prevent mosquito-borne diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Zika Virus Strain and Aedes Mosquito Species on Vector Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosuknia, Sean M.; Zink, Steven D.; Brecher, Matthew; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Morrissette, Madeline N.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1–7.5 log10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas. PMID:28430564

  17. Strategies for introducing Wolbachia to reduce transmission of mosquito-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Hancock

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain strains of the endosymbiont Wolbachia have the potential to lower the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations and assist in controlling a number of mosquito-borne diseases. An important consideration when introducing Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes into natural populations is the minimisation of any transient increase in disease risk or biting nuisance. This may be achieved by predominantly releasing male mosquitoes. To explore this, we use a sex-structured model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. We first show that Wolbachia spread can be initiated with very few infected females provided the infection frequency in males exceeds a threshold. We then consider realistic introduction scenarios involving the release of batches of infected mosquitoes, incorporating seasonal fluctuations in population size. For a range of assumptions about mosquito population dynamics we find that male-biased releases allow the infection to spread after the introduction of low numbers of females, many fewer than with equal sex-ratio releases. We extend the model to estimate the transmission rate of a mosquito-borne pathogen over the course of Wolbachia establishment. For a range of release strategies we demonstrate that male-biased release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can cause substantial transmission reductions without transiently increasing disease risk. The results show the importance of including mosquito population dynamics in studying Wolbachia spread and that male-biased releases can be an effective and safe way of rapidly establishing the symbiont in mosquito populations.

  18. Expression of a mutated phospholipase A2 in transgenic Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes impacts Plasmodium gallinaceum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F G; Santos, M N; de Carvalho, T X T; Rocha, B C; Riehle, M A; Pimenta, P F P; Abraham, E G; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Alves de Brito, C F; Moreira, L A

    2008-04-01

    The genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors is an alternative strategy in the fight against malaria. It was previously shown that bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibits ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut although mosquito fitness was reduced. To maintain the PLA2 blocking ability without compromising mosquito biology, we mutated the protein-coding sequence to inactivate the enzyme while maintaining the protein's structure. DNA encoding the mutated PLA2 (mPLA2) was placed downstream of a mosquito midgut-specific promoter (Anopheles gambiae peritrophin protein 1 promoter, AgPer1) and this construct used to transform Aedes fluviatilis mosquitoes. Four different transgenic lines were obtained and characterized and all lines significantly inhibited Plasmodium gallinaceum oocyst development (up to 68% fewer oocysts). No fitness cost was observed when this mosquito species expressed the mPLA2.

  19. Blood meal acquisition enhances arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yibin; Zhang, Rudian; Zhang, Bei; Zhao, Tongyan; Wang, Penghua; Liang, Guodong; Cheng, Gong

    2017-11-02

    Mosquitoes are hematophagous insects that carry-on and transmit many human viruses. However, little information is available regarding the common mechanisms underlying the infection of mosquitoes by these viruses. In this study, we reveal that the hematophagous nature of mosquitoes contributes to arboviral infection after a blood meal, which suppresses antiviral innate immunity by activating the GABAergic pathway. dsRNA-mediated interruption of the GABA signaling and blockage of the GABA A receptor by the specific inhibitors both significantly impaired arbovirus replication. Consistently, inoculation of GABA enhanced arboviral infection, indicating that GABA signaling facilitates the arboviral infection of mosquitoes. The ingestion of blood by mosquitoes resulted in robust GABA production from glutamic acid derived from blood protein digestion. The oral introduction of glutamic acid increased virus acquisition by mosquitoes via activation of the GABAergic system. Our study reveals that blood meals enhance arbovirus replication in mosquitoes through activation of the GABAergic system.

  20. Use of Nicotiana tabacum L extract for anti-Aedes Aegypti mosquito paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandralintang, Trisiana Chrysanthi; Fauzantoro, Ahmad; Hermansyah, Heri; Jufri, Mahdi; Gozan, Misri

    2018-02-01

    This study intended to formulate mosquito repellent paints based tobacco leaf extracts-free pyrethroid substance which is safe for users. The active substance which was added to the paint as a mosquito repellent was an extract of tobacco leaves. The result of Anti-mosquito paint formulation produced was according to the Indonesia National Standard (SNI). The results of anti-Aedes Aegypti mosquito paint effectiveness test showed that 5% concentration of tobacco extract could kill half of the mosquito population (LC50) for 2 hours, the concentration of tobacco extract between 3-5% killed half the mosquito population (LC50) during 4 hours, while 1-3% and 0-1% concentration of tobacco extract killed half the mosquito population (LC50) for 6 and 24 hours, respectively.

  1. Avian malaria infection intensity influences mosquito feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    Pathogen-induced host phenotypic changes are widespread phenomena that can dramatically influence host-vector interactions. Enhanced vector attraction to infected hosts has been reported in a variety of host-pathogen systems, and has given rise to the parasite manipulation hypothesis whereby pathogens may adaptively modify host phenotypes to increase transmission from host to host. However, host phenotypic changes do not always favour the transmission of pathogens, as random host choice, reduced host attractiveness and even host avoidance after infection have also been reported. Thus, the effects of hosts' parasitic infections on vector feeding behaviour and on the likelihood of parasite transmission remain unclear. Here, we experimentally tested how host infection status and infection intensity with avian Plasmodium affect mosquito feeding patterns in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). In separate experiments, mosquitoes were allowed to bite pairs containing (i) one infected and one uninfected bird and (ii) two infected birds, one of which treated with the antimalarial drug, primaquine. We found that mosquitoes fed randomly when exposed to both infected and uninfected birds. However, when mosquitoes were exposed only to infected individuals, they preferred to bite the non-treated birds. These results suggest that the malarial parasite load rather than the infection itself plays a key role in mosquito attraction. Our findings partially support the parasite manipulation hypothesis, which probably operates via a reduction in defensive behaviour, and highlights the importance of considering parasite load in studies on host-vector-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos por peces ornamentales

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    Marco Polo Franco Archundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre alternativas de alimento para especies acuáticas con alto potencial económico, es uno de los principales temas de estudio en la acuicultura. En la presente investigación se evaluó el consumo de pre-adultos de mosquito por cuatro especies ícticas ornamentales: Carassius auratus, Pterophyllum scalare, Danio rerio y Xiphophorus helleri. El diseño experimental consistió en cuatro tratamientos, con tres réplicas. Cada ensayo se realizó de manera independiente entre especies. En cada acuario (1 l se colocaron dos peces juveniles, con peso húmedo y longitud total (promedio ± desviación estándar conocidos. Se suministraron en un tratamiento 100 larvas y en otro 100 pupas de mosquito. La tasa diaria de consumo de larvas y pupas se registró a un intervalo de tres horas durante un ciclo de 24 horas por especie. El peso húmedo de pre-adultos de mosquito difirió 5.20% y el seco 37.69%; en ambos casos, superior en las pupas (p < 0.001. Los peces fueron más activos durante la fase luminosa, 09:00-18:00 h, evidenciado por una mayor tasa de consumo de larvas y pupas de mosquito. Carassius auratus presentó el mayor consumo de larvas/pez/24 horas 131.33 ± 4.16 y de pupas/pez/24 horas 86.16 ± 3.20. Lo anterior difirió significativamente con respecto a P. scalare, D. rerio y X. helleri (p < 0.001. Finalmente, Carassius auratus presentó la mayor capacidad de consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos.

  5. Limitation of using synthetic human odours to test mosquito repellents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbeyela Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repellents using a synthetic blend of human derived attractants for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Different concentrations of known repellents, N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet and Para-methane-3, 8, diol (PMD were added into traps baited with the synthetic blend, and resulting changes in mosquito catches were measured. Results All test concentrations of deet (0.001% to 100% reduced the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. However, PMD was repellent only at 0.25%. Above this concentration, it significantly increased the attractiveness of the blend. There was no relationship between the repellent concentrations and the change in mosquito catches when either deet (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.302 or PMD (r2 = 0.020, P = 0.578 was used. Conclusion It is concluded that while some repellents may reduce the attractiveness of synthetic human odours, others may instead increase their attractiveness. Such inconsistencies indicate that even though the synthetic attractants may provide exposure-free and consistent test media for repellents, careful selection and multiple-repellent tests are necessary to ascertain their suitability for use in repellent screening. The synthetic odour blend tested here is not yet sufficiently refined to serve as replacement for humans in repellent testing, but may be developed further and evaluated in different formats for exposure free repellent testing purposes.

  6. Distribution of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in Yunnan Province near the China–Myanmar–Laos Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanqin; Feng, Yun; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of Yunnan Province in China, adjacent to several countries in Southeast Asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. We report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of China–Myanmar–Laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. Seventeen mosquito species representing four genera were obtained, and 14 strains of mosquito-borne viruses representing six viruses in five genera were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. In addition, IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, Yunnan orbivirus and novel Banna virus was detected in acute-phase serum samples obtained from hospitalized patients with fever and encephalitis near the areas where the viruses were isolated. This investigation suggests that Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and lesser-known arboviruses circulate and may be infecting humans in the China–Myanmar–Laos border region. PMID:21540383

  7. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R A; Presley, S M; Cox, S B; Hayhoe, K; Allen, L J S; Long, K R

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems. (letter)

  8. Towards mosquito sterile insect technique programmes: exploring genetic, molecular, mechanical and behavioural methods of sex separation in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Jeremie R L; Schetelig, Marc F; Scolari, Francesca; Marec, František; Capurro, Margareth L; Franz, Gerald; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-04-01

    When considering a mosquito release programme, one of the first issues to be addressed is how to eliminate/separate the females. The greatest number of options might eventually be available for those who can use transgenic mosquitoes, but the inherent characteristics of the target species may also provide possibilities for interim measures until more efficient methods can be developed. Differences in intrinsic size, in behaviour and in development rate between females and males are often available and useful for sexing. Efficient species-specific systems for eliminating females at the embryo stage have been developed, but most have since been discarded due to lack of use. Ideal systems specifically kill female embryos using some treatment that can be manipulated during production. Such killing systems are far more efficient than using intrinsic sexual differences, but they systems require selectable genetic markers and sex-linkage created by rare random chromosomal rearrangements. While intrinsic sexual differences should not be considered as long-term candidates for the development of robust and efficient sexing approaches, in the absence of these, the accessibility and integration of less efficient systems can provide a stop-gap measure that allows rapid start up with a minimum of investment. The International Atomic Energy Agency is funding over a 5 year period (2013-2018) a new Coordinated Research Project on "Exploring Genetic, Molecular, Mechanical and Behavioural Methods of Sex Separation in Mosquitoes" to network researchers and to address the critical need of genetic sexing strains for the implementation of the sterile insect technique (using radiation-sterilised or transgenic male mosquitoes) and for insect incompatibility technique programmes against disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti transgenic mosquitoes with altered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhen; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Xi, Zhiyong; Kokoza, Vladimir; Shin, Sang Woon; Dimopoulos, George; Raikhel, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    The mosquito immune system is involved in pathogen-elicited defense responses. The NF-κB factors REL1 and REL2 are downstream transcription activators of Toll and IMD immune pathways, respectively. We have used genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize fat-body-specific gene transcript repertoires activated by either REL1 or REL2 in two transgenic strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vitellogenin gene promoter was used in each transgenic strain to ectopically express either REL1 (REL1+) or REL2 (REL2+) in a sex, tissue, and stage specific manner. There was a significant change in the transcript abundance of 297 (79 up- and 218 down-regulated) and 299 (123 up- and 176 down-regulated) genes in fat bodies of REL1+ and REL2+, respectively. Over half of the induced genes had predicted functions in immunity, and a large group of these was co-regulated by REL1 and REL2. By generating a hybrid transgenic strain, which ectopically expresses both REL1 and REL2, we have shown a synergistic action of these NF-κB factors in activating immune genes. The REL1+ immune transcriptome showed a significant overlap with that of cactus (RNAi)-depleted mosquitoes (50%). In contrast, the REL2+ -regulated transcriptome differed from the relatively small group of gene transcripts regulated by RNAi depletion of a putative inhibitor of the IMD pathway, caspar (35 up- and 140 down-regulated), suggesting that caspar contributes to regulation of a subset of IMD-pathway controlled genes. Infections of the wild type Ae. aegypti with Plasmodium gallinaceum elicited the transcription of a distinct subset of immune genes (76 up- and 25 down-regulated) relative to that observed in REL1+ and REL2+ mosquitoes. Considerable overlap was observed between the fat body transcriptome of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and that of mosquitoes with transiently depleted PIAS, an inhibitor of the JAK-STAT pathway. PIAS gene silencing reduced Plasmodium proliferation in Ae. aegypti, indicating the

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Aedes aegypti transgenic mosquitoes with altered immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito immune system is involved in pathogen-elicited defense responses. The NF-κB factors REL1 and REL2 are downstream transcription activators of Toll and IMD immune pathways, respectively. We have used genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize fat-body-specific gene transcript repertoires activated by either REL1 or REL2 in two transgenic strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vitellogenin gene promoter was used in each transgenic strain to ectopically express either REL1 (REL1+ or REL2 (REL2+ in a sex, tissue, and stage specific manner. There was a significant change in the transcript abundance of 297 (79 up- and 218 down-regulated and 299 (123 up- and 176 down-regulated genes in fat bodies of REL1+ and REL2+, respectively. Over half of the induced genes had predicted functions in immunity, and a large group of these was co-regulated by REL1 and REL2. By generating a hybrid transgenic strain, which ectopically expresses both REL1 and REL2, we have shown a synergistic action of these NF-κB factors in activating immune genes. The REL1+ immune transcriptome showed a significant overlap with that of cactus (RNAi-depleted mosquitoes (50%. In contrast, the REL2+ -regulated transcriptome differed from the relatively small group of gene transcripts regulated by RNAi depletion of a putative inhibitor of the IMD pathway, caspar (35 up- and 140 down-regulated, suggesting that caspar contributes to regulation of a subset of IMD-pathway controlled genes. Infections of the wild type Ae. aegypti with Plasmodium gallinaceum elicited the transcription of a distinct subset of immune genes (76 up- and 25 down-regulated relative to that observed in REL1+ and REL2+ mosquitoes. Considerable overlap was observed between the fat body transcriptome of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and that of mosquitoes with transiently depleted PIAS, an inhibitor of the JAK-STAT pathway. PIAS gene silencing reduced Plasmodium proliferation in Ae. aegypti, indicating

  13. The risk of a mosquito-borne infection in a heterogeneous environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection--the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious--are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.

  14. [A mosquito net for everyone in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pays, J-F

    2010-10-01

    At less than two hundred days of the 2010 deadline for the "Roll Back Malaria" initiative which committed itself to reduce by half, before that date, mortality due to malaria in the world and relying on the latest WHO reports pointing out, in Africa, major shortcomings concerning the accessibility to treatment combinations consisting of artemisinin and on the acknowledged fact that an insufficient number of pregnant women receive an intermittent treatment, the author notes that a coverage, so-called universal, with the use of long action insecticide treated mosquito nets has become the Grail of the battle against malaria, with the perverse effects entailed, namely that of blinding realities or throwing discredit on other types of possible interventions that are not consistent with an accounting logic. He also notes that the average figure of estimated deaths due to malaria was at a quasi stagnation in 2008 and that the lives of 34,000 African children of less than 5 years of age saved between 2006 and 2008 was achieved in the context of the reduction in infant mortality resulting from a series of causes among which it is impossible to individualise malaria with certainty. He finally points out that Eritrea, Rwanda, Zambia, São Tome y Principe and the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar which quite regularly serve as showcases to RBM and UNICEF and which report spectacular progress in the field of prevention of malaria accompanied by a parallel reduction in its mortality, are, for different reasons, far from being representative of the totality of African countries and that they should be considered as exceptions rather than examples to be exploited without restraint. On the other hand, the author considers that deluding the grand public into thinking that a few watchwords, slogans and simple, even simplistic, ideas would enable eradicating malaria given that large sums of money are made available, is not quite honest and may finally prove to be dangerous. He warns

  15. Studies on mosquito biting risk among migratory rice farmers in rural south-eastern Tanzania and development of a portable mosquito-proof hut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Johnson K; Finda, Marceline F; Madumla, Edith P; Lingamba, Godfrey F; Moshi, Irene R; Rafiq, Mohamed Y; Majambere, Silas; Okumu, Fredros O

    2016-11-22

    Subsistence rice farmers in south-eastern Tanzania are often migratory, spending weeks or months tending to crops in distant fields along the river valleys and living in improvised structures known as Shamba huts, not fully protected from mosquitoes. These farmers also experience poor access to organized preventive and curative services due to long distances. Mosquito biting exposure in these rice fields, relative to main village residences was assessed, then a portable mosquito-proof hut was developed and tested for protecting these migratory farmers. Pair-wise mosquito surveys were conducted in four villages in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania in 20 randomly-selected Shamba huts located in the distant rice fields and in 20 matched houses within the main villages, to assess biting densities and Plasmodium infection rates. A portable mosquito-proof hut was designed and tested in semi-field and field settings against Shamba hut replicas, and actual Shamba huts. Also, semi-structured interviews were conducted, timed-participant observations, and focus-group discussions to assess experiences and behaviours of the farmers regarding mosquito-bites and the mosquito-proof huts. There were equal numbers of mosquitoes in Shamba huts and main houses [RR (95% CI) 27 (25.1-31.2), and RR (95% CI) 30 (27.5-33.4)], respectively (P > 0.05). Huts having >1 occupant had more mosquitoes than those with just one occupant, regardless of site [RR (95% CI) 1.57 (1.30-1.9), P biting most. The prototype hut provided 100% protection in semi-field and field settings, while blood-fed mosquitoes were recaptured in Shamba huts, even when occupants used permethrin-impregnated bed nets. Though equal numbers of mosquitoes were caught between main houses and normal Shamba huts, the higher proportions of blood-fed mosquitoes, reduced access to organized healthcare and reduced effectiveness of LLINs, may increase vulnerability of the itinerant farmers. The portable mosquito-proof hut

  16. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianka P M Vloet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx. pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied.Artificial feeding experiments using Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands. To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in previously unrecognized target cells.We here report the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both

  17. Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Rianka P M; Vogels, Chantal B F; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Pijlman, Gorben P; Eiden, Martin; Gonzales, Jose L; van Keulen, Lucien J M; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx.) pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied. Artificial feeding experiments using Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva. Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands. To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in previously unrecognized target cells. We here report the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both laboratory

  18. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  19. The phylogenetic relationships of known mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongliang; Li, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Hengduan; Luo, Peng; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Tongyan

    2018-01-01

    The known mosquito mitogenomes, containing a total of 34 species, which belong to five genera, were collected from GenBank, and the practicality and effectiveness of the variation in the complete mitochondrial DNA genome and portions of mitochondrial COI gene were assessed to reconstruct the phylogeny of mosquitoes. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian (BI) methods. It is concluded that: (1) Both mitogenomes and COI gene support the monophly of following taxa: Subgenus Nyssorhynchus, Subgenus Cellia, Anopheles albitarsis complex, Anopheles gambiae complex, and Anopheles punctulatus group; (2) Genus Aedes is not monophyletic relative to Ochlerotatus vigilax; (3) The mitogenome results indicate a close relationship between Anopheles epiroticus and Anopheles gambiae complex, Anopheles dirus complex and Anopheles punctulatus group, respectively; (4) The Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) within phylogenetic tree reconstructed by mitogenomes is higher than COI tree. The results show that phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using the mitogenomes were more similar to those based on morphological data.

  20. Geometric morphometrics in mosquitoes: What has been measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Almeida, Fabio; Almeida-Lopes, Fernanda; Louise, Caroline; Pereira, Stella N; Petersen, Vivian; Vidal, Paloma O; Virginio, Flávia; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2017-10-01

    The field of morphometrics is developing quickly. Recent advances have enabled geometric techniques to be applied to many zoological problems, particularly those involving epidemiologically-relevant mosquitoes. Herein, we briefly introduce geometric morphometric (GM) techniques and then review selected groups of mosquitoes (Culicidae) to which those techniques have been applied. In most of the reviewed cases, GM was capable of satisfactorily discriminating among the tested groups primarily when the studies considered differences within and among species, sexual dimorphism, treatments and the separation of laboratory strains. Although GM approaches have developed quite rapidly, some caution must be taken during data processing for a reliable biometrical approach, such as allometry and asymmetry analyses, scale removal and wing clarification staining for landmark digitization. We also critically forecast directions in this field and discuss how the creation of image databases should enhance species identification in culicids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of dengue virus populations within the mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Louis; Lequime, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    To date, dengue virus evolution has mainly been addressed by studies conducted at the between-host level. Like other pathogens with high mutation rate and rapid replication, dengue viruses also evolve during the course of an infection. Over the last few years, the advent of deep-sequencing technologies has facilitated studies of dengue virus populations at the within-host level. Here, we review recent advances on the evolutionary dynamics of dengue virus populations within their mosquito vector. We discuss how identifying the evolutionary forces acting on dengue virus populations within the mosquito can shed light on the processes underlying vector-virus interactions and the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  3. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  5. AN IMPROVED TRAP TO CAPTURE ADULT CONTAINER-INHABITING MOSQUITOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; MACKAY, ANDREW J.; AMADOR, MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico, Aedes mediovittatus, the Caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. This species is native to the Greater Antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. This study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine whether BG-Sentinel traps (BGS traps) could be used to collect adults of this mosquito and could be modified to increase the number of captures of this species in the field. We conducted experiments to test the relative attractiveness of BGS traps to Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti and explored the effects of chemical lures (BG-Lure, CO2, octenol) and optical properties (color, size) on the capture rates of BGS traps in a large, outdoor cage in San Juan city, Puerto Rico. We also conducted field tests to compare modified BGS traps with the original traps in a rural community in Patillas municipality, Puerto Rico. Results obtained from the large, outdoor cage experiments indicated that trap captures of both mosquito species could be significantly enhanced by using black instead of white BGS traps combined with BG-Lure. Field experiments revealed that the modified traps captured a significantly greater number of Ae. aegypti, Ae. mediovittatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with greater sensitivity for the latter 2 species, and also captured a larger number of mosquito species and a smaller ratio of Ae. aegypti to Ae. mediovittatus, with greater than expected species co-occurrences. PMID:24551969

  6. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  7. Larvicidal activity prediction against Aedes aegypti mosquito using computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Yudith Cañizares-Carmenate; Mirelys Hernandez-Morfa; Francisco Torrens; Gloria Castellano; Juan A Castillo-Garit

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for transmission of dengue, yellow fever, chikun- gunya, arthritis, and Zika fever. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that Ae. aegypti causes 50 million infections and 25,000 deaths per year. Use of larvicidal agents is one of the recommendations of health organizations to control mosquito populations and limit their distribution. The aim of present study was to deduce a mathematical model to predict the l...

  8. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  9. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues—The Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  10. Informed consent in field trials of gene-drive mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopack, Pamela A; Lavery, James V

    2017-12-11

    The US National Academies' (NAS) recent report 'Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values' examines the requirements of responsible conduct in research involving gene drives in non-human organisms. Many of the complex ethical issues raised by the introduction of gene drive technologies for mosquito population control have been anticipated during the development and field-testing of earlier-generation genetic engineering approaches with mosquitoes. One issue-the requirement for informed consent in field trials-is not addressed explicitly in the NAS' report. Some commentators have presumed that informed consent should play a role as a protection for research participants in studies of genetically modified mosquitoes. Others have argued that there are no human subjects of field trials, so the informed consent requirement does not apply. It is both ethically and practically important that these presumptions are adequately scrutinized to ensure that any applications of informed consent in these trials are properly justified. We argue that informed consent from individual research participants in gene drive trials may be required: (1) when blood and other forms of clinical data are collected from them, as will likely be the case in some studies involving epidemiological endpoints, such as the incidence of new infections with dengue and malaria; (2) when they participate in social science and/or behavioral research involving the completion of surveys and questionnaires; or (3) when their home or property is accessed and the location recorded as a spatial variable for the release or collection of mosquitoes because the precise location of the household is important for entomological reasons and these data constitute identifiable private information at the household level. Importantly, most regulations and guidelines allow these requirements to be waived or modified, to various degrees, according to the

  11. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Von Humboldt). Voucher specimens were placed in the collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC...family To- gaviridae, genusAlphavirus) is enzootic in the eastern United States and throughout Central and South America, and infection with this...2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus

  12. Behaviors and Numerical Simulations of Malaria Dynamic Models with Transgenic Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of transgenic mosquitoes to interact with wild ones is a promising method for controlling malaria. How to effectively release transgenic mosquitoes to prevent malaria is always a concern for researchers. This paper investigates two methods of releasing transgenic mosquitoes and proposes two epidemic models involving malaria patients, anopheles, wild mosquitoes, and transgenic mosquitoes based on system of continuous differential equations. A basic reproduction number R0 is defined for the models and it serves as a threshold parameter that predicts whether malaria will spread. By theoretical analysis of the dynamic behaviors of the models and numerical simulations, it is verified that malaria can be effectively controlled by the opportune release of transgenic mosquitoes; that is, when R0≤1, malaria will disappear; when R0>1, malaria will become an endemic disease in the target field.

  13. The first releases of transgenic mosquitoes: an argument for the sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Robinson, Alan S

    2003-08-01

    Potential applications for reducing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases by releasing genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed, and mosquitoes are being created with such an application in mind in several laboratories. The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) provides a safe programme in which production, release and mating competitiveness questions related to mass-reared genetically modified mosquitoes could be answered. It also provides a reversible effect that would be difficult to accomplish with gene introgression approaches. Could new technologies, including recombinant DNA techniques, have improved the success of previous mosquito releases? Criteria for an acceptable transgenic sterile mosquito are described, and the characteristics of radiation-induced sterility are compared with that of current transgenic approaches. We argue that SIT using transgenic material would provide an essentially safe and efficacious foundation for other possible approaches that are more ambitious.

  14. Dispersal of Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From a Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Drummond, Cori L.; Ruby, Meghan A.; Drobnack, Jason; Ebel, Gregory D.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    A mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of Culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in Albany, NY, during 2007 and 2008. A self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. Mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 CDC miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the marking site. A total of 13 and 10 marked Culex mosquitoes were recaptured in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Culex mosquitoes traveled a minimum of 0.16 km, a maximum of 1.98 km and, following correction for decreasing trap density with distance, had a mean distance traveled of 1.33 km. Characterizing the dispersal patterns of these mosquitoes is important for understanding the distribution of West Nile virus and other pathogens. PMID:22308769

  15. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V.; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species. PMID:26466534

  16. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Developing transgenic Anopheles mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tony; Papathanos, Philippos; Windbichler, Nikolai; Magnusson, Kalle; Benton, Jason; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that is relevant to their capacity as vectors of the malaria parasite. While this information is anticipated to inform many novel vector control strategies, the technique most likely to benefit in the near future from the availability of a reliable transgenic technology is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on releasing large numbers of sterile insects to compete for mates in the wild, leading to population suppression. Although SIT has been proven to work reliably for many insects, the construction of suitable strains, and induction of sterility, has until now been a laborious process, combining classical genetics with radiation-induced sterility. Using transgenesis to create strains of Anopheles suitable for SIT could potentially offer several advantages over current approaches, in that the basic design of transgenic constructs designed for other insects should be rapidly transferable to mosquitoes, and induction of sterility as a product of the transgenic modification could obviate the requirement for radiation and its associated deleterious effects. In this paper the progress of different transgenic approaches in constructing tools for SIT will be reviewed.

  19. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

    2013-09-01

    To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

  20. Mosquito Fauna (Diptera: Culicidae of Hamedan County, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zahirnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

  1. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  2. [Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabova, T E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Markovich, N Ia; Ganushkina, L A; Orabeĭ, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2005-01-01

    Few Aedes aegypti females were found when collecting the mosquitoes attacking human beings in the Central District of Sochi in August to September 2001-2004. Ae. aegypti, a vector of dangerous causative agents of diseases, such as yellow and Aden fevers, appeared on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is recorded after its long absence. By taking into account the potential epidemic value of Ae. aegypti, it is necessary to make a monitoring in the cities, towns, and settlements to establish the spread, number, and the breading sites of mosquitoes in the given area and to prevent their mass reproduction. The effectiveness of Ae. albopictus as a vector of Aden fever has been established in different regions of the world. Entomological surveys for Ae. albopictus should be made in the areas of Russia where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were distributed early in the past century, particularly in the southern port towns and settlements of Russia. Ae. albopictus is potentially able to spread to the north further than is Ae. aegypti.

  3. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  4. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  5. A role for endosomal proteins in alphavirus dissemination in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corey L.; Lehmann, Christopher J.; Gill, Sargeet S.; Dunn, W. A.; James, Anthony A.; Foy, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about endosomal pathway proteins involved in arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) assembly and cell-to-cell spread in vector mosquitoes. UNC93A and Synaptic vesicle-2 (SV2) proteins are involved in intracellular transport in mammals. They show amino acid sequence conservation from mosquitoes to humans, and their transcripts are highly-enriched in Aedes aegypti during arbovirus infection. Transient gene silencing of SV2 or UNC93A in mosquitoes infected with the recombinant alphavirus Sindbis MRE16-eGFP (SINV; family Togaviridae) resulted in the accumulation of viral positive- and negative-strand RNA, congregation of virus envelope antigen in intracellular networks, and reduced virus dissemination outside of the midgut. Further, UNC93A silencing, but not SV2 silencing, resulted in a 10-fold reduction in viral titers at 4 days post-infection. Together, these data support a role for UNC93A and SV2 in virus assembly or budding. Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were identified at the 5′-ends of genes from the original dataset in which SV2 and UNC93A were identified. Common CREs at the 5′-end genomic regions of a subset of enriched transcripts support the hypothesis that UNC93A transcription may be co-regulated with that of other ion transport and endosomal trafficking proteins. PMID:21496127

  6. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  7. Predictive modeling of mosquito abundance and dengue transmission in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J.; Krystosik, A.; Mutuku, F.; Ndenga, B.; LaBeaud, D.; Mordecai, E.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 390 million people are exposed to dengue virus every year, and with no widely available treatments or vaccines, predictive models of disease risk are valuable tools for vector control and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to modify and improve climate-driven predictive models of dengue vector abundance (Aedes spp. mosquitoes) and viral transmission to people in Kenya. We simulated disease transmission using a temperature-driven mechanistic model and compared model predictions with vector trap data for larvae, pupae, and adult mosquitoes collected between 2014 and 2017 at four sites across urban and rural villages in Kenya. We tested predictive capacity of our models using four temperature measurements (minimum, maximum, range, and anomalies) across daily, weekly, and monthly time scales. Our results indicate seasonal temperature variation is a key driving factor of Aedes mosquito abundance and disease transmission. These models can help vector control programs target specific locations and times when vectors are likely to be present, and can be modified for other Aedes-transmitted diseases and arboviral endemic regions around the world.

  8. An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, J M; Hansford, K M; Versteirt, V; Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F

    2015-12-01

    Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

  9. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  10. Yellow fever vaccination centers: concurrent vaccinations and updates on mosquito biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Subhash C; Agarwal, Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Mandatory visits to immunization centers that offer pre-travel Yellow fever vaccine to prospective travelers would be useful for briefing the basics of the biology of the mosquito responsible for Yellow fever spread. Pre- travel knowledge on the day-time rather the nocturnal biting habit of the mosquitoes of Aedes species would prevent from bites of the mosquitoes responsible for the spread of viruses causing Yellow fever, dengue or Chikungunya infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Culicine Mosquito Larva Key to the Genera of Culicidae. . . Genus Anopheles . Genus Toxorhynchites . Genus Tripteroides. Genus Mansonia. . Genus...ILLUSTRATED TAXONOMIC KEYS TO GENERA AND SPECIES OF MOSQUITO LARVAE OF KOREA PART II DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY BY 5TH PREVENTIVE MEDICINE UNIT...1987 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea. Part II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  12. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructu...

  13. Importance of the What, When, and Where of Mosquito Collection Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    GIR) protocol have allowed the deployment of a dis- tributed biodiversity database network. The increas- ing use of mobile computing for Þeld mosquito ...FORUM Importance of the “What,” “When,” and “Where” of Mosquito Collection Events DESMOND H. FOLEY,1 RICHARD C. WILKERSON, AND LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA...understandingmosquito biogeography, ecology, and the impact of environmental changes, as well as for species distribution modeling, planning mosquito surveys, and for

  14. Repellent Activity of Catnip Extract (Nepeta cataria L,) Against Aedes aegypti Mosquito as Dengue Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Doraysamy, Doraysamy; Mulyaningsih, Budi; Ernaningsih, Ernaningsih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction: Dengue infection has been a major concern for decades. Prevention from getting bitten by Aedes aegypti mosquito is considered better than cure as there is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue. Recently, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) extract has been formulated and marketed as an alternative for protection against mosquitoes and act as a natural form of mosquito repellent.Objectives: To understand the repelling properties of both DEET and N. cataria L. extract and to c...

  15. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  16. The most common mosquitoes at Al- Rayyan municipality (Qatar state) and their potential for transmitting malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Rabab Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    During the period from December 2014 to April 2015, a mosquito survey (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted at Al Rayyan Municipality, western region of Qatar. The survey aimed to identify the most common mosquitoes species in the study area and assess their potential in transmitting malaria. In all, 37 collection sites were visited throughout the study period revealing 312 mosquitoes. Larvae were collected as well as adults. The pH of larvae breeding sites was also measured in the laboratory. A...

  17. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Marlen Degener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L. abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT and BG-Sentinel (BGS traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship. For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship. The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus.

  18. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira de; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus.

  19. Host-parasite interaction and impact of mite infection on mosquito population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atwa A. Atwa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During the present study, the host-parasite relationship between mosquitoes and parasitic mites was investigated. The 8954 individuals of male and female mosquitoes belonging to 26 genera: seven each of Aedes and Culex, six of Anopheles and one each of Toxorhynchites, Coquillettidia and Uranotaenia were collected from 200 sites. The male and female mosquitoes were collected from the State of Uttar Pradesh, located at 26.8500° N, 80.9100° E in North India by deploying Carbon dioxide-baited and gravid traps. The intensity of mite's infection, type and number of mites attached to mosquitoes, mite's preference for body parts and host sexes were the parameters used to determine host-parasite relationship. Eight species of mites: Arrenurus acuminatus, Ar. gibberifrons, Ar. danbyensis, Ar. madaraszi, Ar. kenki, Parathyas barbigera, Leptus sp., and Anystis sp., parasitized mosquitoes. Parasitic mites preferred host's thorax for attachment as compared to the head, pre-abdomen or appendages. The present study suggests phoretic relationship between parasitic mites and mosquitoes. Wide occurrence, intensity of infection, parasitic load, and attachment preferences of the mites suggested their positive role in biological control of adult mosquitoes. The present study will set the path of future studies on host-parasite relationships of mites and mosquitoes and define the role of parasitic mites in the biological control of mosquitoes.

  20. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben; Hofkin, Bruce V.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal....

  1. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Ted; Peterson, Chelsea; Ortega, Corrie; Preston, Sarah R; Paton, Christopher; Williams, Jessica; Guy, Amy; Omodei, Gavin; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Helen; O'Neill, Scott L; Ritchie, Scott A; Dobson, Stephen L; Madan, Damian

    2017-12-01

    We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  2. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Su Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM, classification and regression tree (CART, and random forest (RF. We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  3. Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific region, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential impacts on human and wildlife health.

  4. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...

  5. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  6. Avian phenotypic traits related to feeding preferences in two Culex mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiayue; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2017-10-01

    Host choice by mosquitoes affects the transmission dynamics of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although asymmetries in mosquito attraction to vertebrate species have been reported, the relative importance of host characteristics in mosquito blood-feeding behavior is still poorly studied. Here, we investigate the relationship between avian phenotypic traits—in particular, morphometry, plumage coloration, and nesting and roosting behavior—and the blood-feeding patterns in two common Culex mosquito species on a North American avian community. Forage ratios of the mosquito species were unrelated to the phylogenetic relationships among bird species. Culex pipiens fed preferably on birds with lighter-colored plumage and longer tarsi; furthermore, solitary roosting avian species were both bitten by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans more often than expected. These associations may be explained by greater mosquito attraction towards larger birds with a greater color contrast against the background. Although communally roosting birds may release more cues and attract more mosquitoes, individuals may in fact receive fewer bites due to the encounter-dilution effect. Mosquito feeding behavior is a highly complex phenomenon, and our results may improve understanding of the non-random interaction between birds and mosquitoes in natural communities.

  7. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  8. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Baughman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  9. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  10. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jian

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the

  11. Utilization of ultrasonic waves (Acheta domesticus) as a biocontrol of mosquito in Malang Agricultural Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Sama'Iradat

    2017-11-01

    Malang Agricultural Institute is a college located in the residential area Griyasanta Malang. The environment around the Institute of Agriculture Malang has moist soil conditions so that mosquito species insects easily reproduce. It is feared that this problem can potentially cause many diseases caused by mosquitoes such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, elephant legs and much more. Nowadays there has been considerable research on ultrasound waves against mosquitoes. Many studies have been done to determine the effect of ultrasonic waves on mosquitoes. Crickets have frequencies between 0.2 kHz-50 kHz so it has the potential to control mosquito pests. Existing studies indicate that mosquito pests can be expelled with the frequency of 18-48 kHz. But this still cannot eliminate mosquito larvae that require a wave of 85 kHz. The effects of ultrasound waves on mosquitoes are (1) erection of the antenna which shows the stress on the nervous system to physical injury and fatigue so as to increase the percentage of fall and the death of mosquitoes. (2) ultrasonic waves can make the antenna function in the mosquito as the receiver of excitatory disturbed. The ultrasonic wave can be defined as a threat so that the mosquito will be expelled. Based on this, a simple study was conducted at the campus of the Institute of Agriculture of Malang by taking 10 different locations with randomly assigned respondents with a maximum of 5 people per location. The results show that the effectiveness of the use of crickets in the morning reached 60% and in the afternoon reached 80% starting on the first day since the installation of crickets. So the use of these crickets in the campus environment of the Institute of Agriculture Malang is quite effective.

  12. Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  13. Mosquitoes of the rice agroecosystem of Malaysia: species composition and their abundance in relation to rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Hassan Ahmad; Che Salmah Md Rawi

    2002-01-01

    Mosquito abundance in relation to rice farming was studied in the Muda and the Kerian Irrigation Schemes. Mosquito larvae were collected using dippers for several growing seasons. Adult mosquitoes were collected by using human bait and cow bait and net trap at nights. Culex, Mansonia and Anopheles were the three genera of mosquito found in the rice agroecosystem. Four species of Mansonia were found biting on human bait. Culex mosquitoes were caught biting on human and cow baits. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, C pseudovishnui, C vishnui, C gelidus and C bitaeniorhynchus were the most common Culex mosquitoes found. Anoheles sinensis and A. peditaeniatus were the most dominant panopheline mosquitoes. High abundance of larvae and adult mosquitoes were observed during ploughing, planting, and tillering stages of rice farming. (Author)

  14. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  15. Fitness of transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide under the control of a vitellogenin promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C; Marrelli, MT; Yan, G; Jacobs-Lorena, M

    2008-01-01

    Three transgenic Anopheles stephensi lines were established that strongly inhibit transmission of the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Fitness of the transgenic mosquitoes was assessed based on life table analysis and competition experiments between transgenic and wild-type mosquitoes. Life table analysis indicated low fitness load for the 2 single-insertion transgenic mosquito lines VD35 and VD26 and no load for the double-insertion transgenic mosquito line VD9. However, in cage ex...

  16. Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Cerqueira

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

  17. Harnessing mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis for vector and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Dobson, Stephen L; Xi, Zhiyong; Rasgon, Jason L; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moreira, Luciano A; Bossin, Hervé C; Moretti, Riccardo; Baton, Luke Anthony; Hughes, Grant L; Mavingui, Patrick; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito species, members of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are the major vectors of human pathogens including protozoa (Plasmodium sp.), filariae and of a variety of viruses (causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile). There is lack of efficient methods and tools to treat many of the diseases caused by these major human pathogens, since no efficient vaccines or drugs are available; even in malaria where insecticide use and drug therapies have reduced incidence, 219 million cases still occurred in 2010. Therefore efforts are currently focused on the control of vector populations. Insecticides alone are insufficient to control mosquito populations since reduced susceptibility and even resistance is being observed more and more frequently. There is also increased concern about the toxic effects of insecticides on non-target (even beneficial) insect populations, on humans and the environment. During recent years, the role of symbionts in the biology, ecology and evolution of insect species has been well-documented and has led to suggestions that they could potentially be used as tools to control pests and therefore diseases. Wolbachia is perhaps the most renowned insect symbiont, mainly due to its ability to manipulate insect reproduction and to interfere with major human pathogens thus providing new avenues for pest control. We herein present recent achievements in the field of mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis with an emphasis on Aedes albopictus. We also discuss how Wolbachia symbiosis can be harnessed for vector control as well as the potential to combine the sterile insect technique and Wolbachia-based approaches for the enhancement of population suppression programs. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of an olfactometer for mosquito behavioural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Shokri, Fazel; Guerin, Patrick M; Yaghoobi Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Tirgari, Siavash

    2010-03-01

    Olfaction is the major sensory modality involved in the resource searching behaviour of insects including vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). To date, our current countrywide knowledge on the host-seeking behaviour of Iranian mosquitoes is mainly confined to host preference which has exclusively come from field studies. Olfactometer is a scientific tool by which more naive aspects of man-vector contact can be clarified under controlled and less biased conditions. The wind tunnel and stimulus delivery system was constructed from acrylic materials based on previously introduced models with some modifications. Air supply and required light were ensured by a powerful compressor and incandescent bulbs, respectively. Desired level of temperature was maintained by controllable heating radiators. For humidity production a unique in-built piezo system was devised in the course of the air flow. Fine regulators facilitated the continuous generatation of the humidity at a preset level. Titanium tetrachloride smoke plus monitoring of the wind speed revealed that the flow of air was proper and invariable. A desired level of humidity and temperature could be set up in just 10 and 15-45 min, respectively. These physical parameters varied only +/-2% (humidity) and +/-0.15 degrees C (temperature) in a typical 20 min duration. The first sophisticated olfactometer in the field of medical entomology in Iran is reported here. Fast set up and stability of physical parameters are its salient features. It is expected that with the aid of this olfactometer further information on the physiological principles of the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes become available soon.

  19. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country.

  20. Using mobile phones as acoustic sensors for high-throughput mosquito surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Hol, Felix Jan Hein; Castillo, Erica Araceli; Newby, Cooper; Prakash, Manu

    2017-10-31

    The direct monitoring of mosquito populations in field settings is a crucial input for shaping appropriate and timely control measures for mosquito-borne diseases. Here, we demonstrate that commercially available mobile phones are a powerful tool for acoustically mapping mosquito species distributions worldwide. We show that even low-cost mobile phones with very basic functionality are capable of sensitively acquiring acoustic data on species-specific mosquito wingbeat sounds, while simultaneously recording the time and location of the human-mosquito encounter. We survey a wide range of medically important mosquito species, to quantitatively demonstrate how acoustic recordings supported by spatio-temporal metadata enable rapid, non-invasive species identification. As proof-of-concept, we carry out field demonstrations where minimally-trained users map local mosquitoes using their personal phones. Thus, we establish a new paradigm for mosquito surveillance that takes advantage of the existing global mobile network infrastructure, to enable continuous and large-scale data acquisition in resource-constrained areas.