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Sample records for anopheline mosquito recta

  1. Why are anopheline mosquitoes not present in the Seychelles?

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    Goodman Steven M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of anopheline mosquitoes are largely distributed over emerged lands around the world and, within the tropics, few areas are without these insects, which are vectors of malaria parasites. Among the exceptions is the Seychelles archipelago in the western Indian Ocean. However, in the Aldabra island group, located in the extreme western portion of the archipelago, Anopheles gambiae s.l. was introduced, leading to massive proliferation and then elimination, with the most recent autochthonous malaria cases recorded in 1931. Methods In order to re-examine the absence of anopheline mosquitoes in the Seychelles, an entomological field survey was conducted in December 2008 at 17 sites on four granitic islands, including Mahé and Praslin, and ten sites on coralline atolls in the extreme west, including Aldabra. Results No evidence of larval or adult anophelines was found at the surveyed sites, which supports their absence in the Seychelles. Conclusions In the granitic islands of the Seychelles, the climate is favourable for anophelines. However, these islands are protected by their remoteness and prevailing seasonal winds. In addition, stagnant freshwater, required in anopheline larval development, is relatively uncommon on the granitic islands because of the steep slopes. In the southwestern atolls (Aldabra and Providence-Farquhar groups, the presence of a long dry season of up to nine months and the total absence of permanent natural freshwater prevents the breeding of anophelines and their successful colonization. The Seychelles does not have any native land mammals and like in other parts of the world (Antarctica, Iceland, New Caledonia, Central Pacific islands their absence is associated with the lack of anophelines. This suggests an obligatory relationship for anophelines to feed on terrestrial mammals, without alternative for blood-feeding sources, such as bats, birds and reptiles.

  2. Anopheline mosquitoes in District Ramgarh (Jharkhand, India

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    Siddharth Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The study revealed the prevalence of three recognised malaria vector species (An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. annularis in high density throughout the year in this area, which indicates possibility of widening of malaria transmission window in the presence of malaria parasites. The shifting of anopheline species in Ramgarh also indicate alteration in ecological, environmental and sociological conditions, which necessitate routine monitoring on ecology and successional changes of vector species as well as malariological survey for management and adoption of appropriate vector control strategies in this area.

  3. Reappraisal on anopheline mosquitoes of Garhwal region, Uttarakhand, India

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    N. Pemola Devi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study examines occurrence of anopheline mosquitoes in seven districts— Dehradun, Pauri, New Tehri, Hardwar, Rudraprayag, Chamoli and Uttarkashi of Garhwal region in Uttarakhand state, India. Methods: The methodological approach comprised sampling and processing of adult/immature mosquitoes, data compilation, meteorological information and parasitological survey.Results: A total of 87 localities covering 24 tehsils/blocks were surveyed during January 2000 to December 2005 for mosquito sampling. The study encountered 18 species of anophelines including three malaria vectors namely Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. stephensi collected from Kalsi, Dehradun City, Sahaspur, Hardwar town, Roorkee, New Tehri town and Kotdwar localities. An. pallidus has been recorded for the first time from the Garhwal region. All the collected species have been presented with particular reference to their both adult and immature distribution, brief account of bionomics and some ecological notes.Interpretation & conclusion: Out of 18 collected anopheline species, 15 were non-vectors and they were found to create nuisance to the inhabitants. As far as the species distribution was concerned the diversity was more at elevation between 150 and 1000 m above the mean sea level, while the immature of some species were not recovered from those localities where their adults were collected. Certain species of Anopheles were climate determined and their distribution was localized while some others were cosmopolitan.

  4. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

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    Alvaro Molina-Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas.

  5. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes.

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    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas. PMID:25185006

  6. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

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    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas. PMID:25185006

  7. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

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    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  8. Identification of a fibrinogen-related protein (FBN9 gene in neotropical anopheline mosquitoes

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    Brito Cristiana FA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a devastating impact on worldwide public health in many tropical areas. Studies on vector immunity are important for the overall understanding of the parasite-vector interaction and for the design of novel strategies to control malaria. A member of the fibrinogen-related protein family, fbn9, has been well studied in Anopheles gambiae and has been shown to be an important component of the mosquito immune system. However, little is known about this gene in neotropical anopheline species. Methods This article describes the identification and characterization of the fbn9 gene partial sequences from four species of neotropical anopheline primary and secondary vectors: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles aquasalis, and Anopheles albitarsis (namely Anopheles marajoara. Degenerate primers were designed based on comparative analysis of publicly available Aedes aegypti and An. gambiae gene sequences and used to clone putative homologs in the neotropical species. Sequence comparisons and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were then performed to better understand the molecular diversity of this gene in evolutionary distant anopheline species, belonging to different subgenera. Results Comparisons of the fbn9 gene sequences of the neotropical anophelines and their homologs in the An. gambiae complex (Gambiae complex showed high conservation at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, although some sites show significant differentiation (non-synonymous substitutions. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of fbn9 nucleotide sequences showed that neotropical anophelines and African mosquitoes form two well-supported clades, mirroring their separation into two different subgenera. Conclusions The present work adds new insights into the conserved role of fbn9 in insect immunity in a broader range of anopheline species and reinforces the possibility of manipulating mosquito immunity to design novel pathogen control strategies.

  9. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands

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    Beck Louisa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Methods Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. Results The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3–22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1–25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. Conclusion One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya

  10. Environmental characteristics of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in a malaria endemic area in Iran

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    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad-Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mehdi Zare; Reza Safari; Abdolrasul Mojahedi; Fatemeh Poorahmad-Garbandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental parameters of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Rudan county of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the mosquito breeding season from February 2010 to October 2011. The anopheline larvae were collected using the standard dipping method. The specimens were identified using a morphological-based key. Simultaneously with larval collection, environmental parameters of the larval habitats including water current and turbidity, sunlight situation, and substrate type of habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from breeding sites during larval collection. Before collection of samples, the water temperature was measured. The water samples were analysed for turbidity, conductivity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solid, pH and ions including chloride, sulphate, calcium, and magnesium. Statistical correlation analysis and ANOVA test were used to analyze the association between environmental parameters and larval mosquito abundance. Results: In total 2 973 larvae of the genus Anopheles were collected from 25 larval habitats and identified using morphological characters. They comprised of six species:An. dthali turkhudi (3.30%), and An. apoci (1.14%). The most abundant species was An. dthali which were collected from all of the study areas. Larvae of two malaria vectors, An. dthali and An. stephensi, co-existed and collected in a wide range of habitats with different physico-chemical parameters. The most common larval habitats were man-made sites such as sand mining pools with clean and still water. The anopheline mosquitoes also preferred permanent habitats in sunlight with sandy substrates. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between mean physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate, chloride, and mosquito distribution and abundance. Conclusions: The results of this

  11. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

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    B Farzinnia

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.

  12. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia

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    Ndoen Ermi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.

  13. Characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of Iran

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    Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi; Hassan Vatandoost; Mehdi Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in Bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of Iran. Methods: Larvae were collected monthly using the standard dipping method and identified using a morphological-based key. Environmental characteristics of the larval habitats were recorded. Water samples were taken from habitats during larval collection for physico-chemical characterization. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: In total 5150 anopheline larvae from 36 larval habitats were collected and identified. They comprised of six species: Anopheles culicifacies (29.36%), Anopheles moghulensis (25.20%),Anopheles dthali stephensi (5.01%). (18.02%), Anopheles superpictus (17.24%), Anopheles turkhudi (5.17%) and Anopheles The most common larval habitats were natural and clear water bodies such as riverbeds with sandy substrates and still water. Furthermore, the anopheline larvae were abundant in permanent and full sunlight habitats without vegetation and algae. Larval density was positively correlated with water temperature. Chemical characteristics including conductivity, total alkalinity, sulphate and chloride had significant effects on distribution and abundance of anopheline species.Conclusions:The result of this study indicates a correlation between some environmental characteristics and anopheline larvae abundance which can be considered for effective planning and implementing malaria elimination program in Iran.

  14. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan Highlands

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    Krief Sabrina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp., including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour in which they consume plant parts of low nutritional value but that contain compounds with anti-malarial properties suggests that the apes health might be affected by the parasite. The avoidance of the night-biting anopheline mosquitoes is another potential behavioural adaptation that would lead to a decrease in the number of infectious bites and consequently malaria. Methods Mosquitoes were collected over two years using suction-light traps and yeast-generated CO2 traps at the nesting and the feeding sites of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park. The species of the female Anopheles caught were then determined and the presence of Plasmodium was sought in these insects by PCR amplification. Results The mosquito catches yielded a total of 309 female Anopheles specimens, the only known vectors of malaria parasites of mammalians. These specimens belonged to 10 species, of which Anopheles implexus, Anopheles vinckei and Anopheles demeilloni dominated. Sensitive DNA amplification techniques failed to detect any Plasmodium-positive Anopheles specimens. Humidity and trap height influenced the Anopheles capture success, and there was a negative correlation between nest numbers and mosquito abundance. The anopheline mosquitoes were also less diverse and numerous in sites where chimpanzees were nesting as compared to those where they were feeding. Conclusions These observations suggest that the sites where chimpanzees build their nests every night might be

  15. Mosquito immune responses and compatibility between Plasmodium parasites and anopheline mosquitoes

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    Molina-Cruz Alvaro; Povelones Michael; Ndikuyeze Georges; Rodrigues Janneth; Jaramillo-Gutierrez Giovanna; Barillas-Mury Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional screens based on dsRNA-mediated gene silencing identified several Anopheles gambiae genes that limit Plasmodium berghei infection. However, some of the genes identified in these screens have no effect on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; raising the question of whether different mosquito effector genes mediate anti-parasitic responses to different Plasmodium species. Results Four new An. gambiae (G3) genes were identified that, when silenced, hav...

  16. Mosquito immune responses and compatibility between Plasmodium parasites and anopheline mosquitoes

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    Molina-Cruz Alvaro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional screens based on dsRNA-mediated gene silencing identified several Anopheles gambiae genes that limit Plasmodium berghei infection. However, some of the genes identified in these screens have no effect on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; raising the question of whether different mosquito effector genes mediate anti-parasitic responses to different Plasmodium species. Results Four new An. gambiae (G3 genes were identified that, when silenced, have a different effect on P. berghei (Anka 2.34 and P. falciparum (3D7 infections. Orthologs of these genes, as well as LRIM1 and CTL4, were also silenced in An. stephensi (Nijmegen Sda500 females infected with P. yoelii (17XNL. For five of the six genes tested, silencing had the same effect on infection in the P. falciparum-An. gambiae and P. yoelii-An. stephensi parasite-vector combinations. Although silencing LRIM1 or CTL4 has no effect in An. stephensi females infected with P. yoelii, when An. gambiae is infected with the same parasite, silencing these genes has a dramatic effect. In An. gambiae (G3, TEP1, LRIM1 or LRIM2 silencing reverts lysis and melanization of P. yoelii, while CTL4 silencing enhances melanization. Conclusion There is a broad spectrum of compatibility, the extent to which the mosquito immune system limits infection, between different Plasmodium strains and particular mosquito strains that is mediated by TEP1/LRIM1 activation. The interactions between highly compatible animal models of malaria, such as P. yoelii (17XNL-An. stephensi (Nijmegen Sda500, is more similar to that of P. falciparum (3D7-An. gambiae (G3.

  17. Field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. Before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. The aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern Kruger National Park. In addition to this, the impact of weather conditions on an Anopheles arabiensis population were evaluated and a range of mosquito collection methods were assessed. Methods A survey of Anopheles species was made between July 2010 and December 2012. Mosquitoes were collected from five sites in the northern Kruger National Park, using carbon dioxide-baited traps, human landing and larval collections. Specimens were identified morphologically and polymerase chain reaction assays were subsequently used where appropriate. Results A total of 3,311 specimens belonging to nine different taxa was collected. Species collected were: Anopheles arabiensis (n = 1,352), Anopheles quadriannulatus (n = 870), Anopheles coustani (n = 395), Anopheles merus (n = 349), Anopheles pretoriensis (n = 35), Anopheles maculipalpis (n = 28), Anopheles rivulorum (n = 19), Anopheles squamosus (n = 3) and Anopheles rufipes (n = 2). Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex were the most abundant and widely distributed, occurring across all collection sites. The highest number of mosquitoes was collected using CO2 baited net traps (58.2%) followed by human landing catches (24.8%). Larval collections (17%) provided an additional method to increase sample size. Mosquito sampling productivity was influenced by prevailing weather conditions and overall population densities fluctuated with seasons. Conclusion Several anopheline species occur in the northern Kruger National Park and their densities

  18. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

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    Sylvie Cornelie

    Full Text Available Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  19. A role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans in Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite invasion of anopheline mosquito salivary glands

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    Armistead, J.S.; Wilson, I.B.; Kuppevelt, T. van; Dinglasan, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    HS (heparan sulfate) has been shown to be an important mediator of Plasmodium sporozoite homing and invasion of the liver, but the role of this glycosaminoglycan in mosquito vector host-sporozoite interactions is unknown. We have biochemically characterized the function of AgOXT1 (Anopheles gambiae

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation within and between two species of neotropical anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae).

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    Conn, J E; Mitchell, S E; Cockburn, A F

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of two neotropical mosquitoes, Anopheles rangeli (n = 181) and A. trinkae (n = 45), with very different distribution patterns in Latin America, to assess species boundaries for these putative sister taxa and to examine population genetic structure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed (1) support for the monophyletic origin of each species; (2) diagnostic restriction site differences between the species; (3) geographic partitioning of haplotypes by country in A. rangeli from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela compared with considerable overlap in haplotypes of A. trinkae from Bolivia and Ecuador; and (4) similar levels of mean haplotype and nucleotide diversity in both species, but lower levels of mean nucleotide divergence in A. trinkae compared with A. rangeli. We hypothesize that higher maternal gene flow and lower divergence in A. trinkae are most likely due either to a distinctive matrilineal history or to a smaller effective population size, which may have been influenced by a smaller, essentially linear geographic range along the eastern flank of the Andes. In the cladistic analysis of A. rangell, the Bolivian haplotypes appear to be more derived than those from Ecuador or Venezuela, yet there is no evidence to support the hypothesis of a recent range expansion from Ecuador into Bolivia. PMID:9099005

  1. Drosophila as a model for the study of sex determination in anopheline and aedine mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterile insect technique control strategies consist of releasing laboratory produced male insects that have been sterilised by irradiation. These strategies require the production of massive quantities of males. Population-replacement strategies rely on the genetically engineered interruption of that portion of the malaria parasite's life cycle that occurs in the mosquito. This could be achieved by the inundative introduction of transformed males or the more limited introduction of males carrying an infective agent capable of driving a parasite-inhibiting transgene into the vector population. Once again, the release of genetically engineered males would require genetic systems for their mass production. Mass production of males can be accomplished most effectively through genetic sexing techniques. Genetic sexing can be achieved by identifying the key steps in the genetic regulation of sex differentiation and by modifying one or more of these steps so that their execution would result in sex-specific lethality. As the necessary and seminal first step towards this goal, we set out to identify and isolate a gene whose primary transcript is processed differently in males and females of Anopheles gambiae Giles. A survey of sex determination among insects reveals a vast array of different mechanisms. Our understanding of these mechanisms consists only of information derived from classical cytological and genetic studies. Using the knowledge derived from the study of Drosophila, it has been possible to discern a fundamental pattern in the sex determining mechanisms of many diverse insect species (Noethiger and Steinmann-Zwicky 1985). The challenge now, is to determine if there has been an evolutionary conservation of the genes responsible for the fundamental pattern, i.e., if the molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination in Drosophila are the same in other insects of interest or if in these insects, the apparent fundamental pattern is achieved by completely

  2. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond t

  3. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  4. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Amani; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi; Hamid Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran.Methods:larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline Results: A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d’thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi,Anopheles maculipennis Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area.Conclusions:Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs.

  5. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  6. Human exposure to anopheline mosquitoes occurs primarily indoors, even for users of insecticide-treated nets in Luangwa Valley, South-east Zambia

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    Seyoum Aklilu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current front line malaria vector control methods such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, rely upon the preference of many primary vectors to feed and/or rest inside human habitations where they can be targeted with domestically-applied insecticidal products. We studied the human biting behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus Giles and the potential malaria vector Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald in Luangwa valley, south-east Zambia. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch in blocks of houses with either combined use of deltamethrin-based IRS and LLINs or LLINs alone. Human behaviour data were collected to estimate how much exposure to mosquito bites indoors and outdoors occurred at various times of the night for LLIN users and non-users. Results Anopheles funestus and An. quadriannulatus did not show preference to bite either indoors or outdoors: the proportions [95% confidence interval] caught indoors were 0.586 [0.303, 0.821] and 0.624 [0.324, 0.852], respectively. However, the overwhelming majority of both species were caught at times when most people are indoors. The proportion of mosquitoes caught at a time when most people are indoors were 0.981 [0.881, 0.997] and 0.897 [0.731, 0.965], respectively, so the proportion of human exposure to both species occuring indoors was high for individuals lacking LLINs (An. funestus: 0.983 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.970, respectively. While LLIN users were better protected, more than half of their exposure was nevertheless estimated to occur indoors (An. funestus: 0.570 and An. quadriannulatus: 0.584. Conclusions The proportion of human exposure to both An. funestus and An. quadriannulatus occuring indoors was high in the area and hence both species might be responsive to further peri-domestic measures if these mosquitoes are susceptible to insecticidal products.

  7. The Impact of Pyrethroid Resistance on the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets against African Anopheline Mosquitoes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Strode, Clare; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year more than 200 million cases of malaria occur worldwide, and more than 600,000 people, mostly children living in sub-Saharan Africa, die from this parasitic infection. Malaria is transmitted to people through the bites of night-flying mosquitoes. Soon after entering the human body, the parasite begins to replicate in red blood cells, bursting out every 2–3 days and infecting more red blood cells. The presence of the parasite in the bloodstream causes mala...

  8. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

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    Mweresa Collins K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western Kenya. Trials consisted of environmental manipulation using locally available plants, the introduction of predatory fish and/or the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti in various combinations. Results Man-made habitats provided with shade from different crop species produced significantly fewer larvae than those without shade especially for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Larval control of the African malaria mosquito An. gambiae and other mosquito species was effective in habitats where both predatory fish and Bti were applied, than where the two biological control agents were administered independently. Conclusion We conclude that integration of environmental management techniques using shade-providing plants and predatory fish and/or Bti are effective and sustainable tools for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne disease vectors.

  9. Hemolytic C-Type Lectin CEL-III from Sea Cucumber Expressed in Transgenic Mosquitoes Impairs Malaria Parasite Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto Yoshida; Yohei Shimada; Daisuke Kondoh; Yoshiaki Kouzuma; Ghosh, Anil K.; Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena; Sinden, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and ra...

  10. Diversity of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh

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    Alam Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT of Bangladesh was considered hyperendemic for malaria. To better understand the contemporary malaria epidemiology and to develop new and innovative control strategies, comprehensive epidemiologic studies are ongoing in two endemic unions of Bandarban district of CHT. Within these studies entomological surveillance has been undertaken to study the role of the existing anopheline species involved in the malaria transmission cycle throughout the year. Methods CDC miniature light traps were deployed to collect anopheline mosquitoes from the sleeping room of the selected houses each month in a single union (Kuhalong. Molecular identification was carried out for available Anopheles species complexes. Circumsporozoite proteins (CSP for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 (Pv-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247(Pv-247 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from the female anopheline mosquitoes. To confirm CSP-ELISA results, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also performed. Results A total of 2,837 anopheline mosquitoes, of which 2,576 were female, belonging to 20 species were collected from July 2009 -June 2010. Anopheles jeyporiensis was the most abundant species (18.9%, followed by An. vagus (16.8% and An. kochi (14.4%. ELISA was performed on 2,467 female mosquitoes of 19 species. 15 (0.6% female anophelines belonging to eight species were found to be positive for Plasmodium infection by CSP-ELISA. Of those, 11 (0.4% mosquitoes were positive for P. falciparum and four (0.2% for Pv-210. No mosquito was found positive for Pv-247. An. maculatus (2.1%, 2/97 had the highest infection rate followed by An. umbrosus (1.7%, 2/115 and An. barbirostris (1.1%, 2/186. Other infected species were An. nigerrimus, An. nivipes, An. jeyporiensis, An. kochi, and An. vagus. Out of 11 P. falciparum CSP positive samples, seven turned out to be positive by PCR. None of the samples

  11. Highly focused anopheline breeding sites and malaria transmission in Dakar

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    Bouzid Samia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urbanization has a great impact on the composition of the vector system and malaria transmission dynamics. In Dakar, some malaria cases are autochthonous but parasite rates and incidences of clinical malaria attacks have been recorded at low levels. Ecological heterogeneity of malaria transmission was investigated in Dakar, in order to characterize the Anopheles breeding sites in the city and to study the dynamics of larval density and adult aggressiveness in ten characteristically different urban areas. Methods Ten study areas were sampled in Dakar and Pikine. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing collection during four nights in each area (120 person-nights. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP index was measured by ELISA and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR were calculated. Open water collections in the study areas were monitored weekly for physico-chemical characterization and the presence of anopheline larvae. Adult mosquitoes and hatched larvae were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. Results In September-October 2007, 19,451 adult mosquitoes were caught among which, 1,101 were Anopheles gambiae s.l. The Human Biting Rate ranged from 0.1 bites per person per night in Yoff Village to 43.7 in Almadies. Seven out of 1,101 An. gambiae s.l. were found to be positive for P. falciparum (CSP index = 0.64%. EIR ranged from 0 infected bites per person per year in Yoff Village to 16.8 in Almadies. The An. gambiae complex population was composed of Anopheles arabiensis (94.8% and Anopheles melas (5.2%. None of the An. melas were infected with P. falciparum. Of the 54 water collection sites monitored, 33 (61.1% served as anopheline breeding sites on at least one observation. No An. melas was identified among the larval samples. Some physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies were associated with the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and with larval density. A very close parallel

  12. Plasmodium evasion of mosquito immunity and global malaria transmission: The lock-and-key theory

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Kamath, Nitin; Pavlovic, Noelle V.; Mu, Jianbing; Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria originated in Africa but became global as humans migrated around the world. It is now transmitted by many different anopheline mosquito species, but little is known about the adaptation of Plasmodium to different vectors. Here, we show that the mosquito immune system is a major barrier for some P. falciparum isolates to infect mosquitoes from a different continent. Pfs47 is a protein that makes parasites “invisible” to the mosquito immune system. We found that pa...

  13. Molecular Perspectives on the Genetics of Mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquitoes have been a focus of scientific study since the turn of the century, when they were first linked with human diseases. This review concentrates on the three most intensely studied genera, Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. These genera include the principal vectors of three major groups of human pathogens: malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, filarial worms of the genera Wuchereria and Brugia, and numerous arboviruses. Anophelines are the only mosquitoes known to transmit human malaria parasites, a group of organisms that may be responsible for more morbidity and mortality worldwide than any other human pathogen. Anophelines also transmit filarial worms, as do Culex and Aedes species. Among the 14 or more different mosquito genera known to harbor arboviruses (Mattingly, 1973), the most important are Culex and Aedes, which include the principal vectors of yellow fever, dengue, and most encephalitis-causing arboviruses.

  14. Fitness of anopheline mosquitoes expressing transgenes that inhibit Plasmodium development.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Luciano A.; Jing WANG; Collins, Frank H.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    One potential strategy for the control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases is the introduction into wild vector populations of genetic constructs that reduce vectorial capacity. An important caveat of this approach is that the genetic construct should have minimal fitness cost to the transformed vector. Previously, we produced transgenic Anopheles stephensi expressing either of two effector genes, a tetramer of the SM1 dodecapeptide or the phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2) from honeybee ven...

  15. Visión estudiantil de la recta y continuidad

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Martha; García, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Dentro del curso de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral del nivel superior, correspondiente a Matemáticas I de Ingeniería y Matemáticas II de la carrera de Informática, se presenta en la primera unidad el estudio de los Números Reales. El objetivo de esta unidad, es comprender las propiedades axiomáticas de los números reales, para que desde ellas se pueda formalizar el estudio del cálculo. El presente estudio pretende estudiar como el estudiante “ve” a la recta, en el momento en que se axiomatiza...

  16. Construcciones mentales para el objeto recta de euler

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez, Violeta; Parraguez, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    En esta investigación se presenta un estudio en torno a la Recta de Euler, lugar geométrico que se construye en un triángulo y que contiene a tres elementos notables de él: baricentro, circuncentro y ortocentro. Con base en la teoría APOE (Acciones, Procesos, Objetos y Esquemas), marco teórico de carácter cognitivo enmarcado en el ámbito de la didáctica de la matemática, se realiza un estudio en profundidad de la construcción cognitiva de los conceptos geométricos involucrados en el aprendiza...

  17. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection statu...

  18. Highly evolvable malaria vectors : the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning similar to 100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromos...

  19. Studies on prevalence of anopheline species and community perception of malaria in Jaffna district, Sri Lanka

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    N.D. Karunaweera

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Over two decades of civil unrest and the conflict situation have had detrimental effects on vector control activities and management of malaria in Jaffna district which is an endemic region for malaria in Sri Lanka. With the background that only a few small-scale studies on malaria and its vectors have been reported from this district, a study was designed to explore the current status of malaria in the Jaffna district in relation to vector and community aspects.Methods: Adults and larvae of anopheline mosquitoes were collected monthly from selected endemic localities. Species prevalence of the collected mosquitoes was studied while the collected adults of Anopheles subpictus, a potential vector in the district, was screened for sibling species composition based on morphological characteristics and exposed to common insecticides using WHO bioassay kits. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the community were tested using a pre-tested structured questionnaire in high-risk and low-risk localities in the district.Results: The anopheline mosquito species distribution in the district was—An. culicifacies (0.5%, An. subpictus (46%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (44% and An. pallidus (5.5%. Among the collected larvae the percent prevalence of An. culicifacies was 13% and other species follows as: An. subpictus (71%, An. varuna (4%, An. nigerrimus (10% and An. pallidus (2%. Sibling species B, C and D of An. subpictus were present in the district with the predominance of B in both coastal and inland areas, while all members showed both indoor and outdoor resting characteristics, they were highly resistant to DDT (4% and highly susceptible to malathion (5%. KAP study in the district showed a reasonable level of knowledge, positive attitude and practices towards malaria.Conclusion: An. subpictus, the reported major vector of Jaffna and a well-established secondary vector of malaria in the country, continues to be the

  20. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T;

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....

  1. Interrelationships between Wolinella recta and Streptococcus sanguis in Mixed Continuous Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, H.; Gottschal, J C; Fukui, K; Kato, K.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed cultures of Wolinella recta, an asaccharolytic formate-oxidising bacterium, and Streptococcus sanguis, a saccharolytic formate-producing bacterium, were studied in cheniostats with glucose as the limiting nutrient and fumarate and/or oxygen as an electron acceptor. Steady-state cultures were established at different levels of fumarate and air supply. Two different types of relationships between both species were recognised in such cultures. A commensal relationship, with W. recta growin...

  2. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  3. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256

  4. Embolization of the Vasa Recta in Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Report of Five Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present our preliminary experience in embolization of the vasa recta in acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Methods: In four of five patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage superselective embolization of the vasa recta was performed. In one patient in whom superselective catheterization of the bleeding vas rectum was technically impossible, the origin of this vessel was embolized at the level of the terminal arcade. The following embolization materials were used: microcoils and polyvinyl alcohol particles (355-500 μm), n= 2; microcoils only, n= 2; Gelfoam particles, n1. Results: Bleeding was found in two patients in the small bowel (jejunum and ileum) and in three patients in the colon. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all patients. No signs of ischemia or infarction were observed after intervention. Conclusions: Superselective embolization of the vasa recta proved efficient and safe in our small patient group. Advantages of this technique are reduction of the embolized area to a minimum and direct control of hemostasis

  5. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F;

    2000-01-01

    . Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae...

  6. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...

  7. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval

  8. Complete mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi and an approach to anopheline divergence time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA of members of the northern and southern genotypes of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi were used for comparative studies to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for modern anophelines, to evaluate differentiation within this taxon, and to seek evidence of incipient speciation. Methods The mtDNAs were sequenced from mosquitoes from Belize and Brazil and comparative analyses of structure and base composition, among others, were performed. A maximum likelihood approach linked with phylogenetic information was employed to detect evidence of selection and a Bayesian approach was used to date the split between the subgenus Nyssorhynchus and other Anopheles subgenera. Results The comparison of mtDNA sequences within the Anopheles darlingi taxon does not provide sufficient resolution to establish different units of speciation within the species. In addition, no evidence of positive selection in any protein-coding gene of the mtDNA was detected, and purifying selection likely is the basis for this lack of diversity. Bayesian analysis supports the conclusion that the most recent ancestor of Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles+Cellia was extant ~94 million years ago. Conclusion Analyses of mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi do not provide support for speciation in the taxon. The dates estimated for divergence among the anopheline groups tested is in agreement with the geological split of western Gondwana (95 mya, and provides additional support for explaining the absence of Cellia in the New World, and Nyssorhynchus in the Afro-Eurasian continents.

  9. In vitro anticariogenic effects of aerial parts of Potentilla recta and its phytochemical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2011-03-01

    This study, for the first time, investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of Potentilla recta extracts and subfractions obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous, 50% ethanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples inhibited the growth of oral streptococci. Furthermore, all five P. recta preparations exhibited an inhibitory effect on water-insoluble α-(1→3)-,α-(1→6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antibiofilm activities especially against S. sobrinus GCM 20381, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25 and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The phytochemical profile of active constituents in the investigated samples was analysed. The high polyphenolics (total phenol, phenolic acids, tannins, proantocyanidins, flavonoids) content were found. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest concentration of total polyphenol content which may correlate with the high cariogenic activity of this subfraction. The results demonstrate that P. recta extracts and subfractions could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as new anticariogenic agents in a wide range of oral care products. Further studies are necessary to clarify the precise bioactive constituents of P. recta responsible for the anticariogenic properties. PMID:20677176

  10. Tools and Methods Derived from the Anopheline 16 Genome project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steele, Aaron; Fontaine, Michael Christophe; Martin, Andres; Emrich, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic reduction in sequencing costs has resulted in many initiatives to sequence certain organisms and populations. These initiatives aim to not only sequence and assemble genomes but also to perform a more broader analysis of the population structure. As part of the Anopheline Genome Consort

  11. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ScottSWildman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  12. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeto Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50 of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions.

  13. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Shimada, Yohei; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Ghosh, Anil K; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Sinden, Robert E

    2007-12-01

    The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50) of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions. PMID:18159942

  14. Metagenomics, paratransgenesis and the Anopheles microbiome: a portrait of the geographical distribution of the anopheline microbiota based on a meta-analysis of reported taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martínez Villegas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anophelines harbour a diverse microbial consortium that may represent an extended gene pool for the host. The proposed effects of the insect microbiota span physiological, metabolic and immune processes. Here we synthesise how current metagenomic tools combined with classical culture-dependent techniques provide new insights in the elucidation of the role of the Anopheles-associated microbiota. Many proposed malaria control strategies have been based upon the immunomodulating effects that the bacterial components of the microbiota appear to exert and their ability to express anti-Plasmodium peptides. The number of identified bacterial taxa has increased in the current “omics” era and the available data are mostly scattered or in “tables” that are difficult to exploit. Published microbiota reports for multiple anopheline species were compiled in an Excel® spreadsheet. We then filtered the microbiota data using a continent-oriented criterion and generated a visual correlation showing the exclusive and shared bacterial genera among four continents. The data suggested the existence of a core group of bacteria associated in a stable manner with their anopheline hosts. However, the lack of data from Neotropical vectors may reduce the possibility of defining the core microbiota and understanding the mosquito-bacteria interactive consortium.

  15. Role of fish as predators of mosquito larvae on the floodplain of the Gambia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Vasilis; Lucas, Martyn C; Green, Clare; Majambere, Silas; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steve W

    2009-05-01

    We examined the potential of using native fish species in regulating mosquitoes in the floodplain of the Gambia River, the major source of mosquitoes in rural parts of The Gambia. Fishes and mosquito larvae were sampled along two 2.3-km-long transects, from the landward edge of the floodplain to the river from May to November 2005 to 2007. A semifield trial was used to test the predatory capacity of fish on mosquito larvae and the influence of fish chemical cues on oviposition. In the field, there was less chance of finding culicine larvae where Tilapia guineensis, the most common floodplain fish, were present; however, the presence of anophelines was not related to the presence or absence of any fish species. In semifield trials, both T. guineensis and Epiplatys spilargyreius were effective predators, removing all late-stage culicine and anopheline larvae within 1 d. Fewer culicines oviposited in sites with fish, suggesting that ovipositing culicine females avoid water with fish. In contrast, oviposition by anophelines was unaffected by fish. Our studies show that T. guineensis is a potential candidate for controlling mosquitoes in The Gambia. PMID:19496426

  16. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G

    2009-01-01

    Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, 80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low ( or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the mosquito productivity is low when the Azolla coverage is high

  17. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3......,132 water samples from WSP and irrigated areas yielded 606,053 Culex larvae of five species. In addition, 107,113 anophelines, representing eight species were collected. Anopheles subpictus (Grassi) and Culex mosquitoes, especially Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles), showed an...... overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...

  18. Ookinete-induced midgut peroxidases detonate the time bomb in anopheline mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2005-07-01

    Previous analysis of the temporal-spatial relationship between ookinete migration and the cellular localization of genes mediating midgut immune defense responses suggested that, in order to survive, parasites must complete invasion before toxic chemicals ("a bomb") are generated by the invaded cell. Recent studies indicate that ookinete invasion induces tyrosine nitration as a two-step reaction, in which NOS induction is followed by a localized increase in peroxidase activity. Peroxidases utilize nitrite and hydrogen peroxide as substrates, and detonate the time bomb by generating reactive nitrogen intermediates, such as nitrogen dioxide, which mediate nitration. There is evidence that peroxidases also mediate antimicrobial responses to bacteria, fungi and parasites in a broad range of biological systems including humans and plants. Defense reactions that generate toxic chemicals are also potentially harmful to the host mounting the response and often results in apoptosis. The two-step nitration pathway is probably an ancient response, as it has also been described in vertebrate leukocytes and probably evolved as a mechanism to circumscribe the toxic products generated during defense responses involving protein nitration. PMID:15894189

  19. An Inhibitor of the Alternative Pathway of Complement in Saliva of New World Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio F; Queiroz, Daniel C; Vale, Vladimir F; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Gontijo, Nelder F; Andersen, John F

    2016-07-15

    The complement system present in circulating blood is an effective mechanism of host defense, responsible for the killing of pathogens and the production of potent anaphylatoxins. Inhibitors of the complement system have been described in the saliva of hematophagous arthropods that are involved in the protection of digestive tissues against complement system-mediated damage. In this study, we describe albicin, a novel inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement from the salivary glands of the malaria vector, Anopheles albimanus The inhibitor was purified from salivary gland homogenates by reverse-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry as a small (13.4-kDa) protein related to the gSG7 protein of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi Recombinant albicin was produced in Escherichia coli and found to potently inhibit lysis of rabbit erythrocytes in assays of the alternative pathway while having no inhibitory effect on the classical or lectin pathways. Albicin also inhibited the deposition of complement components on agarose-coated plates, although it could not remove previously bound components. Antisera produced against recombinant albicin recognized both the native and recombinant inhibitors and also blocked their activities in in vitro assays. Using surface plasmon resonance and enzymatic assays, we found that albicin binds and stabilizes the C3-convertase complex (C3bBb) formed on a properdin surface and inhibits the convertase activity of a reconstituted C3bBb complex in solution. The data indicate that albicin specifically recognizes the activated form of the complex, allowing more efficient inhibition by an inhibitor whose quantity is limited. PMID:27307559

  20. Indian Sub-Continent Anophelines and the Malaria Problem on a Regional Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The countries in the Indian sub-continent come under the Oriental region. Of the 450 anopheline species reported so far 286 species are from this region. A list of important vectors prevalent in each country of the sub-continent is given. Species which may have been found positive with sporozoites but not considered important in the transmission of malaria are not included in the list. The Indian anopheline fauna consists of about 56 species.

  1. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P;

    2003-01-01

    Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vector......-borne human disease risks associated with mosquito species utilizing wastewater for breeding. Mosquito larvae were collected on a fortnightly basis from components of the wastewater disposal system and irrigated sites. In total, 133 samples were collected, about equally divided between agricultural sites and...... quality and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese...

  2. Life-table analysis of Anopheles malaria vectors: generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Ray Anugboba Okogun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vector control will for sometime remain a primary weapon in the waragainst vector borne diseases. Malaria is of paramount importance in this with its associated highmorbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study on generational mortality associatedfactors in Anopheles mosquitoes life-table analysis was designed to investigate the fecundity,levels of mortality and mortality associated factors at the aquatic stages of anopheline malaria vectors.Methods: Mortality associated factors were investigated at the eggs, I and II instar larval, III and IVinstar larval and pupal stages of two anopheline species— Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobaldand An. gambiae life-cycles in screen cages. Adult male and female mosquitoes were membrane filterfedand algae in culture medium formed the bulk of food substances for the larval stage. Environmentaltemperature of culture media, pH and some associated physio-chemical factors were also determined.Results: Results showed significant mortality rates at various aquatic stages. Infertility, cannibalismand environmental factors were the major factors responsible for mortality at the egg, larval and pupalstages respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: The aquatic stages of Anopheles mosquito mortality factor K and themortality factors at the various stages investigated k1, k2, k3 and k4 are discussed. Our recommendationsinclude further studies on the possible genetic modification of predacious An. pseudopunctipennislarvae and/or its modification for the production of sterile/infertile eggs as possible alternativesin the reduction and control of anopheline malaria burden.

  3. In vitro Anticariogenic Effects of Aerial Parts of Potentilla recta and Its Phytochemical Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczyk, Michał; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study, for the first time, we investigated in vitro inhibitory effects of Potentilla recta extracts and subfractions obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous, 50% ethanolic, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic) against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples inhibited the growth of oral streptococci. Furthermore, all five P. recta preparations exhibited an inhibitory effects on water-insoluble ?-(1?3)-, ?-...

  4. Conceptualización y representación de fracciones en la recta numérica

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Moreno, Jhon Eduin

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Este trabajo se trató de una experiencia de intervención de aula en el grado noveno de la Institución Educativa San Juan Bosco de la ciudad de Medellín, sobre el concepto de fracción y algunos de sus diferentes significados (la fracción como parte de un todo, la fracción como cociente, la fracción como razón, fracción como porcentaje, la fracción como probabilidad, la fracción como Operador), así como su representación en la recta numérica (la fracción como un punto en la recta); tod...

  5. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2011-02-01

    a suitable carrier are a promising tool for control of larval populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae.

  6. Remote sensing of anophelines in rice-cropping villages in Mali: Patterns of vector abundance and malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuk Wasser, Maria Ana

    The explosive population growth and widespread urbanization in Africa requires a significant increase in food production. Crop irrigation is therefore expected to increase in the future, although it is often blamed for aggravating the health risk of local communities---by providing habitats suitable for mosquitoes vectors of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in our study area) and other diseases. An epidemiological paradox sometimes occurs, however, when an increase in vector numbers is accompanied by a reduction of the risk of infection, due to a reduction in mosquito longevity and of their tendency to bite human (vs. animals). The objective of this dissertation was to determine how agricultural patterns mapped using satellite data affected vector densities and malaria transmission parameters in 18 rice-cropping villages in Mali. I used a combination of optical (Landsat ETM+) and synthetic aperture radar (ERS-2 SAR). Using Landsat data, rice was distinguished from other land uses with 98% accuracy and rice cohorts were discriminated with 84% accuracy (three classes) or 94% (two classes). ERS-2 SAR backscatter was correlated with the height and biomass of rice plants and was therefore useful to distinguish among rice growth stages. As in previous studies, the early vegetative stage was associated with higher larval production. SAR was further able to distinguish between agronomic practices linked to high and low-production within those early stages. The landcover maps were integrated with archived data on adult and larval anopheline densities and malaria transmission parameters. The area of several landcovers explained up to 89% of the variability in mosquito numbers. The maximum correlation was obtained when landcover was measured in a 1-km buffer area. Vector density was negatively associated to parity and anthropophilic rates. An. gambiae showed higher vectorial capacity (VC) than An. funestus , with seasonal variations. Peak VC for both species

  7. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animut Abebe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l, Dirama (1995m.a.s.l. and Wurib (2196m.a.s.l.. Potential anopheline larval habitats were surveyed once per month in each village. The recorded characteristics of the habitats included habitat type, pH, surface debris, emergent plants, algae, substrate, turbidity, temperature, length, width, depth, distance to the nearest house and anophelines. The Spearman correlation coefficient and Mann–Whitney U test were used to calculate the degree of association between the density of anopheline species and key environmental factors. Results Among the different types of habitat surveyed, the Odamo, Akamuja and Assas streams and Beko swamp were positive for anopheline larvae. A total of 3,957 third and fourth instar larvae were collected from the three localities, and they represented ten species of anophelines. These were: Anopheles cinereus (32.5%, An. arabiensis (31.4%, An. chrysti (23%, An. demeilloni (12.2%, An. pretoriensis (0.6%, An. azaniae (0.1%, An. rufipes(0.1%, An. sergentii (0.06%, An. garnhami (0.06% and An. pharoensis (0.03%. The density of anopheline larvae was highest during the dry months. An. arabiensis was widely distributed, and its density decreased from the lowest elevation in Hobe to the highest in Wurib. The density of An. arabiensis larvae was correlated positively with larval habitat temperature (r = 0.33, p p  Conclusion Ten species of anophelines were identified, including two known vectors of malaria (An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis

  8. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Colin A; El-Motasim Waleed M; Hassan Mo'awia M; Helinski Michelle EH; Knols Bart GJ; El-Sayed Badria

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosqui...

  9. The impact of mass drug administration and long-lasting insecticidal net distribution on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans and mosquitoes: an observational study in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards Tansy; Auma Anna; Opio Tom; Kyabayinze Daniel J; Ashton Ruth A; Matwale Gabriel; Onapa Ambrose; Brooker Simon; Kolaczinski Jan H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Uganda is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. The mainstay of elimination has been annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole, targeted to endemic districts, but has been sporadic and incomplete in coverage. Vector control could potentially contribute to reducing W. bancrofti transmission, speeding up progress towards elimination. To establish whether the use of long-lasting insect...

  10. IGF-II receptors in luminal and basolateral membranes isolated from pars convoluta and pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian; Jessen, H; Flyvbjerg, A

    1995-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-II (125I-IGF-II) to luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from pars convoluta and the straight part (pars recta) of rabbit proximal tubule was investigated. Analyses of the binding data by use of the general stoichiometric binding...... inhibitory effect of beta-galactosidase. Analyses of 125I-IGF-II binding curves in the presence of beta-galactosidase or D-mannose 6-phosphate demonstrated that none of these compounds changed the binding affinity of 125I-IGF-II for the membrane vesicles. The IGF-II/M6P receptor content in the luminal...

  11. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito Bite Prevention for Travelers Mosquitoes spread many types of viruses and parasites that can cause diseases ... be available. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your ...

  12. "MOSQUITO FAUNA OF IRAN I- AEDES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Zaim

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological research of all kinds on mosquitoes must be built upon a foundation of correct identification and sound classification. Except for the anopheline vectors of malaria, relatively little is known about other mosquitoes in Iran and other countries in Southwest Asia. In view of this a comprehensive study on the mosquito fauna of Iran has started since 1981. In this report the list of the Aedes species of Iran is updated. Previous studies by Iranian and foreign investigators have revealed the occurrence of 6 Aedes species in Iran. Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Ae. caballus, Ae. Caspius, Ae pulchritarsis and Ae. aegypti. In the present study not only all named species, except one, were recollected but 5 additional species were also captured which formerly have not been know to occur in Iran. These species are Ae. Vittatus, Ae. echinus, Ae. detritus, Ae. flavescens, and Ae. leucomelas. Ae. aegypti has not been collected in Iran since the previous report in 1946. The present list of 10 species should not be regarded as final since other species, which occur in neighboring countries, may eventually be found in Iran.

  13. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games ... that is transmitted to humans by a female mosquito's bite. Read More » The Nobel Prize The 1902 ...

  14. Mosquito, adult (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  15. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l), Diram...

  16. Controlling Mosquitoes Outside

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-09

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile, Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard will teach you and his neighbor, Laura, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes outside your home. Tips include eliminating areas of standing water where mosquitoes lay eggs and using larvicides to kill young mosquitoes.  Created: 8/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/9/2016.

  17. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Salas

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per trial, however the Tecojate strain developed higher sporozoite loads. Intravenous inoculation of Aotus monkeys with sporozoites obtained from both anopheline strains resulted in successful blood infections. Animals infected with sporozoites from the Tecojate strain presented a patent period of 21-32 days whereas parasitemia appeared between days 19-53 in monkeys infected with sporozites from Cartagena strain.

  18. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M L; Romero, J F; Solarte, Y; Olano, V; Herrera, M A; Herrera, S

    1994-01-01

    The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per trial, however the Tecojate strain developed higher sporozoite loads. Intravenous inoculation of Aotus monkeys with sporozoites obtained from both anopheline strains resulted in successful blood infections. Animals infected with sporozoites from the Tecojate strain presented a patent period of 21-32 days whereas parasitemia appeared between days 19-53 in monkeys infected with sporozites from Cartagena strain. PMID:7565121

  19. Chromosome evolution in malaria mosquitoes inferred from physically mapped genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakhov, Igor V; Artemov, Gleb N; Sharakhova, Maria V

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphic inversions in mosquitoes are distributed nonrandomly among chromosomes and are associated with ecological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations related to pathogen transmission. Despite their significance, the patterns and mechanism of genome rearrangements are not well understood. Recent sequencing and physical mapping of the genomes for 16 Anopheles mosquito species provided an opportunity to study chromosome evolution at the highest resolution. New studies revealed that fixed rearrangement accumulated [Formula: see text]3 times faster on the X chromosome than on autosomes. The highest densities of transposable elements (TEs) and satellites of different sizes have also been found on the X chromosome, suggesting a mechanism for the inversion generation. The high rate of X chromosome rearrangements is in sharp contrast with the paucity of polymorphic inversions on the X in the majority of anopheline species. This paper highlights the advances in understanding chromosome evolution in malaria vectors and discusses possible future directions in studying mechanisms and biological roles of genome rearrangements. PMID:27021248

  20. Comparison of the Performances of Five Primer Sets for the Detection and Quantification of Plasmodium in Anopheline Vectors by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumeau, V.; Andolina, C.; Fustec, B.; Tuikue Ndam, N.; Brengues, C.; Herder, S.; Cerqueira, D.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.; Nosten, F.; Corbel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrtPCR) has made a significant improvement for the detection of Plasmodium in anopheline vectors. A wide variety of primers has been used in different assays, mostly adapted from molecular diagnosis of malaria in human. However, such an adaptation can impact the sensitivity of the PCR. Therefore we compared the sensitivity of five primer sets with different molecular targets on blood stages, sporozoites and oocysts standards of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and P. vivax (Pv). Dilution series of standard DNA were used to discriminate between methods at low concentrations of parasite and to generate standard curves suitable for the absolute quantification of Plasmodium sporozoites. Our results showed that the best primers to detect blood stages were not necessarily the best ones to detect sporozoites. Absolute detection threshold of our qrtPCR assay varied between 3.6 and 360 Pv sporozoites and between 6 and 600 Pf sporozoites per mosquito according to the primer set used in the reaction mix. In this paper, we discuss the general performance of each primer set and highlight the need to use efficient detection methods for transmission studies. PMID:27441839

  1. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; FANG ZHU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Repeated blood feedings throughout their life span have made mosquitoes ideal transmitters of a wide variety of disease agents. Vector control is a very important part of the current global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases and insecticide application is the most important component in this effort. Pyrethroids, which account for 25% of the world insecticide market, are currently the most widely used insecticides for the indoor control of mosquitoes and are the only chemical recommended for the treatment of mosquito nets, the main tool for preventing malaria in Africa. However, mosquito-borne diseases are now resurgent, largely because of insecticide resistance that has developed in mosquito vectors and the anti-parasite drug resistance of parasites. This paper reviews our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing metabolic detoxification and the development of target site insensitivity that leads to pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

  2. Use of circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with microscopic examination of salivary glands for calculation of malaria infectivity rates in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Meunier, J Y; Nkondjio, C A; Tchuinkam, T

    2001-05-01

    A survey in Cameroon compared the usefulness of the circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CSP ELISA) to dissection and microscopic examination of anopheline salivary glands for measuring infectivity rates in anopheline mosquitoes. The salivary glands of 375 females, belonging to four species were examined for sporozoites. After microscopic examination, the glands as well as all the remaining heads and thoraces were tested by ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA was 100% (18/18), confidence interval (CI) (78.1-100) and the specificity was 99.7% (357/358), CI (98.2 100). The Kappa value, agreement between examination of the glands and salivary gland ELISA, was 0.97. The head thorax CSP ELISA overestimated the true salivary gland infection rate by 12.0%. The results obtained in Central Africa in a village with perennial transmission highly justified the use of the ELISA for measuring the entomological inoculation rate. PMID:11372973

  3. Resting behaviour of endophilic anopheline vectors in three ecological zones of southern Ghana and its implications for the use of entomopathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the resting behaviour and factors that influence the choice of resting sites by endophilic anopheline mosquitoes in southern Ghana. The study was carried out in six villages across three ecological zones of Southern Ghana, including: the forest ecological zone (FEZ), the coastal savannah ecological zone (CSEZ) and the forest-transition ecological zone (FTEZ). For every mosquito collected, the indoor resting sites was characterised and microclimate at the actual resting site recorded using a data logger. In the laboratory, full diagnostics was carried out on a sub-sample. Resting devices constructed from different materials were tested in a screen house and in village rooms. The dominant anopheline vectors include Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii and An.funestus. An gambiae s.s. was the most dominant species in the villages from the FEZ and FTEZ, whereas An. coluzzii was most dominant in the CSEZ. An funestus was present in the FEZ and CSEZ but almost absent from the FTEZ. The two kdr mutations (L1014F and L1014S) were present in all the ecological zones and in both An. gambiae s.s. and An.coluzzii. This is the first report of the L1014S mutation from Ghana. The populations were highly anthropophagic and plasmodium falciparum was present in populations from all the villages studied. Woody materials appeared to be the most preferred resting materials for An. gambiae, accounting for 47% of all the resting sites for that species. They were also found on fabrics (26%), wall materials (12%), and roof materials (10%). Similarly, An. funestus preferred to rest on woody materials (58%), followed by wall materials (21%), fabrics (11%) and roofing materials (7%). For An.coluzzii, fabrics were the most preferred resting materials (38%) followed by roof materials (21%), wooden materials (19%) and wall materials (9%). All the three vector species preferred to rest higher up the room and closer to the walls, with large proportions of An

  4. Investigations on anopheline mosquitoes close to the nest sites of chimpanzees subject to malaria infection in Ugandan highlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Krief Sabrina; Levrero Florence; Krief Jean-Michel; Thanapongpichat Supinya; Imwong Mallika; Snounou Georges; Kasenene John M; Cibot Marie; Gantier Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria parasites (Plasmodium sp.), including new species, have recently been discovered as low grade mixed infections in three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) sampled randomly in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This suggested a high prevalence of malaria infection in this community. The clinical course of malaria in chimpanzees and the species of the vectors that transmit their parasites are not known. The fact that these apes display a specific behaviour ...

  5. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  6. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Sim; Natapong Jupatanakul; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundam...

  7. Mosquito-parasite interactions can shape filariasis transmission dynamics and impact elimination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available The relationship between mosquito vectors and lymphatic filariasis (LF parasites can result in a range of transmission outcomes. Anophelines are generally characterized as poor vectors due to an inability to support development at low densities. However, it is important to understand the potential for transmission in natural vectors to maximize the success of elimination efforts. Primary vectors in Papua New Guinea (n = 1209 were dissected following exposure to microfilaremic blood (range 8-233 mf/20 µl. We examined density dependent and species-specific parasite prevalence, intensity and yield, barriers to parasite development as well as impacts on mosquito survival. We observed strikingly different parasite prevalence and yield among closely related species. Prevalence of infective stage larvae (L3s ranged from 4.2% to 23.7% in An. punctulatus, 24.5% to 68.6% in An. farauti s.s. and 61.9% to 100% in An. hinesorum at low and high density exposures, respectively. Injection experiments revealed the greatest barrier to parasite development involved passage from the midgut into the hemocoel. The ratio of L3 to ingested mf at low densities was higher in An. hinesorum (yield = 1.0 and An. farauti s.s. (yield = 0.5 than has been reported in other anopheline vectors. There was a negative relationship between mosquito survival and bloodmeal mf density. In An. farauti s.s., increased parasite yield and survival at low densities suggest greater competence at low microfilaremias. In Papua New Guinea the likelihood of transmission will be strongly influenced by vector composition and changes in the mf reservoir as a result of elimination efforts. Global elimination efforts will be strengthened by the knowledge of transmission potential in the context of current control measures.

  8. Pollination Biology of Potentilla recta (Sulfur Cinquefoil and Its Cooccurring Native Congener Potentilla gracilis in Northeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McIver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination biology of the invasive plant sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta L. and it's native cooccurring congener slender cinquefoil (P. gracilis Dougl. ex. Hook. was studied from 2002–2004, at four sites in northeastern Oregon, USA The native cinquefoil flowered first for five weeks, followed by the invasive for five weeks, with two weeks overlap in mid-June. Invasive flowers attracted 74 species and 543 individuals; the native attracted 93 species and 619 individuals. The most important pollinators for the invasive, in order of importance, were: Apis mellifera, Ceratina nanula, Halictus tripartitus, Lasioglossum sisymbrii, and Bombus rufocinctus; for the native: C. nanula, Trichodes ornatus, H. ligatus, L. sisymbrii, and L. olympiae. The invasive produced higher numbers of seeds per plant, having greater mass per unit vegetation. Mean seed size was lower for the invasive when pollinators were allowed access to flowers, but seed size increased linearly with more complete exclusion of pollinators; the native showed no such response to pollinator exclusion. Compared to the native, nearly twice as many seeds germinated for sulfur cinquefoil (35.0% versus 19.5%, with seeds germinating over a longer period of time. Results are discussed as they relate to the invasiveness of sulfur cinquefoil relative to the native.

  9. A three year study on distribution and ecology of Anophelines in Thenzawl, Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomuanpuii, Rita; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A systematic survey on Anopheline species abundance, bionomics and habitat preference was conducted for three years in Thenzawl, Mizoram. A scoop-net method was employed for larval collection and a local made killing-jar for adults. A total of 10 species Anopheles campestris (25.8%), An. nivipes (24.0%), An. vagus (20.6%), An. jamesii (15.1%), An. jeyporiensis (11.4%), An. maculatus (1.7%), An. philippinensis (0.7%), An. annularis (0.26%), An. sinensis (0.23%) and An. peditaeniatus (0.22%) were collected. The survey site having thick tall grasses, numerous rural-huts as residents, small to relatively larger ponds and very slow running water bodies well shaded from sunlight with floating aquatic plants provided the largest area for Anopheles larvae breeding and accounted for 40% of all Anopheles larva and 25.4% total Anopheles spp. collected. An. campestris (NSK01), maculatus (NSK04), philippinensis (NSK06), nivipes (NSK10) and jeyporiensis (NSK09) were strongly anthropogenic and endophagic while vagus (NSK18) and jamesii (NSK03) were found to be highly zoophilic and exophilic and An. peditaeniatus (NSK02), annularis (NSK07) and sinensis (NSK15) were found to be highly zoophilic. Because of its abundance and bionomics, An. campestris, jeyporiensis and nivipes may have played a role in malarial transmission throughout the year. This is the first study reported on Anopheline distribution and abundance in Thenzawl, Mizoram. PMID:24665764

  10. Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Mosquitoes can carry viruses, like West Nile and Zika. In this podcast, Mr. Hubbard teaches his neighbors, the Smith family, ways to help reduce the number of mosquitoes inside their home.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  11. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  12. 电子驱灭蚊蝇技术的研究%Electronic technology of mosquitoes control and repelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钧; 陈明媛

    2013-01-01

      蚊蝇等害虫对人类的健康构成了危害。蚊香、灭蚊剂等传统的驱灭蚊子方法不仅使它们产生了抗药性,而且会造成环境污染[1]。本文通过分析蚊子的生活特性,利用现代电子技术、仿生学和物理技术等非化学方法实现了绿色驱灭蚊子。经实验研究,该方法比传统的方法更加环保、高效。%Pests such as mosquitoes are harm to human's health. Driving and killing mosquitoes by mosquito-repellent incense and anopheline in the traditional ways not only cause their developed resistance, and will cause environmental pollution [1]. Through analysis of the characteristics of mosquitoes, the modern electronic technology, bionics and physical technology, not chemical methods, have been realized controlling and repelling mosquitoes. After experimental research, the idea is better than the traditional method, with more environmental protection, high efficiency.

  13. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani and one subspecies (Ae. vigilax vansomerenae are considered as endemic. Two illustrated identification keys, one for adult females and the other for larval stages, are presented. Conclusions The knowledge of the culicidian fauna in the Seychelles has been notably updated. The number of mosquito species is relatively large with regards to land surface and distances to continental Africa, although the anophelines are totally lacking. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides examples of both vicariance- and dispersal-mediated divergences. They present superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology.

  14. Arbovirus Prevalence in Mosquitoes, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Sutherland, Laura J.; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric M.; Gray, Laurie R; Zimmerman, Peter A; Hise, Amy G.; King, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the many mosquito species that harbor arboviruses in Kenya. During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in North Eastern Province, Kenya, exophilic mosquitoes were collected from homesteads within 2 affected areas: Gumarey (rural) and Sogan-Godud (urban). Mosquitoes (n = 920) were pooled by trap location and tested for Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. The most common mosquitoes trapped belonged to the genus Culex (75%). Of 105 mosquito pools teste...

  15. Identification and expression profiling of putative odorant-binding proteins in the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and A.arabiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhengxi; Jing-Jiang; ZHOU; SHEN; Zuorui; Lin; FIELD

    2004-01-01

    Olfaction plays a major role in host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. An informatics-based genome-wide analysis of odorant-binding protein (OBP) homologues is undertaken,and 32 putative OBP genes in total in the whole genome sequences of Anopheles gambiae are identified. Tissue-specific expression patterns of all A. gambiae OBP candidates are determined by semi-quantitative Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR using mosquito actin gene as internal expression control standard. The results showed that 20 OBP candidates had strong expression in mosquito olfactory tissues (female antennae), which indicate that OBPs may play an important role in regulating mosquito olfactory behaviours. Species-specific expression patterns of all putative anopheline OBPs are also studied in two of the most important malaria vectors in A. gambiae complex, i.e.A. gambiae and A. arabiensis, which found 12 of the putative OBP genes examined displayed species-differential expression patterns. The cumulative relative expression intensity of the OBPs in A. arabiensis antennae was higher than that in A. gambiae (the ratio is 1441.45:1314.12), which might be due to their different host preference behaviour. While A.gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito, A. arabiensis is more opportunistic (varying from anthropophilic to zoophilic). So the latter should need more OBPs to support its host selection preference. Identification of mosquito OBPs and verification of their tissue- and species-specific expression patterns represent the first step towards further molecular analysis of mosquito olfactory mechanism, such as recombinant expression and ligand identification.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O’nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity. PMID:27138938

  17. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and expression of microRNAs from the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that are now recognized as a major class of gene-regulating molecules widely distributed in metozoans and plants. miRNAs have been found to play important roles in apoptosis, cancer, development, differentiation, inflammation, longevity, and viral infection. There are a few reports describing miRNAs in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, on the basis of similarity to known miRNAs from other species. An. stephensi is the most important malaria vector in Asia and it is becoming a model Anopheline species for physiological and genetics studies. Results We report the cloning and characterization of 27 distinct miRNAs from 17-day old An. stephensi female mosquitoes. Seventeen of the 27 miRNAs matched previously predicted An. gambiae miRNAs, offering the first experimental verification of miRNAs from mosquito species. Ten of the 27 are miRNAs previously unknown to mosquitoes, four of which did not match any known miRNAs in any organism. Twenty-five of the 27 Anopheles miRNAs had conserved sequences in the genome of a divergent relative, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Two clusters of miRNAs were found within introns of orthologous genes in An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, and Drosophila melanogaster. Mature miRNAs were detected in An. stephensi for all of the nine selected miRNAs, including the four novel miRNAs (miR-x1- miR-x4, either by northern blot or by Ribonuclease Protection Assay. Expression profile analysis of eight of these miRNAs revealed distinct expression patterns from early embryo to adult stages in An. stephensi. In both An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, the expression of miR-x2 was restricted to adult females and predominantly in the ovaries. A significant reduction of miR-x2 level was observed 72 hrs after a blood meal. Thus miR-x2 is likely involved in female reproduction and its function may be conserved among divergent mosquitoes. A mosquito homolog of miR-14, a

  19. Investigation on Anopheline species in Chayu County, Linzhi Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region%西藏林芝地区察隅县按蚊种群调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪举; 胡松林; 李松凌; 顾政诚; 陈建设; 朱国鼎; 黄芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 确定西藏林芝地区察隅县主要按蚊蚊种.方法 2010年7-8月在察隅县选择4个自然村,采用通宵/半通宵室内、外人饵帐诱捕法和通宵诱蚊灯诱捕法捕蚊,对捕获的按蚊进行形态学鉴定.结果 共捕获按蚊2 991只,其中带足按蚊2 284只(占76.36%),多斑按蚊种团667只(占22.30%),其他按蚊40只(占1.34%);带足按蚊室内、外半通宵平均密度分别为56.2只/夜和4只/夜,多斑按蚊种团室内、外半通宵平均密度分别为17.8只/夜和17.9只/夜;带足按蚊室内、外全通宵室内叮人率分别为28.1只/(人·夜)和2只/(人·夜),多斑按蚊种团全通宵室内、外叮人率均为8.9只/(人·夜).结论 带足按蚊和多斑按蚊为察隅县优势蚊种,是可能的疟疾传播媒介.%Objective To investigate Anopheline species in Chayu County of Linzhi Prefecture, Tibet Methods Four natural villages in Chayu County were selected in this study in 2010. The methods of overnighl/semi-overaight trapping indoor and outdoor human-bait, and overnight trapping with light traps were used, and all the Anopheline mosquitoes were confirmed by morphological characteristics. Results Totally 2 991 Anopheline mosquitoes were captured, with 76.36% (2 284/2 291) of An, peditae-niatus, 22.30% (667/2 291) of An. maculates group. The average densities of An. peditaeniatus by semi-overnight trapping were 56.2/per person indoor and 4/per person outdoor respectively, and the average densities of An. maculatus group by semi-overnight trapping were 17.8/per person indoor and 17.9/per person outdoor respectively. The man-biting rates of An. peditaeniatus by overnight trapping were 28.I/per person indoor and 2/per person outdoor respectively, and were both 8.9/per person to An. maculatus group. Conclusion An. peditaeniatus and An. maculatus group are the possible transmission vectors of malaria in Chayu County.

  20. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice. PMID:17249341

  1. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  2. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  3. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  4. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derek Charlwood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections, 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae. Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages.

  5. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J Derek; Macia, Gracieta A; Manhaca, Maria; Sousa, Bruno; Cuamba, Nelson; Bragança, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections), 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae). Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages. PMID:23733293

  6. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  7. Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;

    2004-01-01

    . Mosquitoes were collected from bedrooms using the pyrethroid spraycatch method and from vegetation and animal sheds using backpack aspirators. Overall, Anopheles subpictus Grassi sensu lato predominated (55.6%), followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l. (41.4%), An. culicifacies Giles s.l. (2.0%), An...

  8. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT, radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age, and adults Results Irradiation of pupae, for all doses tested, had no effect on adult emergence. Survival curves of males irradiated as pupae or adults were similar or even slightly higher than non-irradiated males. Overall, adults appeared to be slightly more susceptible to irradiation, although no significant differences for individual doses were observed. In the pupal stage, a significant negative correlation was found between insemination and dose, but the correlation-coefficient was associated with less than 25% of the total variation. A review of the literature indicated that An. arabiensis is more radiation resistant than other anopheline mosquitoes. Conclusion The optimal dose for male insects to be released in an SIT programme depends on their level of sterility and competitiveness. The use of semi-sterilizing doses to produce more competitive insects is discussed. The most convenient developmental stage for mosquito irradiation on a mass-scale are pupae, but pupal irradiation resulted in a lower insemination rate at the highest dose compared to adult irradiation. On the basis of this study, a suitable dose range that includes semi-sterilizing doses is identified to initiate competitiveness experiments for males irradiated at both developmental stages.

  9. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies

  10. Affinity and diversity indices for anopheline immature forms Afinidade e diversidade de formas imaturas de anofelinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Nagm

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As for the entire Amazon Region, malaria continues to be a major health public problem in Roraima that presented an Annual Parasitic Index of 85.4 in 2005, the highest in Brazil. Information on anopheline breeding sites is an essential component in malaria control strategies. Aiming to contribute to the limited knowledge on anopheline immature forms in Roraima, collections and breeding site observations were performed in 10 breeding sites around the capital city Boa Vista. Collections were carried out in the rainy and dry season periods between April 2004 and January 2005. Breeding sites comprised natural and artificial water reservoirs. A total of 623 immature forms were collected belonging to Anopheles albitarsis s.l., An.triannulatus s.l., An. nuneztovari/dunhami, An. braziliensis, An. evansae, An. oswaldoi s.l., An. strodei and An. darlingi. An. albitarsis and An. braziliensis were the most frequently found species. Eight larvae of An. darlingi were found in only one breeding site located in the forest. An. triannulatus/An. nuneztovari and An. albitarsis/An. braziliensis were the pairs of species that mostly occurred together. Both pair of species displayed the highest affinity index what might indicate a high compatibility for the same breeding conditions and/or a synergistic co-occurrence. Species diversity index was higher for the dry season.Como para toda a Amazônia, a malária representa um importante problema de saúde pública em Roraima. Roraima apresentou um índice parasitário anual de 85,4 em 2005, o maior do Brasil. O conhecimento dos criadouros de anofelinos constitui-se num componente primordial nas estratégias de controle da malária. No intuito de contribuir para o limitado conhecimento dos criadouros de anofelinos em Roraima, coleções de imaturos e observações dos criadouros foram realizadas no entorno da capital Boa Vista. As coletas foram feitas nas estações seca e chuvosa entre abril de 2004 e janeiro de 2005. Os

  11. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. METHODS: The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000; the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC; and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC. These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. RESULTS: Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7% and 764 others (6.2% were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  12. Large-scale control of mosquito vectors of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By far the most important vector borne disease is malaria transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes causing an estimated 300-500 million clinical cases per year and 1.4-2.6 million deaths, mostly in tropical Africa (WHO 1995). The second most important mosquito borne disease is lymphatic filariasis, but there are now such effective, convenient and cheap drugs for its treatment that vector control will now have at most a supplementary role (Maxwell et al. 1999a). The only other mosquito borne disease likely to justify large-scale vector control is dengue which is carried in urban areas of Southeast Asia and Latin America by Aedes aegypti L. which was also the urban vector of yellow fever in Latin America. This mosquito was eradicated from most countries of Latin America between the 1930s and 60s but, unfortunately in recent years, it has been allowed to re-infest and cause serious dengue epidemics, except in Cuba where it has been held close to eradication (Reiter and Gubler 1997). In the 1930s and 40s, invasions by An. gambiae Giles s.l., the main tropical African malaria vector, were eradicated from Brazil (Soper and Wilson 1943) and Egypt (Shousha 1947). It is surprising that greatly increased air traffic has not led to more such invasions of apparently climatically suitable areas, e.g., of Polynesia which has no anophelines and therefore no malaria. The above mentioned temporary or permanent eradications were achieved before the advent of DDT, using larvicidal methods (of a kind which would now be considered environmentally unacceptable) carried out by rigorously disciplined teams. MALARIA Between the end of the Second World War and the 1960s, the availability of DDT for spraying of houses allowed eradication of malaria from the Soviet Union, southern Europe, the USA, northern Venezuela and Guyana, Taiwan and the Caribbean Islands, apart from Hispaniola. Its range and intensity were also greatly reduced in China, India and South Africa and, at least temporarily, in

  13. Community Sleeping Pattern and Anopheline Biting in Southeastern Iran: A Country Earmarked for Malaria Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Basseri, Hamid R; Abai, Mohammad R.; Raeisi, Ahmad; SHAHANDEH, Khandan

    2012-01-01

    An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of malaria mosquito species is the degree of mosquito–human contact. This parameter can be affected by community sleeping behavior and the host-feeding habits of vectors. A cross-sectional study of 775 randomly selected inhabitants, including 385 Baluchi residents and 390 Afghani refugees, was conducted in a malarious area in Sabaz District, Sistan-Baluchestan Province, southeastern Iran. In addition, monitoring of human landing peri...

  14. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Vamsi P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions

  15. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  16. Botanicals as Mosquito Larvicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Nath,

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of 19 indigenous plants were evaluated as mosquito larvicide. Amongthese, pericarp of Zanthoxylum limonella was found to have the most promising larvicidalproperties against Aedes(s albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC90 values at 0.47 ppmand 0.73 ppm, respectively. The extract of Piper nigrum was also found very effective (LC90on the larvae of both the species at 6.8 ppm and 8.4 ppm, respectively. The extracts of theremaining plant parts showed LC90 values at above 100 ppm concentration. Extract of Calotropisgigantea was found to be the least effective ( LC90 values at 962.8 ppm and 1091.8 ppm againstthe larvae of both the species. However, plant extracts were found more effective against Aedes(salbopictus larvae than against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  17. Operational use of neem oil as an alternative anopheline larvicide. Part B: Environmental impact and toxicological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, O M

    2003-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preliminary environmental and mammalian toxicology of neem oil, temephos and chlorpyriphos-methyl/fenitrothion. Culex pipiens, Daphnia magna and Gambusia affinis were used to study environmental impact. A high level of toxicity was observed, with slight differences between organisms. The emulsifiers individually also displayed toxicity towards the tested organisms. Up to 90 days daily oral crude neem oil treatment (5 g/kg body weight) of laboratory mice did not cause any significant changes in weekly body weight gain, nor in serum liver damage indicators, direct bilirubin or total bilirubin. Blood parameters of treated mice up to 90 days were not statistically different from those of control mice. Neem oil could be used as an environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional chemical anopheline larvicides. PMID:15748062

  18. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  19. Un estudio histórico del problema de las piezas prismáticas rectas sometidas a compresión. Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Rosa, Emilio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical overview of the key questions that have marked the evolution of the study of straight prismatic elements subjected to compression loads. Straight prismatic elements are researched considering the practical problems on the basis of which models and the theory explaining their behaviour have been developed.The problems that give rise to the origin of the theory of the beam-column are reviewed in the fi rst section (buckling loads and stability and their subsequent developments: imperfections, large deformations, shear deformation and asymmetries. On the other hand, new problems in relationship to the behavior of the material (plasticity, rheology and its three dimensional nature are considered. Finally, the application of fracture and damage theory to the study of the behaviour of the columns is mentioned.En el presente artículo se recogen, desde una perspectiva histórica, las cuestiones básicas que han marcado la evolución del estudio de piezas prismáticas rectas sometidas a compresión. Dicho estudio se lleva a cabo considerando los problemas prácticos en relación con los cuales se han desarrollado tanto los modelos como la teoría que explica su comportamiento.En un primer apartado se recogen los primeros problemas que dan origen al nacimiento de la teoría de la viga-columna (cargas de pandeo y estabilidad y sus posteriores desarrollos: imperfecciones, grandes deformaciones, deformación por cortante y asimetrías. Por otra parte se recogen nuevos problemas en relación con el comportamiento de los materiales (plasticidad, reología y su carácter tridimensional. Por último se menciona la aplicación de la teoría de la fractura y daño al estudio del comportamiento de los pilares.

  20. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Song Guo; Feng Ling; Juan Hou; Jinna Wang; Guiming Fu; Zhenyu Gong

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence...

  1. TRANSMISSION OF FOWL-POX BY MOSQUITOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligler, I. J.; Muckenfuss, R. S.; Rivers, T. M.

    1929-01-01

    Culex and Aëdes mosquitoes are capable of transmitting fowl-pox from diseased to healthy susceptible chickens. The mosquitoes remain infectious for at least 14 days following a meal on diseased fowls. PMID:19869570

  2. Heterologous expression in transgenic mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santhosh P K; Yu hua Deng; Weidong Gu; Xiaoguang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue virus afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Control of such pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. The failure of these conventional approaches due to emergence of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites demonstrate the need of novel and efficacious control strategies to combat these diseases. Genetic modification(GM) of mosquito vectors to impair their ability to be infected and transmit pathogens has emerged as a new strategy to reduce transmission of many vector-borne diseases and deliver public health gains. Several advances in developing transgenic mosquitoes unable to transmit pathogens have gained support, some of them attempt to manipulate the naturally occurring endogenous refractory mechanisms, while others initiate the identification of an exogenous foreign gene which disrupt the pathogen development in insect vectors. Heterologous expression of transgenes under a native or heterologous promoter is important for the screening and effecting of the transgenic mosquitoes. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this transgenic approach. This review examines these two aspects and describes the basic research work that has been accomplished towards understanding the complex relation between the parasite and its vector and focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to vector-borne disease transmission.

  3. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi...

  4. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  5. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  6. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  7. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Colin A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory. The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Results Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality ( Conclusion It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small-scale irradiation and transportation of insects in the current setting. The field cage is suitable for experiments and studies to test the competitiveness of irradiated males can be pursued. The scaling up of procedures to accommodate much larger numbers of insects needed for a release is the next challenge and recommendations to further implementation of this genetic control strategy are presented.

  8. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  9. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  10. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  11. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces werecollected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated.Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector bornedisease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classificationkey.Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46%of the total collected and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected. Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus,An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi and one Culex (Cx. pipiens species were identified. Anophelespulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in oneprovince, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: thefirst from April–June and the other from September–October.Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distributionand density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquitogenera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification isnot enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq

  12. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  13. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukwa, N; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; S.L. Mutambu; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  14. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh,; Puneeth

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of...

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst-Jan Scholte; Knols, Bart G. J.; Samson, Robert A.; Willem Takken

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito...

  16. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  17. Rainfall triggered dynamics of Aedes mosquito aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. Ndiaye; Bicout, D J; Mondet, Bernard; Sabatier, P.

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by Davidson method of estimating daily survivals of a structureless population of mosquitoes, we present a model which describes the behavior of floodwater mosquitoes in terms of emergence functions following a rainfall event, blood feeding frequency and parous stages, and survival at various stages. As a generalization of the Davidson formula, we have developed an approach for dealing with the dynamics of structured population of mosquitoes, and derived various formulas allowing ass...

  18. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, A.; Sharma, T; M Singh; K. Fatma; V. S. Rawat; Aggarwal, M; Khandal, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the m...

  19. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  20. Mosquito gut antiparasitic and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Raúl G; Kang, Seokyoung; Simões, Maria L; Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases with a serious impact on global human health, such as malaria and dengue. All mosquito-transmitted pathogens complete part of their life cycle in the insect gut, where they are exposed to mosquito-encoded barriers and active factors that can limit their development. Here we present the current understanding of mosquito gut immunity against malaria parasites, filarial worms, and viruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, and West Nile. The most recently proposed immune mediators involved in intestinal defenses are discussed, as well as the synergies identified between the recognition of gut microbiota and the mounting of the immune response. PMID:26827888

  1. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Jan Scholte

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G J; Samson, Robert A; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  3. Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teh Su Yean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines. Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

  4. Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

  5. Primer acercamiento de un análisis didáctico de la recta para el diseño de una propuesta de intervención en el aula desde un enfoque funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fabián; Herrera, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Por medio de un estudio conceptual y cognitivo se pretende en esta comunicación presentar los avances realizados en una investigación para realizar un diseño de intervención en el aula, donde se realiza un análisis didáctico sobre el estudio de la recta utilizando un enfoque funcional de contenido matemático. El análisis didáctico se basa en un análisis de contenido, análisis cognitivo, análisis de instrucción y análisis de actuación, se tomarán solamente las tres primeras etapas; este trabaj...

  6. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  7. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Guo

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE, dengue fever (DF and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu. We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs.

  8. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  9. Direct sequencing and expression analysis of a large number of miRNAs in Aedes aegypti and a multi-species survey of novel mosquito miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shaohui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a novel class of gene regulators whose biogenesis involves hairpin structures called precursor miRNAs, or pre-miRNAs. A pre-miRNA is processed to make a miRNA:miRNA* duplex, which is then separated to generate a mature miRNA and a miRNA*. The mature miRNAs play key regulatory roles during embryonic development as well as other cellular processes. They are also implicated in control of viral infection as well as innate immunity. Direct experimental evidence for mosquito miRNAs has been recently reported in anopheline mosquitoes based on small-scale cloning efforts. Results We obtained approximately 130, 000 small RNA sequences from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, by 454 sequencing of samples that were isolated from mixed-age embryos and midguts from sugar-fed and blood-fed females, respectively. We also performed bioinformatics analysis on the Ae. aegypti genome assembly to identify evidence for additional miRNAs. The combination of these approaches uncovered 98 different pre-miRNAs in Ae. aegypti which could produce 86 distinct miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs, including eight novel miRNAs identified in this study, are currently only found in mosquitoes. We also identified five potential revisions to previously annotated miRNAs at the miRNA termini, two cases of highly abundant miRNA* sequences, 14 miRNA clusters, and 17 cases where more than one pre-miRNA hairpin produces the same or highly similar mature miRNAs. A number of miRNAs showed higher levels in midgut from blood-fed female than that from sugar-fed female, which was confirmed by northern blots on two of these miRNAs. Northern blots also revealed several miRNAs that showed stage-specific expression. Detailed expression analysis of eight of the 13 mosquito-specific miRNAs in four divergent mosquito genera identified cases of clearly conserved expression patterns and obvious differences. Four of the 13 miRNAs are specific to certain lineage

  10. The mosquito vectors of malaria transmission in China:past and present%我国传疟蚊媒研究:过去与现在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿逢伊

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a historical review for development of the conceptions of human malaria transmission,from "bad air" or so-called "changchi" in China,anopheline mosquitoes equaled the meaning vectors and then to the special anopheline vectors,determination through the past one hundred years.The ideas of malaria vector,the vector species and mistakes record in China during the years of 1926-1958 were discussed briefly.The discrimination of malaria vectors is an important research programme for malaria control,only if the vectors be confirmed rightly in different local malaria endemic area,the clear mosquito vector target could be determined,and stopping transmission could be an efficient control activity.Now,the old routine detection techniques were still in use for vector determination such as identification of mosquito species,the source of the mosquito blood meals,and natural sporozoite rate.However,the results suggested that those methods are unstable and of low efficiency,therefore the new qualified efficient techniques must be developed to provide the stable and reliable data for analysis.The species identification of important malaria vectors relating to mosquito complex is a troublesome problem.The molecular detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used for correction and standardization of the results of mosquito species identification among the important samples.As the view focused on the development of the malaria control,some new detection techniques in vector determination were proposed for use.%该文对人类疟疾传播的认识发展作了历史回顾,从过去的"瘴气"、按蚊即媒介以及现今专门的按蚊媒介判定,经历了100多年.对我国1926-1958年间的疟疾媒介概念、媒介蚊种记录及其错误等作了评述.辨别传疟媒介是疟疾防制中的重要研究课题,阻断传播才会是有效的控制措施,正确认定不同疟区的媒介,可以获得清晰的蚊媒靶标.目前,媒介判

  11. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:23923330

  12. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    CERN Document Server

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  13. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  14. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  15. Effects of the spatial repellent metofluthrin on landing rates of outdoor biting anophelines in Cambodia, Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J D; Nenhep, S; Protopopoff, N; Sovannaroth, S; Morgan, J C; Hemingway, J

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia is a major problem. The fact that many people become infected with malaria when they are outside has prompted the development of 'spatial' rather than topical repellents. The respective effects of one or four slow-release emanators of metofluthrin, a pyrethroid, were tested in Pailin, Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia. Numbers of mosquitoes counted in outdoor landing catches when one or four emanators were suspended close to the collector were compared with control collections. In Pailin, the effects of emanators on catches in Furvela tent traps and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps suspended underneath houses were also investigated. Rate ratios were used to determine differences. A total of 29 255 mosquitoes were collected over 2934 h of landing collections, 87 nights of tent trapping and 81 nights of light trap capture. In Pailin, landing rates were reduced by 48% by a single emanator and by 67% by four emanators (P  0.05). These findings suggest that although the product can produce a significant effect, it requires further improvement. PMID:26991881

  16. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of preventing mosquito bites. PFT parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC %, FEF 25-75 and PEFR were recorded in mosquito coil users, liquidator’s users and controls that used neither. It was found that FVC and FEV1 were significantly less in coil and liquidators users compared to controls (P < 0.05. Also it was found that in both coil users and liquidator users FVC, FEV1, FEF 25 -75 and PEFR and showed progressive decline with increased duration of usage (P < 0.05. Hence it was concluded that mosquito coils and liquidators can cause progressive decline in lung functions. Alternative methods to combat mosquito menace, like personal and environmental hygiene and non-chemical methods of protection are therefore recommended.

  17. Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952 by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5 depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV. Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

  18. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlate...

  19. Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

  20. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  1. Anopheline ecology and malaria transmission during the construction of an irrigation canal in an endemic district of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Panigrahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A new irrigation canal system is under construction in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, to increase the production of rice crop and thereby improve the living standard of farmers in the project area. Construction of canal may increase the transmission of malaria by creating vector breeding habitats. Knowledge about bionomics of vectors will support authorities for appropriate management of the disease in a changing ecological set up. The aim of this study was to assess the malaria transmission in the bank of the canal area under construction. Methods: The entomological survey was carried out in three seasons, winter, summer and rainy during the period November 2008-October 2010 in the study area. Adult mosquitoes were collected by using suction tubes and flash lights. Mosquito species identification was done by using standard keys, separated according to abdominal conditions and were kept in an isopropanol for further molecular analysis of sibling species, presence of sporozoites and human blood meal. Larvae were collected by dippers and reared in the laboratory, and the emerged adults were identified to species. The epidemiology of malaria was evaluated from the data collected by the State Health Department. Insecticide succeptibility test was done by WHO method. Results: The adult mosquito collection from the study area showed the prevalence of 14 species belonging to three genera, i.e. Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. The per man hour densities (PMHD of An. culicifacies were 3.8, 1.4, 4.8; that of An. annularis were 2.1, 1, 2.1; and that of An. fluviatilis were 1.4, 0.3, 0.6 during winter, summer and rainy seasons respectively. Sibling species identified were: An. culicifacies A, B, C and D, An. annularis A and An. fluviatilis S. Sporozoite rates of An. culicifacies A and C were 1.1 and 0.5% respectively and that of An. annularis A was 2% (reported for the first time in the state. Both the vectors (An. culicifacies and An

  2. Reducing risk of mosquito-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Mosquitoes transmit a number of infections around the globe. Vaccines or chemoprophylaxis protect against few of these diseases, and current outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya viruses are causing significant concern. PMID:27353794

  3. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  4. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  5. Promising new tools to fight Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Two new tools for suppressing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. Carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports. PMID:27516632

  6. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillinger, Ulrike; Knols, Bart G J; Becker, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex), Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area around Lake Victoria, Western Kenya. WDG and powder formulations were compared in laboratory bioassays and followed by efficiency and residual effect assessments of both WDG formulations in open field experiments. LC50 and LC95 values for the Bti/Bs strains and their formulations show high susceptibility of A. gambiae sensu stricto under laboratory conditions. The larvae proved more susceptible to Bs than to Bti and the WDG formulations were slightly superior to the powder formulations. High efficiency was also shown in the open field trials, and a minimum dosage of 200 g/ha Bti WDG, representing the LC95 of the laboratory tests, was sufficient to fully suppress emergence of mosquitoes when applied at weekly intervals. Bti WDG did not show a residual effect, irrespective of the concentration applied. The Bs WDG formulation, however, showed significant larval reductions up to 11 days post-treatment at application doses of either 1 or 5 kg/ha. We conclude that the main malaria vector in our study area is highly susceptible to these microbial control agents. Minimum effective dosages to achieve elimination of the larval population in a given habitat are extremely low and environmental impact is negligible. Microbial products for larval control have therefore great potential within Integrated Vector Management programmes and may augment control efforts against adult vector stages, such as the use of insecticide-treated bednets, in many parts of Africa. PMID:12535249

  7. Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee

    2013-01-01

    Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount o...

  8. Mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Carol D. Blair; Olson, Ken E

    2014-01-01

    The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNA interference (RNAi), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. The exo-siRNA pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral RNAi response and its essential genetic components have been identified. Recent research has also implicated the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but Piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. Arboviruses must evad...

  9. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  10. Controle los mosquitos que están en el exterior (Controlling Mosquitoes Outside)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-11

    Los mosquitos pueden transmitir virus como el del zika. En este podcast, el Sr. Francisco le enseñará a usted y a su vecina Adriana diferentes maneras para ayudar a reducir la cantidad de mosquitos fuera de su casa. Los consejos incluyen eliminar áreas de agua estancada donde los mosquitos ponen sus huevos, usar larvicidas para matar mosquitos jóvenes, y reparar grietas y cubrir las ventilaciones de los pozos sépticos. También aprenderá cómo se usan los aviones que ayudan a rociar insecticida para los mosquitos.  Created: 7/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/11/2016.

  11. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  12. INFLUENCIA DEL PROCEDIMIENTO EMPLEADO PARA DETERMINAR LA RECTA DE ECONOMÍA DE PEDALEO EN EL CÁLCULO DEL DÉFICIT MÁXIMO DE OXÍGENO ACUMULADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Para determinar la influencia que tienen en los valores de DMO, el número, intensidad y duración de las cargas submáximas utilizadas para calcular la recta de economía, 6 varones acudieron al laboratorio en 8 ocasiones. Tras la familiarización, se determinó el VO2 pico, y el el VO2 a 80, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 180, 200 y nuevamente 100 w. Se calcularon 4 rectas diferentes por regresión lineal: R1, R2, R3, R4. Las rectas R1, R2 y R4 se obtuvieron a partir de la relación VO2/intensidad, entre 80 y 130 w (R1, n=5, entre 140 y 200 w (R2, n=5 y entre 80 y 200 w (R4, n=10, tomando como valor de VO2 correspondiente a cada carga el valor medio alcanzado en los minutos 5 y 6. R3 se calculó a partir de la relación VO2/intensidad, entre 80 y 200 w en test incremental hasta el agotamiento (n=4, tomando como valor de VO2 correspondiente a cada carga el valor medio alcanzado en el 3er min. Finalmente, se calculó el déficit máximo de O2 (DMO en un test de Wingate de 45 s.

    R4 y R3 presentaron parámetros similares, que no se correlacionaron entre sí. Las pendientes fueron un 15 % inferiores en R1 que en R2 (9.591 ± 1.236 y 11.261 ± 0.878 ml.min-1, respectivamente, p<0.05, mientras la ordenada en el origen fue mayor en R1 que en R2 (709.216 ± 154.808 y 510.583 ± 114.204 ml.min-1, respectivamente, p<0.05. Entre R1 y R2 tampoco se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas ni entre pendientes, ni entre puntos de intercepción. Los valores de DMO fueron un 18 % superiores, cuando la recta de economía se obtuvo mediante cargas altas (R2 que cuando se obtuvo mediante cargas bajas (R1; p=0.06. El índice de correlación del DMO calculado con R3 y R4 no fue significativo (r=0.76, p=0.08. Sin embargo, se obtuvo una correlación muy alta entre los valores de DMO

  13. Antimicrobial activity of mosquito cecropin peptides against Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Akanksha; Gupta, Kajal; Shah, Ruhee; van Hoek, Monique L

    2016-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia. In Sweden and Scandinavia, epidemiological studies have implicated mosquitoes as a vector. Prior research has demonstrated the presence of Francisella DNA in infected mosquitoes but has not shown definitive transmission of tularemia from a mosquito to a mammalian host. We hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides, an important component of the innate immune system of higher organisms, may play a role in mosquito host-defense to Francisella. We established that Francisella sp. are susceptible to two cecropin antimicrobial peptides derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus as well as Culex pipiens. We also demonstrated induced expression of Aedes albopictus antimicrobial peptide genes by Francisella infection C6/36 mosquito cell line. We demonstrate that mosquito antimicrobial peptides act against Francisella by disrupting the cellular membrane of the bacteria. Thus, it is possible that antimicrobial peptides may play a role in the inability of mosquitoes to establish an effective natural transmission of tularemia. PMID:27235883

  14. Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159484.html Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect ... The inflammation caused by a mosquito bite helps Zika and other viruses spread through the body more ...

  15. 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160740.html 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida A first for continental U.S.; 95 other tested mosquitoes Zika-free, officials say To use the sharing features ...

  16. Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika: Study Lab work suggests larvicide also needed to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus to their eggs and offspring, and this ...

  17. A molecular phylogeny of Anopheles annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: the most species-rich anopheline complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, D H; Wilkerson, R C; Cooper, R D; Volovsek, M E; Bryan, J H

    2007-04-01

    The Australasian Annulipes Complex is the most species-rich among Anopheles mosquitoes, with at least 15 sibling species suspected. Members of this complex are the most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxomatosis among rabbits. In this, the first comprehensive molecular study of the Annulipes Complex, 23 ITS2 rDNA variants were detected from collections throughout Australia and Papua New Guinea, including diagnostic variants for the previously identified An. annulipes species A-G. Specimens of each ITS2 variant were sequenced for portions of the mitochondrial COI, COII and nuclear EF-1alpha genes. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Annulipes Complex and revealed at least 17 clades that we designate species A-Q. These species belong to two major clades, one in the north and one mainly in the south, suggesting that climate was a driver of species radiation. We found that 65% (11) of the 17 sibling species recorded here had unique COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding will be useful for diagnosing species within the Annulipes Complex. A comparison of the taxa revealed morphological characters that may be diagnostic for some species. Our results substantially increase the size of the subgenus Cellia in Australasia, and will assist species-level studies of the Annulipes Complex. PMID:17126567

  18. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  19. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal g...

  20. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  1. The role of mosquito behaviour on parasite transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Brian Oh-Bong

    2010-01-01

    I use a combination of theory and experiments to explore the role of various aspects of mosquito behaviour on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit parasites. Special focus is given to the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s., the principal vector for Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite that causes human malaria. Female mosquitoes require host blood for egg production, but also use sugar from nectar sources; however, the extent of sugar use is poorly understood. Sugar can be used to fuel somatic mai...

  2. Biodistribution and trafficking of hydrogel nanoparticles in adult mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Perry, Jillian L.; Airs, Paul M.; Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Carlson, Jonathan O; Xu, Jing; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Beaty, Barry J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases continue to remain major threats to human and animal health and impediments to socioeconomic development. Increasing mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is a great public health concern, and new strategies/technologies are necessary to develop the next-generation of vector control tools. We propose to develop a novel method for mosquito control that employs nanoparticles (NPs) as a platform for delivery of mosquitocidal dsRNA molecules to silence mosquito gene...

  3. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  4. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Anil K; Coppens, Isabelle; Gårdsvoll, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut is an essential step for the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito. Invasion involves recognition between a presumed mosquito midgut receptor and an ookinete ligand. Here, we show that enolase lines the ookinete surface. An antienolase antibo...

  5. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits, Citrus aurantifolia (leaf and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruitswere evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara and coconut(Parachute oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296–304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents incoconut oil exhibited 223.5–245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonellagave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes at all theconcentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  6. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  7. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  8. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; De Clerck, Karen; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2011-01-01

    This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

  9. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models. PMID:25377433

  10. Spatial model for transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a generic model which takes into account spatial heterogeneity for the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases is proposed. The dissemination of the disease is described by a system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Host human and vector mosquito populations are divided into susceptible and infectious classes. Diffusion is considered to occur in all classes of both populations. Susceptible humans are infected when bitten by infectious mosquitoes. Susceptible mosquitoes bite infectious humans and become infected. The biting rate of mosquitoes is considered to be density dependent on the total human population in different locations. The system is solved numerically and results are shown.

  11. Cómo controlar los mosquitos en interiores (Controlling Mosquitoes Indoors)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-23

    Los mosquitos pueden portar virus como el del Nilo Occidental o del Zika. En este podcast, Don Francisco le muestra a sus vecinos formas en las que pueden reducir el número de mosquitos dentro de su casa.  Created: 8/23/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/23/2016.

  12. Modelling the requirements and benefits of mosquito control interventions in the presence of mosquito dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Lutambi Angelina M; Chitnis Nakul; Smith Tom; Penny Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Vector control methods are widely used as a means to control malaria, however, the role of spatial arrangement when deploying these interventions is not well known. Understanding the effects of spatial distribution and clustering of interventions on mosquito populations can provide a guide to strategically deploying interventions to effectively maximize benefits. A recently developed discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model of mosquito population dynamics and dispersal was extended t...

  13. Efficacy of Mosquito Traps for Collecting Potential West Nile Mosquito Vectors in a Natural Mediterranean Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roiz, David; Roussel, Marion; Muñoz, Joaquin;

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance, research, and control of mosquito-borne diseases such asWest Nile virus require efficient methods for sampling mosquitoes. We compared the efficacy of BG-Sentinel and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-CO2 traps in terms of the abundances of host-seeking and blood......-fed female mosquitoes and the origin of mosquito bloodmeals. Our results indicate that BG-Sentinel traps that use CO2 and attractants are as effective as CDC-CO2 traps for Culex mosquito species, Ochlerotatus caspius, and they are also highly efficient at capturing Anopheles atroparvus host-seeking and blood......-fed females with or without CO2. The CDC-CO2 trap is the least efficient method for capturing blood-fed females. BG-Sentinel traps with attractants and CO2 were significantly better at capturing mosquitoes that had fed on mammals than the unbaited BG-Sentinel and CDC-CO2 traps in the cases of An. atroparvus...

  14. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Jordi; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Trilla, Lluís; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs. PMID:26517655

  15. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  16. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215. ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Mosquito repellency of novel Trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human diseases caused by mosquito-transmitted pathogens include malaria, dengue and yellow fever and are responsible for several million human deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Our current research projects focus on the development of new insecticides and repellent...

  18. Mode of action of mosquito repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of action of mosquito repellents remains a controversial topic. However, electrophysiological studies and molecular approaches have provided a better understanding of how repellents exert their effects. Here, we briefly discuss various notions of repellent action and present the current sta...

  19. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Samson, R.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito pop

  1. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  2. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  3. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  4. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  5. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  6. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

  7. Variação da densidade anofélica com o uso de mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina em uma área endêmica de malária na Amazônia Brasileira Variation of anopheles density with deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets in an endemic malaria area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barberino Santos

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992, foi realizado um ensaio de campo com mosquiteiros impregnados com deltametrina, em uma área endêmica de malária no Município de Costa Marques, Rondônia. No período de baixa transmissão, os mosquiteiros impregnados (MI diminuíram a densidade vetorial no intradomicílio, de modo semelhante, porém, aos mosquiteiros não impregnados (NI na maioria das avaliações-controle. Por outro lado, na época de alta transmissão, os MI provocaram diminuição significante da média horária de anofelinos capturados, ao passo que, nas casas com NI, verificou-se aumento do número de mosquitos capturados. No peridomicílio, em geral, não houve diferença do número de anofelinos capturados entre MI e NI. No grupo MI, a espécie mais capturada foi o An. darlingi (63,2%, mais freqüente no peridomicílio, seguida pelo An. deaneorum (35,3%, mais freqüente no intradomicílio. Os MI diminuíram a densidade vetorial no intradomicílio pelo efeito excito-repelente, sem diminuí-la, contudo, no peridomicílio.In 1992 a survey on the use of deltamethrin-impregnated mosquito nets was conducted in the municipality of Costa Marques, Rondonia. In the intradomicile, impregnated nets decreased the vector density at rates similar to those for non-impregnated nets during low-transmission periods; during high anopheline density periods, they led to a significant reduction in vector density, while in the non-impregnated net group there was an increase in the number of anophelines captured. There was no change in vector density in the peridomicile. In the impregnated net group, the most frequently captured species was Anopheles darlingi (63.2%, found mostly in the peridomicile, while Anopheles deaneorum (35.3% was most frequent indoors. The impregnated mosquito nets' excitatory-repellent effect decreased the intradomiciliary vector density but did not alter density in the peridomicile.

  8. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn N. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

  9. Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

    2012-11-01

    It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host-symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. 'Symbiotic control', a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pests or reduce vector competence, seems particularly promising. Three such approaches currently at the cutting edge are: (1) the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests; (2) the manipulation of symbionts that can express anti-pathogen molecules within the host; and (3) the introduction of endogenous microbes that affect life-span and vector capacity of the new hosts in insect populations. This work reviews current knowledge on microbial symbiosis in mosquitoes that holds promise for development of symbiotic control for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:23265608

  10. Does polyandrous impede mosquito control by autocidal?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash, K.; Karthikeyan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Vector mosquito control by releasing genetically altered males has been attempted under the presumption that the females are monandrous. The present observation was through the sex–linked inheritance pattern of eye-colour and the estimation of polyandrous in in-vitro mating. A small proportion (18.2%) of the female Anopheles stephensi population exhibited polyandrous on examination of 850 F1 adults when two types of males (white and black eyed) where allowed to mate with homozygous white eyed...

  11. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Winskill; Carvalho, Danilo O.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Luke Alphey; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed.The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersa...

  12. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  13. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, P.

    2001-01-01

    Global atmospheric temperatures are presently in a warming phase that began 250--300 years ago. Speculations on the potential impact of continued warming on human health often focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Elementary models suggest that higher global temperatures will enhance their transmission rates and extend their geographic ranges. However, the histories of three such diseases--malaria, yellow fever, and dengue--reveal that climate has rarely been the principal determinant of their pr...

  14. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits)were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut(Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S.)...

  15. Malaria Parasites Produce Volatile Mosquito Attractants

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Megan; Su, Chih-Ying; Schaber, Chad; Crowley, Jan R.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Carlson, John R.; Odom, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle that possesses plant-like metabolic pathways. Plants use the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway to produce volatile odorants, known as terpenes. In this work, we describe the volatile chemical profile of cultured malaria parasites. Among the identified compounds are several plant-like terpenes and terpene derivatives, including known mosquito attractants. We establish the molecular ident...

  16. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Winskill; Carvalho, Danilo O.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Luke Alphey; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The dispersal ability of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti at a field ...

  17. Arctic Health Research Center report no. 101: Combating mosquitoes in arctic Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers combating mosquitoes in Arctic Alaska. The physiology and biology of mosquitoes is discussed, followed by techniques to combated mosquitoes.

  18. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing ster...

  19. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, F; Caputo, B.; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, A.; A. Della Torre; Montarsi, F.; Rizzoli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. ...

  20. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the l...

  1. Limitation of using synthetic human odours to test mosquito repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Mbeyela Edgar; Titus Emmanuel; Okumu Fredros O; Killeen Gerry F; Moore Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repe...

  2. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent personal protective equipment (PPE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions (South America, Asia and Africa) diseases like malaria and dengue cause many deaths. These diseases are transmitted through mosquitoes bites (Anopheles sp. and Aedes aegypti respectively). The current practice to protect against transmission of these diseases is by use of mosquito repellents. Common mosquito repellents used today are synthetic in nature and are suspected or have been proved to be harmful to the user and environment (e.g. DEET, DDT, dimethylphylphthalate, p...

  3. Cues of mosquito host finding and oviposition site selection

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study odor cues that affect mosquito host seeking and oviposition behavior. Due to the vastness (and sometimes contradictions) of mosquito oviposition cues available in literature, I started by reviewing these cues, their source in nature, and their role in mosquito oviposition. Then, I tested the oviposition response of Aedes aegypti towards the contradictory oviposition odor p-cresol and its isomer m-cresol in different situations.p-cresol showed an oviposition d...

  4. Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of colour marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. Me...

  5. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood Robert; Ghebru Maedot; Ignell Rickard; Dekker Teun; Hopkins Richard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds inclu...

  6. Conditioning individual mosquitoes to an odor: sex, source, and time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Sanford

    Full Text Available Olfactory conditioning of mosquitoes may have important implications for vector-pathogen-host dynamics. If mosquitoes learn about specific host attributes associated with pathogen infection, it may help to explain the heterogeneity of biting and disease patterns observed in the field. Sugar-feeding is a requirement for survival in both male and female mosquitoes. It provides a starting point for learning research in mosquitoes that avoids the confounding factors associated with the observer being a potential blood-host and has the capability to address certain areas of close-range mosquito learning behavior that have not previously been described. This study was designed to investigate the ability of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say to associate odor with a sugar-meal with emphasis on important experimental considerations of mosquito age (1.2 d old and 3-5 d old, sex (male and female, source (laboratory and wild, and the time between conditioning and testing (<5 min, 1 hr, 2.5 hr, 5 hr, 10 hr, and 24 hr. Mosquitoes were individually conditioned to an odor across these different experimental conditions. Details of the conditioning protocol are presented as well as the use of binary logistic regression to analyze the complex dataset generated from this experimental design. The results suggest that each of the experimental factors may be important in different ways. Both the source of the mosquitoes and sex of the mosquitoes had significant effects on conditioned responses. The largest effect on conditioning was observed in the lack of positive response following conditioning for females aged 3-5 d derived from a long established colony. Overall, this study provides a method for conditioning experiments involving individual mosquitoes at close range and provides for future discussion of the relevance and broader questions that can be asked of olfactory conditioning in mosquitoes.

  7. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, OJ; Godfray, HC; Tatem, AJ; Gething, PW; Cohen, JM; McKENZIE, FE; Alex Perkins, T.; Reiner, RC; Tusting, LS; Scott, TW; Lindsay, SW; Hay, SI; Smith, DL

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of 'vectorial capacity', a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important single group ofinsects in terms of public health importance, whichtransmit a number of diseases, such as malaria, filariasis,dengue, Japanese encephalitis, etc. causing millionsof deaths every year. Repeated use of syntheticinsecticides for mosquito control has disrupted naturalbiological control systems and led to resurgencesin mosquito populations. It has also resulted in thedevelopment of resistance1, undesirable effects onnon-target organisms and fostered...

  9. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and ...

  10. Developmental succession of the microbiome of Culex mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Duguma, Dagne; Hall, Michael W.; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Stouthamer, Richard; Tereniu, Olle; Neufeld, Josh D.; Walton, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The native microflora associated with mosquitoes have important roles in mosquito development and vector competence. Sequencing of bacterial V3 region from 16S rRNA genes across the developmental stages of Culex mosquitoes (early and late larval instars, pupae and adults) was used to test the hypothesis that bacteria found in the larval stage of Culex are transstadially transmitted to the adult stage, and to compare the microbiomes of field-collected versus laboratory-reared mosqui...

  11. Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Vezilier, J.; Nicot, A.; Gandon, S.; Rivero, A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has...

  12. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  13. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  14. DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

  15. Application of mosquito repellent coils and associated self-reported health issues in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Antwi-Agyei, Philip; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mosquito coils has gained widespread patronage in malaria-endemic countries, even though it is not a recommended preventive measure for avoiding mosquitoes. Mosquito coils contain insecticides, which are expected to vaporize slowly once the coil is lit, to provide protection against the mosquito. The mosquito coil base material contains a variety of compounds capable of burning slowly to gradually release the insecticide. The mosquito coil smoke, however, is potentially ...

  16. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18–34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  17. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18-34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  18. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Result...

  19. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  20. New and improved mosquito repellents based on structural similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the most effective and best studied mosquito repellent currently on the market in the U.S.; however, this repellent is not a highly efficacious, repellent of long duration that prevents bites from all medically important mosquito species, especially those that...

  1. Insect Repellents: Modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes vector numerous pathogens that cause diseases including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya. DEET, IR3535, Picaridin and 2-undecanone are insect repellents that are used to prevent interactions between humans and a broad array of disease vectors including mosquitoes. While...

  2. Species Interactions Among Larval Mosquitoes: Context Dependence Across Habitat Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on eme...

  3. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  4. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Homan, Tobias; Mweresa, Collins K.; Maire, Nicolas; Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Masiga, Daniel; Oria, Prisca A.; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Takken, Willem; Smith, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria thr

  5. Do capture data from mosquito traps represent reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, the effects of mechanical trap style, the method of trap placement in the field, mosquito activity phase, and other biological phenomena are manifest as sample bias that leads to vector detection failure(s) and/or erroneous predictions of mosquito activity. The goal of this research i...

  6. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  7. UV light and urban pollution: Bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreau, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.tetreau@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud’homme, Sophie M.; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, LECA-UMR 5553, Université de Grenoble 1, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Mosquito tolerance to temephos is induced by PAHs and UV exposure. •Toxicity of fluoranthene for mosquito Malpighian tubules cells is induced by UV. •Fluoranthene crystallizes in mosquito Malpighian tubules upon UV exposure. •Mixture of two PAHs is less toxic for mosquitoes than each PAHs separately. •Combination of abiotic parameters (PAHs and UV) affect mosquito physiology. -- Abstract: Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species–ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis–Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on

  8. Mosquito production from four constructed treatment wetlands in peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Meara, George F; O'Connell, Sheila M; Cutwa-Francis, Michele M

    2006-06-01

    Several techniques were used to sample adult and immature mosquitoes in 4 constructed treatment wetlands in Florida. Adults of 19 species (7 genera) of mosquitoes were collected, and immatures of the most abundant species and of 60% of all species also were collected. Few significant differences between sites and stations in the numbers of mosquitoes collected were discovered. Culex nigripalpus Theobald was the most abundant mosquito found in adult (carbon dioxide-baited suction traps) and ovitrap collections, whereas Mansonia spp. and Uranotaenia spp. were most common in pump-dip-grab samples. The roles of rooted and floating vegetation and of water quality in determining mosquito production from these areas are discussed. PMID:17019764

  9. Does polyandrous impede mosquito control by autocidal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Jayaprakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vector mosquito control by releasing genetically altered males has been attempted under the presumption that the females are monandrous. The present observation was through the sex–linked inheritance pattern of eye-colour and the estimation of polyandrous in in-vitro mating. A small proportion (18.2% of the female Anopheles stephensi population exhibited polyandrous on examination of 850 F1 adults when two types of males (white and black eyed where allowed to mate with homozygous white eyed females. The above results were discussed with relation to the consequences of the polyandrous trait in sterile insect technique, genetic control programmes.

  10. Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    Full Text Available Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae AChE (AgAChE reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.

  11. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. E. Franz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  12. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts. PMID:26184281

  13. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  14. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  15. Mosquito Control in Poland: Pro- and Anti-Environmental Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliniewicz Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control in Poland is still dominated by the use of chemicals. Although it has been 13 years since the flood of the century, only in few cities and towns (Wroclaw, Gorzow Wielkopolski and Torun various methods of mosquito control such as mapping of larvae development and setting time limits for the imagines occur-rence were developed. The problem of mosquito control is not only limited to adult insects, it is also much more a complex issue due to the use of insecticides in the environment that we would rather like to keep unchanged, with a diversity of co-existing species of plants and animals. In addition to eradication of larvae and adult insects, we should also: carry out actions modifying environment so that it becomes less friendly to mosquitoes (e.g. drying wet mead-ows as a result of land reclamation, protect places where people reside - with the use of insecticide lamps and spatial repellents, as well as catchers for aggressive female mosquitoes. Increasing the share of environmental management methods and public education on preventing to form and eliminating existing places of mosquito larvae development in urban green areas (parks, river overflow areas and drainage ditches are still an undervalued element of integrated mosquito control in Poland.

  16. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  17. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  18. The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Triratnawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN, but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

  19. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author)

  20. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  1. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  2. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  3. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Kean; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Melanie McFarlane; Donald, Claire L.; Esther Schnettler; Alain Kohl; Emilie Pondeville

    2015-01-01

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are requi...

  4. Biology and behaviour of male mosquitoes in relation to new approaches to control disease transmitting mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, R S; Knols, B.; Bellini, R; M. Q. Benedict; Bheecarry, A.; Bossin, H.C.; Chadee, D.D.; Charlwood, J.; Dabiré, R.K.; Djogbenou, L.; Eyir-Yawson, A.; Gato, R.; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Hassan, M.M.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The enormous burden placed on populations worldwide by mosquito-borne diseases, most notably malaria and dengue, is currently being tackled by the use of insecticides sprayed in residences or applied to bednets, and in the case of dengue vectors through reduction of larval breeding sites or larviciding with insecticides thereof. However, these methods are under threat from, amongst other issues, the development of insecticide resistance and the practical difficulty of maintaining long-term co...

  5. Stage-structured models for interacting wild and sterile mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the sterile insect technique,in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population,is an effective weapon to prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on the disease transmissions,we formulate stage-structured discrete-time mathematical models,based on difference equations,for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes. We incorporate different strategies for releasing sterile mosquitoes,investigate the model dynamics,and compare the impact of the different release strategies.Numerical examples are also provided to demonstrate dynamical features of the models.

  6. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Margarita; Yousten Allan A

    1997-01-01

    A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer). Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. ...

  7. Novel Selective and Irreversible Mosquito Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Controlling Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dengfeng; Park, Jewn Giew; Rana, Sandeep; Madden, Benjamin J.; Jiang, Haobo; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We reported previously that insect acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) could be selectively and irreversibly inhibited by methanethiosulfonates presumably through conjugation to an insect-specific cysteine in these enzymes. However, no direct proof for the conjugation has been published to date, and doubts remain about whether such cysteine-targeting inhibitors have desirable kinetic properties for insecticide use. Here we report mass spectrometric proof of the conjugation and new chemicals that irreversibly inhibited African malaria mosquito AChE with bimolecular inhibition rate constants (kinact/KI) of 3,604-458,597 M-1sec-1 but spared human AChE. In comparison, the insecticide paraoxon irreversibly inhibited mosquito and human AChEs with kinact/KI values of 1,915 and 1,507 M-1sec-1, respectively, under the same assay conditions. These results further support our hypothesis that the insect-specific AChE cysteine is a unique and unexplored target to develop new insecticides with reduced insecticide resistance and low toxicity to mammals, fish, and birds for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  9. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  10. Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. In this scenario, vector control is crucial. Mosquito larvae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. Here, I focus on some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique ("SIT") and "boosted SIT") and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and behavioral ecologists are highlighted. PMID:26093499

  11. Design, synthesis and bioassay of new mosquito insecticides and repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    New compounds and classes of compounds are needed to protect deployed military personnel from diseases transmitted by medically important arthropods. Historically, the synthetic insecticides and repellents have been effective tools for mosquito control. To develop new synthetic insecticides and repe...

  12. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470. ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  13. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero......, whereas the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the...

  14. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  15. Mosquitoes actively remove drops deposited by fog and dew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K; Hu, David L

    2014-12-01

    We report mosquito behaviors for removing accumulated drops of water which would otherwise increase the energy expended during takeoff and free flight. These techniques take advantage of the insect's small size and great structural strength. To dry their wings before takeoff, mosquitoes employ a flutter stroke, at double the wingbeat frequency of normal flight, generating nearly 2500 gravities of acceleration. Mosquitoes may also remove drops by the respective accelerations associated with takeoff and collision with the ground. We correlate the accelerations and size of drops ejected using a simple model involving the drop's inertial force and surface tension. We note mosquitoes may use similar techniques to remove synthetic drops, making our observations applicable for understanding the resistance of insects to insecticides. PMID:24876192

  16. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  17. Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Help Control Mosquitoes that Spread Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses B Z Z Z Z . Aside from being ... or Aedes albopictus ) can spread dengue, chikungunya, or Zika viruses. People become infected with dengue, chikungunya, or Zika ...

  18. Geographic distribution of wolbachial infections in mosquitoes from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun

    2013-11-01

    Members of the genus Wolbachia are inherited intracellular bacterial endosymbionts that infect a diverse range of arthropods. Here I report the results of a survey of these endosymbionts in different mosquito species from six geographic regions of Northern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Thailand. Using gene amplification assays with wsp and groE gene primers, wolbachiae were detected in 999 mosquitoes representing 28 species of 1622 specimens collected representing 74 species of wild-caught mosquitoes from all regions of Thailand. Results using wsp primers were similar to those using groE primers in all cases. Wolbachiae had not been reported previously from five of the species tested, namely, Aedes lineatopennis, Aedes vexans, Aedes vittatus, Culex pallidothorax and Culex whitmorei. Infections were found in all major disease vector genera except Anopheles. These results indicate that wolbachial infections are distributed throughout many mosquito species in Thailand. PMID:23660513

  19. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR DETERMINING ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSION IN MOSQUITOES

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sheri L.; Stephanie L. Richards; Smartt, Chelsea T.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simplified method for the collection of mosquito saliva to determine Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus transmission of West Nile virus that can be used for experiments requiring large sample sizes.

  20. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, C.A.; Reiner Jr, R.C.; Perkins, T.A.; Lindsay, S.W.; Midega, J.T.; Brady, O.J.; Barker, C.M.; Reisen, W.K.; Harrington, L.C.; Takken, W.; Kitron, U.; Lloyd, A.L.; Hay, S.I.; Scott, T.W.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency a

  1. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant base...

  2. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community?

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Marta; Sangoro Peter; Thele Max; Turner Elizabeth; Moore Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Repellents are compounds which interfere with the mosquito’s olfactory system hindering them to identify their hosts and succeeding in taking a blood-meal [1]. However, repellents do not eliminate the host-seeking mosquitoes, they simply reduce human-vector contact. Consequently, there is a possibility that individuals, who do not use repellents, experience more bites than usual because mosquitoes are diverted from the repellent users. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion o...

  3. Mosquito vectors and the spread of cancer: an overlooked connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, vectoring important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, filariasis, and Zika virus. Besides mosquito-borne diseases, cancers figure among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Notably, there are few contrasting evidences of the relationship between cancer and mosquito-borne diseases, with special reference to malaria. However, analogies at the cellular level for the two diseases were reported. Recently, a significant association of malaria incidence with all cancer mortality in 50 USA states was highlighted and may be explained by the ability of Plasmodium to induce suppression of the immune system. However, it was hypothesized that Anopheles vectors may transmit obscure viruses linked with cancer development. The possible activation of cancer pathways by mosquito feeding events is not rare. For instance, the hamster reticulum cell sarcoma can be transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti by a transfer of tumor cells. Furthermore, mosquito bites may influence human metabolic pathways following different mechanisms, leading to other viral infections and/or oncogenesis. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is routed by a unique pathogenic mechanism linking Epstein-Barr virus infection, allergy, and oncogenesis. During dengue virus infection, high viral titers, macrophage infiltration, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in the local tissues are the three key important events that lead to hemorrhage. Overall, basic epidemiological knowledge on the relationships occurring between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer is urgently needed, as well as detailed information about the ability of Culicidae to transfer viruses or tumor cells among hosts over time. Current evidences on nanodrugs with multipotency against

  4. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-09-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. PMID:27605159

  5. MULTIPLICATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUSES IN AEDES MOSQUITOES

    OpenAIRE

    Soedarto Soekiman

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of Aedes aegypti (Surabaya strain) and Aedes albopictus (Malang strain) were studied to compare their susceptibility to oral infection with dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses. Growth curves of dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses in these mosquitoes indicated that both mosquito species were susceptible to oral infection with these viruses. Electron microscopic observation of the salivary glands of A. aegypti and A. albopictus infected with Chikungunya virus showed that this organ...

  6. Fungal infection counters insecticide resistance in African malaria mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Farenhorst, M.; J. C. Mouatcho; Kikankie, C.K.; Brooke, B.D.; Hunt, R. H.; M. B. Thomas; Koekemoer, L.L.; Knols, B.G.J.; M. Coetzee

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is threatening the effectiveness and sustainability of malaria control programs in various parts of the world. Through their unique mode of action, entomopathogenic fungi provide promising alternatives to chemical control. However, potential interactions between fungal infection and insecticide resistance, such as cross-resistance, have not been investigated. We show that insecticide-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes remain susceptible to inf...

  7. DNA barcoding: complementing morphological identification of mosquito species in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Abigail; Chiang, Lee-Pei; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Pang, Sook-Cheng; Lee, Ruth; Lee, Kim-Sung; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek

    2014-01-01

    Background Taxonomy that utilizes morphological characteristics has been the gold standard method to identify mosquito species. However, morphological identification is challenging when the expertise is limited and external characters are damaged because of improper specimen handling. Therefore, we explored the applicability of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene-based DNA barcoding as an alternative tool to identify mosquito species. In the present study, we compared the ...

  8. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  9. Hemocyte differentiation mediates innate immune memory in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janneth; Brayner, Fábio André; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Dixit, Rajnikant; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-09-10

    Mosquito midgut invasion by ookinetes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium disrupts the barriers that normally prevent the gut microbiota from coming in direct contact with epithelial cells. This triggers a long-lived response characterized by increased abundance of granulocytes, a subpopulation of hemocytes that circulates in the insect's hemocoel, and enhanced immunity to bacteria that indirectly reduces survival of Plasmodium parasites upon reinfection. In mosquitoes, differentiation of hemocytes was necessary and sufficient to confer innate immune memory. PMID:20829487

  10. Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates Innate Immune Memory in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Janneth; Brayner, Fábio André; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Dixit, Rajnikant; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito midgut invasion by ookinetes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium disrupts the barriers that normally prevent the gut microbiota from coming in direct contact with epithelial cells. This triggers a long-lived response characterized by increased abundance of granulocytes, a subpopulation of hemocytes, circulating in the insect’s hemocoel, and enhanced immunity to bacteria that indirectly reduces survival of Plasmodium parasites upon reinfection. In mosquitoes, differentiation of hemocyt...

  11. Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates Innate Immune Memory in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janneth; Brayner, Fábio André; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Dixit, Rajnikant; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito midgut invasion by ookinetes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium disrupts the barriers that normally prevent the gut microbiota from coming in direct contact with epithelial cells. This triggers a long-lived response characterized by increased abundance of granulocytes, a subpopulation of hemocytes, circulating in the insect’s hemocoel, and enhanced immunity to bacteria that indirectly reduces survival of Plasmodium parasites upon reinfection. In mosquitoes, differentiation of hemocytes was necessary and sufficient to confer innate immune memory. PMID:20829487

  12. Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K.; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A.; Lampe, David J.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mos...

  13. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2015-11-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Wolbachia), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method. PMID:26037532

  14. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

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    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  15. Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan

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    Ikram Ilahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

  16. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modif...

  17. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

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    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. CONCLUSIONS: As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  18. Response of the mosquito protein interaction network to dengue infection

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    Pike Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two fifths of the world's population is at risk from dengue. The absence of effective drugs and vaccines leaves vector control as the primary intervention tool. Understanding dengue virus (DENV host interactions is essential for the development of novel control strategies. The availability of genome sequences for both human and mosquito host greatly facilitates genome-wide studies of DENV-host interactions. Results We developed the first draft of the mosquito protein interaction network using a computational approach. The weighted network includes 4,214 Aedes aegypti proteins with 10,209 interactions, among which 3,500 proteins are connected into an interconnected scale-free network. We demonstrated the application of this network for the further annotation of mosquito proteins and dissection of pathway crosstalk. Using three datasets based on physical interaction assays, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screens and microarray assays, we identified 714 putative DENV-associated mosquito proteins. An integrated analysis of these proteins in the network highlighted four regions consisting of highly interconnected proteins with closely related functions in each of replication/transcription/translation (RTT, immunity, transport and metabolism. Putative DENV-associated proteins were further selected for validation by RNAi-mediated gene silencing, and dengue viral titer in mosquito midguts was significantly reduced for five out of ten (50.0% randomly selected genes. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of common host requirements for DENV in mosquitoes and humans. We discuss the significance of our findings for pharmacological intervention and genetic modification of mosquitoes for blocking dengue transmission.

  19. A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.

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    Bree Cummins

    Full Text Available Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

  20. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011.

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    Diawo Diallo

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal.Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground, savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes tested: Ae. furcifer (5, Ae. luteocephalus (5, Ae. africanus (5, Ae. vittatus (3, Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each collected in June (3, September (10, October (11, November (6 and December (1. ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated.This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

  1. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

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    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  2. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

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    Sebastian Lequime

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission (VT and horizontal transmission (HT of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  3. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

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    Peter Winskill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed.The dispersal ability of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8 m (95% CI: 49.9 m, 56.8 m and Malaysia: 58.0 m (95% CI: 51.1 m, 71.0 m.Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects' dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using 'genetically sterile' male Aedes aegypti.

  4. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

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    Nicholas Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV, primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many, difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the

  5. Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps: Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps Preventing Mosquito-Borne Illnesses Summer can be a bummer if ... find better ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent mosquito-borne illnesses. And we can all take simple ...

  6. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  7. First molecular identification of Dirofilaria spp. (Onchocercidae) in mosquitoes from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Krtinic, Bosiljka; Zana, Brigitta; Földes, Fanni; Bányai, Krisztián; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Kemenesi, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilariosis is a common and widespread veterinary health issue in several European countries with notable zoonotic potential. The causative agents are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens nematoda species which are transmitted by different mosquito vectors. Similar to other mosquito-borne infections, the knowledge about mosquito species involved in disease transmission is crucial for the complex understanding of local transmission cycles. Since there is no available data on mosquito species, potentially involved in disease transmission from Serbia, 6369 female mosquito individuals were retrospectively tested for Dirofilaria nematodes, collected from 13 localities in Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. Altogether, 8.33 % of tested pools showed positivity, composed of five mosquito species, mainly, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans. D. immitis and D. repens were both detected from multiple localities, during the whole period of mosquito breeding season, which provides the first data on local transmission characteristics regarding mosquitoes from the Balkans. PMID:27193348

  8. Comparison of adult mosquito community structure on various habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-CHENGYAN; HARRYZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The community structure of adult mosquitoes was compared from New Jersey light trap collections in six different types of habitats in Citrus County, Florida, USA. From October 1998 to December 2000, mosquitoes were collected three times a week from the following habitats (swamps, swamps and freshwater marshes, pine fiat-woods, pine fiat-woods and scrub, salt marshes, and salt marshes and mangroves). Mosquito density was highest in the swamps and freshwater marshes habitat, with an average of 95.65 specimens per trap.Density was lowest in the flatwoods and scrub habitat, with an average of 14.38 specimens per trap. Species dominance differed among habitats. Salt marshes produced the greatest aggregation index, while pine flatwoods produced the lowest. Conversely, diversity analysis showed that pine flatwoods had the greatest diversity, while salt marshes the lowest diversity. Similarity indices indicated that the adult mosquito communities from pine flatwoods and pine flatwoods and scrub were very similar (0.8583). The adult mosquito community of salt marshes was different from that of swamps and freshwater marshes (the similar index was 0.0217).

  9. Mosquito Heparan Sulfate and Its Potential Role in Malaria Infection and Transmission*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnis, Photini; Coppi, Alida; Toida, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hidenao; Kinoshita-Toyoda, Akiko; Xie, Jin; Kemp, Melissa M.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Heparan sulfate has been isolated for the first time from the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, a known vector for Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. Chondroitin sulfate, but not dermatan sulfate or hyaluronan, was also present in the mosquito. The glycosaminoglycans were isolated, from salivary glands and midguts of the mosquito in quantities sufficient for disaccharide microanalysis. Both of these organs are invaded at different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. Mosquito ...

  10. Elevation of dopamine level reduces host-seeking activity in the adult female mosquito Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumitsu Yuki; Irie Keiichi; Satho Tomomitsu; Aonuma Hitoshi; Dieng Hamady; Ahmad Abu; Nakashima Yukihiko; Mishima Kenichi; Kashige Nobuhiro; Miake Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted to human hosts via blood-feeding behavior of female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes seek a host to take blood meals (host-seeking behavior). In order to prevent virus infections, it is important to understand how they modulate host-seeking behavior. Dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system acts as a neuromediator that regulates a variety of behaviors in insects. In female mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior increases when DA levels in ...

  11. Relationship between Exposure to Vector Bites and Antibody Responses to Mosquito Salivary Gland Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Albin Fontaine; Aurélie Pascual; Eve Orlandi-Pradines; Ibrahima Diouf; Franck Remoué; Frédéric Pagès; Thierry Fusaï; Christophe Rogier; Lionel Almeras

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study...

  12. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti Mosquito towards Essential Oils Using Olfactometer

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Uniyal; Tikar, Sachin N.; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Ram Singh; Shukla, Shakti V; Om P Agrawal; Vijay Veer; Devanathan Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for transmitting human diseases like dengue and chikungunya. Personal or space protection with insect repellents is a practical approach to reducing human mosquito contact, thereby minimizing disease transmission. Essential oils are natural volatile substances from plants used as protective measure against blood-sucking mosquitoes.Methods: Twenty-three essential oils were evaluated for their repellent effect against Ae. aegypti female mosquito...

  13. An Odorant Receptor from the Southern House Mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Sensitive to Oviposition Attractants

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Julien; Hughes, David T.; Luetje, Charles W.; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are heteromers comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. They are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ORs have been identified in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However, they are still unknown in the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, which transmits pathogens that cau...

  14. Direct Microscopic Quantification of Dynamics of Plasmodium berghei Sporozoite Transmission from Mosquitoes to Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yamei; Kebaier, Chahnaz; Vanderberg, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The number of malaria sporozoites delivered to a host by mosquitoes is thought to have a significant influence on the subsequent course of the infection in the mammalian host. We did studies with Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes with salivary gland infections of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing a red fluorescent protein. After individual mosquitoes fed on an ear pinna or the ventral abdomen of a mouse, fluorescence microscopy was used to count numbers of sporozoites. Mosquitoes allowed...

  15. Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that cause mosquitoes to resist arbovirus infection could lead to new strategies to control disease transmission. One antiviral response that may play a role in mosquito immunity is apoptosis, a type of cell suicide that is often induced by virus infection. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. To understand why, we infected mosquitoes with an arbovirus that expresses a proapoptotic gene called reaper and found that the Reaper-expressing...

  16. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  17. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  18. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  19. STUDY OF CHRONIC TREATMENT OF MOSQUITO REPELENT LIQUID INHILATION ON BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Allethrin is a synthetic anologue of the natural pyrethrum insecticides obtained from the flowers heads of the plant Chrysanthenium cinerariafollium. In most repellents synthetic pyrethroids are used to combat mosquito nuisance and malaria. Present investigation showed that inhalation of mosquito repellent by rat caused selective damage to lung and liver. Kidney was not severely affected by inhalation of mosquito repellent.

  20. STUDY OF CHRONIC TREATMENT OF MOSQUITO REPELENT LIQUID INHILATION ON BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Allethrin is a synthetic anologue of the natural pyrethrum insecticides obtained from the flowers heads of the plant Chrysanthenium cinerariafollium. In most repellents synthetic pyrethroids are used to combat mosquito nuisance and malaria. Present investigation showed that inhalation of mosquito repellent by rat caused selective damage to lung and liver. Kidney was not severely affected by inhalation of mosquito repellent.

  1. Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churcher, T.S.; Bousema, Jan Teun; Walker, M.; Drakeley, C.; Schneider, P.; Ouedraogo, A.L.; Basanez, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission reduction is a key component of global efforts to control and eliminate malaria; yet, it is unclear how the density of transmission stages (gametocytes) influences infection (proportion of mosquitoes infected). Human to mosquito transmission was assessed using 171 direct mosquito feedin

  2. Legal and policy options to minimize adverse effects of mosquito control pesticides on Florida's saltwater fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report examines the regulation of mosquito control activities in Florida and makes legal and institutional recommendations to improve protection of non-target estuarine and marine organisms. Some of the more important recommendations for modification of mosquito control in Florida include: clarification of ambiguous mosquito control pesticide labels; strengthening of surveillance and reporting requirements; strengthening of enforcement efforts and authority; increased u...

  3. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  4. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Margarita

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer. Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

  5. "MOSQUITO FAUNA OF IRAN 2- CULEX (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaim

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mosquito fauna of Iran, and to prepare the temporal as well as the spatial distribution of the Iranian mosquitoes, a comprehensive study has started since 1981. In this program in which more than 60.000 mosquito larvae, from different breeding sites has been studied, 15 species of Culex are reported. These are;Cx. arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. laticinctus, Cx.mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx.pusillus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. territans, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus. Culex antennatus Cx. impudicus, Cx. modestus. Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans which have been reported previously by other workers form Iran have not been found. Since the report on Cx. torrentium and Cx. vegans from Iran has been based solely on larvae, their presence can not be regarded certain due to the great overlap of morphological characters with Cx. pipiens.

  6. Gradual diffusive capture: slow death by many mosquito bites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a ‘man’) with diffusivity DM that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a ‘mosquito’) with fixed diffusivity Dm. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance ±a with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when DM reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements x is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as x−2, while the distribution of times t when the man dies decays asymptotically as t−3/2, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability. (paper)

  7. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of Mayotte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Le Goff

    Full Text Available A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species

  8. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  9. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

  10. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo eChoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects’ survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional antenna has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum towards blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol, CquiOR99, and a receptor for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated

  11. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Garrison K. Buss; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they ...

  12. BIOACTIVIDAD DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Minthostachys mollis CONTRA MOSQUITOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gleiser, Raquel M.; María A. Bonino; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2007-01-01

    El control químico de vectores es una herramienta principal de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Los aceites esenciales (AE) de plantas pueden ser una alternativa a los compuestos sintéticos. Se extrajeron por arrastre con vapor AE de Minthostachys mollis y se evaluó su actividad insecticida contra larvas, pupas y adultos de mosquitos, según protocolos estándar de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se evaluaron concentraciones entre 10 y 160 ppm del AE y se registró la ...

  13. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folb Peter I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodium opulifolium was found to be 97% as effective as DEET after 2 mins, time lag studies revealed a substantial reduction in efficacy (to 30% within two hours. Conclusions None of the plant extracts investigated exhibited residual repellencies >60% after three hours.

  14. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    OpenAIRE

    Folb Peter I; Bhagwandin Niresh; Newmarch Marion; Crouch Neil R; Maharaj Vinesh; Maharaj Rajendra; Pillay Pamisha; Gayaram Reshma

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodiu...

  15. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and s...

  16. Strategies for introducing Wolbachia to reduce transmission of mosquito-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Hancock

    Full Text Available Certain strains of the endosymbiont Wolbachia have the potential to lower the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations and assist in controlling a number of mosquito-borne diseases. An important consideration when introducing Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes into natural populations is the minimisation of any transient increase in disease risk or biting nuisance. This may be achieved by predominantly releasing male mosquitoes. To explore this, we use a sex-structured model of Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. We first show that Wolbachia spread can be initiated with very few infected females provided the infection frequency in males exceeds a threshold. We then consider realistic introduction scenarios involving the release of batches of infected mosquitoes, incorporating seasonal fluctuations in population size. For a range of assumptions about mosquito population dynamics we find that male-biased releases allow the infection to spread after the introduction of low numbers of females, many fewer than with equal sex-ratio releases. We extend the model to estimate the transmission rate of a mosquito-borne pathogen over the course of Wolbachia establishment. For a range of release strategies we demonstrate that male-biased release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can cause substantial transmission reductions without transiently increasing disease risk. The results show the importance of including mosquito population dynamics in studying Wolbachia spread and that male-biased releases can be an effective and safe way of rapidly establishing the symbiont in mosquito populations.

  17. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet. PMID:26181697

  18. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks. PMID:26903603

  19. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S

    2014-11-18

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect-plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  20. A multi-detection assay for malaria transmitting mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoosook; Weakley, Allison M; Nieman, Catelyn C; Malvick, Julia; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes the major malaria transmitting mosquitoes in Africa. Because these species are of such medical importance, several traits are typically characterized using molecular assays to aid in epidemiological studies. These traits include species identification, insecticide resistance, parasite infection status, and host preference. Since populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are morphologically indistinguishable, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is traditionally used to identify species. Once the species is known, several downstream assays are routinely performed to elucidate further characteristics. For instance, mutations known as KDR in a para gene confer resistance against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Plasmodium parasite DNA detection PCR assays are used to detect parasites present in mosquito tissues. Lastly, a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digests can be used to elucidate host preference (e.g., human vs. animal blood) by screening the mosquito bloodmeal for host-specific DNA. We have developed a multi-detection assay (MDA) that combines all of the aforementioned assays into a single multiplex reaction genotyping 33SNPs for 96 or 384 samples at a time. Because the MDA includes multiple markers for species, Plasmodium detection, and host blood identification, the likelihood of generating false positives or negatives is greatly reduced from previous assays that include only one marker per trait. This robust and simple assay can detect these key mosquito traits cost-effectively and in a fraction of the time of existing assays. PMID:25867057

  1. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  2. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  3. Yellow Fever Virus Infectivity for Bolivian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Higgs, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. Experiments with Aedes aegypti from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, demonstrated infection (100%), dissemination (20%), and transmission of a Bolivian YFV strain (CENETROP-322).

  4. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  5. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  6. Neato Mosquito: An Elementary Curriculum Guide. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasci, Roger S.; Herrington, James E.

    This curriculum guide was designed with the purpose of developing public awareness of LaCrosse (LAC) encephalitis, which is a mosquito transmitted disease. LAC cases have been increasing in large numbers in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes regions during recent years. This disease primarily affects children under the age of 15, and this guide…

  7. USDA Mosquito Control Product Research for the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    New techniques that were developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases and are also applicable for use by civilian mosquito control program use are described. Techniques to be illustrated include: (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2...

  8. Sodium channel gene expression in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A mosquito strain of Aerdes albopictus,HAmAalG0,from Huntsville,Alabama,USA,showed a normal susceptibility and low tolerance to permethrin and resmethrin (pyrethroid insecticides) compared to a susceptible Ikaken strain,even though these pyrethroid insecticides have been used in the field for a long period of time in Alabama.Recently,we treated HAmAalG0 in the laboratory with permethrin for five generations and detected no significant change in the level of resistance to permethrin in the selected mosquitoes,HAmAalG5,compared with the parental strain HAmAalG0. We then examined the allelic expression at the L-to-F kdr site of the sodium channel gene in the Aedes mosquitoes to address our hypothesis that the L-to-F kdr mutation was not present in HAmAalG0 and HAmAalG5 mosquitoes. We found that every tested individual in Ikaken,HAmAalG0,and HAmAalG5 populations expressed a codon of CTA at the L-to-F kdr site encoding Leu,strongly corresponding to their susceptibility to insecticides.

  9. The use of remote sensing in mosquito control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The technology of remote sensing, developed by the space program for identification of surface features from the vantage point of an aircraft or satellite, has substantial application in precisely locating mosquito breeding grounds. Preliminary results of the NASA technology working cooperatively with a city government agency in solving this problem are discussed.

  10. How Mosquitoes Walk on Water and Up Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; Thompson; 施小英

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes may be annoying,disease-carrying, blood-sucking pests,but they have a pair of talents that no other animal has:They can both walk up walls and walk on water,and a new study reveals exactly how they manage these circus feats.

  11. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species. PMID:26792848

  12. Development of briquettes from natural products for knockdown of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuku L. Nyakeru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major death cause in many parts of the world. This necessitates the development of alternative ways of curbing the problem. This study focused on the development of briquettes that would knockdown (KD mosquitoes in the course of burning. The briquettes were developed using jatropha seed husks (source of energy, cow dung (binder and pyrethrin (insecticide, which were then tested for their ability to knockdown and kill mosquitoes at Kenya Pyrethrum Board laboratory. The results were analysed using the analysis-of-variance (ANOVA tool. The results showed that a hand pressed mixture of jatropha seed husks, pyrethrin and cow dung (binder in the ratio of 3 g: 0.5 ml: 2 g respectively can cause a 100 % mosquito knockdown within 10 min. and mortality of 97.50 % within 24 hr when burnt indoors. The percentage mosquito knockdown and percentage mortality rate were found to vary significantly with the amount of pyrethrin used. It is expected that the findings of this study will generate new knowledge on briquette development and also contribute to waste management. The research findings will also contribute towards reducing the death rate resulting from malaria.

  13. The use of sterilized mosquito nets for hernioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C G; Rosenberg, J

    2012-01-01

    Hernia repair is among the most frequent surgeries performed. Surgeons prefer the tension-free mesh repair, but in large parts of the world, commercial meshes are unavailable or unaffordable. Consequently, surgeons have been experimenting with insertion of inexpensive non-commercial meshes, the m......, the most common being a non-impregnated, sterilized mosquito net....

  14. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  15. Preventing mosquito and tick bites: A Canadian update

    OpenAIRE

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The present practice point provides updated guidance on personal protective measures to safely and effectively prevent mosquito and tick bites in Canada. Means of avoidance as well as physical and chemical barriers are described. Current information regarding insect and tick repellents and recommendations for their use are provided, along with instructions for removing ticks. Guidance on using insecticide for additional chemical protection is offered.

  16. Transcription in mosquito hemocytes in response to pathogen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2009-01-01

    Mosquito hemocytes are blood cells that are fundamental for combating systemic infection. A study published in BMC Genomics shows that hemocyte gene transcription in response to immune challenge is pathogen-specific and reaffirms the primary role of these cells in immunity.

  17. Potential mosquito repellent compounds of Ocimum species against 3N7H and 3Q8I of Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddaguti, Venugopal; Venkateswara Rao, Talluri; Prasada Rao, Allu

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are exceptionally efficient in detecting their hosts for blood meal using odorant binding proteins, viz. 3N7H and 3Q8I and spread several dreadful diseases. DEET is a synthetic mosquito repellent widely used all over world for protection against mosquito bite. Reports reveal that, synthetic mosquito repellents may pose health problems in considerably large population. In view of the above fact, we made an attempt to discover efficient and novel natural mosquito repellent compounds ...

  18. Limitation of using synthetic human odours to test mosquito repellents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbeyela Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repellents using a synthetic blend of human derived attractants for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Different concentrations of known repellents, N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet and Para-methane-3, 8, diol (PMD were added into traps baited with the synthetic blend, and resulting changes in mosquito catches were measured. Results All test concentrations of deet (0.001% to 100% reduced the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. However, PMD was repellent only at 0.25%. Above this concentration, it significantly increased the attractiveness of the blend. There was no relationship between the repellent concentrations and the change in mosquito catches when either deet (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.302 or PMD (r2 = 0.020, P = 0.578 was used. Conclusion It is concluded that while some repellents may reduce the attractiveness of synthetic human odours, others may instead increase their attractiveness. Such inconsistencies indicate that even though the synthetic attractants may provide exposure-free and consistent test media for repellents, careful selection and multiple-repellent tests are necessary to ascertain their suitability for use in repellent screening. The synthetic odour blend tested here is not yet sufficiently refined to serve as replacement for humans in repellent testing, but may be developed further and evaluated in different formats for exposure free repellent testing purposes.

  19. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs ofAedes aegyptimosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  20. Biodistribution and trafficking of hydrogel nanoparticles in adult mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C H Paquette

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes.PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract.Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector lethal cargoes for mosquito control.

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems. (letter)

  2. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

  3. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes. PMID:26663040

  4. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa. PMID:20684480

  5. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community? Health equity implications of topical repellents as a mosquito bite prevention tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira Maia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Repellents do not kill mosquitoes--they simply reduce human-vector contact. Thus it is possible that individuals who do not use repellents but dwell close to repellent users experience more bites than otherwise. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion occurs from households that use repellents to those that do not use repellents. METHODS: The study was performed in three Tanzanian villages using 15%-DEET and placebo lotions. All households were given LLINs. Three coverage scenarios were investigated: complete coverage (all households were given 15%-DEET, incomplete coverage (80% of households were given 15%-DEET and 20% placebo and no coverage (all households were given placebo. A crossover study design was used and coverage scenarios were rotated weekly over a period of ten weeks. The placebo lotion was randomly allocated to households in the incomplete coverage scenario. The level of compliance was reported to be close to 100%. Mosquito densities were measured through aspiration of resting mosquitoes. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression models. FINDINGS: Repellent-users had consistently fewer mosquitoes in their dwellings. In villages where everybody had been given 15%-DEET, resting mosquito densities were fewer than half that of households in the no coverage scenario (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.60; p<0.001. Placebo-users living in a village where 80% of the households used 15%-DEET were likely to have over four-times more mosquitoes (IRR=4.17; 95% CI: 3.08-5.65; p<0.001 resting in their dwellings in comparison to households in a village where nobody uses repellent. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that high coverage of repellent use could significantly reduce man-vector contact but with incomplete coverage evidence suggests that mosquitoes are diverted from households that use repellent to those that do not. Therefore, if repellents are to be considered for

  6. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context. PMID:27118691

  7. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Kean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  8. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon E Hugo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April and dry/hot (May-August seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d, respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  9. Controle de vetores utilizando mosquitos geneticamente modificados Control de vectores utilizando mosquitos genéticamente modificados Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barreto Bruno Wilke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Formas químicas de controle de mosquitos vetores são ineficazes, levando ao desenvolvimento de novas estratégias. Assim, foi realizada revisão das estratégias de controle genético de populações de mosquitos vetores baseada na técnica do inseto estéril. Uma delas consiste na liberação de machos esterilizados por radiação, a outra, na integração de um gene letal dominante associado a um promotor específico de fêmeas imaturas. Entre as vantagens sobre outras técnicas biológicas e químicas de controle de vetores estão: alta especificidade, não prejudicial ao meio ambiente, baixo custo de produção e alta eficácia. O uso desta técnica de modificação genética pode vir a ser uma importante ferramenta do manejo integrado de vetores.Formas químicas de control de mosquitos vectores son ineficaces, llevando al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias. Así, fue realizada revisión de las estrategias de control genético de poblaciones de mosquitos vectores basada en la técnica del insecto estéril. Una de ellas consiste en la liberación de machos esterilizados por radiación, la otra, en la integración de un gen letal dominante asociado a un promotor específico de hembras inmaduras. Entre las ventajas sobre otras técnicas biológicas y químicas de control de vectores están: la alta especificidad, no prejudicial al ambiente, bajo costo de producción y alta eficiencia. El uso de esta técnica de modificación genética puede ser una importante herramienta del manejo integrado de vectores.The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific

  10. Ingested Human Insulin Inhibits the Mosquito NF-κB-Dependent Immune Response to Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Green, Gabriel P.; Smithers, Hannah M.; Cheung, Kong W.; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms, insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-κB transcription factors, critical elements for innate immunity that are also central to mosquito immunity. We show here that insulin signaling decreased expression of NF-κB-regulated immune genes in mosquito cells stimulated with either bacterial or malarial soluble products. Further, human insulin suppressed mosquito immunity through sustained phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, since inhibition of this pathway led to decreased parasite development in the mosquito. Together, these data demonstrate that activation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway by ingested human insulin can alter NF-κB-dependent immunity, and ultimately the susceptibility, of mosquitoes to P. falciparum. PMID:22473605

  11. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor function by mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-03-20

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  12. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  13. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

  14. Plasmodium-mosquito interactions: a tale of dangerous liaisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2005-11-01

    To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must survive the environment in the insect host, cross multiple barriers including epithelial layers, and avoid destruction by the mosquito immune system. Completion of the Anopheles gambiae and Plasmodium falciparum genomes has opened the opportunity to apply high throughput methods to the analysis of gene function. The burst of information generated by these approaches and the use of molecular markers to investigate the cell biology of these interactions is broadening our understanding of this complex system. This review discusses our current understanding of the critical interactions that take place during the journey of Plasmodium through the mosquito host, with special emphasis on the responses of midgut epithelial cells to parasite invasion. PMID:16207241

  15. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulate mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L S Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS that modulate redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1, is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. CONCLUSION: We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection.

  16. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  17. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Function by Mosquito Repellents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca2+-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  18. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  19. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99% minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation

  20. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues—The Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast reports on a humorous song that takes a look at a very serious human and equine disease. Written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band, Bill Dietz, director of the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity at CDC, talks about the song, "Crab Hole Mosquito Blues", and the history behind it.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  1. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Walter S Leal

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) has intrigued medical entomologists, neurobiologists, insect physiologists, and chemical ecologists for decades, and hitherto it was not known how and why it works. We have discovered an odorant receptor in the southern house mosquito, which is essential for repellency, thus unravelling how DEET works. Additionally, we have identified a link between this synthetic repellent and methyl jasmonate, thus suggesting that DEET might work by mimicking defensive c...

  2. New protective battle-dress impregnated against mosquito vector bites

    OpenAIRE

    Pennetier Cédric; Chabi Joseph; Martin Thibaud; Chandre Fabrice; Rogier Christophe; Hougard Jean-Marc; Pages Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mixing repellent and organophosphate (OP) insecticides to better control pyrethroid resistant mosquito vectors is a promising strategy developed for bed net impregnation. Here, we investigated the opportunity to adapt this strategy to personal protection in the form of impregnated clothes. Methods We compared standard permethrin impregnated uniforms with uniforms manually impregnated with the repellent KBR3023 alone and in combination with an organophosphate, Pirimiphos-Me...

  3. A Physical Map for an Asian Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Maria V Sharakhova; Xia, Ai; Tu, Zhijian; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Unger, Maria F; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2010-01-01

    Physical mapping is a useful approach for studying genome organization and evolution as well as for genome sequence assembly. The availability of polytene chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes provides a unique opportunity to develop high-resolution physical maps. We report a 0.6-Mb-resolution physical map consisting of 422 DNA markers hybridized to 379 chromosomal sites of the Anopheles stephensi polytene chromosomes. This makes An. stephensi second only to Anopheles gambiae in density of a phys...

  4. Challenges and Approaches for Mosquito Targeted Malaria Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, José L.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of today’s most serious diseases with an enormous socioeconomic impact. While anti-malarial drugs have existed for some time and vaccines development may be underway, the most successful malaria eradication programs have thus far relied on attacking the mosquito vector that spreads the disease causing agent Plasmodium. Here we will review past, current and future perspectives of malaria vector control strategies and how these approaches have taken a promising turn thanks recent...

  5. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  6. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:27217948

  7. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J.; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 speci...

  8. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Pedro L Oliveira; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses ...

  9. In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, Alejandro; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Quinones, Mariam; Ribeiro, José MC; Ramphul, Urvashi; Rodrigues, Janneth; Shen, Kui; Haile, Ashley; Ramirez, José Luis; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing of Anopheles gambiae was completed more than ten years ago and has accelerated research on malaria transmission. However, annotation needs to be refined and verified experimentally, as most predicted transcripts have been identified by comparative analysis with genomes from other species. The mosquito midgut—the first organ to interact with Plasmodium parasites—mounts effective antiplasmodial responses that limit parasite survival and disease transmission. High-th...

  10. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Joseph C. Dickens

    2010-01-01

    Background DEET, 2-undecanone (2-U), IR3535 and Picaridin are widely used as insect repellents to prevent interactions between humans and many arthropods including mosquitoes. Their molecular action has only recently been studied, yielding seemingly contradictory theories including odorant-dependent inhibitory and odorant-independent excitatory activities on insect olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and odorant receptor proteins (ORs). Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the act...

  11. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spat...

  12. Genome engineering and gene drive in the mosquito aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    St John, Oliver Tudor Lockhart; Sinkins, Steven; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Genetic control strategies are a novel method for reducing populations of pest insects such as the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, a major vector of several important arboviral diseases. This thesis describes efforts to develop new tools to engineer the Ae. aegypti genome and to better understand existing tools, and furthermore to use these to engineer a gene drive system in Ae. aegypti. The piggyBac transposon was found to be extremely stable in the germline of Ae. aegypti, and transpos...

  13. Gametocytes infectiousness to mosquitoes: variable selection using random forests, and zero inflated models

    OpenAIRE

    Genuer, Robin; Morlais, Isabelle; Toussile, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasit...

  14. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae) oil

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed...

  15. Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices: Mosquito-borne Disease Transmission in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Butterworth, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Virginiaâ s temperate climate is suitable for several mosquito species capable of transmitting pathogens to humans. In southwest Virginia, La Crosse encephalitis and West Nile fever are most prominent. The objective of this research, which uses the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, is to assess knowledge of mosquito-borne disease in southwest Virginia, as well as perceptions and practices of mosquito prevention. Given that several cases of La Crosse encephalitis have bee...

  16. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.P.; MITTAL, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct rel...

  17. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Marina; Endang Puji Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power prote...

  18. Mosquito biting activity on humans & detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi in Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S.; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S.; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. Information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. This study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in Goa, India. Methods: Biting activities of all mosquitoes includ...

  19. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    OpenAIRE

    Famenini Shannon; Traore Mohamed M; Touré Mahamoudou B; Marshall John M; Taylor Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives ...

  20. Using Charcoal as Base Material Reduces Mosquito Coil Emissions of Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Jiang, Zhikuan; Tong, Jian; Wang, Zhongcai; Han, Zhaojiu; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito coils are used to prevent mosquito exposures indoors by ~ 2 billion people worldwide. However, the smoldering of organic matters used as base materials of mosquito coils emits particulate and gaseous toxic compounds. A previous study indicates that emission rates of toxic compounds depend on types of base materials and can be high enough to generate room concentrations markedly higher than health based standards or references. The objective of the present study is to evaluate a new t...

  1. No evidence for local adaptation of dengue viruses to mosquito vector populations in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Fansiri, Thanyalak; Pongsiri, Arissara; Klungthong, Chonticha; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Lambrechts, Louis; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    International audience Despite their epidemiological importance, the evolutionary forces that shape the spatial structure of dengue virus genetic diversity are not fully understood. Fine-scale genetic structure of mosquito vector populations and evidence for genotype 9 genotype interactions between dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are consistent with the hypothesis that the geographical distribution of dengue virus genetic diversity may reflect viral adaptation to local mosquito p...

  2. Reproduction of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Santa Cruz, Santiago island, Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Elves Heleno; Correia, Edson Eugénio; Varela, Caetano Eane; Varela, António

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects with an important role in the transmission of diseases like malaria and dengue. During a dengue fever outbreak in the Cape Verde Islands in 2009, several studies were undertaken to support vector control. The present study was carried out in the district of Santa Cruz, Santiago island, to evaluate previous measures taken to control mosquito populations. Results show that mosquitoes use domestic water containers to breed. Barrels, drums and pots were all used. ...

  3. Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Afrane, Yaw A; Little, Tom J.; Lawson, Bernard W; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of deforestation on microclimates and sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in an area of the western Kenyan highland prone to malaria epidemics. An. gambiae mosquitoes were fed with P. falciparum–infected blood through membrane feeders. Fed mosquitoes were placed in houses in forested and deforested areas in a highland area (1,500 m above sea level) and monitored for parasite development. Deforested sites had hig...

  4. Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Mosquitoes from Pig Farms by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Yang, Lidan Hou, Jing Ye, Qigai He and Shengbo Cao*

    2012-01-01

    To investigate, whether mosquitoes could be potential vectors that maintain or transmit PCV2, 59 mosquito samples were collected from suspicious PCV2-infected pig farms in Hubei and Anhui province, China. Total DNA from these mosquitoes was extracted and then tested for presence of PCV2 nucleic acid by PCR. Four (6.78%) samples showed the positive result. Subsequently, the positive PCR product was cloned into pEASY-T1 vector and sequenced. Sequence analysis displayed that homology between the...

  5. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to ‘remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that t...

  6. Hemocyte differentiation mediates the mosquito late-phase immune response against Plasmodium in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune response is a major determinant of malaria parasite success in its mosquito host. Previous experiments have implicated LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF)-like 3 (LL3) as an integral component of the mosquito immune response to the malaria parasite. This study reports that LL3 influences oocyst survival and demonstrates its role in mosquito blood cell (hemocyte) differentiation in response to parasite infection. Integrating previous data, we provide evidence that h...

  7. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  8. Global stability of a delayed mosquito-transmitted disease model with stage structure

    OpenAIRE

    B. G. Sampath Aruna Pradeep; Wanbiao Ma

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new eco-epidemiological deterministic delay differential equation model considering a biological controlling approach on mosquitoes, for endemic dengue disease with variable host (human) and variable vector (Aedes aegypti) populations, and stage structure for mosquitoes. In this model, predator-prey interaction is considered by using larvae as prey and mosquito-fish as predator. We give a complete classification of equilibria of the model, ...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Several Attractants and Spatial Repellents for the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an Olfactometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Further...

  10. Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Cornel, Anthony J; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly...

  11. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that compris...

  12. Mosquito RNAi is the major innate immune pathway controlling arbovirus infection and transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Carol D. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses cause serious diseases in humans that are increasingly becoming public health problems, yet arbovirus infections cause minimal pathology in the mosquito vector, allowing persistent infections and lifelong virus transmission. The principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, RNAi, differs substantially from the human immune response and this difference could be the basis for the disparate outcomes of infection in the two hosts. Understanding the mosq...

  13. Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiss Brian J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus, a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2 compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.

  14. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  15. A New Role of the Mosquito Complement-like Cascade in Male Fertility in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pompon, Julien; Levashina, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a key immune factor that determines mosquito resistance to a wide range of pathogens, including malaria parasites. Here we report a new allele-specific function of TEP1 in male fertility. We demonstrate that during spermatogenesis TEP1 binds to and removes damaged cells through the same complement-like cascade that kills malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut. Further, higher fertility rates are mediated by an allele that renders the mosquito suscept...

  16. Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

    1983-01-01

    Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

  17. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  18. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe; AbdulWasiu Oladele Hassan; Sunday Olukayode Oladejo; Ismail Olaoye; Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde; Taiwo Adewole

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results:A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

  19. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne-Marie Linton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179 is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  20. Culex Flavivirus and West Nile Virus Mosquito Coinfection and Positive Ecological Association in Chicago, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Christina M.; Cerutti, Francesco; Anderson, Tavis K.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Walker, Edward D.; Kitron, Uriel D.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Brawn, Jeffery D.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.

    2011-01-01

    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex. CxFV was positively associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a case–control study of 268 mosquito pools from an endemic focus of WNV transmission in Chicago, United States. Specifically, WNV-positive Culex mosquito pools were four times more likely also to be infected with CxFV than were spatiotemporally matched WNV-negative pools. In addition, mosquito pools from resident...

  1. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  2. Prior exposure to uninfected mosquitoes enhances mortality in naturally-transmitted West Nile virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S Schneider

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global emergence of West Nile virus (WNV has highlighted the importance of mosquito-borne viruses. These are inoculated in vector saliva into the vertebrate skin and circulatory system. Arthropod-borne (arboviruses such as WNV are transmitted to vertebrates as an infectious mosquito probes the skin for blood, depositing the virus and saliva into the skin and circulation. Growing evidence has demonstrated that arthropod, and recently mosquito, saliva can have a profound effect on pathogen transmission efficiency, pathogenesis, and disease course. A potentially important aspect of natural infections that has been ignored is that in nature vertebrates are typically exposed to the feeding of uninfected mosquitoes prior to the mosquito that transmits WNV. The possibility that pre-exposure to mosquito saliva might modulate WNV infection was explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that sensitization to mosquito saliva exacerbates viral infection. Prior exposure of mice to mosquito feeding resulted in increased mortality following WNV infection. This aggravated disease course was associated with enhanced early viral replication, increased interleukin-10 expression, and elevated influx of WNV-susceptible cell types to the inoculation site. This exacerbated disease course was mimicked by passive transfer of mosquito-sensitized serum. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report that sensitization to arthropod saliva can exacerbate arthropod-borne infection, contrary to previous studies with parasite and bacteria infections. This research suggests that in addition to the seroreactivity of the host to virus, it is important to take into account the immune response to vector feeding.

  3. Nature, Nurture and Evolution of Intra-Species Variation in Mosquito Arbovirus Transmission Competence

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    Walter J. Tabachnick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature and environmental (nurture factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  4. The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus

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    Abhishek N. Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors.

  5. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  6. Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankita; Joshi, Gaurav; Nagar, Durga P; Sharma, Ajay K; Sukumaran, D; Pant, Satish C; Parida, Man Mohan; Dash, Paban Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic and adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis and hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IFN-β in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 and IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum and peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration and degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration and associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better understanding of CHIKV pathobiology and promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV. PMID:26925703

  7. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  8. Spatial and temporal characterization of mosquito distribution and arbovirus transmission activity in St. Johns County, Florida. St. Augustine, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global information technology (GIT) (including Global Positioning System [GPS], Geographic Information Systems [GIS], and image analysis) can be used to develop adult mosquito sampling methods and to characterize adult mosquito distributions and disease transmission patterns. At this meeting of v...

  9. A Possible Mechanism for the Suppression of Plasmodium berghei Development in the Mosquito Anopheles gambiae by the Microsporidian Vavraia culicis

    OpenAIRE

    Bargielowski, Irka; Koella, Jacob C

    2009-01-01

    Background Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes offer a possible way of controlling malaria, as they impede the development of Plasmodium parasites within the mosquito. The mechanism involved in this interference process is unknown. Methodology We evaluated the possibility that larval infection by a microsporidian primes the immune system of adult mosquitoes in a way that enables a more effective anti-Plasmodium response. To do so, we infected 2-day old larvae of the mosquito Anopheles gamb...

  10. The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito saliva is associated with modulation of the host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Bradley S.; Higgs, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses have emerged as a major human health concern. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are the cause of the most serious and widespread arbovirus diseases worldwide and are ubiquitous in both feral and urban settings. Arboviruses, including dengue and West Nile virus are injected into vertebrates within mosquito saliva during mosquito feeding. Mosquito saliva contains anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that facilitate the acquisition of a blood...

  11. Sterile-Insect Methods for Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alphey, Luke; Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G.; Dame, David A; Service, Mike W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector con...

  12. Reconstructing the flight kinematics of swarming and mating behavior in wild mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a tracking system for reconstructing three-dimensional tracks of individual mosquitoes in wild swarms and present the results of validating the system by filming swarms and mating events of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Mali. The tracking system is designed to address noisy, ...

  13. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Parker Andrew G; Helinski Michelle EH

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age), and adults

  14. Rationalizing Historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availabilty management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killeen, G.F.; Seyoum, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental management of mosquito resources is a promising approach with which to control malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa for more than half a century. Here we present a kinetic model of mosquito foraging for aquatic habitats and vertebrate hosts that allows estimation of ma

  15. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, D.J.; Otieno, B.; Rijk, de M.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull

  16. Multiple chemosensory targets for discovery of novel chemicals for disruption of mosquito behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of diseases including dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and West Nile virus. Olfactory and gustatory signals play important roles in the orientation of female mosquitoes to vertebrate hosts and initiation of blood feeding. Using re...

  17. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES IN AN URBAN AREA OF RAJKOT CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul B. Patel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquito borne diseases is a growing urban problem because of unplanned urbanization, industrialization and excessive population growth coupled with rural to urban migration. For developing a suitable and effective health education strategy, it is inevitable to understand the level of knowledge of the community, their attitude and practices regarding mosquito borne diseases. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Urban Health Centre in Rajkot city. Total 500 houses were selected for study by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during transmission season of vector borne diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 17 software. Results: 90% respondents agreed that mosquitoes are a problem. 30.4% didn’t know breeding sites of mosquitoes. Only 11.6% of people associated clean water collections with mosquito breeding. Regarding diseases transmitted by mosquito, 62% answered malaria, 37.4% were not aware and 8.8% people mentioned about Filariasis, Dengue or Japanese encephalitis. 4.7% granted mosquito control as responsibility of community. 61.4 % were using repellents for prevention against mosquito bites and 39% not taking any preventive measure. 67.8% consulted private practitioner for treatment. Conclusion: Intensified efforts towards creating public awareness and mobilizing the community regarding the preventive measures they can take are needed. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 45-47

  18. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  19. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  20. Blood Meal Analysis of Mosquitoes Involved in a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were sc...

  1. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  2. Direct and indirect immunosuppression by a malaria parasite in its mosquito vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boëte, C.H.J.J.; Paul, R.E.L.; Koëlla, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria parasites develop as oocysts within the haemocoel of their mosquito vector during a period that is longer than the average lifespan of many of their vectors. How can they escape from the mosquito's immune responses during their long development? Whereas older oocysts might camouflage themsel

  3. Comparison of carbohydrate sources in yeast-fermentation CO2 generators for mosquito surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources. In this study, we document the differences in mosquito and n...

  4. Stable isotope-mass spectrometric determination of semen transfer in malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.E.H.; Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Mayr, L.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential use of stable isotopes to study mosquito mating was investigated by tracing the fate of labelled semen into spermathecae. [13C]glucose was incorporated in the diet of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. Treatments included labelling of either the larval water or adult sugar wate

  5. Using green fluorescent malaria parasites to screen for permissive vector mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beatrice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium species that infect rodents, particularly Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii, are useful to investigate host-parasite interactions. The mosquito species that act as vectors of human plasmodia in South East Asia, Africa and South America show different susceptibilities to infection by rodent Plasmodium species. P. berghei and P. yoelii infect both Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi, which are found mainly in Africa and Asia, respectively. However, it was reported that P. yoelii can infect the South American mosquito, Anopheles albimanus, while P. berghei cannot. Methods P. berghei lines that express the green fluorescent protein were used to screen for mosquitoes that are susceptible to infection by P. berghei. Live mosquitoes were examined and screened for the presence of a fluorescent signal in the abdomen. Infected mosquitoes were then examined by time-lapse microscopy to reveal the dynamic behaviour of sporozoites in haemolymph and extracted salivary glands. Results A single fluorescent oocyst can be detected in live mosquitoes and P. berghei can infect A. albimanus. As in other mosquitoes, P. berghei sporozoites can float through the haemolymph and invade A. albimanus salivary glands and they are infectious in mice after subcutaneous injection. Conclusion Fluorescent Plasmodium parasites can be used to rapidly screen susceptible mosquitoes. These results open the way to develop a laboratory model in countries where importation of A. gambiae and A. stephensi is not allowed.

  6. Broad surveys of DNA viral diversity obtained through viral metagenomics of mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.

  7. Retrogenes Reveal the Direction of Sex-Chromosome Evolution in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A.; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, while the mosquito Aedes aegypti has homomorphic sex chromosomes. We use retrotransposed gene duplicates to show an excess of movement off the An. gambiae X chromosome only after the split with Ae. aegypti, suggesting that their ancestor had homomorphic sex chromosomes. PMID:20660646

  8. Using a near-infrared spectrometer to estimate the age of anopheles mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T Sikulu

    Full Text Available We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as <7 or ≥7 d old with an overall accuracy of 79%. The age categories of Anopheles mosquitoes that were not exposed to the insecticide papers were predicted with 78% accuracy whereas the age categories of resistant, susceptible and mosquitoes exposed to control papers were predicted with 82%, 78% and 79% accuracy, respectively. The ages of 85% of the wild-collected mixed-age Anopheles were predicted by NIRS as ≤8 d for both susceptible and resistant groups. The age structure of wild-collected mosquitoes was not significantly different for the pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes (P = 0.210. Based on these findings, NIRS chronological age estimation technique for Anopheles mosquitoes may be independent of insecticide exposure and the environmental conditions to which the mosquitoes are exposed.

  9. Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D Frentiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV, is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV replication led to trial field releases of these mosquitoes in Cairns, Australia as a biocontrol strategy for the virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Field collected wMel mosquitoes that were challenged with three DENV serotypes displayed limited rates of body infection, viral replication and dissemination to the head compared to uninfected controls. Rates of dengue infection, replication and dissemination in field wMel mosquitoes were similar to those observed in the original transinfected wMel line that had been maintained in the laboratory. We found that wMel was distributed in similar body tissues in field mosquitoes as in laboratory ones, but, at seven days following blood-feeding, wMel densities increased to a greater extent in field mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that virus-blocking is likely to persist in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes after their release and establishment in wild populations, suggesting that Wolbachia biocontrol may be a successful strategy for reducing dengue transmission in the field.

  10. A portable approach for the surveillance of dengue virus-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A; Frentiu, Francesca D; Rojas, Alejandra; Moreira, Luciano A; O'Neill, Scott L; Young, Paul R

    2012-07-01

    Dengue virus is the most significant human viral pathogen spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. With no vaccine or antiviral therapy currently available, disease prevention relies largely on surveillance and mosquito control. Preventing the onset of dengue outbreaks and effective vector management would be considerably enhanced through surveillance of dengue virus prevalence in natural mosquito populations. However, current approaches to the identification of virus in field-caught mosquitoes require relatively slow and labor intensive techniques such as virus isolation or RT-PCR involving specialized facilities and personnel. A rapid and portable method for detecting dengue virus-infected mosquitoes is described. Using a hand held battery operated homogenizer and a dengue diagnostic rapid strip the viral protein NS1 was detected as a marker of dengue virus infection. This method could be performed in less than 30 min in the field, requiring no downstream processing, and is able to detect a single infected mosquito in a pool of at least 50 uninfected mosquitoes. The method described in this study allows rapid, real-time monitoring of dengue virus presence in mosquito populations and could be a useful addition to effective monitoring and vector control responses. PMID:22575689

  11. Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Bossin, H.C.; Mukabana, W.R.; Robinson, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission an

  12. Use of geographic information systems to depict and analyze mosquito population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit (vector) disease agents that cause malaria, yellow fever, dengue, West Nile fever, and encephalitis. Spread of these diseases is controlled by the management of mosquito population levels, changes in which are monitored in vector surveillance programs by the use of mechanical tr...

  13. The bionomics of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Southeast Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyimo, E.O.K.

    1993-01-01

    Size of adult mosquitoes is known to affect both population dynamics as well as disease transmission. Studies devoted to this topic have given different results for different species. For example in some mosquito species, large size was found to be associated with high fecundity and longer survival

  14. Annual Anastasia Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshops: Summary of the Past 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realizing the needs of local mosquito control workers for advance training and education the Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) and the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary entomology (CMAVE) developed a regional workshop to address these needs. Since 2004 the AMCD and CM...

  15. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Townroe

    Full Text Available The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3 per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1. Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV] and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector. Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK.

  16. Don't Let the Bugs Bite: Preventing Dengue and Other Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-10

    This year (2007) CDC is receiving a great many reports of cases of Dengue fever, which is spread by mosquitoes. This podcast discusses ways travelers to the tropics can protect themselves from mosquito bites.  Created: 12/10/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 12/10/2007.

  17. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  18. A novel in vitro bioassay to explore the repellent effects of compounds against mosquito Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens that can cause human diseases which can result in high rates of human morbidity and mortality at significant levels of transmission. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and hence the risk of spread of mosquito borne diseases. Current...

  19. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  20. Seasonal abundance and potential of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanasak Changbunjong; Thekhawet Weluwanarak; Namaoy Taowan; Parut Suksai; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Poonyapat Sedwisai

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the abundance and seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes, and to detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in these mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected bimonthly from July 2009 to May 2010 by Centers for Disease Control. Light traps and dry ice, as a source of CO2, were employed to attract mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were first identified, pooled into groups of upto 50 mosquitoes by species, and tested for JEV infection by viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results:A total of 20 370 mosquitoes comprising 14 species in five genera were collected. The five most abundant mosquito species collected were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (95.46%), Culex vishnui (2.68%), Culex gelidus (0.72%), Anopheles peditaeniatus (0.58%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (0.22%). Mosquito peak densities were observed in July. All of 416 mosquito pools were negative for JEV. Conclusions: This study provides new information about mosquito species and status of JEV infection in mosquitoes in Thailand. Further study should be done to continue a close survey for the presence of this virus in the ardeid birds.

  1. Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, D.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate

  2. First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes. PMID:25648446

  3. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts. PMID:26867378

  4. Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Cerqueira

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

  5. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A

    2008-05-01

    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci in noninbred mosquito crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Huang, Song; Zheng, Liangbiao; Zhao, Hongyu

    2006-04-01

    The identification of genes that affect quantitative traits has been of great interest to geneticists for many decades, and many statistical methods have been developed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Most QTL mapping studies in experimental organisms use purely inbred lines, where the two homologous chromosomes in each individual are identical. As a result, many existing QTL mapping methods developed for experimental organisms are applicable only to genetic crosses between inbred lines. However, it may be difficult to obtain inbred lines for certain organisms, e.g., mosquitoes. Although statistical methods for QTL mapping in outbred populations, e.g., humans, can be applied for such crosses, these methods may not fully take advantage of the uniqueness of these crosses. For example, we can generally assume that the two grandparental lines are homozygous at the QTL of interest, but such information is not be utilized through methods developed for outbred populations. In addition, mating types and phases can be relatively easy to establish through the analysis of adjacent markers due to the large number of offspring that can be collected, substantially simplifying the computational need. In this article, motivated by a mosquito intercross experiment involving two selected lines that are not genetically homozygous across the genome, we develop statistical methods for QTL mapping for genetic crosses involving noninbred lines. In our procedure, we first infer parental mating types and use likelihood-based methods to infer phases in each parent on the basis of genotypes of offspring and one parent. A hidden Markov model is then employed to estimate the number of high-risk alleles at marker positions and putative QTL positions between markers in each offspring, and QTL mapping is finally conducted through the inferred QTL configuration across all offspring in all crosses. The performance of the proposed methods is assessed through simulation studies, and the

  7. Development of biodegradable aluminium carboxymethylcellulose matrices for mosquito larvicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nisha; Kalyanasundaram, Muthuswami

    2004-07-01

    The use of ecofriendly biodegradable controlled-release formulations of mosquito larvicides could reduce the frequency of application and losses due to degradation of the insecticide compared with conventional formulations. Among the 20 matrices developed by entrapping the organophosphorus mosquito larvicide, fenthion, in carboxymethylcellulose ionotropically cross-linked with aluminium ions which were studied for release profiles, two matrices, CRF3b and CRF5b, were found to be stable for 16 and 14 weeks under simulated field conditions. The average concentration of fenthion released per week ranged from 0.06 to 3.5 mg litre(-1) for CRF3b and 0.09 to 2.72 mg litre(-1) for CRF5b. Of these two formulations, CRF3b was the more stable, maintaining the concentration of the active ingredient at the level required to effect mosquito control. The cumulative release of fenthion per pellet was 80% from CRF3b and 72% from CRF5b. Based on the study with fenthion, two similar matrices for triflumuron, a benzoylphenylurea insect growth regulator, STAR3b and STAR5b were developed. These matrices were stable up to 16 weeks with the average concentration of triflumuron released per week ranging from 0.05 to 3.44 mg litre(-1) for STAR3b and 0.07 to 2.71 mg litre(-1) for STARSb. The cumulative release of triflumuron per pellet was 75% from STAR3b and 76% from STAR5b. From the results of this study under simulated conditions, it is estimated that the application of four pellets of either fenthion or triflumuron per square metre of the breeding surface may play a useful role in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus Say in larval habitats for about 4 months. PMID:15260300

  8. Using bacteria to express and display anti-Plasmodium molecules in the mosquito midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Michael A; Moreira, Cristina K; Lampe, David; Lauzon, Carol; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-05-01

    Bacteria capable of colonizing mosquito midguts are attractive vehicles for delivering anti-malaria molecules. We genetically engineered Escherichia coli to display two anti-Plasmodium effector molecules, SM1 and phospholipase-A(2), on their outer membrane. Both molecules significantly inhibited Plasmodium berghei development when engineered bacteria were fed to mosquitoes 24h prior to an infective bloodmeal (SM1=41%, PLA2=23%). Furthermore, prevalence and numbers of engineered bacteria increased dramatically following a bloodmeal. However, E. coli survived poorly in mosquitoes. Therefore, Enterobacter agglomerans was isolated from mosquitoes and selected for midgut survival by multiple passages through mosquitoes. After four passages, E. agglomerans survivorship increased from 2 days to 2 weeks. Since E. agglomerans is non-pathogenic and widespread, it is an excellent candidate for paratransgenic control strategies. PMID:17224154

  9. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF. Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (P. amaryllifolius was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly different of power protection between N. scutellarium leaves and P. amaryllifolius leaves extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may effectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector.

  10. Diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes in Puducherry Union Territory, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Chinnusamy Makesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes at Puducherry Union Territory. Methods:Random collections were carried out in tree holes at collection sites by using suction tube. Mosquitoes are identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 235 mosquitoes were collected from tree holes, comprising 3 genera and 12 species. They are,Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes stokesi, Aedes simpsoni, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culiciformis, Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex decens. The results reveal thatAedes species is the dominant species in tree holes. Simpson’s dominance index and Shanon-Wiener diversity index of 0.182 7 and 0.833 6 were respectively recorded for all tree hole mosquitoes. Conclusions:The diversity studies of tree hole mosquitoes in the study area are necessary for the implementation of appropriate control strategies.

  11. Diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes in Puducherry Union Territory, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study diversity and distribution of tree hole mosquitoes at Puducherry Union Territory. Methods: Random collections were carried out in tree holes at collection sites by using suction tube. Mosquitoes are identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 235 mosquitoes were collected from tree holes, comprising 3 genera and 12 species. They are, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes stokesi, Aedes simpsoni, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culiciformis, Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex decens. The results reveal that Aedes species is the dominant species in tree holes. Simpson’s dominance index and Shanon-Wiener diversity index of 0.182 7 and 0.833 6 were respectively recorded for all tree hole mosquitoes. Conclusions: The diversity studies of tree hole mosquitoes in the study area are necessary for the implementation of appropriate control strategies.

  12. Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2 in Mosquitoes from Pig Farms by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yang, Lidan Hou, Jing Ye, Qigai He and Shengbo Cao*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate, whether mosquitoes could be potential vectors that maintain or transmit PCV2, 59 mosquito samples were collected from suspicious PCV2-infected pig farms in Hubei and Anhui province, China. Total DNA from these mosquitoes was extracted and then tested for presence of PCV2 nucleic acid by PCR. Four (6.78% samples showed the positive result. Subsequently, the positive PCR product was cloned into pEASY-T1 vector and sequenced. Sequence analysis displayed that homology between the PCR products and PCV2 strains were more than 94%. These results demonstrate that PCV2 nucleic acid exists in these mosquitoes, which suggests that mosquitoes could serve as mechanical transmission vectors of PCV2.

  13. Hemocyte differentiation mediates the mosquito late-phase immune response against Plasmodium in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2015-06-30

    Plasmodium parasites must complete development in the mosquito vector for transmission to occur. The mosquito innate immune response is remarkably efficient in limiting parasite numbers. Previous work has identified a LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF)-like transcription factor, LITAF-like 3 (LL3), which significantly influences parasite numbers. Here, we demonstrate that LL3 does not influence invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium or ookinete-to-oocyst differentiation but mediates a late-phase immune response that decreases oocyst survival. LL3 expression in the midgut and hemocytes is activated by ookinete midgut invasion and is independent of the mosquito microbiota, suggesting that LL3 may be a component of a wound-healing response. LL3 silencing abrogates the ability of mosquito hemocytes to differentiate and respond to parasite infection, implicating hemocytes as critical modulators of the late-phase immune response. PMID:26080400

  14. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A; Serhan, Charles N; Ribeiro, Jose M; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to 'remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that this factor consists of a Lipoxin/Lipocalin complex. We demonstrate that innate immune priming in mosquitoes involves a persistent increase in expression of Evokin (a lipid carrier of the lipocalin family), and in their ability to convert arachidonic acid to lipoxins, predominantly Lipoxin A4. Plasmodium ookinete midgut invasion triggers immune priming by inducing the release of a mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex. PMID:26100162

  15. Hemocyte differentiation mediates the mosquito late-phase immune response against Plasmodium in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites must complete development in the mosquito vector for transmission to occur. The mosquito innate immune response is remarkably efficient in limiting parasite numbers. Previous work has identified a LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF)-like transcription factor, LITAF-like 3 (LL3), which significantly influences parasite numbers. Here, we demonstrate that LL3 does not influence invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium or ookinete-to-oocyst differentiation but mediates a late-phase immune response that decreases oocyst survival. LL3 expression in the midgut and hemocytes is activated by ookinete midgut invasion and is independent of the mosquito microbiota, suggesting that LL3 may be a component of a wound-healing response. LL3 silencing abrogates the ability of mosquito hemocytes to differentiate and respond to parasite infection, implicating hemocytes as critical modulators of the late-phase immune response. PMID:26080400

  16. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to ‘remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that this factor consists of a Lipoxin/Lipocalin complex. We demonstrate that innate immune priming in mosquitoes involves a persistent increase in expression of Evokin (a lipid carrier of the lipocalin family), and in their ability to convert arachidonic acid to lipoxins, predominantly Lipoxin A4. Plasmodium ookinete midgut invasion triggers immune priming by inducing the release of a mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex. PMID:26100162

  17. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  18. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  19. Disección de mosquitos anopheles (resumen de resultados)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Hago a continuación un resumen de los resultados obtenidos con la disección de hembras de anofelinos llevada a cabo en varios sitios del Rio Magdalena y en dos Municipios del Departamento del Valle del Cauca, en los años de 1932 a 1937, figurando en él, el número de disecciones hechas en cada lugar, las especies de anofelinos y lo que en los estómagos y las glándulas salivales de los mosquitos se encontró.

  20. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to residential mosquito-coil smoke exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gopall Roshnee; CAO Guo-qiang; CHEN Hong

    2011-01-01

    We reported a previously healthy 25-year-old female patient who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis following repeated exposures to the smoke of mosquito coils. The patient presented with vague symptoms of cough and fever for 3 days. Diagnostic criteria proposed for clinical use in this case included history, exposure to a recognized antigen, physical examination, consistent radiographic images, bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy. Much symptomatic relief and better radiographic response were noted after short-term use of oral corticosteroid and removal of the offending antigen.

  1. Arbovirus high fidelity variant loses fitness in mosquitoes and mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, L.L.; Beeharry, Y.; Borderia, A.V.; Blanc, H; Vignuzzi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) affects the mutation frequency in a population of viral RNAs. Using chikungunya virus (CHIKV), we describe a unique arbovirus fidelity variant with a single C483Y amino acid change in the nsP4 RdRp that increases replication fidelity and generates populations with reduced genetic diversity. In mosquitoes, high fidelity CHIKV presents lower infection and dissemination titers than wild type. In newborn mice, high fidelity CHIKV produces tru...

  2. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human–mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minim...

  3. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  4. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Healy

    Full Text Available Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical

  5. Immunization of mice with recombinant mosquito salivary protein D7 enhances mortality from subsequent West Nile virus infection via mosquito bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle L Reagan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito salivary proteins (MSPs modulate the host immune response, leading to enhancement of arboviral infections. Identification of proteins in saliva responsible for immunomodulation and counteracting their effects on host immune response is a potential strategy to protect against arboviral disease. We selected a member of the D7 protein family, which are among the most abundant and immunogenic in mosquito saliva, as a vaccine candidate with the aim of neutralizing effects on the mammalian immune response normally elicited by mosquito saliva components during arbovirus transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified D7 salivary proteins of Culex tarsalis, a West Nile virus (WNV vector in North America, and expressed 36 kDa recombinant D7 (rD7 protein for use as a vaccine. Vaccinated mice exhibited enhanced interferon-γ and decreased interleukin-10 expression after uninfected mosquito bite; however, we found unexpectedly that rD7 vaccination resulted in enhanced pathogenesis from mosquito-transmitted WNV infection. Passive transfer of vaccinated mice sera to naïve mice also resulted in increased mortality rates from subsequent mosquito-transmitted WNV infection, implicating the humoral immune response to the vaccine in enhancement of viral pathogenesis. Vaccinated mice showed decreases in interferon-γ and increases in splenocytes producing the regulatory cytokine IL-10 after WNV infection by mosquito bite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vector saliva vaccines have successfully protected against other blood-feeding arthropod-transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, the rD7 salivary protein vaccine was not a good candidate for protection against WNV disease since immunized mice infected via an infected mosquito bite exhibited enhanced mortality. Selection of salivary protein vaccines on the bases of abundance and immunogenicity does not predict efficacy.

  6. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  7. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456

  8. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes. PMID:23911355

  9. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120

  10. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Kline, Daniel L; Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ghattas, Nina; Pstygo, Irina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-07-01

    The present study assessed the personal protection efficiency of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species, using human volunteers as bait in landing catch experiments. Results show that under minimal air-movement, three spatial repellent based products (ThermaCELL(®) Patio Lantern, OFF!(®) PowerPad lamp, and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller) significantly reduced the biting-pressure (t-test - Prepelled significantly more mosquitoes then the Terminix ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller (t-test, Pmosquito traps using attracting cues to bait mosquitoes (Dynatrap(®), Vortex(®) Electronic Insect Trap, Blue Rhino(®) SV3100) either significantly increased or had no effect on the biting-pressure at short distances compared with the unprotected control. Trials conducted over large areas showed that only the Blue Rhino trap was able to significantly reduce the biting-pressure (40.1% reduction), but this was only when operating four units at the corners of an intermediate sized area. PMID:23545129

  11. "Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M; Kramer, Laura D; Marm Kilpatrick, A

    2011-10-01

    The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex australicus, and Culex globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipienspipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. PMID:21875691

  12. Studies on mid gut microbiota of wild caught Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Barasat (North 24 Parganas of West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are haematophagous insects that serve as obligate intermediate host for numerous diseases like Filaria, Malaria, Dengue, etc. Mosquitoes can be considered as a holobiont units in which host (mosquitoes and its gut microbiota are involved in a complex reciprocal interaction. The naturally acquired microbiota can modulate mosquitos’ vectorial capacity by inhibiting the development of pathogens. But, enough care has not been taken in West Bengal to investigate on the midgut microbiota of Culex mosquitoes. Therefore, a preliminary attempt has been undertaken to study the morphology, growth pattern and antibiotic susceptibility of midgut microbiota of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from Barasat areas (North 24 Parganas of West Bengal..

  13. The development of malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennink, Sandra; Kiesow, Meike J; Pradel, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    The mosquito midgut stages of malaria parasites are crucial for establishing an infection in the insect vector and to thus ensure further spread of the pathogen. Parasite development in the midgut starts with the activation of the intraerythrocytic gametocytes immediately after take-up and ends with traversal of the midgut epithelium by the invasive ookinetes less than 24 h later. During this time period, the plasmodia undergo two processes of stage conversion, from gametocytes to gametes and from zygotes to ookinetes, both accompanied by dramatic morphological changes. Further, gamete formation requires parasite egress from the enveloping erythrocytes, rendering them vulnerable to the aggressive factors of the insect gut, like components of the human blood meal. The mosquito midgut stages of malaria parasites are unprecedented objects to study a variety of cell biological aspects, including signal perception, cell conversion, parasite/host co-adaptation and immune evasion. This review highlights recent insights into the molecules involved in gametocyte activation and gamete formation as well as in zygote-to-ookinete conversion and ookinete midgut exit; it further discusses factors that can harm the extracellular midgut stages as well as the measures of the parasites to protect themselves from any damage. PMID:27111866

  14. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  15. Mosquito C-type lectins maintain gut microbiome homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rudian; Liu, Jianying; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    The long-term evolutionary interaction between the host immune system and symbiotic bacteria determines their cooperative rather than antagonistic relationship. It is known that commensal bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms to manipulate the mammalian host immune system and maintain homeostasis. However, the strategies employed by the microbiome to overcome host immune responses in invertebrates still remain to be understood. Here, we report that the gut microbiome in mosquitoes utilizes C-type lectins (mosGCTLs) to evade the bactericidal capacity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Aedes aegypti mosGCTLs facilitate colonization by multiple bacterial strains. Furthermore, maintenance of the gut microbial flora relies on the expression of mosGCTLs in A. aegypti. Silencing the orthologues of mosGCTL in another major mosquito vector (Culex pipiens pallens) also impairs the survival of gut commensal bacteria. The gut microbiome stimulates the expression of mosGCTLs, which coat the bacterial surface and counteract AMP activity. Our study describes a mechanism by which the insect symbiotic microbiome offsets gut immunity to achieve homeostasis. PMID:27572642

  16. Mosquito management in the face of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusto, Folashade B; Bewick, Sharon; Parshad, Rana D

    2012-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an appealing method for managing mosquito populations while avoiding the environmental and social costs associated with more traditional control strategies like insecticide application. Success of SIT, however, hinges on sterile males being able to compete for females. As a result, heavy and/or continued use of SIT could potentially diminish its efficacy if prolonged treatments result in selection for female preference against sterile males. In this paper we extend a general differential equation model of mosquito dynamics to consider the role of female choosiness in determining the long-term usefulness of SIT as a management option. We then apply optimal control theory to our model and show how natural selection for female choosiness fundamentally alters management strategies. Our study calls into question the benefits associated with developing SIT as a management strategy, and suggests that effort should be spent studying female mate choice in order to determine its relative importance and how likely it is to impact SIT treatment goals. PMID:22617381

  17. Mosquito management in the face of natural selection

    KAUST Repository

    Agusto, Folashade B.

    2012-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an appealing method for managing mosquito populations while avoiding the environmental and social costs associated with more traditional control strategies like insecticide application. Success of SIT, however, hinges on sterile males being able to compete for females. As a result, heavy and/or continued use of SIT could potentially diminish its efficacy if prolonged treatments result in selection for female preference against sterile males. In this paper we extend a general differential equation model of mosquito dynamics to consider the role of female choosiness in determining the long-term usefulness of SIT as a management option. We then apply optimal control theory to our model and show how natural selection for female choosiness fundamentally alters management strategies. Our study calls into question the benefits associated with developing SIT as a management strategy, and suggests that effort should be spent studying female mate choice in order to determine its relative importance and how likely it is to impact SIT treatment goals. © 2012.

  18. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time. PMID:25102598

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ling Su

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI, providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy.

  20. Olfactory Responses of Southern House Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to Human Odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito control is essential to protect humans from mosquito-borne diseases. The host recognition between mosquitoes and humans is achieved by the mosquito olfactory system. Antennal sensilla, which house olfactory receptor neurons, are responsible for detecting chemical cues from hosts. To deepen our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the host seeking behavior of mosquitoes, we conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the response profile of each type of antennal sensilla to human odorants using single sensillum recording. In this study, more than 100 human odorants have been applied as stimuli to 5 morphological types of sensilla, long sharp trichoid (LST), short sharp trichoid (SST), short blunt trichoid I (SBTI), short blunt trichoid II (SBTII), and grooved peg (GP). Different types of sensilla present distinctive response profiles to the human odorants tested. In particular, SST, SBTI, and SBTII sensilla responded to more than 1 category of human odorants, while GP and LST were narrowly tuned to amines and methyl nonanoate, respectively. The dose-dependent patterns and odorant-specific/chemical structure-specific temporal dynamics of SBTI and SBTII antennal sensilla to human odorants had been further detected. Taken together, our study provides the new information on the olfactory physiology of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to human odorants, leading to a better understanding of mosquito-host recognition and being important for future development of new reagents in the mosquito control. PMID:26969630