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Sample records for anopheles arabiensis diptera

  1. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

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    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  2. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Kirby, M.J.; Luz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the

  3. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  4. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria moquito Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Helinski, M.E.H.; Parker, A.G.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods - Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22-26 hrs of age), and adults

  5. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Parker Andrew G; Helinski Michelle EH

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age), and adults

  6. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

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    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice. PMID:17249341

  7. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia.

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    Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2009-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, Pcitriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, Pcitriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, Pcitriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants. PMID:19539591

  8. Efficacy of three insect repellents against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis.

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    Govere, J; Durrheim, D N; Baker, L; Hunt, R; Coetzee, M

    2000-12-01

    Three commercial repellents marketed in South Africa: Bio-Skincare (BSC, oils of coconut, jojoba, rapeseed and vitamin E), Mosiguard towelletes with 0.574 g quwenling (p-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD) and the standard deet (15% diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, Tabard lotion), were compared against a laboratory colony of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae), the predominant malaria vector in South Africa. Human forearms were treated with 1.2 g BSC, 0.8 g PMD towelette or 0.5 g deet and exposed to 200 hungry An. arabiensis females for 1 min, at intervals of 1-6 h post-treatment. Tests were conducted by three adult male volunteers (aged 30-45 years, crossover controlled test design for 3 consecutive days), using their left arm for treatment and right arm for untreated control. Biting rates averaged 39-52 bites/min on untreated arms. All three repellents provided complete protection against An. arabiensis for up to 3-4 h post-application; deet and PMD gave 90-100% protection up to 5-6h, but BSC declined to only 52% protection 6h post-treatment. These results are interpreted to show that all three repellent products give satisfactory levels of personal protection against An. arabiensis for 4-5 h, justifying further evaluation in the field. PMID:11129710

  9. Are herders protected by their herds? An experimental analysis of zooprophylaxis against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

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    Young Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae and Anopheles pharoensis caught by human and cattle baits was investigated experimentally in the Arba Minch district of southern Ethiopia to determine if attraction to humans, indoors or outdoors, was affected by the presence or absence of cattle. Methods Field studies were made of the effect of a surrounding ring (10 m radius of 20 cattle on the numbers of mosquitoes collected by human-baited sampling methods (i inside or (ii outside a hut. Results The numbers of An. arabiensis caught outdoors by a human landing catch (HLC with or without a ring of cattle were not significantly different (2 × 2 Latin square comparisons: means = 24.8 and 37.2 mosquitoes/night, respectively; n = 12, P > 0.22, Tukey HSD, whereas, the numbers of An. pharoensis caught were significantly reduced (44% by a ring of cattle (4.9 vs. 8.7; n = 12, P An. arabiensis in human-baited traps (HBT was 25 times greater than in cattle-baited traps (CBT (34.0 vs. 1.3, n = 24; P An. pharoensis there was no significant difference. Furthermore, HBT and CBT catches were unaffected by a ring of cattle (4 × 4 Latin square comparison for either An. arabiensis (n = 48; P > 0.999 or An. pharoensis (n = 48, P > 0.870. The HLC catches indoors vs. outdoors were not significantly different for either An. arabiensis or An. pharoensis (n = 12, P > 0.969, but for An. arabiensis only, the indoor catch was reduced significantly by 49% when the hut was surrounded by cattle (Tukey HSD, n = 12, P > 0.01. Conclusions Outdoors, a preponderance of cattle (20:1, cattle:humans does not provide any material zooprophylactic effect against biting by An. arabiensis. For a human indoors, the presence of cattle outdoors nearly halved the catch. Unfortunately, this level of reduction would not have an appreciable impact on malaria incidence in an area with typically > 1 infective bite/person/night. For An. pharoensis, cattle significantly

  10. Comparative susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum of the molecular forms M and S of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis

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    Boudin Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The different taxa belonging to Anopheles gambiae complex display phenotypic differences that may impact their contribution to malaria transmission. More specifically, their susceptibility to infection, resulting from a co-evolution between parasite and vector, might be different. The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility of M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis to infection by Plasmodium falciparum. Methods F3 progenies of Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected in Senegal were infected, using direct membrane feeding, with P. falciparum gametocyte-containing blood sampled on volunteer patients. The presence of oocysts was determined by light microscopy after 7 days, and the presence of sporozoite by ELISA after 14 days. Mosquito species and molecular forms were identified by PCR. Results The oocyst rate was significantly higher in the molecular S form (79.07% than in the M form (57.81%, Fisher's exact test p Anopheles arabiensis (55.38%, Fisher's exact test vs. S group p An. gambiae S form (1.72 ± 0.26 than in the An. gambiae M form (0.64 ± 0.04, p An. arabiensis group (0.58 ± 0.04, vs. S group, p Anopheles arabiensis 50.85%, Fisher's exact test vs. S group p Conclusion Infected in the same experimental conditions, the molecular form S of An. gambiae is more susceptible to infection by P. falciparum than the molecular form M of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis.

  11. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT, radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age, and adults Results Irradiation of pupae, for all doses tested, had no effect on adult emergence. Survival curves of males irradiated as pupae or adults were similar or even slightly higher than non-irradiated males. Overall, adults appeared to be slightly more susceptible to irradiation, although no significant differences for individual doses were observed. In the pupal stage, a significant negative correlation was found between insemination and dose, but the correlation-coefficient was associated with less than 25% of the total variation. A review of the literature indicated that An. arabiensis is more radiation resistant than other anopheline mosquitoes. Conclusion The optimal dose for male insects to be released in an SIT programme depends on their level of sterility and competitiveness. The use of semi-sterilizing doses to produce more competitive insects is discussed. The most convenient developmental stage for mosquito irradiation on a mass-scale are pupae, but pupal irradiation resulted in a lower insemination rate at the highest dose compared to adult irradiation. On the basis of this study, a suitable dose range that includes semi-sterilizing doses is identified to initiate competitiveness experiments for males irradiated at both developmental stages.

  12. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in a malaria endemic region of southern Tanzania

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    Ferguson Heather M; Lee Yoosook; Knols Bart GJ; Ng'habi Kija R; Lanzaro Gregory C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural population's dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major and widespread malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies have examined the ecology and population dynamics of these vectors. Ecological conditions along the Kilomb...

  13. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in a malaria endemic region of southern Tanzania

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    Ferguson Heather M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural population's dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major and widespread malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies have examined the ecology and population dynamics of these vectors. Ecological conditions along the Kilombero valley in Tanzania influence the distribution and population density of these two vector species. It remains unclear whether the ecological diversity within the Kilombero valley has affected the population structure of An. gambiae s.l. populations. The goal of this study was to characterise the genetic structure of sympatric An. gambiae s.s and An. arabiensis populations along the Kilombero valley. Methodology Mosquitoes were collected from seven locations in Tanzania: six from the Kilombero valley and one outside the valley (~700 km away as an out-group. To archive a genome-wide coverage, 13 microsatellite markers from chromosomes X, 2 and 3 were used. Results High levels of genetic differentiation among An. arabiensis populations was observed, as opposed to An. gambiae s.s., which was genetically undifferentiated across the 6,650 km2 of the Kilombero valley landscape. It appears that genetic differentiation is not attributed to physical barriers or distance, but possibly by ecological diversification within the Kilombero valley. Genetic divergence among An. arabiensis populations (FST = 0.066 was higher than that of the well-known M and S forms of An. gambiae s. s. in West and Central Africa (FST = 0.035, suggesting that these populations are maintained by some level of reproductive isolation. Conclusion It was hypothesized that ecological diversification across the valley may be a driving force for observed An. arabiensis genetic divergence. The

  14. Participation of irradiated Anopheles arabiensis males in swarms following field release in Sudan

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    Ageep, Tellal B; Damiens, David; Alsharif, Bashir; Ahmed, Ayman; Salih, Elwaleed HO; Ahmed, Fayez TA; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Lees, Rosemary S.; Gilles, Jeremie RL; El Sayed, Badria B

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) depends the release of large numbers of sterile males, which are able to compete for mates with the wild male population within the target area. Unfortunately, the processes of colonisation, mass production and irradiation may reduce the competitiveness of sterile males through genetic selection, loss of natural traits and somatic damage. In this context, the capacity of released sterile Anopheles arabiensis males to survive, disper...

  15. Extensive permethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from eastern and central Sudan

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    Jones Christopher M; Muzamil Hamid; Himeidan Yousif E; Ranson Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The distribution of insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been dramatically scaled up in eastern and central Sudan. Resistance to insecticides has already been reported in this region and there is an urgent need to develop appropriate resistance management strategies, which requires detailed information on the extent and causes of resistance. This study assessed resistance to permethrin and DDT in seven populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Sudan. Results Three out of the ...

  16. Identification of field caught Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis by TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping

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    Bayoh Nabie M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis from field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. is often necessary in basic and applied research, and in operational control programmes. The currently accepted method involves use of standard polymerase chain reaction amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA from the 3' 28S to 5' intergenic spacer region of the genome, and visual confirmation of amplicons of predicted size on agarose gels, after electrophoresis. This report describes development and evaluation of an automated, quantitative PCR method based upon TaqMan™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Methods Standard PCR, and TaqMan SNP genotyping with newly designed primers and fluorophore-labeled probes hybridizing to sequences of complementary rDNA specific for either An. gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis, were conducted in three experiments involving field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from western Kenya, and defined laboratory strains. DNA extraction was from a single leg, sonicated for five minutes in buffer in wells of 96-well PCR plates. Results TaqMan SNP genotyping showed a reaction success rate, sensitivity, and species specificity comparable to that of standard PCR. In an extensive field study, only 29 of 3,041 (0.95% were determined to be hybrids by TaqMan (i.e., having rDNA sequences from both species, however, all but one were An. arabiensis by standard PCR, suggesting an acceptably low (ca. 1% error rate for TaqMan genotyping in mistakenly identifying species hybrids. Conclusion TaqMan SNP genotyping proved to be a sensitive and rapid method for identification of An. gambiae s.l. and An. arabiensis, with a high success rate, specific results, and congruence with the standard PCR method.

  17. Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania

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    Oxborough Richard M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of resistance. In this study, metabolic-based mechanisms conferring permethrin (pyrethroid resistance were investigated in Anopheles arabiensis of Lower Moshi, Kilimanjaro region of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods WHO susceptibility test kits were used to detect resistance to permethrin in An. arabiensis. The levels and mechanisms of permethrin resistance were determined using CDC bottle bioassays and microplate (biochemical assays. In bottle bioassays, piperonyl butoxide (PBO and s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF were used as synergists to inhibit mixed function oxidases and non-specific esterases respectively. Biochemical assays were carried out in individual mosquitoes to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism (mixed function oxidases, α- and β-esterases. Results Anopheles arabiensis from the study area was found to be partially resistant to permethrin, giving only 87% mortality in WHO test kits. Resistance ratios at KT50 and KT95 were 4.0 and 4.3 respectively. The permethrin resistance was partially synergized by DEF and by PBO when these were mixed with permethrin in bottle bioassays and was fully synergized when DEF and PBO were used together. The levels of oxidase and β-esterase activity were significantly higher in An. arabiensis from Lower Moshi than in the laboratory susceptible strain. There was no difference in α-esterase activity between the two strains. Conclusion Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and β-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population

  18. Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya.

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    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Beier, John C; Blackshear, Millon; Wauna, James; Sang, Rosemary; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2013-09-01

    Ecological changes associated with anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances can influence human risk of exposure to malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases. This study in Mwea, Kenya, investigated the pattern of insecticide use in irrigated and nonirrigated agroecosystems and association with the density, survival, and blood-feeding behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. The parity rates of adult An. arabiensis from randomly selected houses were determined by examining their ovaries for tracheal distension, and polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the host blood meals. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to generate data on insecticide use. Anopheles arabiensis densities were highest in irrigated rice agroecosystems, intermediate in irrigated French beans agroecosystems, and lowest in the nonirrigated agroecosystem. Anopheles arabiensis adult survivorship was significantly lower in irrigated rice agroecosystems than in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. The human blood index (HBI) was significantly higher in the nonirrigated agroecosystem compared to irrigated agroecosystems. Moreover, there was marked variation in HBI among villages in irrigated agroecosystems with significantly lower HBI in Kangichiri and Mathangauta compared to Kiuria, Karima, and Kangai. The proportion of mosquitoes with mixed blood meals varied among villages ranging from 0.25 in Kangichiri to 0.83 in Kiuria. Sumithion, dimethoate, and alpha cypermethrin were the most commonly used insecticides. The 1st was used mostly in irrigated rice agroecosystems, and the last 2 were used mostly in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. These findings indicate that agricultural practices may influence the ecology and behavior of malaria vectors and ultimately the risk of malaria transmission. PMID:24199496

  19. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

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    Gouagna Louis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7] was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]. Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex

  20. Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodatus Maliti; Hilary Ranson; Stephen Magesa; William Kisinza; Juma Mcha; Khamis Haji; Gerald Killeen; David Weetman

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in ...

  1. Molecular typing of bacteria of the genus Asaia in malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905

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    S. Epis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acetic acid bacterium Asaia spp. was successfully detected in Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905, one of the major vector of human malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. A collection of 45 Asaia isolates in cellfree media was established from 20 individuals collected from the field in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR and specific qPCR, for the detection of Asaia spp. were performed in order to reveal the presence of different bacterial taxa associated with this insect. The isolates were typed by internal transcribed spacer-PCR, BOX-PCR, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, proved the presence of different Asaia in A. arabiensis.

  2. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya.

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    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  3. Diversity, differentiation, and linkage disequilibrium: prospects for association mapping in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis.

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    Marsden, Clare Diana; Lee, Yoosook; Kreppel, Katharina; Weakley, Allison; Cornel, Anthony; Ferguson, Heather M; Eskin, Eleazar; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a widely applied method for elucidating the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. However, factors such as linkage disequilibrium and levels of genetic diversity influence the power and resolution of this approach. Moreover, the presence of population subdivision among samples can result in spurious associations if not accounted for. As such, it is useful to have a detailed understanding of these factors before conducting association mapping experiments. Here we conducted whole-genome sequencing on 24 specimens of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to further understanding of patterns of genetic diversity, population subdivision and linkage disequilibrium in this species. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the An. arabiensis genome, with ~800,000 high-confidence, single- nucleotide polymorphisms detected. However, levels of nucleotide diversity varied significantly both within and between chromosomes. We observed lower diversity on the X chromosome, within some inversions, and near centromeres. Population structure was absent at the local scale (Kilombero Valley, Tanzania) but detected between distant populations (Cameroon vs. Tanzania) where differentiation was largely restricted to certain autosomal chromosomal inversions such as 2Rb. Overall, linkage disequilibrium within An. arabiensis decayed very rapidly (within 200 bp) across all chromosomes. However, elevated linkage disequilibrium was observed within some inversions, suggesting that recombination is reduced in those regions. The overall low levels of linkage disequilibrium suggests that association studies in this taxon will be very challenging for all but variants of large effect, and will require large sample sizes. PMID:24281424

  4. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman S Ibrahim; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli couple...

  5. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  6. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharaj Rajendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, methanol and purified water of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo, an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

  7. Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis from Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of the Anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria by use of insecticides has been shown to impact on both morbidity and mortality due to this disease. Evidence of insecticide resistance in different settings necessitates surveillance studies to allow prompt detection of resistance should it arise and thus enable its management. Possible resistance by Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Central Kenya to insecticides in the four classes of insecticides approved by WHO for indoor residual spraying was investigated. Methods Susceptibility to DDT (an organochlorine, fenitrothion (an organophosphate, bendiocarb (a carbamate, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin (both pyrethroids was tested using standard WHO diagnostic bioassay kits. Bioassays were performed on non-blood fed mosquitoes one- to three-day old. Knockdown was recorded every 10 min and mortality 24 h post-exposure was noted. Results Mortality 24 h post-exposure was 100% for all insecticides except for lambdacyhalothrin, which averaged 99.46%. Knockdown rates at 10 min intervals were not significantly different between the Mwea population and the susceptible KISUMU strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto control. The KDT50 and KDT95 values for the Mwea population were either lower than those for the control or higher by factors of no more than 2 for most comparisons and compared well with those of An. gambiae sensu lato categorized as susceptible in other studies. Conclusion These results suggest that the Mwea population of An. arabiensis is susceptible to all the insecticides tested. This implies that vector control measures employing any of these insecticides would not be hampered by resistance.

  8. Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelmaali, Sara A.; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Basheer, Mohammed A.; Frah, Ehab A.; Ahmed, Fayez T. A.; Elhaj, Hassabelrasoul F. A.; Seidahmed, Osama M. E.; Weetman, David; Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Muzamil

    2013-01-01

    Background Agricultural pesticides may play a profound role in selection of resistance in field populations of mosquito vectors. The objective of this study is to investigate possible links between agricultural pesticide use and development of resistance to insecticides by the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. Methodology/Principal Findings Entomological surveys were conducted during two agricultural seasons in six urban and peri-urban sites in Khartoum state. Agro-...

  9. Water quality and immatures of the M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in a Malian village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré Yeya T

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The associations between the immatures of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae, its M and S forms, and Anopheles arabiensis among and within larval breeding habitats in Banambani, Mali were investigated under varying conditions of water quality and rainfall. The intent was to elucidate on niche partitioning of these taxa. Methods Immatures of An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s., and its M and S forms were sampled every alternate day for a month in mid-rainy season from three sampling sites in each of the larval breeding habitats (rock pools, swamp, and puddles. Water quality was characterized by alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., nitrate, orthophosphate, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS, and turbidity. A type 3 analysis of the GENMOD model was used to examine the associations between the proportional frequencies of young (first and second instar larvae and old (third and fourth instar larvae and pupae or total immatures of species or forms among sampling sites within and among larval breeding habitats during a category of rainfall as influenced by water quality. Results Of the 4,174 immatures sampled, 1,300 were molecularly identified to species and forms. Significant association between the proportional frequencies of young larvae of An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s., its M and S forms was found among sampling sites within habitats but not among larval breeding habitats. The proportional frequencies of young larvae of M and S forms varied daily perhaps due to recruitment, mortality, and dispersal within habitats. Conductivity and TDS had significant effects when the proportional frequencies of young larvae of M and S forms among sampling sites within habitats were significantly associated. Alkalinity, D.O., orthophosphate, pH, nitrate, temperature and turbidity had no effects on niche partitioning of species and forms among sampling sites within habitats. Rainfall did not affect the frequencies

  10. Participation of irradiated Anopheles arabiensis males in swarms following field release in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: The success of the SIT depends on the; release of large numbers of sterile males, which are able to; compete for mates with the wild male population within the; target area. The processes of colonisation, mass production; and irradiation may reduce the competitiveness of sterile; males through genetic selection, loss of natural traits and; somatic damage. In this context, the capacity of released; sterile Anopheles arabiensis males to survive, disperse and; participate in swarms occurring at varying distances from; the release site was studied using mark-release-recapture; techniques.; METHODS: In order to assess their participation in; swarms, irradiated and marked laboratory-reared male; mosquitoes were released 50, 100 or 200 m from the; known site of a large swarm on three consecutive nights.; Males were collected from this large swarm on subsequent; nights. Over the three days a total of 8,100 males were released.; Mean distance travelled (MDT), daily probability of; survival and estimated population size were calculated; from the recapture data. An effect of male age at the time; of release on these parameters was observed.; RESULTS: Five per cent of the males released over three; days were recaptured. In two-, three- and four-day-old; males, MDT was 118, 178 and 170 m, and the daily survival; probability 0.95, 0.90 and 0.75, respectively. From the; recapture data on the first day following each release, the; Lincoln index gives an estimation of 32,546 males in the; natural population.; DISCUSSION: Sterile An. arabiensis males released into; the field were able to find and participate in existing; swarms, and possibly even initiate swarms. The survival; probability decreased with the age of male on release but; the swarm participation and the distance travelled by older; males seemed higher than for younger males. The inclusion; of a pre-release period may thus be beneficial to male competitiveness; and increase the attractiveness of adult sexing

  11. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  12. Islands and stepping-stones: comparative population structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and implications for the spread of insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatus Maliti

    Full Text Available Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST = 0.131, significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST = 0.015, but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r = 0.46, p = 0.0008. Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%, with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographically-restricted gene flow.

  13. Repellent efficacy of DEET, MyggA, neem (Azedirachta indica) oil and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) oil against Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abiy, Ephrem; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in the country and its control mainly involves application of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Objective Although the role of repellents for reducing man-vector contact is documented in the literature, the response of An. arabiensis to repellents was not previously evaluated under field conditions in Ethiopia. Method The trial was conducted ...

  14. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Askual Girmay; Samuel Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia.Methods:the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure.Results:The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control.Conclusions:This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future.

  15. The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc JB; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Background To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75 Gy for...

  16. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated:un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments

  17. Mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes irradiated with a partially or fully sterilizing dose in small and large laboratory cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Male mating competitiveness is a crucial parameter in many genetic control programs including the sterile insect technique (SIT). We evaluated competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton as a function of three experimental variables: (1) small or large cages for mating, (2) the effects of ei

  18. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P;

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the...... populations of An. arabiensis (P<0.01) and culicine mosquitoes (P<0.05), after ponds were treated with the fertiliser. Significantly more fourth instar larvae of An. arabiensis were collected in fertiliser than control plots (P<0.001). An. arabiensis data indicated that the first fertiliser application had...... water in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes....

  19. Identification and expression profiling of putative odorant-binding proteins in the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and A.arabiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhengxi; Jing-Jiang; ZHOU; SHEN; Zuorui; Lin; FIELD

    2004-01-01

    Olfaction plays a major role in host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. An informatics-based genome-wide analysis of odorant-binding protein (OBP) homologues is undertaken,and 32 putative OBP genes in total in the whole genome sequences of Anopheles gambiae are identified. Tissue-specific expression patterns of all A. gambiae OBP candidates are determined by semi-quantitative Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR using mosquito actin gene as internal expression control standard. The results showed that 20 OBP candidates had strong expression in mosquito olfactory tissues (female antennae), which indicate that OBPs may play an important role in regulating mosquito olfactory behaviours. Species-specific expression patterns of all putative anopheline OBPs are also studied in two of the most important malaria vectors in A. gambiae complex, i.e.A. gambiae and A. arabiensis, which found 12 of the putative OBP genes examined displayed species-differential expression patterns. The cumulative relative expression intensity of the OBPs in A. arabiensis antennae was higher than that in A. gambiae (the ratio is 1441.45:1314.12), which might be due to their different host preference behaviour. While A.gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito, A. arabiensis is more opportunistic (varying from anthropophilic to zoophilic). So the latter should need more OBPs to support its host selection preference. Identification of mosquito OBPs and verification of their tissue- and species-specific expression patterns represent the first step towards further molecular analysis of mosquito olfactory mechanism, such as recombinant expression and ligand identification.

  20. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folb Peter I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodium opulifolium was found to be 97% as effective as DEET after 2 mins, time lag studies revealed a substantial reduction in efficacy (to 30% within two hours. Conclusions None of the plant extracts investigated exhibited residual repellencies >60% after three hours.

  1. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4% while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day. Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly

  2. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Colin A; El-Motasim Waleed M; Hassan Mo'awia M; Helinski Michelle EH; Knols Bart GJ; El-Sayed Badria

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosqui...

  3. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    OpenAIRE

    Folb Peter I; Bhagwandin Niresh; Newmarch Marion; Crouch Neil R; Maharaj Vinesh; Maharaj Rajendra; Pillay Pamisha; Gayaram Reshma

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodiu...

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J; M.M. Hassan; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C. A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carrie...

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Colin A; Benedict Mark Q; Knols Bart GJ; Hassan M'oawia M; Cox Jonathan; Ageep Tellal B; Babiker Ahmed; El Sayed Badria B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were...

  6. Antimosquito properties of 2-substituted phenyl/benzylamino-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-4-methyl-3,6-dihydropyrimidin--ium chlorides against Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Venugopala K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Chalannavar, Raju K; Odhav, Bharti

    2014-03-01

    Eight novel dihydropyrimidine analogs named DHPM1-DHPM8 was synthesized in their hydrochloride salt form using one pot synthesis between methyl 2-chloro-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate and substituted arylamines in isopropanol. The antimosquito effect of the test compounds were assessed against the adult mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. For adulticidal properties the test compounds were sprayed onto ceramic tiles and screened using the cone bio-assay method. The larvicidal activity was tested by monitoring larval mortality daily and up to 3 days of exposure. Repellency properties were tested in a feeding-probe assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Compounds DHPM1, DHPM4, DHPM5 and DHPM6 exerted larval mortality equivalent to temephos (trade name Abate, a commercial larvicidal compound). Compounds DHPM1 to DHPM5 repelled or knocked down 92 to 98% of mosquitoes exposed to rodent skin treated with the compounds. None of the compounds showed any significant activity against the adult mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. PMID:24506684

  7. IMP PCR primers detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for Anopheles gambiae species identification, Mopti and Savanna rDNA types, and resistance to dieldrin in Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymerase chain reactions to distinguish single-nucleotide polymorphisms are commonly used for mosquito identification and identifying insecticide resistance alleles. However, the existing methods used for primer design often result in analyses that are not robust or require additional steps. Methods Utilizing oligonucleotides that are unique in having an intentional mismatch to both templates three bases from the SNP at the 3-prime end, three new PCR assays that distinguish SNP targets using standard gel electrophoresis of undigested DNA fragments were developed and tested. These were applied to: (1 an alternative ribosomal DNA PCR assay to distinguish five members of the Anopheles gambiae complex; (2 detection of the Mopti and Savanna rDNA types; and (3 an assay to distinguish resistance to dieldrin (Rdl alleles in Anopheles arabiensis. Results Reproducible specific amplification of the target alleles was observed in all three assays. The results were consistent with existing analyses but proved simpler and the results more distinct in our hands. Conclusion The simplicity and effectiveness of the method should be utilized in these and other PCR analyses to increase their specificity and simplicity. These results have the potential to be extended not only to mosquito analyses but also to parasite and human polymorphisms.

  8. Use of carbon-13 as a population marker for Anopheles arabiensis in a sterile insect technique (SIT context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of sterile to wild insect ratios in field populations can be useful to follow the progress in genetic control programmes such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT. Of the numerous methods for marking insects most are not suitable for use in mass rearing and mass release. Suitable ones include dye marking, genetic marking and chemical marking. Methods The feasibility of using the stable isotope of carbon, 13C, as a potential chemical marker for Anopheles arabiensis was evaluated in the laboratory. Labeled-13C glucose was incorporated into the larval diet in a powder or liquid form. The contribution of adult sugar feeding to the total mosquito carbon pool and the metabolically active carbon pool was determined by tracing the decline of the enrichment of the adult male mosquito as it switched from a labeled larval diet to an unlabeled adult diet. This decline in the adult was monitored by destructive sampling of the whole mosquito and analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Results A two-pool model was used to describe the decline of the 13C-enrichment of adult mosquitoes. The proportion of the total adult carbon pool derived from the adult sugar diet over the life span of mosquitoes was determined and the ratio of structural carbon, with a low turnover rate to metabolically active non-structural carbon was assessed. The uptake and turnover of sugar in the metabolically active fraction suggests that after 3 days >70% of the active fraction carbon is derived from sugar feeding (increasing to >90% by day 7, indicating the high resource demand of male mosquitoes. Conclusion It was possible to "fix" the isotopic label in adult An. arabiensis and to detect the label at an appropriate concentration up to 21 days post-emergence. The optimum labeling treatment would cost around 250 US$ per million mosquitoes. Stable isotope marking may thus aid research on the fate of released insects besides other population

  9. Evaluation of Endod (Phytolacca dodecandra: Phytolaccaceae) as a Larvicide Against Anopheles arabiensis, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Dejene; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2016-06-01

    Malaria control methods rely mostly on adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides. Plants such as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) can potentially be used for the control of mosquito larvae as a supplement to adult control methods. Following the discovery of endod, a molluscicide plant, more than 5 decades ago in Ethiopia, subsequent studies have shown that its potency can further be increased by simple procedures such as aging endod berry powder in water. This study was conducted to evaluate the killing effect of fresh and aged endod solution against 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles arabiensis. Laboratory-reared An. arabiensis larvae exposed to different concentrations of endod preparation using distilled or spring water had 50% lethal concentration (LC50)  =  49.6 ppm and 90% lethal concentration (LC90)  =  234 ppm for fresh and LC50  =  36.4 ppm and LC90  =  115.7 ppm for the aged endod solution in distilled water against the laboratory population. Against field-collected larvae of the same species, aged preparations in habitat water resulted in higher LC50 (472.7 ppm) and LC90 (691 ppm) values, with only a slight improvement over fresh preparations in habitat water (LC50  =  456.2 ppm; LC90  =  896.1 ppm). In general, although aged preparations of endod required lower concentrations than fresh to kill at least 90% of the larvae, these concentrations were much higher (12-70×) than that required for schistosome-transmitting snails. PMID:27280350

  10. Laboratory evaluation of traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants against Anopheles arabiensis, the predominant malaria vector in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Mulelam, Adane; Wassie, Fentahun

    2008-08-01

    Laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficiency of most commonly known four traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants Wogert [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Silene macroserene], Kebercho [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Echinops sp.], Tinjut [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Ostostegia integrifolia], and Woira[vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Olea europaea] against Anopheles arabiensis under the laboratory conditions. One hundred (4-5 days old) female A. arabiensis were introduced into the both 'control' and 'test' repellent chamber through the hole on top. Traditional charcoal stoves were used for direct burning. The experiment was conducted by applying the smoke into the repellent "test" mosquito cage by direct burning of 25 gm of dried plant materials (leaves and roots) until plant materials completely burned. The number of mosquitoes driving away from the "test" and "control" cage was recorded for every 5 min. In the present investigation, the results clearly revealed that the roots of S. macroserene has potent repellent efficiency (93.61%) and was the most effective. The leaves of Echinops sp. (92.47%), leaves of O. integrifolia (90.10%) and O. europaea (79.78%) were also effective. Roots of S. macroserene exhibited the highest repellent efficiency by direct burning. The present study identified these four traditional indigenous insect/mosquito repellent plant materials are very promising and can be used as safer alternative to modern synthetic chemical repellents against mosquito vectors of disease. Since people have been using these plants for some medicinal purposes, no side effects have been found. PMID:18493796

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in La Reunion Island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009

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    Lempérière Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An often confounding facet of the dynamics of malaria vectors is the aquatic larval habitat availability and suitable conditions under which they can thrive. Here, we investigated the impact of environmental factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in different locations on La Reunion Island. Methods A retrospective examination was made from archival data which provided the complete enumeration of An. arabiensis breeding habitats in three distinct geographic zones - extending North-east, West and South of the island over 14 years, from January 1996 to December 2009. Data on the occurrence and the number of active larval habitats at each of a total of 4376 adjacent ellipsoid grid cells (216,506 square meters each were used (1 to provide the geographic extent of breeding site availability from year to year and (2 to analyze associations with prevailing environmental factors, habitat types, and locations. Results Anopheles arabiensis utilized a spectrum of man-made and natural aquatic habitats, most of which were concentrated primarily in the rock pools located in ravines and river fringes, and also in the large littoral marshes and within the irrigated agricultural zones. The numbers of breeding site per sampling grid differed significantly in different parts of the island. In contrast to an originally more widespread distribution across the island in the 1950s, detailed geographic analyses of the data obtained in the period extending from 1996-2009 showed an intriguing clustered distribution of active breeding sites in three discontinuous geographic zones, in which aquatic habitats availability fluctuates with the season and year. Seasonality in the prevalence of anopheles breeding sites suggests significant responsiveness to climatic factors. Conclusions The observed retreat of An. arabiensis distribution range to lower altitudinal zones (

  12. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

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    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and

  13. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan,; Dandalo, Leonard C.; Wood, Oliver R.; Lobb, Leanne N.; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to suppl...

  14. A stable isotope dual-labelling approach to detect multiple insemination in un-irradiated and irradiated Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

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    Hood Rebecca C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of a Sterile Insect Technique programme, the occurrence of multiple insemination in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton was studied using a novel labelling system with the stable isotopes 15N and 13C. The incidence of multiple insemination in the absence of radiation, and when males were irradiated in the pupal stage and competed against un-irradiated males were assessed. Males used in the experiments were labelled with either 15N or 13C and the label was applied to the larval rearing water. Males with either label and virgin females were caged at a 1:1:1 ratio. Males used in the radiation treatments were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. After mating, females were dissected and inseminated spermathecae analysed using mass spectrometry. Results The data indicate that about 25% of inseminated females had been inseminated multiply. The presence of irradiated males in the experiments did not affect the incidence of multiple insemination. In line with previous research, irradiated males were generally less competitive than un-irradiated males. Conclusion The implications of these findings for the Sterile Insect Technique are discussed, and further experiments recommended. The dual-labelling system used to determine paternity gave good results for 13C, however, for 15N it is recommended to increase the amount of label in future studies.

  15. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

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    Oliver Shüné V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Methods Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length, knock-down resistance (kdr status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Results and conclusion Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN or resistant (SENN-DDT adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also

  16. A field site for SIT control of Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan: Analysis of historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A field site suitable for SIT will have a single vector population that is isolated, unstructured, relatively small and low density. Disease transmission potential should be established and the cost benefit analysis of SIT should be favourable for the local community, nationally and regionally. Today's technology greatly facilitates the comprehensive and rapid assessment of these criteria, even if starting from zero, but an historical perspective is necessary. This paper researches data relevant to development of SIT for control of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan. The field site is primarily the Dongola Reach of the Nile extending from the Fourth Cataract to the Third Cataract. An. arabiensis is dependent on the river and the human population and is isolated by the desert. Northern State has an ancient history with important archaeological sites dating back to the Neolithic (4,500-3,500 BC). This has generated information on human health, settlement patterns and climate up to the medieval Christian and Islamic periods. The accounts of travellers and military historians provide data from the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century there are detailed entomological and epidemiological records from the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum and later the Sudan Medical Service. Vector population studies increasingly rely on molecular genetic markers. These often have multiple interpretations that can be resolved by independent historical data that, for example, may infer the age of the current Northern State An. arabiensis population and how well isolated it has been. Entomological and hospital malaria records confirm the presence of A. arabiensis as early as 1906 and as far north as Wadi Halfa. It may have reached 150 km further north, at Ed Derr, in 1919 and certainly reached Asyut, 850 km into Egypt, in 1942. It was eradicated from Upper Egypt by 1945 and did not appear north of Ferka (250 km south

  17. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for investigating their ecology under natural conditions without risk of exposure to disease. Assessment of vector life-history and demographic traits under natural conditions has also been hindered by the inherent difficulty of sampling these seasonally and temporally varying populations with the limited range of currently available tools. Consequently much of our knowledge of vector biology comes from studies of laboratory colonies, which may not accurately represent the genetic and behavioural diversity of natural populations. Contained semi-field systems (SFS have been proposed as more appropriate tools for the study of vector ecology. SFS are relatively large, netting-enclosed, mesocosms in which vectors can fly freely, feed on natural plant and vertebrate host sources, and access realistic resting and oviposition sites. Methods A self-replicating population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis was established within a large field cage (21 × 9.1 × 7.1 m at the Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania that mimics the natural habitat features of the rural village environments where these vectors naturally occur. Offspring from wild females were used to establish this population whose life-history, behaviour and demography under semi-field conditions was monitored over 24 generations. Results This study reports the first successful establishment and maintenance of an African malaria vector population under SFS conditions for multiple generations (> 24. The host-seeking behaviour, time from blood feeding to oviposition, larval development, adult resting and swarming behaviour exhibited by An. arabiensis under SFS conditions were similar to those

  18. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

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    Malcolm Colin A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes in Africa, and the first series of attempts to do this in Sudan are reported here. In addition, experiments in a large field cage under near-natural conditions are described. Methods Mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum and transported as adults by air to the field site earmarked for future releases (400 km from the laboratory. The field cage was prepared for experiments by creating resting sites with favourable conditions. The mating and survival of (irradiated laboratory males and field-collected males was studied in the field cage, and two small-scale competition experiments were performed. Results Minor problems were experienced with the irradiation of insects, mostly associated with the absence of a rearing facility in close proximity to the irradiation source. The small-scale transportation of adult mosquitoes to the release site resulted in minimal mortality ( Conclusion It is concluded that although conditions are challenging, there are no major obstacles associated with the small-scale irradiation and transportation of insects in the current setting. The field cage is suitable for experiments and studies to test the competitiveness of irradiated males can be pursued. The scaling up of procedures to accommodate much larger numbers of insects needed for a release is the next challenge and recommendations to further implementation of this genetic control strategy are presented.

  19. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

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    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  20. A heteroskedastic error covariance matrix estimator using a first-order conditional autoregressive Markov simulation for deriving asympotical efficient estimates from ecological sampled Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitat covariates

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    Githure John I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoregressive regression coefficients for Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitat models are usually assessed using global error techniques and are reported as error covariance matrices. A global statistic, however, will summarize error estimates from multiple habitat locations. This makes it difficult to identify where there are clusters of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats of acceptable prediction. It is therefore useful to conduct some form of spatial error analysis to detect clusters of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats based on uncertainty residuals from individual sampled habitats. In this research, a method of error estimation for spatial simulation models was demonstrated using autocorrelation indices and eigenfunction spatial filters to distinguish among the effects of parameter uncertainty on a stochastic simulation of ecological sampled Anopheles aquatic habitat covariates. A test for diagnostic checking error residuals in an An. arabiensis aquatic habitat model may enable intervention efforts targeting productive habitats clusters, based on larval/pupal productivity, by using the asymptotic distribution of parameter estimates from a residual autocovariance matrix. The models considered in this research extends a normal regression analysis previously considered in the literature. Methods Field and remote-sampled data were collected during July 2006 to December 2007 in Karima rice-village complex in Mwea, Kenya. SAS 9.1.4® was used to explore univariate statistics, correlations, distributions, and to generate global autocorrelation statistics from the ecological sampled datasets. A local autocorrelation index was also generated using spatial covariance parameters (i.e., Moran's Indices in a SAS/GIS® database. The Moran's statistic was decomposed into orthogonal and uncorrelated synthetic map pattern components using a Poisson model with a gamma-distributed mean (i.e. negative binomial regression. The eigenfunction

  1. [Egg morphology as an indirect method to identify Anopheles benarrochi, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles rangeli (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Dora Amparo; Quiñoes, Martha L; Sierra, Diana Maria; Calle, David A; Ruiz, Fredy; Erazo, Holmes F; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2003-12-01

    In the Department of Putumayo in southern Colombia, malaria transmission has continued in the absence of the 4 traditional Latin American vector species--Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles albimanus or Anopheles trinkae. Human bait collections yielded Anopheles mosquitoes and a morphological variant of Anopheles benarrochi, the adult females of which can easily be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. Species identification of females of Anopheles in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus is generally difficult due to overlapping morphological characters; therefore, progeny of field collected females were link-reared to assess species identity. Herein a robust method is presented to identify the species Anopheles benarrochi, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles rangeli from southern Colombia, using the morphology of the eggs induced from wild-caught females. Eggs of A. rangeli and A. benarrochi were differentiated on the basis of the anterior crown. In A. rangeli, this feature is positioned apically with high walls. In A. benarrochi, anterior crown is positioned more ventrally with comparatively shorter walls. No crown is present in A. oswaldoi. These differences are clear with the aid of a dissecting microscope and make accurate species determination possible even in field conditions. Egg morphology is shown to be an accurate, albeit indirect, method for the taxonomic determination for the three southern Colombian species and may also be useful in other regions of Latin America where the morphological variant of A. benarrochi is sympatric with A. oswaldoi. PMID:14968916

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

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    Malcolm Colin A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT. To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and the Global Positioning System (GPS was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6% contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not

  3. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thur-ingiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of in-secticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9%and 79.4%larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The cor-responding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1%and 30.3%after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3 days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100%after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m2. Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1%and 2.0%mortalities respectively. Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activ-ities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  4. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  5. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers readily distinguish cryptic mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, R C; Parsons, T J; Albright, D G; Klein, T A; Braun, M J

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined as a potential tool to differentiate cryptic mosquito species. It proved to be a quick, effective means of finding genetic markers to separate two laboratory populations of morphologically indistinguishable African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. In an initial screening of fifty-seven RAPD primers, 377 bands were produced, 295 of which differed between the two species. Based on criteria of interpretability, simplicity and reproducibility, thirteen primers were chosen for further screening using DNA from thirty individuals of each species. Seven primers produced diagnostic bands, five of which are described here. Some problematic characteristics of RAPD banding patterns are discussed and approaches to overcome these are suggested. PMID:8269099

  6. Use of carbon-13 as a population marker for Anopheles arabiensis in a sterile insect technique (SIT) context

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Mayr Leo; Hood-Nowotny Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Monitoring of sterile to wild insect ratios in field populations can be useful to follow the progress in genetic control programmes such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Of the numerous methods for marking insects most are not suitable for use in mass rearing and mass release. Suitable ones include dye marking, genetic marking and chemical marking. Methods The feasibility of using the stable isotope of carbon, 13C, as a potential chemical marker for Anopheles arabien...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) and the phylogenetics of known Anopheles mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ya-Qiong; Ding, Yi-Ran; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Luo, Qian-Chun; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Anopheles minimus is an important vector of human malaria in southern China and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetics of mosquitoes has not been well resolved, and the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) has proven to be an important marker in the study of evolutionary biology. In this study, the complete mtgenome of An. minimus was sequenced for the first time. It is 15 395 bp long and encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a non-coding region. The gene organization is consistent with those of known Anopheles mtgenomes. The mtgenome performs a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All 13 PCGs prefer to use the codon UUA (Leu), ATN as initiation codon but cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ND5, with TCG and GTG, and TAA as termination codon, but COI, COII, COIII and ND4, all with the incomplete T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but tRNA(Ser(AGN)) is consistent with known Anopheles mtgenomes. The control region includes a conserved T-stretch and a (TA)n stretch, and has the highest A+T content at 93.1%. The phylogenetics of An. minimus with 18 other Anopheles species was constructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, based on concatenated PCG sequences. The subgenera, Cellia and Anopheles, and Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia have mutually close relationships, respectively. The Punctulatus group and Leucosphyrus group of Neomyzomyia Series, and the Albitarsis group of Albitarsis Series were suggested to be monophyletic. The monophyletic status of the subgenera, Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia need to be further elucidated. PMID:26852698

  8. Spatial repellency of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips against laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in a semi-field tunnel cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogoma Sheila B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vapour phase spatial repellents deter mosquitoes from attacking one or more humans in a protected space. Simulation models indicate that high coverage of spatial repellents can enhance the impact of long - lasting insecticide nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS where mosquito vectors commonly bite humans outdoors. Here we report a preliminary evaluation of an effective, user-friendly prototype product for delivering spatial repellents to protect against malaria vector mosquitoes. Findings Protective efficacy of a 4.0 × 0.3 m strip of hessian sacking treated with 10 ml of transfluthrin was evaluated in a 60 m × 2 m ×2.5 m netting tunnel with malaria-free insectary-reared Anopheles arabiensis Patton mosquitoes. Personal protection, in terms of proportional reduction of exposure to bites, was measured by comparing human landing catches of volunteers with treated and untreated strips. A freshly treated hessian strip reduced mosquito attack rate on human volunteers by > 99% and consistently conferred > 90% protective efficacy for a period of 6 months. Over the entire study period, only 22 out of 1400 released mosquitoes bit volunteers using the treated sacking strip while 894 out of 1400 mosquitoes released into cages containing volunteers using an untreated strip fed upon them. Conclusion Locally available natural fibers may be promising absorbent substrates for delivering spatial repellents, such as transfluthrin, to protect against mosquitoes in tropical settings. However, these observations relate to a single prototype specimen of this particular device, therefore, much more detailed, well replicated studies are essential to establish long-term efficacy, effectiveness, practicability and affordability.

  9. Prolonged Colonisation, Irradiation, and Transportation do not Impede Mating Vigour and Competitiveness of Male Anopheles arabiensis Mosquitoes under Semifield Conditions in Northern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. In Sudan, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being developed to suppress populations of Anopheles arabiensis. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of long-term colonisation, irradiation, and transportation on male vigour and mating competitiveness under controlled semi-field conditions. Materials and Methods. Male mosquitoes were irradiated in Khartoum as pupae and transported 400 km to the field site in Dongola. Wild males and females were collected as immature stages (larvae and pupae) from the field site and sexed immediately after adult emergence. Competition experiments were carried out to test the mating competitiveness and vigour of colonised males (non-irradiated or irradiated) against wild conspecifics in the semi-field system. Results. Mortality resulting from packaging and transportation from Khartoum to Dongola was low for adults (1.1% for irradiated and 1.3% for non-irradiated males). In contrast, all irradiated pupae died on their way to the field site. On average, 54.9% females were inseminated after one night. There were no differences between the number of females inseminated by colony males and those inseminated by wild males. Only a slightly significant difference between the numbers of females inseminated by irradiated males (14.0±1.7) or by wild males (19.7±1.7) was observed. However, the competitive index (CI) for irradiated and colony males when competed with wild males were 0.71 and 0.81 respectively. Conclusions. Packing and transportation methods for pupae need to be improved. Prolonged colonisation (68 generations), irradiation and transportation of adult males did not affect their ability to locate virgin females and compete against wild conspecifics. Irradiation, in contrast to many reports, only had a marginal effect on released males during the first night after their release. These findings support the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against this malaria vector. (author)

  10. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Aboozar Soltani; Hassan Vatandoost; MohammadAli Oshaghi; Naseh Maleki-Ravasan; AhmadAli Enayati; Fatemeh Asgarian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and mol...

  11. The neotype of anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: culicidae O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles albitarsis neotype is described from specimens collected in Baradero, Argentina, in Shannon's trap, in horse and pig stables and on the progeny of engorded females. The description includes illustrations of adult female, male and female genitalias, scanning electron miscroscopy of the eggs and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva. The importance for electing a neotype is based on the realization that An. albitarsis is a complex of cryptic species. It is an attempt to provide typt-locality specimens with which other memebers of the group can be compared.O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis é descrito a partir de espécimens coletados em armadilha tipo Shannon, em estábulos de cavalos e porcos e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas em Baradero, Argentina, localidade-tipo da espécie. A descrição inclui ilustrações da fêmea adulda, genitálias masculina e feminina, ovos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e da quetotaxia completa das larvas de 4º estádio e pupas. A eleição de um neótipo para albitarsis baseia-se em dados recentes que apontam a espécie como um complexo de espécies crípticas, o que evidencia a importância de uma descrição detalhada de espécimens da localidade-tipo com o qual outros membros do grupo possam ser comparados.

  12. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos

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    Aboozar Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

  13. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate. PMID:26841246

  14. Shift in species composition in the Anopheles gambiae complex after implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Dielmo, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougoufara, S; Harry, M; Doucouré, S; Sembène, P M; Sokhna, C

    2016-09-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of malaria vector control. However, the effectiveness of these control tools depends on vector ecology and behaviour, which also largely determine the efficacy of certain Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors. Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa are primarily species of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which present intraspecific differences in behaviour that affect how they respond to vector control tools. The focus of this study is the change in species composition in the An. gambiae complex after the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, Senegal. The main findings referred to dramatic decreases in the proportions of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae after the introduction of LLINs, and an increase in the proportion of Anopheles arabiensis. Two years after LLINs were first introduced, An. arabiensis remained the most prevalent species and An. gambiae had begun to rebound. This indicated a need to develop additional vector control tools that can target the full range of malaria vectors. PMID:27058993

  15. Comparative egg morphology of six species of the Albimanus section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L P; Duzak, D; Linley, J R

    1997-03-01

    Scanning electron micrographs were used to describe and compare structures of eggs obtained from wild-caught females of 6 species of the Albimanus section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) from South America, which includes important regional vectors of human malaria. Among species from the Oswaldoi Complex, eggs of Anopheles oswaldoi (Peryassu) were not differentiated from those of its sibling Anopheles konderi Galvão & Damasceno, and eggs of the former species from Brazil, Ecuador, and Suriname showed no regionally distinguishing characteristics. Eggs of Anopheles dunhami Causey were recognized by the reticulate beadwork of outer chorion on the dorsal plastron, 1 of several egg characters separating this species from the related Anopheles trinkae Faran and Anophels nuneztovari Gabaldón. In both species examined from the Strodei Complex, Anopheles strodei Root and Anopheles benarrochi Gabaldón, Cova Garcia & Lopez, the anterior frill forms a distinctive ventral crown separated from the floats. Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto), collected from 4 geographic sites, differed in the occurrence of perforated mounds on the dorsal plastron, but these chorionic structures and the extent of overlap of floats varied among eggs from single females. Changes among related species in the structure of the anterior frill and dorsal plastron are described for phylogenetic and developmental inferences. PMID:9103756

  16. Distribution and frequency of kdr mutations within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations and first report of the ace.1 G119S mutation in Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso (West Africa.

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    Roch K Dabiré

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was carried out at 15 sites dispersed throughout the three eco-climatic regions of Burkina Faso (West Africa in order to assess the current distribution and frequency of mutations that confer resistance to insecticides in An. gambiae s.l. populations in the country. Both knockdown (kdr resistance mutation variants (L1014F and L1014S, that confer resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, were identified concomitant with the ace-1 G119S mutation confirming the presence of multiple resistance mechanisms in the An. gambiae complex in Burkina Faso. Compared to the last survey, the frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation appears to have remained largely stable and relatively high in all species. In contrast, the distribution and frequency of the L1014S mutation has increased significantly in An. gambiae s.l. across much of the country. Furthermore we report, for the first time, the identification of the ace.1 G119S mutation in An. arabiensis populations collected at 8 sites [corrected]. This mutation, which confers resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, has been reported previously only in the An. gambiae S and M molecular forms. This finding is significant as organophosphates and carbamates are used in indoor residual sprays (IRS to control malaria vectors as complementary strategies to the use of pyrethroid impregnated bednets. The occurrence of the three target-site resistance mutations in both An. gambiae molecular forms and now An. arabiensis has significant implications for the control of malaria vector populations in Burkina Faso and for resistance management strategies based on the rotation of insecticides with different modes of action.

  17. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Freddy; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ponsonby, David J; Conn, Jan E; Herrera, Manuela; Quiñones, Martha L; Vélez, Iván D; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2010-11-01

    The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas) is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America. PMID:21120360

  18. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

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    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  19. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Ruiz; Yvonne-Marie Linton; Ponsonby, David J; Conn, Jan E.; Manuela Herrera; Martha L Quiñones; Iván D. Vélez; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas) is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys...

  20. Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran

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    S Azari-Hamidian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub­lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid, vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant, habitat type (natural or artificial, and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologi­cally identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. su­perpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14 (16–25oC, 22.6oC (n=53 (12–33oC, 23.8oC (n=52 (10–33oC, 11.5oC (n=12 (9–21oC, and 20.4oC (n=7 (12–26oC, respectively. There was a signifi­cant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000. Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9% such as river bed pools (46.4% and rain pools (33.1% with transient (98.3%, stagnant (99.5% and clear (95.3% water, with vegetation (69.9%, mud (42.0% or gravel (39.7% substrate in full sunlight (69.6% or shaded (22.7% area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An

  1. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  2. Mosquito repellent potential of Pithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. ...

  3. Systematic studies on Anopheles galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane from the subgenus Nysssorhynchus blanchard (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles galvaoi, a member of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, is redescribed based on morphological characters of the adults male and female, fourth-instar larva and pupa. Female, male genitalia, larval and pupal stages are illustrated. Data about medical importance, bionomics, and distribution are given based on literature records. Adult female of An. galvaoi can be easily misidentified as An. benarrochi Gabaldón and An. aquasalis Curry. A few characters are indicated for identifying female and immatures of An. galvaoi. Phylogenetic relationships among An. galvaoi and six other species of the Oswaldoi Subgroup are estimated using COII mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. Lectotype of An. galvaoi, an adult female from Rio Branco, State of Acre, is invalidated.

  4. [Historical review of the distribution of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru. PMID:25123872

  5. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

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    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  6. Mosquito repellent potential of Pithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rajeswary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract of P. dulce provided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of P. dulce exhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquito An. stephensi.

  7. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely. PMID:23440524

  8. [Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Tien Shan: morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M

    2008-01-01

    Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the Tien Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern Tien-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior Tien Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504

  9. Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Lizette L; Spillings, Belinda L; Christian, Riann N; Lo, Te-Chang M; Kaiser, Maria L; Norton, Ryan A I; Oliver, Shune V; Choi, Kwang S; Brooke, Basil D; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

    2011-08-01

    Successful implementation of an integrated vector control program will rely on availability of accurate vector information in the specific location. However, such information can be limited in some countries. The aim of this study was to obtain baseline vector information from Pointe Noire on the Congo coast (Republic of the Congo). Field sampling was conducted during April 2009 in the village of Boutoto and its surrounds, close to the city of Pointe Noire. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected resting indoors. Samples were analyzed for insecticide susceptibility, species identification, and Plasmodium sporozoite infection. Molecular and biochemical assays were conducted to characterize insecticide resistance mechanisms. The malaria vector A. gambiae S-form was the only mosquito species identified, and it had a high Plasmodium falciparum infection rate (9.6%). Multiple insecticide resistance was detected in this population with full susceptibility to only one insecticide class, the organophosphates. Dieldrin and DDT resistance was mainly attributed to target-site resistance (the Rdl and L1014F/L1014S kdr mutations respectively), whereas pyrethroid resistance was mainly attributed to P450 metabolic enzyme-mediated detoxification in addition to kdr. The role of various insecticide resistance mechanisms revealed a complex association between metabolic detoxification and reduced target-site sensitivity. PMID:21417925

  10. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  11. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles culicifacies species B (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ya-Qiong; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Fu, Wen-Bo; He, Qi-Yi; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Bin

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anopheles culicifacial species B was sequenced in this study. The length of the mitochondrial genome is 15 330 bp, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order and the gene composition are consistent with those previously reported for other mosquito species. The initiation codon of the PCGs complies with the ATN rule except for COI using TCG and ND5 using GTG as a start codon, and the termination codon is TAA or imcomplete, an only T. The total base composition is 40.4% A, 38.1% T, 12.4% C, and 9.1% G. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 13 protein-coding genes showed that these species were classified into two clades, corresponding to the subgenus Cellia and subgenus Nyssorhynchus. An. culicifacies species B of Myzomyia Series was clustered with An. gambiae of Pyretophorus Series with a high bootstrap value of 100%. The complete mitogenome data can provide a basis for molecular identification and phylogenetic studies of mosquito species. PMID:26114319

  12. Larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts on the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies Giles. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    K. Kovendan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector control is one of the most important components in combating vector-borne diseases throughout the world. Application of insecticides is a widely known and popular vector control strategy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Abutilon indicum, Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas aspera against third-stage larvae of Anopheles culicifiacies. The results clearly suggest that all three selected plant extracts exhibited moderate larvicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm; the lethal concentrations (LC at 50% and 90% of A. indicum, H. suaveolens against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone were as follows: A. indicum, LC50=1031.65, 949.18, 833.58 and 673.68 ppm; LC90=2215.87, 2234.39, 2152.97 and 2455.10 ppm; H. suaveolens, LC50=423.00, 347.50, 236.58 and 217.24 ppm; LC90=1431.91, 1292.15, 1138.49 and 1049.27 ppm and L. aspera, LC50=559.77, 401.56, 299.71 and 263.01 ppm; LC90=1400.80, 1549.31, 1157.96 and 1108.72 ppm at 24 h, respectively. Overall, the highest larvicidal activity was observed with H. suaveolens extract followed by L. aspera and A. indicum at various concentrations at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The objective of this investigation was an attempt to search for a user- and eco-friendly vector control agent. The study proved that the selected plant leaf extracts could serve as potent larvicidal agents against A. culicifacies in vector control programs.

  13. Genetic differentiation and diagnostic loci of Anopheles nuneztovari, An. trinkae, and An. rangeli (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, G N; Bermudez, H; Seawright, J A

    1995-09-01

    Samples of Anopheles rangeli Gabaldon, Cova Garcia & Lopez, An. trinkae Causey, and An. nuneztovari Gabaldon from Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil, and Bolivia were analyzed for genetic variability at 24 enzyme loci. Estimates of genetic variability for An. rangeli and An. trinkae from Ecuador and for An. nuneztovari in Venezuela had the following ranges: 46-58% polymorphic loci, 1.7-2.0 (SEM = 0.1-0.3) mean number of alleles per locus, and 0.069-0.113 (SEM = 0.03-0.04) expected mean heterozygosity. Genetic variability estimates of An. rangeli from Bolivia were 20.8-29.2% polymorphic loci, 1.2-1.6 (SEM = 0.1-0.2) mean number of alleles per locus, and 0.037-0.054 (SEM = 0.02-0.03) expected mean heterozygosity. The estimated genetic distance between An. rangeli and An. trinkae ranged from 0.149 to 0.197. The genetic distance between these 2 species and An. nuneztovari ranged from 0.319 to 0.440. Although there were allele frequency differences at some loci between samples of An. nuneztovari sampled from either side of the Andes Mountains in Venezuela, there were no diagnostic loci and the estimated genetic distance was only 0.023. Seven enzyme loci were diagnostic between An. nuneztovari and one or both of its sister species: Acon-2, Ao, Hk-1, Idh-2, Me, Pgi, and Pgm. The diagnostic loci Hk-1 and Acon-2 were not polymorphic in any species. An. rangeli and An. trinkae can be distinguished by the diagnostic loci Ao, Idh-2, and Me-1, and with a 97% probability by Pgm. Distance Wagner and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging analyses support a close phylogenetic relationship between An. trinkae and An. rangeli. PMID:7473622

  14. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  15. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

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    Hunt Richard H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them from successfully competing for mates in the wild. This study investigated the fitness and sexual cross-compatibility between samples of field collected and laboratory reared An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Results The physiological and reproductive fitness of the MALPAN laboratory strain is not substantially modified with respect to the field population at Malahlapanga. Further, a high degree of mating compatibility between MALPAN and the Malahlapanga population was established based on cross-mating experiments. Lastly, the morphological characteristics of hybrid ovarian polytene chromosomes further support the contention that the MALPAN laboratory colony and the An. arabiensis population at Malahlapanga are genetically homogenous and therefore compatible. Conclusions It is concluded that the presence of a perennial and isolated population of An. arabiensis at Malahlapanga presents a unique opportunity for assessing the feasibility of SIT as a malaria vector control option. The MALPAN laboratory colony has retained sufficient enough measures of reproductive and physiological fitness to present as a suitable candidate for male sterilization, mass rearing and subsequent mass release of sterile males at Malahlapanga in order to further assess the feasibility of SIT in a field setting.

  16. Lineage divergence detected in the malaria vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Povoa Marinete M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptic species complexes are common among anophelines. Previous phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mtDNA COI gene sequences detected paraphyly in the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles marajoara. The "Folmer region" detects a single taxon using a 3% divergence threshold. Methods To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined. The population structure and demographic history were based on partial COI sequences for 294 individuals from 14 localities in Amazonian Brazil. 109 individuals from 12 localities were sequenced for the nDNA white gene, and 57 individuals from 11 localities were sequenced for the ribosomal DNA (rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2. Results Distinct A. marajoara lineages were detected by combined genealogical analysis and were also supported among COI haplotypes using a median joining network and AMOVA, with time since divergence during the Pleistocene (COI sequences at the 3' end were more variable, demonstrating significant pairwise differentiation (3.82% compared to the more moderate 2.92% detected by the Folmer region. Lineage 1 was present in all localities, whereas lineage 2 was restricted mainly to the west. Mismatch distributions for both lineages were bimodal, likely due to multiple colonization events and spatial expansion (~798 - 81,045 ya. There appears to be gene flow within, not between lineages, and a partial barrier was detected near Rio Jari in Amapá state, separating western and eastern populations. In contrast, both nDNA data sets (white gene sequences with or without the retention of the 4th intron, and ITS2 sequences and length detected a single A. marajoara lineage. Conclusions Strong support for combined data with significant differentiation detected in the COI and absent in the nDNA suggest that

  17. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae in Thailand

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    Adulsak Wijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.

  18. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae in Colombia and Ecuador through molecular and morphological correlation with topotypic material

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    Ranulfo González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. calderoni, a species which has never previously been reported in Colombia. Although discontinuity of the postsubcostal pale spots on the costa (C and first radial (R1 wing veins is purportedly diagnostic for An. calderoni, the degree of overlap of the distal postsubcostal spot on C and R1 were variable in Colombian specimens (0.003-0.024. In addition, in 98.2% of larvae, seta 1-X was located off the saddle and seta 3-C had 4-7 branches in 86.7% of specimens examined. Correlation of DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer and mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI barcodes (658 bp of the COI gene generated from Colombian progeny material and wild-caught mosquitoes from Ecuador with those from the Peruvian type series of An. calderoni confirmed new country records. DNA barcodes generated for the closely related taxa, An. malefactor and An. punctimacula are also presented for the first time. Examination of museum specimens at the University of the Valle, Colombia, revealed the presence of An. calderoni in inland localities across Colombia and at elevations up to 1113 m.

  19. Morphological analysis of three populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Ramos, Mayury; González Obando, Ranulfo; Fidel Suárez, Marco; López, David; Wilkerson, Richard; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2008-02-01

    Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the length of the subcostal pale spot/length of the distal sector dark spot (DS-III2/Ta-III2, HP/PHD, SCP/DSD) approximately 5% of the adult females were misidentified as a species of Nyssorhynchus, different from An. nuneztovari. Approximately 5% of the specimens showed DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratio less than 0.25 (range 0.21 - 0.24), and among them 3.34% shared a HP/PHD ratio less than 1.50. Consequently, 1.52% of An. nuneztovari individuals can be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. In those specimens with the DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratios higher than 0.25, 34.45% displayed SCP/DSD values greater than 0.50 and of these, 3.65% displayed HP/PHD values greater than 1.8. This combination of characters could lead one to misidentify samples of An. nuneztovari as Anopheles rangeli. Similarly, 2.43% of the females could be identified erroneously as either Anopheles aquasalis or Anopheles benarrochi. Individuals with a HP/PHD ratio greater than 2.0, could be misidentified as Anopheles trinkae, Anopheles strodei or Anopheles evansae. A distinct combination of diagnostic characters for An. nuneztovari from Colombia is proposed. PMID:18368239

  20. Morphological analysis of three populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

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    Mayury Fajardo Ramos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the length of the subcostal pale spot/length of the distal sector dark spot (DS-III2/Ta-III2, HP/PHD, SCP/DSD approximately 5% of the adult females were misidentified as a species of Nyssorhynchus, different from An. nuneztovari. Approximately 5% of the specimens showed DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratio less than 0.25 (range 0.21 - 0.24, and among them 3.34% shared a HP/PHD ratio less than 1.50. Consequently, 1.52% of An. nuneztovari individuals can be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. In those specimens with the DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratios higher than 0.25, 34.45% displayed SCP/DSD values greater than 0.50 and of these, 3.65% displayed HP/PHD values greater than 1.8. This combination of characters could lead one to misidentify samples of An. nuneztovari as Anopheles rangeli. Similarly, 2.43% of the females could be identified erroneously as either Anopheles aquasalis or Anopheles benarrochi. Individuals with a HP/PHD ratio greater than 2.0, could be misidentified as Anopheles trinkae, Anopheles strodei or Anopheles evansae. A distinct combination of diagnostic characters for An. nuneztovari from Colombia is proposed.

  1. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

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    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  2. Electrophysiological responses of gustatory receptor neurons on the labella of the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recorded electrical responses from sensory cells associated with gustatory sensilla on the labella of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to salt, sucrose, quinine (a feeding deterrent) and the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). A salt-sensitive cell responded to increasing con...

  3. Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia

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    Yezid Solarte

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.

  4. The SNMP/CD36 gene family in Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera: Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Apis mellifera, and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Zachary; Vogt, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are membrane bound proteins initially identified in olfactory receptor neurons of Lepidoptera and are thought to play a role in odor detection; SNMPs belong to a larger gene family characterized by the human protein CD36. We have identified 12-14 candidate SNMP/CD36 homologs from each of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (Diptera), eight candidate homologs from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and 15 from Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). Analysis (sequence similarity and intron locations) suggests that the insect SNMP/CD36 genes fall into three major groups. Group 1 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster emp (epithelial membrane protein). Group 2 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster croquemort, ninaD, santa maria, and peste. Group 3 genes include the SNMPs, which fall into two subgroups referred to as SNMP1 and SNMP2. D. melanogaster SNMP1 (CG7000) shares both significant sequence similarity and five of its six intron insertion sites with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori SNMP1. The topological conservation of this gene family within the three major holometabolous lineages indicates that it predates the coleopteran and hymenoptera/dipera/lepidoptera split 300+ million years ago. The current state of knowledge of the characterized insect members of this gene family is discussed. PMID:18342246

  5. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pemphis acidula Frost. (Lythraceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Samidurai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  6. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  7. Morphological Analysis of Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae in fresh water and brackish water habitats = Variasi Morfologi Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae dari Habitat Air Tawar dan Air Payau

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    Siti Alfiah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractAnopheles subpictus had habitat variation and showed genetic difference. So, the variation of habitat of An. vagus may support the hypothesa that An. vagus had genetic and morphology variation, same as An. subpictus.The aimed of this research was analyze morphology and chaetotaxy difference between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The subject of the study was An. vagus collected from Kesongo Village, Tuntang Subdistrict, Semarang (fresh water and Jatimalang Village, Purwodadi Subdistrict, Purworejo (brackish water. Anopheles vagus were collected and individually reared. One sample in every batch was used to make larvae skin, pupae skin and adult specimen of An. vagus. The result showed that there were intra and inter population variation between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The variations were on the size and number of hair branches and filaments. The conclution of this research were the morphology and chaetotaxy of female An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water showed no different. Intra and interpopulation An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water were caused by the difference of geography location (allopatric speciation.INDONESIANVariasi habitat terjadi pada An. subpictus, variasi habitat yang berbeda menunjukkan variasi genetik yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu variasi habitat An. vagus diduga akan bepengaruh terhadap variasi genetik dan morfologi. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis perbedaan morfologi dan kaetotaksi Anopheles vagus habitat air tawar dan air payau. Subyek penelitian adalah An. vagus habitat air tawar di Desa Kesongo, Kecamatan Tuntang, Kabupaten Semarang dan An. vagus habitat air payau di Desa Jatimalang, Kecamatan Purwodadi, Kabupaten Purworejo. Anopheles vagus yang diperoleh, di rearing secara individual. Tiap indukan diambil satu sampel keturunannya dan dibuat preparat skin larva, skin pupa dan nyamuk dewasa betina. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Anopheles vagus betina habitat air

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of gene encoding heme peroxidase HPX15 in major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Kakani, Parik; Choudhury, Tania Pal; Gupta, Kuldeep; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of mosquito immune system with Plasmodium is critical in determining the vector competence. Thus, blocking the crucial mosquito molecules that regulate parasite development might be effective in controlling the disease transmission. In this study, we characterized a full-length AsHPX15 gene from the major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. This gene is true ortholog of Anopheles gambiae heme peroxidase AgHPX15 (AGAP013327), which modulates midgut immunity and regulates Plasmodium falciparum development. We found that AsHPX15 is highly induced in mosquito developmental stages and blood fed midguts. In addition, this is a lineage-specific gene that has identical features and 65-99% amino acids identity with other HPX15 genes present in eighteen worldwide-distributed anophelines. We discuss that the conserved HPX15 gene might serve as a common target to manipulate mosquito immunity and arresting Plasmodium development inside the vector host. PMID:26943999

  9. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concen...

  10. Baseline Susceptibility of Different Geographical Strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos in Malarious Areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aboozar Soltani; Hassan Vatandoost; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Ahmad Ali Enayati; Ahmad Raeisi; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Mohammad Mehdi Soltan-Dallal; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mohammad Reza Abai; Fatemeh Rafi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance Methods: Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared i...

  11. Effect of larval environment on some life history parameters in anopheles gambiae s.s. (diptera:culicidae))

    OpenAIRE

    Jannat, Khandaker Noore

    2010-01-01

    The effects of larval density, nutrition and cannibalism risk on some life history parameters of Anopheles gambiae larvae were evaluated in the laboratory. Adult body size was inversely correlated with larval density whereas larval mortality and mean age at pupation varied across experiments. When density increased, the secondary sex ratio shifted toward female bias. Effects of different types of nutrition on larval life were compared by providing larvae with algae Chaetophora sp., fish food ...

  12. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  13. PCR identification of five species from the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Eastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, Maria-Larisa; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Pavel, Ionuţ; Sulesco, Tatiana; Miron, Liviu

    2015-06-01

    The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have been incriminated for the transmission of the malaria in Europe, which was endemic until the middle of the century. The global warming and the intensification of the intercontinental travel constitute a risk of the re-emergence of the malaria in Europe, given the presence of the Anopheles vectors. The study has attempted the identification by using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex from the North-eastern area of Romania from the city of Iaşi. In total there have been identified by using the PCR amplifying the ITS2 sequence of the ribosomal DNA, 217 specimens belonging to the complex of A. maculipennis among which: 58 A. atroparvus, 18 A. melanoon, 2 A. labranchiae, 52 A. maculipennis and 87 A. messeae. The ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal DNA have been compared to those of the species belonging to the A. maculipennis available in GenBank. The Species A. labranchiae is reported for the first time in Romania, being identified in the larval stage IV. The adaptation of a new species to the climatic conditions present in the North-eastern Romania, confirms the phenomenon of global warming and also the intensification of the travelling. As a result of the analysis of the A. labranchiae sequence, this one corresponds to the extent of 96% to the species from Italy, registered in GenBank, given the fact that a high number of the inhabitants of the municipality of Iaşi are working in this country. PMID:26203997

  14. Identification, characterisation, and function of adipokinetic hormones and receptor in the African malaria mosquito, "Anopheles Gambiae" (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Betschart, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    En utilisant la bioinformatique et la biologie moléculaire, nous avons pu identifier chez le principal vecteur africain de la malaria, le moustique, Anopheles gambiae deux hormones adipokinétiques (AKHs): l'octapeptide, Anoga-AKH-I (pQLTFTPAWa) et le décapeptide, Anoga-AKH-II, (pQVTFSRDWNAa). La fonction principale des AKHs est d’induire une hyperlipémie (effet d’adipokinétique), ainsi qu’une hypertrehalosémie et une hyperprolinémie. En tant que membres de la famille des AKH, les deux neurope...

  15. Repellent activities of stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diols against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Stephen S; Ndiege, Isaiah O; Lwande, Wilber; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2002-09-01

    Four stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diol, which make up the natural product obtained from Eucalyptus citriodora, were synthesized through stereoselective procedures. Repellency assays showed that all the four were equally active against Anopheles gambiae s.s. Racemic blends and the diastereoisomeric mixture of all the four isomers were also equally repellent. 1-alpha-terpeneol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-8 and unsaturation at C-8, and menthol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-3, were not repellent. The practical implication of these results is discussed. PMID:12349856

  16. Morphological analysis of three populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mayury Fajardo Ramos; Ranulfo González Obando; Marco Fidel Suárez; David López; Richard Wilkerson; Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the le...

  17. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....

  18. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....

  19. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in wetlands, western Kenya: confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; Sonye, Gorge; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  20. Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan; Rajamohan Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adulticidal and repellent activities of different solvent leaf extracts ofEclipta alba (E. alba) andAndrographis paniculata (A. paniculata)against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts ofE. alba andA. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined againstAn. stephensimosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions.Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. TheLC50 andLC90 values ofE. alba andA. paniculata against adults ofAn. stephensiwere150.36, 130.19 ppm and285.22, 244.16ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. Thechi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Methanol extract of E. alba andA. paniculata was produce maximum repellency againstAn. stephensi.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract ofE. alba andA. paniculatawas an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  1. Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoh, M N; Lindsay, S W

    2003-10-01

    Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40 degrees C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28 degrees C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32 degrees C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26 degrees C. No adults emerged below 18 degrees C or above 34 degrees C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa. PMID:14641976

  2. Deforestation and Malaria on the Amazon Frontier: Larval Clustering of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Determines Focal Distribution of Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Fábio S M; Honório, Nildimar A

    2015-11-01

    We performed bimonthly mosquito larval collections during 1 year, in an agricultural settlement in the Brazilian Amazon, as well as an analysis of malaria incidence in neighboring houses. Water collections located at forest fringes were more commonly positive for Anopheles darlingi larvae and Kulldorff spatial analysis pinpointed significant larval clusters at sites directly beneath forest fringes, which were called larval "hotspots." Remote sensing identified 43 "potential" hotspots. Sampling of these areas revealed an 85.7% positivity rate for A. darlingi larvae. Malaria was correlated with shorter distances to potential hotpots and settlers living within 400 m of potential hotspots had a 2.60 higher risk of malaria. Recently arrived settlers, usually located closer to the tip of the triangularly shaped deforestation imprints of side roads, may be more exposed to malaria due to their proximity to the forest fringe. As deforestation progresses, transmission decreases. However, forest remnants inside deforested areas conferred an increased risk of malaria. We propose a model for explaining frontier malaria in the Amazon: because of adaptation of A. darlingi to the forest fringe ecotone, humans are exposed to an increased transmission risk when in proximity to these areas, especially when small dams are created on naturally running water collections. PMID:26416110

  3. A molecular phylogeny of Anopheles annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: the most species-rich anopheline complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, D H; Wilkerson, R C; Cooper, R D; Volovsek, M E; Bryan, J H

    2007-04-01

    The Australasian Annulipes Complex is the most species-rich among Anopheles mosquitoes, with at least 15 sibling species suspected. Members of this complex are the most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxomatosis among rabbits. In this, the first comprehensive molecular study of the Annulipes Complex, 23 ITS2 rDNA variants were detected from collections throughout Australia and Papua New Guinea, including diagnostic variants for the previously identified An. annulipes species A-G. Specimens of each ITS2 variant were sequenced for portions of the mitochondrial COI, COII and nuclear EF-1alpha genes. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Annulipes Complex and revealed at least 17 clades that we designate species A-Q. These species belong to two major clades, one in the north and one mainly in the south, suggesting that climate was a driver of species radiation. We found that 65% (11) of the 17 sibling species recorded here had unique COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding will be useful for diagnosing species within the Annulipes Complex. A comparison of the taxa revealed morphological characters that may be diagnostic for some species. Our results substantially increase the size of the subgenus Cellia in Australasia, and will assist species-level studies of the Annulipes Complex. PMID:17126567

  4. Orientation of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) to Plant-Host Volatiles in a Novel Diffusion-Cage Olfactometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otienoburu, Philip E; Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2016-01-01

    A novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles to plant volatiles. Green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. The diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. Its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquito orientation to plant volatiles within large enclosures. We compared its performance to that of the more commonly used T-tube wind-tunnel olfactometer, by testing the orientation of mosquitoes to volatiles of a few prevalent plants of eastern Africa reportedly utilized by An. gambiae for sugar: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), and Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae). Results indicate that the diffusion-cage olfactometer is an effective alternative to conventional wind-tunnel olfactometers, to test mosquito orientation to plant volatiles under seminatural conditions. PMID:26502752

  5. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-10-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. PMID:26010566

  6. Monoclonal antibodies AC-43 and AC-29 disrupt Plasmodium vivax development in the Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: culicidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Chugh; B R Gulati; S K Gakhar

    2010-03-01

    A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against the midgut proteins of Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. The mAbs AC-43 and AC-29 significantly inhibited Plasmodium vivax development inside the mosquito midgut. The number of oocysts that developed was reduced by 78.6% when mosquitoes ingested a combination of these two mAbs along with the blood meal. AC-43 mAb binds to the epitope common in 97, 80 and 43 kDa polypeptides from the midgut protein extract, as indicated by western blot analysis. Similarly, the mAb AC-29 recognized 52, 44, 40 and 29 kDa polypeptides. These female midgut-specific polypeptides are shared between An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, two major vectors of malaria in India. Deglycosylation assays revealed that -linked carbohydrates are the major components in epitopes corresponding to AC-43 and AC-29. Gold particle labelling revealed that both these mAbs preferentially bind to glycoproteins at the apical microvilli and the microvillus-associated network present inside transverse sections of the gut epithelium. These regions are particularly known to have receptors for ookinetes, which enable them to cross this epithelial barrier and provide them with certain necessary chemicals or components for further development into oocysts. Therefore, these glycoproteins appear to be potential candidates for a vectordirected transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV).

  7. Laboratory studies on the olfactory behaviour of Anopheles quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pates, H.V.; Takken, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The host preference of Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), the zoophilic member of the malaria mosquito complex Anopheles gambiae Giles, was investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. Naïve female mosquitoes were exposed to CO2, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, and skin emanations from c

  8. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  9. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus,Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan; M; Mathivanan; T; Elumalai; K; Krishnappa; K; Anandan; A

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria(E.coronaria) and Caeslpinia pulckerrima(C.pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus),Aedes aegypti(Ae.aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi).Methods:The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions.The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment.The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The crude extract of E.coronaria exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 250.200 and 150 ppm for Cx.quinqitefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The crude extract of C.pulchenima exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 375.300 and 225 ppm for Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.Stephensi,respectively.The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C.pukherrima extract.A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm~2 provided 100%protection up to 150.180 and 210 min against Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae. aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E.coronaria and C.pukherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi mosquitoes.

  10. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (30–180 mg/l in thelaboratory by using the standard protocol described by WHO (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h andmortalities were subjected to log-probit analysis. Repellent activity of crude leaf extract at the dosages of 2, 4and 6 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 × 30 × 45 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi using the protocol of WHO (1996.Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of A. digitata showed the presence of triterpenoids and saponins.The LC50 and LC90 values of hexane, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of A. digitata against An.stephensi larvae in 24 h were 111.32, 97.13, 88.55, 78.18 and 178.63, 176.19, 168.14, 155.42 mg/l, respectively.The repellent activity of methanol extract was found to be most effective and at higher concentration of 6mg/cm2 benzene, chloroform hexane and methanol extracts provided 100% protection up to 150, 180, 120 and210 min against An. stephensi, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary study indicated that A. digitata showed larvicidal and repellent activities againstAn. stephensi and could be used for controlling mosquitoes. Further studies are indicated to purify the activecompounds from these plants for developing larvicide and repellents.

  11. DNA Barcodes indicate members of the Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) species complex to be conspecific in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Kumar, N; Krishnamoorthy, N; Sahu, S S; Rajavel, A R; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2013-05-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, a major vector of malaria in India has been described as a complex of three sibling species members, named as S, T and U, based on variations in chromosomal inversions. Also, ribosomal DNA markers (repetitive Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) and 28S D3 region) were described to differentiate these three sibling species members. However, controversies prevail on the genetic isolation status of these cryptic species. Hence, we evaluated this taxonomic incongruence employing DNA barcoding, the well established methodology for species identification, using 60 An. fluviatilis sensu lato specimens, collected from two malaria endemic eastern states of India. These specimens were also subjected to sibling species characterization by ITS2 and D3 DNA markers. The former marker identified 31 specimens among these as An. fluviatilis S and 21 as An. fluviatilis T. Eight specimens amplified DNA fragments specific for both S and T. The D3 marker characterized 39 specimens belonging to species S and 21 to species T. Neither marker identified species U. Neighbor Joining analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene 1 sequences (the DNA barcode) categorized all the 60 specimens into a single operational taxonomic unit, their Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) genetic variability being only 0.8%. The genetic differentiation (FST ) and gene flow (Nm ) estimates were 0.00799 and 62.07, respectively, indicating these two 'species' (S & T) as genetically con-specific intermixing populations with negligible genetic differentiation. Earlier investigations have refuted the existence of species U. Also, this study demonstrated that An. fluviatilis and the closely related An. minimus could be taxonomically differentiated by the DNA Barcode approach (K2P = 5.0%). PMID:23398631

  12. DETERMINATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ANOPHELES SACHAROVI COLLECTED FROM DASHT ARGEN IN FARS PROVINCE TO DDT, MALATHION FENITROTHION (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghavami

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the degree of susceptibility of An. Sacharovi to malathion 5%, fenitrothion 1% and DDT 4% extended studies were carried out on sucked blood engorged mosquitoes collected from Dasht Argen (Fars province in 1997. Testing method was according to standard WHO method in lots of 25 adults' mosquitoes in 4 replicates. An. Sacharovi were touched by malathion 5% and DDT 4% insecticides in 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure time. Based on the results, mortality level was found to be 53.1%, 84.3% and 100% for malathion and 48.5%, 85.4% and 100% for D.D.T. LD50 and LD90 for DDT was found to be 15.70 and 32.55 min, respectively. According to the results, An. Sacharovi was susceptible to malathion and D.D.T. However, this Anophel had strong resistance background to D.D.T. in other areas in Iran. Another insecticide tested was fenitrothion with 1% in 60, 75, 90 and 120 min exposure time mortality was 35.4%, 60.6%, 64.3% and 84.5%, with LD50 and LD90 of about 69.83 and 138.9 min, respectively. Due to absence of fenitrothion application in malaria vectors control program in southern Iran and also susceptibility to malathion, it seems that the fenitrothion dosage of 1% in 120 min time might not be effective, therefore, it is recommended to change that concentration of insecticide or the amount of exposure time.

  13. Baseline Susceptibility of Different Geographical Strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos in Malarious Areas of Irana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboozar Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance.Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values.Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold. All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%.Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insecticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy.

  14. Baseline Susceptibility of Different Geographical Strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos in Malarious Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboozar Soltani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistanceMethods: Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mos­quitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values.Results: Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold. All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%.Conclusion: Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insec­ticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy

  15. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Alain Azokou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Methods: Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90% of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000– 31.2 ppm. Results: Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80– 180 ppm were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.

  16. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera:Culicidae to permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb in Ibadan city, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolade Tahiru Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the resistance/susceptibility level of An.gambiae s.l, a major malaria vector in Ibadan metropolis, south west Nigeria, to two classes of insecticides approved by World Health Organization (WHO for vector control. Anopheles larvae were collected from two communities (Ojoo and Bodija within the metropolis and reared to adults. Two to three-day old, non-engorged female mosquitoes were exposed to discriminating dosages of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 0.1% bendiocarb using WHO protocols and susceptibility test kits. Knockdown effect was recorded every 10 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Species identification was by morphological characteristics only. The study revealed that the major malaria vector in Nigeria, An.gambiae s.l,An.gambiae s.l, were susceptible (mortality rate of 98.8% to deltamethrin in Ojoo community, while Bodija recorded marginal susceptibility (87.5%. Both sites showed reduced susceptibility to permethrin and resistance to bendiocarb with 24 h post exposure mortalities ranging from 83.5% to 87.7% and 70.0% and 52.5%, respectively. The median knockdown time (KDT50 from 22-44.2 min for the pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin, while that of carbamates (bendiocarb range from 35.2 to 49.5 min. Resistance recorded in the field populations of An.gambiae s.l in Ibadan to bendiocarb was not observed in same population exposed to the pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin but with differential susceptibility. Therefore Bendiocarb may not be suitable as alternatives to mitigate pyrethroid resistance. A rationalised use of these insecticides coupled with regular monitoring of resistance status is essential to improve and evaluate the efficacy of the current vector control tools (ITN and IRS.

  17. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. PMID:26336230

  18. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae in China: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.

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    Yajun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of A. sinensis from 14 representative localities in China. All 5 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 12 populations associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed two gene pools, grouping samples into two population clusters; one includes six and the other includes eight populations. Out of 14 samples, six samples were mixed with individuals from both gene pools, indicating the coexistence of two genetic units in the areas sampled. The overall differentiation between two genetic pools was moderate (F(ST = 0.156. Pairwise differentiation between populations were lower within clusters (F(ST = 0.008-0.028 in cluster I and F(ST = 0.004-0.048 in cluster II than between clusters (F(ST = 0.120-0.201. A reduced gene flow (Nm = 1-1.7 was detected between clusters. No evidence of isolation by distance was detected among populations neither within nor between the two clusters. There are differences in effective population size (Ne = 14.3-infinite across sampled populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two genetic pools with moderate genetic differentiation were identified in the A. sinensis populations in China. The population divergence was not correlated with geographic distance or barrier in the range. Variable effective population size and other demographic effects of historical population

  19. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Ademowo, George O.; Irving, Helen; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Wondji, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has great implications for malaria control in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the dynamics of insecticide susceptibility levels and frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (L1014F) in wild Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp. n. and An. gambiae Giles ( (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ojoo and Bodija areas of Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. Insecticide susceptibility to pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and o...

  20. Environmental factors associated with the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in Kenya

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    Hemingway Janet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquito species complexes are the primary vectors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the environmental factors influencing these species, the abundance, distribution and transmission data from a south-eastern Kenyan study were retrospectively analysed, and the climate, vegetation and elevation data in key locations compared. Methods Thirty villages in Malindi, Kilifi and Kwale Districts with data on An. gambiae sensu strict, Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus entomological inoculation rates (EIRs, were used as focal points for spatial and environmental analyses. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistic, and for the clustering of high or low EIR values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Environmental data were derived from remote-sensed satellite sources of precipitation, temperature, specific humidity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and elevation. The relationship between transmission and environmental measures was examined using bivariate correlations, and by comparing environmental means between locations of high and low clustering using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Spatial analyses indicated positive autocorrelation of An. arabiensis and An. funestus transmission, but not of An. gambiae s.s., which was found to be widespread across the study region. The spatial clustering of high EIR values for An. arabiensis was confined to the lowland areas of Malindi, and for An. funestus to the southern districts of Kilifi and Kwale. Overall, An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had similar spatial and environmental trends, with higher transmission associated with higher precipitation, but lower temperature, humidity and NDVI measures than those locations with lower transmission by these species and/or in locations where transmission by An. funestus was high. Statistical

  1. Isolation of Tahyna virus (California Encephalitis Group) from Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae), a mosquito species new to, and expanding in, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2014), s. 1264-1267. ISSN 0022-2585 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Orthobunyavirus * mosquito * Anopheles hyrcanus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2014

  2. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  3. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center

  4. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  5. Preliminary field testing of a long-lasting insecticide-treated hammock against Anopheles gambiae and Mansonia spp. (Diptera : Culicidae) in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hougard, Jean-Marc; Martin, Thibaud; Guillet, Pierre; Coosemans, M.; ITOH, T.; Akogbéto, M.; Chandre, Fabrice

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of an experimental long-lasting insecticide-treated ham mock (LLIH) with a long-lasting treated net used as a blanket and made of the same fabric (polyethylene) was tested in a concrete block experimental hut, against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. and the arbovirus vectors and nuisance mosquitoes Mansonia africana (Theobald) and Alansonia uniformis (Theobald). The LLIH was treated with the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. It was evaluated concurrently with ignited m...

  6. Molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England, UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Brugman, VA; Hernández-Triana, LM; Prosser, SW; Weland, C; Westcott, DG; Fooks, AR; Johnson, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu l...

  7. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India

    OpenAIRE

    K Gunasekaran; S S Sahu; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C) was calculated using the...

  8. Optimization of breeding output for larval stage of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): prospects for the creation and maintenance of laboratory colony from wild isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Tchuinkam, T.; Mpoame, M.; Make-Mveinhya, B.; Simard, Frédéric; Lélé-Defo, E.; Zebazé-Togouet, S.; Tateng-Ngouateu, A.; Awono-Ambéné, H. P.; Antonio-Nkondjio, C.; Njiné, T.; Fontenille, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as to design a standard rearing protocol of highland isolates, which would ensure: the biggest fourth instars, the highest pupae productivity, the shortest...

  9. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Harrison; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; James E Pecor; Wilkerson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are a...

  10. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; Vatandoost, H; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; Abolhassani, M.; M Hashemzadeh"

    2003-01-01

    Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference...

  11. Geometric morphometric analysis of Colombian Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals significant effect of environmental factors on wing traits and presence of a metapopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Giovan F Gómez; Márquez, Edna J.; Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles albimanus is a major malaria mosquito vector in Colombia. In the present study, wing variability (size and shape) in An. albimanus populations from Colombian Maracaibo and Chocó bio-geographical eco-regions and the relationship of these phenotypic traits with environmental factors were evaluated. Microsatellite and morphometric data facilitated a comparison of the genetic and phenetic structure of this species. Wing size was influenced by elevation and relative humidity, whereas win...

  12. Estudio ambiental de criaderos de anopheles (n) albimanus (diptera: culicidae) en la provincia holguín. año 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka Lien Torres-Rodríguez; Mariluz Escalona-Rodríguez; Liliana Leyva-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio de la incidencia y comportamiento del anopheles albimanus, (transmisor del paludismo o malaria) en los 282 criaderos potenciales y habituales de culícidos de la provincia holguín durante el año 2009.a partir de la información semanal enviada a la unidad provincial de vigilancia y lucha antivectorial (upvla), se caracterizó el comportamiento de esta especie la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la provincia. Se observó mayor incidencia en los municipios FranK Pa...

  13. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae, forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunami Michio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1 the geographic distribution, which is potentially

  14. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "MA Oshaghi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L. Burm.F., (lemon and Melissa officinalis, (balm were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05 against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference between Deet and lemon oil, whereas the difference between lemon and melissa oils was significant. Relative efficacy of lemon oil to Deet was 0.88 whereas it was 0.71 for melissa oil. The results were found marginally superior in repellency for animals than human. Due to advantages of botanic compounds to synthetic compounds we recommend lemon essential oil as an effective alternative to Deet with potential as a means of personal protection against mosquito vectors of disease.

  15. Comparison of two commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae at three salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R Osborn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis larvae are salt water tolerant, preferring concentrations between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt. The larvicidal efficacy of two formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac-12AS® and Bactivec®, was investigated against An. aquasalis at salinities of 0, 10, and 20 ppt. A probit analysis was used to calculate the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 for each product at each salinity. The LC50 and LC95 were higher for Bactivec® than Vectobac-12AS®, and for Bactivec®, the LC50 and LC95 increased with salinity. Vectobac-12AS® should thus be preferred to Bactivec® for An. aquasalis control, especially in saline breeding habitats.

  16. Effect of anti-mosquito hemolymph antibodies on fecundity and on the infectivity of malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Monika; Suneja, Amita; Gakhar, Surendra K

    2002-06-01

    Rabbit antibodies to hemolymph antigens (102.5, 101, 100, 96, 88, 80, 64, 55, 43, 29, and 23 kDa) of Anopheles stephensi reduced fecundity as well as viability in An. stephensi. However, ingestion of these antibodies was not associated with a marked effect on the engorgement of mosquitoes but egg laying was significantly delayed. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins were also used to identify cross reactive antigens/epitopes present in other tissues by Western blotting, as well as by in vivo ELISA. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed in An. stephensi mosquitoes that ingested anti-hemolymph antibodies along with Plasmodium vivax. The results confirmed the feasibility of targeting mosquito antigens as a novel anti-mosquito strategy, as well as confirmed the usefulness of such antigens for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:12195047

  17. Optimization of breeding output for larval stage of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): prospects for the creation and maintenance of laboratory colony from wild isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuinkam, T; Mpoame, M; Make-Mveinhya, B; Simard, F; Lélé-Defo, E; Zébazé-Togouet, S; Tateng-Ngouateu, A; Awono-Ambéné, H-P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Njiné, T; Fontenille, D

    2011-06-01

    Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as to design a standard rearing protocol of highland isolates, which would ensure: the biggest fourth instars, the highest pupae productivity, the shortest duration of the larval stage and the best synchronization of pupation. The density of larvae, the size of breeding water and the quantity of food supplied were tested for their effect on larval growth. Moreover, three cheap foodstuffs were selected and tested for their capability to improve the breeding yield versus TetraMin® as the standard control. The larval density was a very sensitive parameter. Its optimal value, which was found to be ≈1 cm-2 surface area, yielded a daily pupation peak of 38.7% on day 8 post-oviposition, and a global pupae productivity of 78.7% over a duration range of three days. Anopheles gambiae's larval growth, survival and developmental synchronization were density-dependent, and this species responded to overcrowding by producing smaller fourth instars and fewer pupae, over elongated immature lifetime and duration range of pupae occurrence, as a consequence of intraspecific competition. While shallow breeding waters (water pollution level (which was assessed by the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD)) up to a limit depending on the food quality, above which a rapid increase in larval mortality was recorded. The food quality that could substitute the manufactured baby fish food was obtained with weighed mixture of 1 wheat+1 shrimp+2 fish. On establishing an anopheline mosquito colony in the laboratory, special care should be taken to design and maintain the appropriate optimal values of larval density, water

  18. Genome-wide identification and characterization of odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes in the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiu; He, Zheng-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yong; Xian, Peng-Jie; Qiao, Liang; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) may function in the reception of odorants in the olfactory system. The classification and characterization of the An. sinensis OBP genes have not been systematically studied. In this study, 64 putative OBP genes were identified at the whole-genome level of An. sinensis based on the comparison between OBP conserved motifs, PBP_GOBP, and phylogenetic analysis with An. gambiae OBPs. The characterization of An. sinensis OBPs, including the motif's conservation, gene structure, genomic organization and classification, were investigated. A new gene, AsOBP73, belonging to the Plus-C subfamily, was identified with the support of transcript and conservative motifs. These An. sinensis OBP genes were classified into three subfamilies with 37, 15 and 12 genes in the subfamily Classic, Atypical and Plus-C, respectively. The genomic organization of An. sinensis OBPs suggests a clustered distribution across nine different scaffolds. Eight genes (OBP23-28, OBP63-64) might originate from a single gene through a series of historic duplication events at least before divergence of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. The microsynteny analyses indicate a very high synteny between An. sinensis and An. gambiae OBPs. OBP70 and OBP71 earlier classified under Plus-C in An. gambiae are recognized as belonging to the group Obp59a of the Classic subfamily, and OBP69 earlier classified under Plus-C has been moved to the Atypical subfamily in this study. The study established a basic information frame for further study of the OBP genes in insects as well as in An. sinensis. PMID:26970073

  19. Nigeria Anopheles vector database: an overview of 100 years' research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Nkem Okorie

    Full Text Available Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF, which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%, An. funestus complex (17.3%, An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%. An. arabiensis (5.0% and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%, with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on

  20. Comparative biology and reproductive behaviour of a laboratory-adapted Redco strain of Anopheles Gambiae Giles (Diptera; culicidae and wild populations of the same species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of

  1. The Influence of Insecticide Resistance, Age, Sex, and Blood Feeding Frequency on Thermal Tolerance of Wild and Laboratory Phenotypes of Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C L; Oliver, S V; Hunt, R H; Coetzee, M

    2016-03-01

    Resistance to insecticides is a global phenomenon and is increasing at an unprecedented rate. How resistant and susceptible strains of malaria vectors might differ in terms of life history and basic biology is often overlooked, despite the potential importance of such information in light of changing climates. Here, we investigated the upper thermal limits (ULT50) of wild and laboratory strains of Anopheles funestus Giles mosquitoes, including resistance status, sex, age, and blood feeding status as potential factors influencing ULT50. No significant differences in ULT50 were observed between strains displaying different resistance patterns, nor was there a significant difference between wild and laboratory strains. In some instances, strains showed a senescence response, displaying decreased ULT50 with an increase in age, and differences between males and females (females displaying higher ULT50 than males). Blood feeding did not seem to influence ULT50 in any way. For An. funestus, it seems evident that there is no cost to resistance despite what is displayed in other anopheline species. This could have significant impacts for vector control, with resistant populations of An. funestus performing just as well, if not better, than susceptible strains, especially under changing environmental conditions such as those expected to occur with climate change. PMID:26718714

  2. Production of a Transgenic Mosquito Expressing Circumsporozoite Protein, a Malarial Protein, in the Salivary Gland of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Culicidae

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    Matsuoka,Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We are producing a transgenic mosquito, a flying syringe, to deliver a vaccine protein to human beings via the saliva the mosquito deposits in the skin while biting. The mosquito produces a vaccine protein in the salivary gland (SG and deposits the protein into the host's skin when it takes the host's blood. We chose circumsporozoite protein (CSP, currently the most promising malaria vaccine candidate, to be expressed in the SG of Anopheles stephensi. To transform the mosquitoes, plasmid containing the CSP gene under the promoter of female SG-specific gene, as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene under the promoter of 3xP3 as a selection marker in the eyes, was injected into more than 400 eggs. As a result, five strains of GFP-expressing mosquitoes were established, and successful CSP expression in the SG was confirmed in one strain. The estimated amount of CSP in the SG of the strain was 40ng per mosquito. We allowed the CSP-expressing mosquitoes to feed on mice to induce the production of anti-CSP antibody. However, the mice did not develop anti-CSP antibody even after transgenic mosquitoes had bitten them several times. We consider that CSP in the SG was not secreted properly into the saliva. Further techniques and trials are required in order to realize vaccine-delivering mosquitoes.

  3. Mosquitocidal activity of indigenenous plants of Western Ghats, Achras sapota Linn. (Sapotaceae) and Cassia auriculata L. (Fabaceae) against a common malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae:Diptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activities of hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plants, Achras sapota (A. sapota) and Cassia auriculata (C. auriculata) at different concentrations against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), a malarial vector. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (30-210 mg/L) of plants extracts and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005;then after 24 h LC50 values of the A. sapota and C. auriculata leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was tested with the extracts ranging from 50-350 mg/L. The pupicidal activity was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against mosquito species at two different concentrations 1.5 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results:Among the five different extracts tested against the An. stephensi, methanol extract of A. sapota proved to be an more effective solvent extract in almost all the parameters studied than C. auriculata. Conclusions:It is inferred that the leaf extract of A. sapota and C. auriculata could be used in vector control programme.

  4. Estudio ambiental de criaderos de anopheles (n albimanus (diptera: culicidae en la provincia holguín. año 2009

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    Niurka Lien Torres-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio de la incidencia y comportamiento del anopheles albimanus, (transmisor del paludismo o malaria en los 282 criaderos potenciales y habituales de culícidos de la provincia holguín durante el año 2009.a partir de la información semanal enviada a la unidad provincial de vigilancia y lucha antivectorial (upvla, se caracterizó el comportamiento de esta especie la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la provincia. Se observó mayor incidencia en los municipios FranK País, Rafael Freyre y Mayarí, con predominio en zanjas, lagunas y arroyos. Se aprecia una mayor asociación con el culex quinquefasciatus y el mayor número de muestras larvarias fueron colectadas en octubre. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados obtenidos y el riesgo de introducción de esta enfermedad en el país se recomienda continuar los estudios de esta especie en la provincia.

  5. First Record of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera, Culicidae in the Volta Grande Environmental Reserve, Conceição das Alagoas Municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rafael Martins

    2015-04-01

    Resumo. Três espécimes de Anopheles darlingi Root foram encontrados na reserva ambiental Volta Grande, na área de influência da barragem do Rio Grande construída pela usina hidrelétrica de Volta Grande, em Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O mosquito An. darlingi é um dos principais vetores da malária humana no Brasil, devido à sua preferência alimentar por sangue humano, um fator que é acentuado pelo comportamento endofílico da espécie. O presente relato poderá ser útil à vigilância entomológica local para monitoramento dos impactos gerados pela formação do reservatório hidrelétrico, uma vez que a presença deste vetor neste tipo de ambiente indica um risco potencial de transmissão da malária.

  6. Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition response to bacteria-containing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, J M; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Faye, I

    2008-09-01

    In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae mosquito colony with the focus on spiked breeding sites as a possible means of introducing bacteria to mosquitoes. A Pantoea stewartii strain, previously isolated from An. gambiae, marked with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was introduced to mosquitoes in different life stages. The following life stages or older mosquitoes in the case of adults were screened for bacteria in their guts. In addition to P. stewartii other bacteria were isolated from the guts: these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Bacteria were transferred from larvae to pupae but not from pupae to adults. The mosquitoes were able to take up bacteria from the water they emerged from and transfer the same bacteria to the water they laid eggs in. Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was more often isolated from adult mosquitoes than P. stewartii. A bioassay was used to examine An. gambiae oviposition responses towards bacteria-containing solutions. The volatiles emitted from the solutions were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. P. stewartii but not E. meningoseptica mediated a positive oviposition response. The volatiles emitted by P. stewartii include indole and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which previously have been shown to affect An. gambiae mosquito behaviour. E. meningoseptica emitted indole but not 3-methyl-1-butanol, when suspended in saline. Taken together, this indicates that it may be possible to create attractive breeding sites for distribution of genetically modified bacteria in the

  7. Larvicidal,ovicidal and repellent activities of marine sponge Cliona celata(Grant) extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Appadurai; Daniel; Reegan; Arokia; Valan; Kinsalin; Michael; Gabriel; Paulraj; Savarimuthu; Ignacimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Obective:To evaluate the larvieidal.ovieidal and repellent properties of solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celala(C.celata)(Grant) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi(An.stephensi) Listen.Methods:Marine sponge C.celala was thoroughly washed with distilled water and shade dried for 48 h.Then the sponges were homogenized and extracted sequentially with hexane,ethyl acetate and methanol,Lanvicidal and ovicidal activities were tested at four different concentrations viz.,62.5.125.0.250.0 and 500.0 ppm.for repellent study extracts were taken in three different concentrations viz..5.0.2.5.1.0 mg/cm at.Results:Among the three solvent extracts of C.celata,methanol extract showed thc highest lanvieidal activity at 500 ppm against the fourth inslar larvae of An.stephensi.The LC50and LC90 values of C.celata methanol extract were recorded as 80.61 and 220.81 ppm against An.stephensi larvae respectively.High ovieidal activity of 91.2%was recorded al 500 ppm concentration of methanol extract.The haxane extract was found to be the most effective protectant against the adult female mosquitoes of An.stephensi.The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to 245 min at 5 mg/cm2 dosage against An.Stephensi adults.Conclusions:The screening results suggest that the hexane and methanol extracts of C.celata arc promising in mosquito control.Considering these bioaclivitics.C.celata could the probed further to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules.

  8. Efficacy of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Catharanthus roseus aqueous and solvent extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selladurai Subarani; Selvi Sabhanayakam; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango; Mohamed Abdul Kadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) against malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of C. roseus leaf extracts were tested against the fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h post the treatment. The data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) at which 50%and 90%of the treated larvae or pupae of the tested species were killed. Results:The larval and pupal mortality were observed after 24 and 48 h of exposure of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. roseus; no mortality was observed in the control group. The LC50 values against the fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were 68.62 and 72.04 mg/mL for the aqueous extract, 82.47 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract, and 78.80 and 86.64 mg/mL for the methanol extract, while the aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 85.21, 76.84 and 94.20 mg/mL against the fourth-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 118.08, 182.47 and 143.80 mg/mL against the pupae of An. stephensi and 146.20, 226.84 and 156.62 mg/mL against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanol extracts of C. roseus leaves had an excellent potential to control the malarial vector An. stephensi and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  9. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India

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    K Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C was calculated using the Macdonald′s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net. Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv. The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  10. The abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng city, people's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the abundance of both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens). These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI) of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P < 0.05) in Wangshanzhuang village. Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity

  11. The abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species (Diptera: Culicidae and Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng city, people's Republic of China

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    Liu Xiao-Bo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens. These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity mainly occurred from 19:00 to 21:00. Thus

  12. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C

  13. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  14. Distribuição das espécies do gênero Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil Distribution of species from genus Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    José M. Macário Rebêlo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a distribuição e diversidade de espécies de Anopheles em 123 municípios do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. O método básico foi a captura de fêmeas dentro e nos arredores das habitações humanas, em intervalos compreendidos entre 18h e 6h, no período de janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2001. Foram capturados 84.467 exemplares distribuídos em 24 espécies, com o predomínio de A. triannulatus sensu lato (20.788, A. darlingi (19.083, A. nuneztovari (16.884, A. albitarsis s.l. (14.352, A. aquasalis (8.202 e A. evansae (2.885. As outras 18 espécies juntas representaram apenas 2,7%. As espécies encontradas no maior número de municípios foram: A. albitarsis s.l. (109 municípios, A. triannulatus s.l. (106, A. nuneztovari (93, A. darlingi (87 e A. evansae (64. A riqueza e a ampla distribuição das espécies de anofelinos no Maranhão concordam com a posição geográfica do estado, entre as macrorregiões que caracterizam o Brasil, resultando em uma fauna mista, com elementos representativos dessas regiões.We studied the distribution and diversity of Anopheles species in 123 counties (municipalities in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. The basic method consisted of capturing female specimens inside and around human dwellings between 6 PM and 6 AM from January 1992 to December 2001. A total of 84,467 specimens belonging to 24 species were captured, with a predominance of A. triannulatus sensu lato (20,788, A. darlingi (19,083, A. nuneztovari (16,884, A. albitarsis s.l. (14,352, A. aquasalis (8.202, and A. evansae (2,885. The other 18 species together accounted for only 2.7% of the total. The species found in the most counties were A. albitarsis s.l. (109 counties, A. triannulatus s.l. (106, A. nuneztovari (93, A. darlingi (87, and A. evansae (64. The richness and wide distribution of anopheline species in Maranhão agree with the State's geographic position among Brazil's macro-regions, resulting in a mixed fauna with representative

  15. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina Blood-meal sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae in a South-eastern State of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Flores-Mendoza

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.Anopheles aquasalis has shown local variations in blood-host preference in Brazil: it seems to be anthropophilic in the northeast and zoophilic or opportunistic in the Amazon and other regions. A study was carried out in Guapimirim county, State of Rio de Janeiro, from May to November 1992, for the purpose of identifying the blood meal source of this anopheline by capillary tube precipitin test. A total of 1,366 females were captured at natural resting-places, 725 of which were blood-fed. The gut content of 473 blood fed females reacted to the antisera used (human, cow, horse, pig, dog and chicken. The majority of the females ¾ 356 (75.3% ¾ had blood from only one source. A substantial bovine preference was observed ¾ 52.2% had fed on cows, 29.8% on horses, 10.7% on pigs, 4.5% on chickens and 1.7% on dogs, but only few had fed on man (1.1% and none on rats. On the other hand, 24.7% of the females had fed on more than one host, mainly on cows and horses. It was assumed that An. aquasalis is zoophilic

  16. Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to human-specific sweat components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, C; Birkett, M A; Gibson, G; Ziesmann, J; Sagnon, N F; Mohammed, H A; Coluzzi, M; Pickett, J A

    2001-09-01

    Afrotropical malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), particularly An. gambiae sensu stricto, are attracted mainly to human hosts. A major source of human volatile emissions is sweat, from which key human-specific components are the carboxylic acids (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid and 7-octenoic acid. Electrophysiological studies on the antennae of An. gambiae s.s. showed selective sensitivity to these compounds, with a threshold at 10(-6) g comparable to that of known olfactory stimulants 1-octen-3-ol, p-cresol, isovaleric acid, and lower than threshold sensitivity to L-lactic acid and the synthetic mosquito repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET). A combination of the acids released at concentrations > 10(-5) g in wind tunnel bioassays significantly reduced the response to CO2, the major attractant released by human hosts, for strains of An. gambiae s.s. originating from East and West Africa. Field trials with odour-baited entry traps (OBETs) in Burkina Faso showed that 7-octenoic acid significantly increased (by 1.7-fold) the catch of females of An. gambiae sensu lato (comprising two sibling species: An. arabiensis Patton and An. gambiae s.s.) in OBETs baited with CO2, whereas combinations of the acids significantly reduced the catch in CO2-baited traps (by 2.1-fold) and in whole human odour-baited traps (by 1.5-fold). The pure (E) and (Z) geometric isomers of 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid gave comparable results to the (EIZ) isomer mixture. These results provide the first experimental evidence that human-specific compounds affect the behaviour of highly anthropophilic An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes. The compounds appear to inhibit the upwind flight' response to known long-range attractants, and may serve either to mask' the attractants present or, more probably, to 'arrest' upwind flight when mosquitoes arrive at a host under natural conditions. In the final approach to hosts, vectors are known to reduce their flight speed and increase

  17. Intraspecific chromosomal polymorphism in the Anopheles gambiae complex as a factor affecting malaria transmission in the Kisumu area of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, V; Beier, J C

    1992-02-01

    The paracentric inversion polymorphisms of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis populations in the Kisumu area of western Kenya were studied in relation to parameters of Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Anopheles gambiae (n = 1,387) was polymorphic for inversions b on chromosomal arm 2R and a on arm 2L, with frequencies of the inverted arrangements of 17% and 43%, respectively. Anopheles arabiensis (n = 484) was polymorphic for inversion b on chromosomal arm 2R and a on 3R, with frequencies of the inverted arrangements of 58% and 5%, respectively. Observed karyotypic frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, indicating a condition of panmixia (i.e., random mating) for both species. The overall degree of intraspecific polymorphism was low, confirming findings from other zones of East Africa. No significant differences in inversion frequencies of either An. gambiae or An. arabiensis were observed, either between collecting sites or between similar sampling periods of consecutive years. At the same time, a stable, significant two-fold difference in Plasmodium infection rates was detected among An. gambiae carriers of different inversion karyotypes on chromosome 2. A significant non-uniform distribution of human- and bovid-fed specimens was also detected among the carriers of different 2Rb inversion karyotypes in indoor resting An. arabiensis. Relationships among inversion karyotypes of the two major malaria vectors in the An. gambiae complex and key factors affecting malaria transmission intensity emphasize that intraspecific variation could contribute significantly to the diversity and stability of malaria vectorial systems in Africa. PMID:1539757

  18. The effect of water turbidity on the near-surface water temperature of larval habitats of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Paaijmans; Takken, W.; Githeko, A.K.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

    2008-01-01

    Water temperature is an important determinant in many aquatic biological processes, including the growth and development of malaria mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis and A. gambiae) immatures. Water turbidity affects water temperature, as suspended particles in a water column absorb and scatter sunlight and hence determine the extinction of solar radiation. To get a better understanding of the relationship between water turbidity and water temperature, a series of semi-natural larval habitats (d...

  19. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la Costa Pacífica de Colombia: III. Medidas de luminosidad y el comportamiento de picadura Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: III - Medições da luminosidade e estudo do comportamento durante o repasto Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: III. Light intensity measurements and biting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Murillo B.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del comportamiento de picadura de mosquitos capturados picando humanos en un área despejada del poblado de Charambirá, Chocó, en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, indico que cambios en la intensidad de la luz, influenciaban el início y el fin de la actividad de vuelo de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie con marcados hábitos crepusculares. Esta especie está considerada como vectora de esa enfermedad, malaria, en la costa pacífica colombiana.O estudo do comportamento de mosquitos capturados picando humanos numa zona desmatada do povoado de Charambirá, Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, indicaram que mudanças na intensidade da luz influenciam o início e o fim da atividade de vôo do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, verificando-se que o repasto ocorre durante as horas crepusculares. Esta espécie é considerada como vetora da malária na costa do país.The study of mosquitoes captured while biting man in a forest cleared zone of Charambirá, Chocó, on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, indicated that changes in light intensity stimulated the beginning and end of the flight activity of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, a species with crepuscular biting behavior incriminated as malaria vector in this region of the county.

  20. Short report : Development of a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae complex larval stages

    OpenAIRE

    Schielke, E.; Costantini, Carlo; Carchini, G.; Sagnon, N.; J. Powell; Caccone, A

    2007-01-01

    We developed a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes. This intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction assay and restriction enzyme analysis uses An. gambiae-specific primers to detect mosquito DNA in the DNA extracts from whole invertebrate predators, which enables identification of species (An. gambiae s.s. versus An. arabiensis) and molecular forms (M versus S in An. gambiae s.s.). We show that An. gambiae s.l. DNA can be detect...

  1. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) en la Costa Pacífica de Colombia: III. Medidas de luminosidad y el comportamiento de picadura Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: III - Medições da luminosidade e estudo do comportamento durante o repasto Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: III. Light intensity measurements and biting behavior

    OpenAIRE

    César Murillo B.; Rodrigo Astaiza V.; Paulina Fajardo O.

    1988-01-01

    El estudio del comportamiento de picadura de mosquitos capturados picando humanos en un área despejada del poblado de Charambirá, Chocó, en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, indico que cambios en la intensidad de la luz, influenciaban el início y el fin de la actividad de vuelo de Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai, especie con marcados hábitos crepusculares. Esta especie está considerada como vectora de esa enfermedad, malaria, en la costa pacífica colombiana.O estudo do comportamento de mosquitos ca...

  2. X-ray sterilization of the An. arabiensis genetic sexing strain 'ANO IPCL1' at pupal and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndo, C; Yamada, H; Damiens, D D; N'do, S; Seballos, G; Gilles, J R L

    2014-03-01

    With a view to area wide integrated pest management programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, the effects of X-ray exposure of males of the genetic sexing strain (GSS) of An. arabiensis, "ANO IPCL1" have been tested. The suitability of X-ray was assessed in comparison to gamma-ray for mosquito sterilization in operational settings where the acquisition of gamma ray irradiators may be problematic. Pupae and adult males were sterilized using X-ray irradiation at 5 increasing doses and effects were observed in terms of fecundity and fertility. Irradiated pupae and adults were further observed for effects on longevity. The adult stage appeared to be more sensitive to radiation exposure than the pupal stage, with a residual fertility of 1% in adults irradiated at 75Gy and 0% at 105Gy, compared to 8%at 75Gy and 4% at 105Gy in adults irradiated at the pupal stage. All treatment groups except those irradiated at 60Gy were statistically different from the control groups in terms of adult longevity post treatment, however overall survival was not highly compromised in the 75Gy treatment group which showed 96% of induced sterility. To ensure the fine balance between the induced sterility and the fitness of the insect produced is achieved, irradiation of adults at this dose may be a good compromise for the SIT as applied for this species, especially in specific cases such as sterilization after female elimination by spiking blood meals. Investigation into the combined effects of blood spiking and irradiation at the adult stage and additional competitiveness studies both in laboratory and field cages will provide more insight into the radiation dose and mosquito stage to be used in the frame of future SIT programs targeting this important malaria vector. PMID:24361725

  3. Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males

    OpenAIRE

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Kerampran, R.; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cécile; Toty, Céline; Wilkinson, D A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the cond...

  4. Resistance Status of the Malaria Vector Mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus Towards Adulticides and Larvicides in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of India

    OpenAIRE

    Tikar, S. N.; M J Mendki; Sharma, A K; D. Sukumaran; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004–2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the...

  5. Biología de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la Costa Pacifica de Colombia: IV - Estructura etárea y transmisión de malaria Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na Costa do Pacífico Colombiano: IV - Estrutura etária e transmissão da malária Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: IV - Age structure and malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Murillo B.

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la dinamica de transmisión de malaria en el poblado de Charambirá (Chocó, Colombia, se estudió la estructura etárea de Anopheles neivai (reconocido vector en la Costa Pacífica con base en su estado gonadotrófico. Se recolectaron mosquitos intradomiciliarmente durante el crepúsculo vespertino con cebos humanos y aspiradores bucales. Los mosquitos recolectados se mantuvieron en cajas cilíndricas de cartón con papel humedecido y dispensadores alimenticios hasta su disección al día siguiente. De los 200 mosquitos disecados entre septiembre y octubre de 1986,68 (34% presentaban huellas de menos de tres oviposturas y los restantes (66% habían efectuado al menos tres oviposturas. La diferencia entre el primer grupo considerado como mosquitos "no infectivos" y el segundo considerado como los "potencialmente infectivos" fue altamente significativa (X² = 10,68; P = 0,001. El 1,5% de A. neivai estudiados presentaban huellas correspondientes a 10 oviposturas mostrando una marcada longevidad y múltiples alimentaciones sanguíneas. Los resultados sugieren que existe un alto riesgo de contraer malaria en Charambirá durante el crepúsculo vespertino.Com o intuito de determinar a dinâmica de transmissão da malária no povoado de Charambirá (Chocó, Colômbia, foi estudada a estrutura etária do mosquito Anopheles neivai (reconhecido vetor da Costa Pacífica com base em seu estado gonadotrófico. As coletas foram realizadas intradomiciliarmente no crepúsculo vespertino com isca humana e auxílio de tubos de sucção manual. Os mosquitos coletados foram mantidos em caixas cilíndricas de papelão, contendo papel umidecido e alimento. Dos 200 mosquitos dissecados entre setembro e outubro de 1986, 68 (34% apresentaram vestígios de menos de três oviposturas (oviposições e os demais (66% apresentavam, pelo menos, três ovipoturas. A diferença entre o primeiro grupo considerado como mosquitos "não infectantes" e o

  6. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.P.; MITTAL, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct rel...

  7. Energy-state dependent responses of Anopheles gambiae to an unobtainable host

    OpenAIRE

    Zappia, Simon Pierre William

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how blood-seeking behavior changes with different energy levels in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), when confronted with an unobtainable blood-host, is of interest for vector control strategies. I used a straight-tube olfactometer to mimic a domicile containing (i) a simulated blood-host (human foot smell) protected by either a plain bednet or a DEET impregnated net and (ii) a sugar source (honey scent) some distance away. I manipulated the mosquito’s...

  8. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: I. Fluctuación de la población larval y características de sus criaderos Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K,, 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: I. Flutuação da população larval e características dos seus berçários (criadouros Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific coast of Colombia: I. Fluctuation of larval population and characteristics of the breeding places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Murillo B.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available En Charambirá, localidad del município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, donde existe un problema de malaria endémica, se estudió la fluctuación de la población larval y las características de los criaderos de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie considerada como posible vectora de malaria en esa región del país. La vegetación circundante fue dividida en tres estratos de acuerdo al grado de cobertura foliar. Se demarcaron cuadrantes de 100 m² en cada estrato para el muestreo de plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, en las cuales se acumula agua que sirve como criadero para esta especie de anofelino. Se tomaron datos de temperatura, pH y volumen del agua contenida en cada bromelia. El mayor número de larvas se detectó en el estrato 1 (manglar a una altitud inferior a 4 m, pero no se encontró evidencia significativa de estratificación vertical de la población larval de A. neivai hasta los 8 m. Se evidenció una correlación lineal positiva entre el número de larvas y el volumen de agua contenida en cada bromelia; por otra parte se observó también una correlación directa entre la precipitación mensual acumulada y la fluctuación poblacional de esta especie. Los índices larvales mas altos se observaron entre los meses de marzo a abril y de julio a agosto. La mortalidad larval fue alta en el primer estadío (43,5% y solo un 23,7% sobrevivió hasta el cuarto.Em Charambirá, localidade do Município de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, localidade endêmica de malária, estudou-se a flutuação da população larval e as características dos locais de criação do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, espécie considerada como possível vector da malária naquela região do país. A vegetação circundante foi dividida em três estratos segundo seu grau de cobertura foliar. Demarcaram-se quadrantes de 100 m² para a amostragem de plantas epífitas da família Bromeliaceae, nas quais se

  9. Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: II. Fluctuación de la población adulta Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: II. Flutuação da população adulta Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: II. Adult population fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Astaiza V.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available En la localidad de Charambirá, situada en el município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, se presenta un problema de malaria endémica asociada con grandes poblaciones de mosquitos Anopheles del subgénero Kerteszia (A. neivai. Estos se crían en las colecciones de agua formadas por plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, que son muy abundantes en los árboles de mangle. En esa localidad se estudiaron: fluctuación poblacional y algunos aspectos ecológicos y etológicos de los adultos de esa especie de mosquito, con el objetivo de determinar su papel en la transmisión de malaria. Todos los mosquitos fueron colectados por cebos humanos. Los picos máximos de actividad ocurrieron en las horas crepusculares de la mañana y de la tarde (5:30 a 6:30 y 18:00 a 19:00 horas. En el período nocturno la actividad intradomiciliar fue baja y no hubo ninguna durante el día. El estado gonadotrófico de las hembras colectadas durante nos picos de actividad, mostró la existencia de dos poblaciones de mosquitos: una, en su mayoría individuos jóvenes que buscan su alimento en las horas de la tarde y la otra compuesta por individuos mas longevos, que buscan su alimento en la mañana. El estudio de la variación estacional mostró que las poblaciones son bajas en los meses de poca precipitación, pero a medida que aumenta el índice pluviométrico, aumenta el número de mosquitos. Se discute la relación que existe entre la presencia de los mosquitos y la prevalencia de malaria humana; se sugiere que A. neivai puede ser el responsable de la transmisión de malaria en la zona estudiada.Na localidade de Charambirá, situada no Municipio de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, ocorre um tipo de malária endêmica associada com grandes populações de Anopheles do subgênero Kerteszia (A. neivai. Estes criam-se em coleções de água formadas por plantas epífitas pertencentes à família Bromeliaceae, as quais são muito

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  11. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  12. "Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR and ITS2 PCR assays for differentiation of populations and putative sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Naddaf Dezfouli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles fluviatilis complex is known to be a vector of malaria in Iran. Since mosquitoes of this species cover a wide geographical range in Iran, they might have evolved into different separated populations. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR assay was used to differentiate geographic populations of this species. DNA was extracted from individual mosquitoes from 8 localities in 4 south and southeast provinces and amplified in PCR reactions using 18 single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Results of RAPD-PCR showed that Kazeroun populations could simply be differentiated from other populations using a diagnostic fragment amplified with primer UBC-306. But other populations could not be differentiated either visually or by means of statistical analysis. Moreover ITS2 fragments of some selected specimens were amplified using a pair of universal primer and sequenced as a key standard for detection of putative sibling species. Sequence analysis of the ITS2 fragments revealed a very high (100% homology among the populations. These findings are crucial in epidemiological studies concerning relatedness of geographic populations and vector movement in the region. Results of RAPD-PCR and ITS2 analysis suggest that this taxon in Iran comprises of only one species with a low genetic variation among geographic populations.

  13. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Hosea, Kenneth M;

    2012-01-01

    . Both fresh and archived dried specimens were identified to sibling species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex by PCR. The same specimens were moreover examined for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti infection by PCR. RESULTS: As in earlier studies, An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles merus...... the most rare to the most common. P. falciparum infection was rarely detected in the examined specimens (and only in An. arabiensis) whereas W. bancrofti infection was prevalent and detected in all three sibling species. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that a major shift in An. gambiae s.l. sibling species...

  14. Frequent blood-feeding and restrictive sugar-feeding behavior enhance the malaria vector potential of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus (Diptera:Culicidae) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, J C

    1996-07-01

    Natural blood-feeding and sugar-feeding behaviors were investigated for populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus Giles at 2 sites in western Kenya. During peak levels of malaria parasite transmission, > 85% of 1,569 indoor-resting females contained fresh blood meals. Findings that up to 55.4% of blood-fed resting females and 72.0% of host-seeking females had either stage IV or V oocytes provided strong evidence that females were refeeding before oviposition. Such gonotrophic discordance was common throughout the year for both An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus. Determinations of gonotrophic cycles for freshly blood-fed mosquitoes collected inside houses indicated that only 60.0% of 1,287 An. gambiae s.l. and 60.0% of 974 An. funestus oviposited eggs after a single blood meal. The timing of oviposition was irregular as indicated by relatively high coefficients of variation for An. gambiae s.l. (44.0%) and An. funestus (35.9%). Associated with frequent blood feeding was a surprisingly low rate of sugar feeding; only 6.3% of 1,183 indoor-resting and only 14.4% of 236 host-seeking anophelines were positive for fructose. Natural patterns of frequent blood feeding, year-round gonotrophic discordance, irregular oviposition cycles, and limited sugar feeding illustrate that anopheline mosquitoes have complex behavioral and physiologic means for adapting to their environment. In western Kenya, for example, adaptations for frequent blood feeding by An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus potentiates their ability to transmit malaria parasites, well beyond that predicted by standard measures of vectorial capacity. PMID:8699456

  15. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  16. Physiology and development of the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouline, Karine; Mamai, W.; Agnew, P.; Tchonfienet, M.; Brengues, Cécile; Dabiré, R.; Robert, Vincent; Simard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field pop...

  17. Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, R.J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and...

  18. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjemaï, Hamadou N M; Patchoké, Salomon; Atangana, Jean; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Fréderic; Bilong, Charles F Bilong; Reimer, Lisa; Cornel, Anthony; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Fondjo, Etienne

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in populations of A. gambiae s.s. than in A. arabiensis. The West and East African knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were found in both species but at much higher frequencies in A. gambiae s.s. The West Africa kdr mutant was also more frequent in the A. gambiae S form than in the M form. No resistance to bendiocarb and malathion was found. Carbamate and organophosphorous compounds could thus be used as alternatives in locations in Cameroon where pyrethroid-resistant populations are found. PMID:19155034

  19. Development of a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae complex larval stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, Erika; Costantini, Carlo; Carchini, Gianmaria; Sagnon, N'falé; Powell, Jeffrey; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-09-01

    We developed a molecular assay to detect predation on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes. This intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction assay and restriction enzyme analysis uses An. gambiae-specific primers to detect mosquito DNA in the DNA extracts from whole invertebrate predators, which enables identification of species (An. gambiae s.s. versus An. arabiensis) and molecular forms (M versus S in An. gambiae s.s.). We show that An. gambiae s.l. DNA can be detected after ingestion by members of the families Lestidae (order Odonata) after four hours, Libellulidae (order Odonata) after six hours, and Notonectidae (order Hemiptera) after 24 hours. This method is an improvement over previously published methods because of ease of execution and increased time of detection after ingestion. PMID:17827361

  20. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

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    Badolo Athanase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and

  1. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

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    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  2. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

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    Derua Yahya A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. As part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The study was in two parts. The first compared current species complex composition in freshly caught An. gambiae s.l. complex from three villages to the composition reported from previous studies carried out 2–4 decades ago in the same villages. The second took advantage of a sample of archived dried An. gambiae s.l. complex specimens collected regularly from a fourth study village since 2005. Both fresh and archived dried specimens were identified to sibling species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex by PCR. The same specimens were moreover examined for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti infection by PCR. Results As in earlier studies, An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles merus and Anopheles arabiensis were identified as sibling species found in the area. However, both study parts indicated a marked change in sibling species composition over time. From being by far the most abundant in the past An. gambiae s.s. was now the most rare, whereas An. arabiensis had changed from being the most rare to the most common. P. falciparum infection was rarely detected in the examined specimens (and only in An. arabiensis whereas W. bancrofti infection was prevalent and detected in all three sibling species. Conclusion The study indicates that a major shift in An. gambiae s.l. sibling species composition has taken place in the study area in recent years. Combined with the earlier reported decline in overall malaria vector density, the study suggests that this

  3. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

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    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  4. Entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato at a rural community in south-west Nigeria

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    M.A.E. Noutcha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Investigations were conducted to obtain key entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae s.l. at Igbo-Ora, a rural community in south-west Nigeria. Methods: Mosquitoes were caught daily for a week from rooms where tenants had slept the previous night in each of the four months June, July (2001, and August, September (2002. Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species were PCR-identified, the blood meal origin was determined by direct ELISA, and the circumsporozoite antigen by sandwich ELISA. Mean weekly rates were calculated. Results: The mean human biting rates were 0.90 and 1.6 in 2001 and 2002 respectively. The mean weekly anthropophilic rates for An. gambiae s.l. were 82 and 86% in 2001 and 2002 respectively; they were high in An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and non-identified species in the complex. The mean weekly circumsporozoite rates were 6.70% in 2001 and 6.30% in 2002. The mean weekly entomological inoculation rates (EIR were 4.95 and 5.05 in 2001 and 2002 respectively; the seasonal (6-month rates were high: 128.7 in 2001 and 131.3 in 2002, compared to data from other rural communities on the continent. Interpretation & conclusion: The implications of these findings on the role of An. gambiae s.l. in the holoendemicity of malaria at Igbo-Ora are discussed.

  5. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  6. Screening for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis in ten plants used as mosquito repellent in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mavundza, Edison J; Maharaj, Rajendra; Chukwujekwu, Jude C; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Staden, Johannes Van

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, adverse effects to human health, non-target organisms and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop new insecticides, which are effective, safe, biodegrable and target-specific. This study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal activity of 10 plants used traditionally as mosquito repellents in South Africa. Methods The dried plant materials were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol (EtOH). The...

  7. Use of carbon-13 as a population marker for Anopheles arabiensis in a sterile insect technique (SIT) context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Mayr, L.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Monitoring of sterile to wild insect ratios in field populations can be useful to follow the progress in genetic control programmes such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Of the numerous methods for marking insects most are not suitable for use in mass rearing and mass release. Sui

  8. The susceptibility of five African Anopheles species to Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquitocidal cry genes

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    Ketseoglou Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, one of the leading causes of death in Africa, is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Problems associated with the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects and persistence of chemical insecticides have prompted the development of environmentally friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a genetically engineered cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120#11, against five African Anopheles species in laboratory bioassays. Findings There were significant differences in the susceptibility of the anopheline species to PCC 7120#11. The ranking of the larvicidal activity of PCC 7120#11 against species in the An. gambiae complex was: An. merus An. arabiensis An. gambiae An. quadriannulatus, where 50. The LC50 of PCC 7120#11 against the important malaria vectors An. gambiae and An. arabiensis was 12.3 × 105 cells/ml and 8.10 × 105 cells/ml, respectively. PCC 7120#11 was not effective against An. funestus, with less than 50% mortality obtained at concentrations as high as 3.20 × 107 cells/ml. Conclusions PCC 7120#11 exhibited good larvicidal activity against larvae of the An. gambiae complex, but relatively weak larvicidal activity against An. funestus. The study has highlighted the importance of evaluating a novel mosquitocidal agent against a range of malaria vectors so as to obtain a clear understanding of the agent’s spectrum of activity and potential as a vector control agent.

  9. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

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    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and

  10. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the field in Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, An. gambiae ss (Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET, a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence. Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting

  11. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Nwane Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Methods Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95 were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. Results The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates > 98% and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. Conclusion In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An

  12. The population genomics of trans-specific inversion polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae.

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    White, Bradley J; Cheng, Changde; Sangaré, Djibril; Lobo, Neil F; Collins, Frank H; Besansky, Nora J

    2009-09-01

    In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae polymorphic chromosomal inversions may play an important role in adaptation to environmental variation. Recently, we used microarray-based divergence mapping combined with targeted resequencing to map nucleotide differentiation between alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion. Here, we applied the same technique to four different polymorphic inversions on the 2R chromosome of An. gambiae. Surprisingly, divergence was much lower between alternative arrangements for all 2R inversions when compared to the 2La inversion. For one of the rearrangements, 2Ru, we successfully mapped a very small region (approximately 100 kb) of elevated divergence. For the other three rearrangements, we did not identify any regions of significantly high divergence, despite ample independent evidence from natural populations of geographic clines and seasonal cycling, and stable heterotic polymorphisms in laboratory populations. If these inversions are the targets of selection as hypothesized, we suggest that divergence between rearrangements may have escaped detection due to retained ancestral polymorphism in the case of the youngest 2R rearrangements and to extensive gene flux in the older 2R inversion systems that segregate in both An. gambiae and its sibling species An. arabiensis. PMID:19581444

  13. Mosquito repellent action of Blumea lacera (Asteraceae against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    S.P. Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct relationship was observed with concentrations of Blumea lacera extract and the repellent activity. Percent repellency obtained at 6% concentration of theextract against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 97and 98% at 0 hour and 78.8 and 76.2% after 6 hrs. DEET-2% however showed 100% repellency against An. stephensi and against Cx. quinquefasciatus up to 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively. These results show that Blumea lacera extract has the potential as an effective mosquito repellent.

  14. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

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    Fotsing Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of

  15. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

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    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  16. Diptera. Chapter 10

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    Marcela Skuhravá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.

  17. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  18. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between

  19. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew & Teshome Gebre-Michael

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia andelsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporalvariation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anophelinemosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course ofthe Ethiopian Rift Valley.Methods: Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables(water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables were measured, characterized andanalyzed.Results: Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV of anopheline larvae collected throughout thestudy period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus. Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis andAn. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logisticregression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vectorspecies. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquaticvegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly andpositively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies.Conclusion: Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintainedby perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vectorcontrol operations.

  20. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braïma James

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests were performed to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various agricultural insecticides and biochemical analysis were done to characterize molecular status of population of An. gambiae. Results This research showed that: (1 The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations; (2 Urban agriculture increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (3 At a molecular level, PCR revealed the presence of three sub-species of An. gambiae (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles melas and Anopheles arabiensis and two molecular forms (M and S. The kdr west mutation recorded in samples from the three sites and more specifically on the M forms seems to be one of the major resistance mechanisms found in An. gambiae from agricultural areas. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted during this research revealed a clear pattern of resistance to permethrin (76% mortality rate at Parakou; 23.5% at Porto-Novo and 17% at Cotonou. Conclusion This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. This has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus exerting a huge selection pressure on mosquito larval population, which resulted to the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.

  1. The monitoring of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the area affected by the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of the impact of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures on mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in 8 areas and 16 stationary stands during 1990-1994 is presented. The following 9 species of mosquitoes were ascertained: Anopheles maculipennis, s.1, Culiseta annulata, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Culex territans a Culex modestus. Important changes in the quantity as well as the quality of mosquitoes, were observed in connection with the changes in the ground water level. In 1994 we recorded only 4 species of mosquitoes: Anopheles maculipennis s.1, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Culex territans. The quantity of mosquitoes decreased significantly at all monitored stands near the river Danube upstream of the confluence with the tail race canal. Cunovo reservoir acted positively on the adjacent monitoring localities Kopac Island and Cunovo-Ostrovne lucky. The recorded communities of mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis s.1 a Culex territans, are, according to our observations, typical for stabilised water levels. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  2. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  3. Demasculinization of the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome

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    Magnusson Kalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of organisms sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed between autosomes and the shared sex chromosome X (or Z. Studies on Anopheles gambiae have produced conflicting results regarding the underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X chromosome and it is unclear to what extent sexual antagonism, dosage compensation or X-inactivation in the male germline, the evolutionary forces that have been suggested to affect the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes, are operational in Anopheles. Results We performed a meta-analysis of sex-biased gene expression in Anopheles gambiae which provides evidence for a general underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X-chromosome that increased in significance with the observed degree of sex-bias. A phylogenomic comparison between Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus also indicates that the Anopheles X chromosome strongly disfavours the evolutionary conservation of male-biased expression and that novel male-biased genes are more likely to arise on autosomes. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that transgenes situated on the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome are transcriptionally silenced in the male germline. Conclusion The data presented here support the hypothesis that the observed demasculinization of the Anopheles X chromosome is driven by X-chromosome inactivation in the male germline and by sexual antagonism. The demasculinization appears to be the consequence of a loss of male-biased expression, rather than a failure in the establishment or the extinction of male-biased genes.

  4. Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Spitzen Jeroen

    2010-10-01

    . However, traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught similar numbers of Anopheles arabiensis as traps baited with industrial CO2. Addition of human odour increased trap catches. Conclusions Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace industrial CO2 for sampling of An. gambiae s.s.. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of odour-baited devices for mosquito sampling in remote areas.

  5. Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eAyala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species - human malaria vectors - is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed.

  6. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  7. Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hanano; Soliban, Sharon M; Vreysen, Marc JB; Chadee, Dave D.; Gilles, Jeremie RL

    2013-01-01

    Background Ivermectin has longevity reducing effects in several insect species, including disease transmitting mosquitoes after feeding on hosts that have received ivermectin treatment. This has important implications in mosquito population control and thus the reduction of disease transmission. In addition, ivermectin could play an enormous role in mosquito control operations by its use in the female elimination process during mass-rearing, enabling the release of only sterile males in the c...

  8. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human–mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minim...

  9. An analysis of diet quality, how it controls fatty acid profiles, isotope signatures and stoichiometry in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hood-Nowotny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a "production" orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet controlled teneral mosquito size and that teneral CN ratio is a sex- and species-specific fixed parameter. This finding has significant implications for overall mosquito competitiveness and environmental management.

  10. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Naomi McKeon; Marta Moreno; Maria Anise Sallum; Marinete Marins Povoa; Jan Evelyn Conn

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structur...

  11. Genomic Dark Matter Illuminated: Anopheles Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Seth N; Neafsey, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    Hall et al. have strategically used long-read sequencing technology to characterize the structure and highly repetitive content of the Y chromosome in Anopheles malaria mosquitoes. Their work confirms that this important but elusive heterochromatic sex chromosome is evolving extremely rapidly and harbors a remarkably small number of genes. PMID:27263828

  12. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Aliaga, Claudia; Tejerina, Rosenka; Torrez, Libia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of A...

  13. Distribution and Frequency of kdr Mutations within Anopheles gambiae s.l. Populations and First Report of the Ace.1G119S Mutation in Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Dabiré, Roch K.; Namountougou, Moussa; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Soma, Dieudonné D.; Bado, Joseph; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Bass, Chris; Combary, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    An entomological survey was carried out at 15 sites dispersed throughout the three eco-climatic regions of Burkina Faso (West Africa) in order to assess the current distribution and frequency of mutations that confer resistance to insecticides in An. gambiae s.l. populations in the country. Both knockdown (kdr) resistance mutation variants (L1014F and L1014S), that confer resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, were identified concomitant with the ace-1 G119S mutation confirming the presence o...

  14. Swarming and mating activity of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in semi-field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achinko, D; Thailayil, J; Paton, D; Mireji, P O; Talesa, V; Masiga, D; Catteruccia, F

    2016-03-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major Afro-tropical vector of malaria. Novel strategies proposed for the elimination and eradication of this mosquito vector are based on the use of genetic approaches, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). These approaches rely on the ability of released males to mate with wild females, and depend on the application of effective protocols to assess the swarming and mating behaviours of laboratory-reared insects prior to their release. The present study evaluated whether large semi-field enclosures can be utilized to study the ability of males from a laboratory colony to respond to natural environmental stimuli and initiate normal mating behaviour. Laboratory-reared males exhibited spatiotemporally consistent swarming behaviour within the study enclosures. Swarm initiation, peak and termination time closely tracked sunset. Comparable insemination rates were observed in females captured in copula in the semi-field cages relative to females in small laboratory cages. Oviposition rates after blood feeding were also similar to those observed in laboratory settings. The data suggest that outdoor enclosures are suitable for studying swarming and mating in laboratory-bred males in field-like settings, providing an important reference for future studies aimed at assessing the comparative mating ability of strains for SIT and other vector control strategies. PMID:26508420

  15. Comparative genome and proteome analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdobnov, Evgeny M; von Mering, Christian; Letunic, Ivica; Torrents, David; Suyama, Mikita; Copley, Richard R; Christophides, George K; Thomasova, Dana; Holt, Robert A; Subramanian, G Mani; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Dimopoulos, George; Law, John H; Wells, Michael A; Birney, Ewan; Charlab, Rosane; Halpern, Aaron L; Kokoza, Elena; Kraft, Cheryl L; Lai, Zhongwu; Lewis, Suzanna; Louis, Christos; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Nusskern, Deborah; Rubin, Gerald M; Salzberg, Steven L; Sutton, Granger G; Topalis, Pantelis; Wides, Ron; Wincker, Patrick; Yandell, Mark; Collins, Frank H; Ribeiro, Jose; Gelbart, William M; Kafatos, Fotis C; Bork, Peer

    2002-10-01

    Comparison of the genomes and proteomes of the two diptera Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster, which diverged about 250 million years ago, reveals considerable similarities. However, numerous differences are also observed; some of these must reflect the selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life strategies. Almost half of the genes in both genomes are interpreted as orthologs and show an average sequence identity of about 56%, which is slightly lower than that observed between the orthologs of the pufferfish and human (diverged about 450 million years ago). This indicates that these two insects diverged considerably faster than vertebrates. Aligned sequences reveal that orthologous genes have retained only half of their intron/exon structure, indicating that intron gains or losses have occurred at a rate of about one per gene per 125 million years. Chromosomal arms exhibit significant remnants of homology between the two species, although only 34% of the genes colocalize in small "microsyntenic" clusters, and major interarm transfers as well as intra-arm shuffling of gene order are detected. PMID:12364792

  16. Distribution of Anopheles in Vietnam, with particular attention to malaria vectors of the Anopheles minimus complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bortel Wim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the Anopheles minimus complex (Cellia: Myzomyia, An. minimus and Anopheles harrisoni, respectively former species A and C. Because the morphological identification of both sibling species is difficult and may lead to misidentifications, accurate data on their respective distribution are missing. This is of fundamental importance since the two species seem to exhibit differential vectorial capacities for malaria transmission. Methods Large entomological surveys based on cattle collections and molecular identifications of An. minimus s.l. were carried out in 23 sites throughout northern, central and south-eastern regions of Vietnam. Results Based on previous molecular works and our data, the distribution of anopheline species and the relative densities of An. minimus and An. harrisoni were mapped. It is noteworthy that there was a high specific biodiversity at each study site. Anopheles minimus s.l. and Anopheles sinensis were the main anopheline species in the northern region, whereas Anopheles aconitus and Anopheles vagus were the most frequent ones in the central region. The southern limit of An. harrisoni was increased to the latitude of 11°N. Sympatry between both sibling species has been extended to new provinces. Conclusion Malaria transmission is still high in central Vietnam and along bordering countries. Therefore, it is important to know and map the precise distribution of the main and secondary malaria vectors in Vietnam for applying efficient vector control programmes. Moreover, these maps should be regularly updated and linked to environmental characteristics relative to disease epidemiology, and environmental and climatic changes occurring in southeast Asia.

  17. Composição da fauna de Anopheles (Díptera : Culicidae) da reserva indígena do Ocoy

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Roderlei de

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A malária no Estado do Paraná deve-se principalmente ao fluxo de pessoas advindas de áreas endêmicas de outras regiões do país, e a manutenção do vetor transmissor em algumas regiões do estado onde, o risco para ocorrência de casos autóctones da doença inspira cuidado. O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever a composição da fauna de Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) da Reserva Indígena do Ocoy, foco ativo de malária no município de São Miguel do Iguaçu. As análises foram feitas atr...

  18. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P;

    2005-01-01

    No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigat...

  19. Anopheles (Anopheles) petragnani Del Vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Norbert; Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Czajka, Christina; Kaiser, Achim; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The so far known species of the Anopheles Claviger Complex, Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The known distribution of An. petragnani is so far restricted to the western Mediterranean region, whereas An. claviger s.s. occurs across most of Europe, up to the Middle East and North Africa. In our study, we investigated the larval mosquito fauna in rock pools of the Murg valley (Black Forest, Germany) once a month from April to December 2015.Among other species, larvae belonging to the Anopheles Claviger Complex were found. The fourth instar larvae were morphologically identified by chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen. The results were confirmed by a multiplex PCR and additional sequencing of the amplificates.Of the 1289 collected larvae from the rock pools, seven belonged to the Anopheles Claviger Complex. Five individuals were determined morphologically as An. petragnani and two as An. claviger s.s. The associated mosquito fauna comprised of Aedes japonicus japonicus (548 individuals), Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (493 individuals) and Culex hortensis (241 individuals).This is the first record of An. petragnani north of the Alps. Further studies will reveal whether this is an isolated population of An. petragnani and if the investigated rock pool breeding sites represent typical habitats of this species in temperate regions in Central Europe. PMID:27003404

  20. Humoral response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6: a serological indicator of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Salivary proteins injected by blood feeding arthropods into their hosts evoke a saliva-specific humoral response which can be useful to evaluate exposure to bites of disease vectors. However, saliva of hematophagous arthropods is a complex cocktail of bioactive factors and its use in immunoassays can be misleading because of potential cross-reactivity to other antigens. Toward the development of a serological marker of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors we expressed the Anopheles gambiae gSG6, a small anopheline-specific salivary protein, and we measured the anti-gSG6 IgG response in individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The gSG6 protein was immunogenic and anti-gSG6 IgG levels and/or prevalence increased in exposed individuals during the malaria transmission/rainy season. Moreover, this response dropped during the intervening low transmission/dry season, suggesting it is sensitive enough to detect variation in vector density. Members of the Fulani ethnic group showed higher anti-gSG6 IgG response as compared to Mossi, a result consistent with the stronger immune reactivity reported in this group. Remarkably, anti-gSG6 IgG levels among responders were high in children and gradually declined with age. This unusual pattern, opposite to the one observed with Plasmodium antigens, is compatible with a progressive desensitization to mosquito saliva and may be linked to the continued exposure to bites of anopheline mosquitoes. Overall, the humoral anti-gSG6 IgG response appears a reliable serological indicator of exposure to bites of the main African malaria vectors (An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and, possibly, Anopheles funestus and it may be exploited for malaria epidemiological studies, development of risk maps and evaluation of anti-vector measures. In addition, the gSG6 protein may represent a powerful model system to get a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the

  1. Description of Parvocalanus leei sp. n. (Copepoda, Calanoida, Paracalanidae in Western Korea, with comments on the taxonomic position of Paracalanus arabiensis Kesarkar & Anil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yong Moon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of paracalanid calanoid copepod Parvocalanus leei sp. n., is described from specimens collected in shallow waters of Western Korea. The new species is closely similar to Parvocalanus arabiensis (Kesarkar & Anil, 2010, P. crassirostris (F. Dahl, 1894, P. latus Andronov, 1972, and P. scotti (Früchtl, 1923 in having two short terminal spines on the distal segment of the fifth leg and a similar rostrum in the female, but can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the body size, relative length of antennules, segmentation of endopod of leg 1, and pattern of ornamentation of spinules on legs 1 to 4 in the female. The taxonomic position of Parvocalanus arabiensis and the validity of the genus Parvocalanus Andronov, 1970 are also discussed.

  2. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  3. A comprehensive gene expression atlas of sex- and tissue-specificity in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

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    Crisanti Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is the primary vector of human malaria, a disease responsible for millions of deaths each year. To improve strategies for controlling transmission of the causative parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, we require a thorough understanding of the developmental mechanisms, physiological processes and evolutionary pressures affecting life-history traits in the mosquito. Identifying genes expressed in particular tissues or involved in specific biological processes is an essential part of this process. Results In this study, we present transcription profiles for ~82% of annotated Anopheles genes in dissected adult male and female tissues. The sensitivity afforded by examining dissected tissues found gene activity in an additional 20% of the genome that is undetected when using whole-animal samples. The somatic and reproductive tissues we examined each displayed patterns of sexually dimorphic and tissue-specific expression. By comparing expression profiles with Drosophila melanogaster we also assessed which genes are well conserved within the Diptera versus those that are more recently evolved. Conclusions Our expression atlas and associated publicly available database, the MozAtlas (http://www.tissue-atlas.org, provides information on the relative strength and specificity of gene expression in several somatic and reproductive tissues, isolated from a single strain grown under uniform conditions. The data will serve as a reference for other mosquito researchers by providing a simple method for identifying where genes are expressed in the adult, however, in addition our resource will also provide insights into the evolutionary diversity associated with gene expression levels among species.

  4. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

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    Sascha Naomi McKeon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structure of An. triannulatus and An. goeldii revealed distinct demographic histories in a largely overlapping geographic range. Cytochrome oxidase I sequence parsimony networks found geographic clustering for both species; however nuclear marker networks depicted An. triannulatus with a more complex history of fragmentation, secondary contact and recent divergence. Evidence of Pleistocene expansions suggests both species are more likely to be genetically structured by geographic and ecological barriers than demography. We hypothesise that niche partitioning is a driving force for diversity, particularly in An. triannulatus.

  5. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

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    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  6. A Physical Map for an Asian Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Maria V Sharakhova; Xia, Ai; Tu, Zhijian; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Unger, Maria F; Sharakhov, Igor V

    2010-01-01

    Physical mapping is a useful approach for studying genome organization and evolution as well as for genome sequence assembly. The availability of polytene chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes provides a unique opportunity to develop high-resolution physical maps. We report a 0.6-Mb-resolution physical map consisting of 422 DNA markers hybridized to 379 chromosomal sites of the Anopheles stephensi polytene chromosomes. This makes An. stephensi second only to Anopheles gambiae in density of a phys...

  7. KARAKTERISTIK TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN DENSITAS LARVA ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS KABUPATEN BULUKUMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Faatimah, Dewi; Ishak, Hasanuddin; Selomo, Makmur

    2015-01-01

    Kabupaten Bulukumba merupakan salah satu daerah endemis malaria yang ada di Sulawesi Selatan dengan angka kesakitan (api) per 1.000 penduduk dengan 11 kasus (API 0,47???) tahun 2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengatahui gambaran densitas larva Anopheles subpictus dan Anopheles barbirostis berdasarkan suhu, pH, salinitas, dan jenis vegetasi air yang ada. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan deskritif. Sampel tempat perindukan dalam penelitian ini termasu...

  8. DDT-resistance in Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVIDSON, G; JACKSON, C E

    1961-01-01

    In view of the increasing number of reports from different parts of the world indicating resistance to DDT in both adults and larvae of Anopheles stephensi, an important malaria vector, a series of laboratory studies has been carried out on the degree, the pattern and the mode of inheritance of resistance in this species. A DDT-resistant strain from Iraq and a susceptible strain from India were used.In four sets of observations made in the course of tests on both adults and larvae a monofactorial type of inheritance was indicated, and the factor involved was shown to be dependent for its expression on the genetic background.DDT-resistance in A. stephensi appears to be similar in most respects to that in A. sundaicus. PMID:13883789

  9. Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jere Kahanpää; Kaj Winqvist; Theo Zeegers

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera ’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae , Asilidae , Athericidae , Bombyliidae , Mythicomyiidae , Rhagionidae , Scenopinidae , Stratiomyidae , Tabanidae , Therevidae , Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae .

  10. Physiology and development of the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Agnew, P; Tchonfienet, M; Brengues, C; Dabire, R; Robert, V; Simard, F

    2012-12-01

    In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field populations of the M and S forms that originated from an area of sympatry in Burkina Faso, where M and S larvae exhibit such habitat segregation. In the laboratory, larvae of the M form developed slower than the S form (mean values 9.51 and 8.85 days, respectively, Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001). Although wing length and dry weight at emergence showed large variations, M females were on average 8% heavier than S females of similar wing length. Higher nutritional reserves (proteins and lipids) in teneral adults explained part of this weight difference, reflecting a better ability of the M form to garner resources at the larval stage. Furthermore, a higher rate of ovarian maturation was observed in the M form after a single bloodmeal. The relevance of these findings for parasite transmission is discussed. PMID:22681446

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11312-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KL188_... 59 1e-06 FJ864200_1( FJ864200 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate FZ17_... 57 2e-06 FJ864169_... FJ864199 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate FZ14_... 57 2e-06 FJ864173_1( FJ864173 |pid:none) Anopheles arabie

  12. Successful field trial of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB plant-spraying methods against malaria vectors in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumbia Seydou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on highly successful demonstrations in Israel that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods can decimate local populations of mosquitoes, this study determined the effectiveness of ATSB methods for malaria vector control in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali, West Africa. Methods Control and treatment sites, selected along a road that connects villages, contained man-made ponds that were the primary larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. Guava and honey melons, two local fruits shown to be attractive to An. gambiae s.l., were used to prepare solutions of Attractive Sugar Bait (ASB and ATSB that additionally contained boric acid as an oral insecticide. Both included a color dye marker to facilitate determination of mosquitoes feeding on the solutions. The trial was conducted over a 38-day period, using CDC light traps to monitor mosquito populations. On day 8, ASB solution in the control site and ATSB solution in the treatment site were sprayed using a hand-pump on patches of vegetation. Samples of female mosquitoes were age-graded to determine the impact of ATSB treatment on vector longevity. Results Immediately after spraying ATSB in the treatment site, the relative abundance of female and male An. gambiae s.l. declined about 90% from pre-treatment levels and remained low. In the treatment site, most females remaining after ATSB treatment had not completed a single gonotrophic cycle, and only 6% had completed three or more gonotrophic cycles compared with 37% pre-treatment. In the control site sprayed with ASB (without toxin, the proportion of females completing three or more gonotrophic cycles increased from 28.5% pre-treatment to 47.5% post-treatment. In the control site, detection of dye marker in over half of the females and males provided direct evidence that the mosquitoes were feeding on the sprayed solutions. Conclusion This study in Mali shows that even a single application of

  13. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  14. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  15. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

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    Kobylinski Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551 of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14145-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -10 EU304742_1( EU304742 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate ARA01... 65 7e-10 EF058164_1( EF058164 |pid...:none) Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate U... 65 7e-10 EU304746_1( EU304746 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis i...solate ARA06... 65 7e-10 EU304743_1( EU304743 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis iso

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09475-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81_1( FJ653781 |pid:none) Anopheles gambiae isolate GA5011 G... 47 4e-04 FJ653825_1( FJ653825 |pid:none) Anopheles arabie...20 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate AA501... 47 5e-04 FJ653824_1( FJ653824 |pid:none) Anopheles arabie...nsis isolate AA502... 47 5e-04 FJ653826_1( FJ653826 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate AA503... 47 5e-...04 FJ653819_1( FJ653819 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate AA500... 47 5e-04... FJ653823_1( FJ653823 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate AA502... 47 5e-04 CU928175_540( CU928175 |pid:

  18. An expression map for Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCallum Robert M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative transcriptome data for the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles gambiae covers a broad range of biological and experimental conditions, including development, blood feeding and infection. Web-based summaries of differential expression for individual genes with respect to these conditions are a useful tool for the biologist, but they lack the context that a visualisation of all genes with respect to all conditions would give. For most organisms, including A. gambiae, such a systems-level view of gene expression is not yet available. Results We have clustered microarray-based gene-averaged expression values, available from VectorBase, for 10194 genes over 93 experimental conditions using a self-organizing map. Map regions corresponding to known biological events, such as egg production, are revealed. Many individual gene clusters (nodes on the map are highly enriched in biological and molecular functions, such as protein synthesis, protein degradation and DNA replication. Gene families, such as odorant binding proteins, can be classified into distinct functional groups based on their expression and evolutionary history. Immunity-related genes are non-randomly distributed in several distinct regions on the map, and are generally distant from genes with house-keeping roles. Each immunity-rich region appears to represent a distinct biological context for pathogen recognition and clearance (e.g. the humoral and gut epithelial responses. Several immunity gene families, such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs and defensins, appear to be specialised for these distinct roles, while three genes with physically interacting protein products (LRIM1/APL1C/TEP1 are found in close proximity. Conclusions The map provides the first genome-scale, multi-experiment overview of gene expression in A. gambiae and should also be useful at the gene-level for investigating potential interactions. A web interface is available

  19. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V P; Dev, V

    2015-05-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  20. Behavioural divergence of sympatric Anopheles funestus populations in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Sagnon, N’Fale; Liu, Fang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China); Nora J Besansky; Costantini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Burkina Faso, two chromosomal forms of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Folonzo and Kiribina, are distinguished by contrasting frequencies of shared polymorphic chromosomal inversions. Sympatric and synchronous populations of Folonzo and Kiribina mate assortatively, as indicated by a significant deficit of heterokaryotypes, and genetic associations among inversions on independently segregating chromosome arms. The present study aimed to assess, by intensive longitudinal sa...

  1. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  2. The evolution of the Anopheles 16 genomes project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Lawson, Daniel; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Williams, Louise J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the imminent completion of a set of reference genome assemblies for 16 species of Anopheles mosquitoes. In addition to providing a generally useful resource for comparative genomic analyses, these genome sequences will greatly facilitate exploration of the capacity exhibited by some Anophe

  3. Unravelling the Evolution of the Allatostatin-Type A, KISS and Galanin Peptide-Receptor Gene Families in Bilaterians: Insights from Anopheles Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute C Felix

    Full Text Available Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system. To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. Phylogeny and gene synteny suggested that invertebrate AST-A receptors and peptide genes shared a common evolutionary origin with KISS/GAL receptors and ligands. AST-ARs and KISSR emerged from a common gene ancestor after the divergence of GALRs in the bilaterian genome. In arthropods, the AST-A system evolved through lineage-specific events and the maintenance of two receptors in the flies and mosquitoes (Diptera was the result of a gene duplication event. Speciation of Anopheles mosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2 revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa2+-signalling pathway was stimulated. GPRALS1 and 2 were expressed mainly in mosquito midgut and ovaries and transcript abundance of both receptors was modified by feeding. A blood meal strongly up-regulated expression of both GPRALS in the midgut (p < 0.05 compared to glucose fed females. Based on the results we hypothesise that the AST-A system in insects shared a common origin with the vertebrate KISS system and may also share a common function as an integrator of metabolism and reproduction.AST-A and KISS/GAL receptors and ligands shared common ancestry prior to the protostome-deuterostome divergence. Phylogeny and gene

  4. Genomic islands of speciation in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae, provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These "speciation islands" remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral

  5. Relationship of Remote Sensing Normalized Differential Vegetation Index to Anopheles Density and Malaria Incidence Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. Methods Data of monthly average climate, environment, Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate, and remote sensing NDVI were collected from 27 townships of 10 counties in southeastern Yunnan Province from 1984 to 1993. The relationship of remote sensing ecological proxy index, NDVI, to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate was studied by principal component analysis, factor analysis and grey correlation analysis. Results The correlation matrix showed that NDVI highly correlated with Anopheles density in 4 townships of Mengla, Jinghong, and Yuanjiang counties, but in other 23 townships the relationship was not clear. Principal component and factor analyses showed that remote sensing NDVI was the representative index of the first principal component and the first common factor of Anopheles density evaluation. Grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season NDVI had a high grey correlation with Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. The grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season the grey degree of NDVI correlated with Anopheles. Minimus density was 0.730, and 0.713 with Anopheles sinensis density, and 0.800 with malarial incidence rate. Conclusion Remote sensing NDVI can serve as a sensitive evaluation index of Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate.

  6. A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Dennison, Nathan J; Lycett, Gareth J; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-07-01

    The molecular pathways controlling gender are highly variable and have been identified in only a few nonmammalian model species. In many insects, maleness is conferred by a Y chromosome-linked M factor of unknown nature. We have isolated and characterized a gene, Yob, for the M factor in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Yob, activated at the beginning of zygotic transcription and expressed throughout a male's life, controls male-specific splicing of the doublesex gene. Silencing embryonic Yob expression is male-lethal, whereas ectopic embryonic delivery of Yob transcripts yields male-only broods. This female-killing property may be an invaluable tool for creation of conditional male-only transgenic Anopheles strains for malaria control programs. PMID:27365445

  7. On the conspecificity of Anopheles fluviatilis species S with Anopheles minimus species C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Singh; D Chandra; N Nanda; S K Sharma; Pe Than Htun; T Adak; S K Subbarao; A P Dash

    2006-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis and An. minimus complexes, each comprising of at least three sibling species, are closely related and important malaria vectors in Oriental Region. Recently An. fluviatilis species S, which is a highly efficient malaria vector in India, has been made conspecific with An. minimus species C (senior synonym) on the basis of homology in 335 base pair nucleotide sequence of D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). We examined the conspecificity of these two nominal species by obtaining and analysing the DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal loci internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and D2-D3 domain of 28S rDNA (28S-D2/D3) from those of An. fluviatilis S and An. minimus C. We found that the sequences of An. fluviatilis S are appreciably different from those of An. minimus C with pair-wise distance (Kimura-2-parametre model) of 3.6 and 0.7% for loci ITS2 and 28S-D2/D3, respectively. Pair-wise distance and phylogenetic analyses using ITS2 sequences of members of Minimus and Fluviatilis Complexes revealed that An. fluviatilis S is distantly related to An. minimus C as compared to any other members of the Fluviatilis Complex. These findings suggest that the two nominal species, An. fluviatilis S and An. minimus C, do not merit synonymy. The study also confirms that the reported species An. fluviatilis X is synonym with species S.

  8. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  9. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages

    OpenAIRE

    Maïga, H.; Damiens, D.; Niang, A.; Sawadogo, SP; Fatherhaman, O.; Lees, RS; Roux, O.; Dabiré, RK; Ouédraogo, GA; Tripet, F; Diabaté, A.; Gilles, JR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Methods: Sterile and untreated males ...

  10. Gene Expression-Based Biomarkers for Anopheles gambiae Age Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mei-Hui; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Zhong, Daibin; JAMES, ANTHONY A.; Walker, Edward; Guda, Tom; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Githure, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Information on population age structure of mosquitoes under natural conditions is fundamental to the understanding of vectorial capacity and crucial for assessing the impact of vector control measures on malaria transmission. Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age...

  11. Highly evolvable malaria vectors : the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning similar to 100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromos...

  12. In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, Alejandro; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Quinones, Mariam; Ribeiro, José MC; Ramphul, Urvashi; Rodrigues, Janneth; Shen, Kui; Haile, Ashley; Ramirez, José Luis; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing of Anopheles gambiae was completed more than ten years ago and has accelerated research on malaria transmission. However, annotation needs to be refined and verified experimentally, as most predicted transcripts have been identified by comparative analysis with genomes from other species. The mosquito midgut—the first organ to interact with Plasmodium parasites—mounts effective antiplasmodial responses that limit parasite survival and disease transmission. High-th...

  13. Molecular characterization of DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Djègbè, Innocent; Agossa, Fiacre R; Jones, Christopher M.; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Cornelie, Sylvie; Akogbéto, Martin; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in the mosquito vector is the one of the main obstacles against effective malaria control. In order to implement insecticide resistance management strategies, it is important to understand the genetic factors involved. In this context, we investigated the molecular basis of DDT resistance in the main malaria vector from Benin. Methods Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected from four sites across Benin and identified to species/molecular form. Mosquitoes ...

  14. Knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Indian Anopheles culicifacies populations

    OpenAIRE

    Dykes, Cherry L.; Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Das, Manoj K; Sharma, Shri N.; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Veer, Vijay; Agrawal, Om P.; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anopheles culicifacies s.l. is one of the primary vectors of malaria in India responsible for the highest number of malaria cases. This vector is resistant to DDT in most parts of the country with indication of emerging resistance to pyrethroids. Since knockdown resistance (kdr) is known to confer cross-resistance between DDT and pyrethroids owing to a common target site of action, knowledge of prevalence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles is important from insecticide resistanc...

  15. Molecular characterization of DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Djegbe, I.; Agossa, F. R.; Jones, C. M.; Poupardin, R; Cornélie, Sylvie; Akogbeto, M; Ranson, H.; Corbel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insecticide resistance in the mosquito vector is the one of the main obstacles against effective malaria control. In order to implement insecticide resistance management strategies, it is important to understand the genetic factors involved. In this context, we investigated the molecular basis of DDT resistance in the main malaria vector from Benin. Methods: Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected from four sites across Benin and identified to species/molecular form. Mosquitoe...

  16. Pyrethroid Resistance in an Anopheles funestus Population from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, John C.; Irving, Helen; Okedi, Loyce M.; Steven, Andrew; Wondji, Charles S

    2010-01-01

    Background The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. Methodology/Principal Findings A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly incre...

  17. Distribution of individual members of the mosquito Anopheles maculipennis complex in Germany identified by newly developed real-time PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühken, R; Czajka, C; Steinke, S; Jöst, H; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Pfitzner, W; Becker, N; Kiel, E; Krüger, A; Tannich, E

    2016-06-01

    Owing to their role as vectors of malaria parasites, species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Meigen were intensively studied in the past, but with the disappearance of malaria in Germany in the middle of the last century, the interest in this field of research declined. A comprehensive ecological analysis of the current species distribution for Germany is lacking. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1445 mosquitoes of the An. maculipennis complex were collected at 72 different sites in Germany. The samples comprise 722 single individuals as well as 723 individuals in 90 pools of up to 25 mosquitoes. All samples were analysed with newly developed species-specific qPCR assays for the identification of the four German species using nucleotide differences within the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) ribosomal DNA. All gathered data were used for species distribution modelling. The overall prevalence of An. messeae s.l. was highest with 98.89% of all pools; An. daciae with 6.93% of all individuals and An. messeae s.s. with 69.53%. The prevalence of the other two species was relatively low: An. maculipennis s.s. with 13.30% of all individuals (6.67% of all pools) and An. atroparvus with 1.80% of all individuals (1.11% of all pools). PMID:26787387

  18. Evaluating the potential of the sterile insect technique for malaria control: relative fitness and mating compatibility between laboratory colonized and a wild population of Anopheles arabiensis from the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt Richard H; Chirwa Tobias F; Brooke Basil D; Munhenga Givemore; Coetzee Maureen; Govender Danny; Koekemoer Lizette L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The successful suppression of a target insect population using the sterile insect technique (SIT) partly depends on the premise that the laboratory insects used for mass rearing are genetically compatible with the target population, that the mating competitiveness of laboratory reared males is at least comparable to that of their wild counterparts, and that mass rearing and sterilization processes do not in themselves compromise male fitness to a degree that precludes them...

  19. The Anopheles community and the role of Anopheles minimus on malaria transmission on the China-Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guo; Yan, Guiyun; Zhang, Naixin; Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); He, Zhengbo; Yan, Zhentian; Fu, Wenbo; Yang, Feilong; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria around the China-Myanmar border is a serious health problem in the countries of South-East Asia. An. minimus is a principle malaria vector with a wide geographic distribution in this area. Malaria is endemic along the boundary between Yunnan province in China and the Kachin State of Myanmar where the local Anopheles community (species composition) and the malaria transmission vectors have never been clarified. ...

  20. Brachiola gambiae sp n. the microsporidian parasite of Anopheles gambiae and A-melas in Liberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2004), s. 73-80. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Anopheles gambiae * Anopheles melas * Brachiola gambiae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2004

  1. The role of reactive oxygen species on Plasmodium melanotic encapsulation in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Christophides, George K.; Cantera, Rafael; Charles, Bradley; Han, Yeon Soo; Meister, Stephan; Dimopoulos, George; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2003-01-01

    Malaria transmission depends on the competence of some Anopheles mosquitoes to sustain Plasmodium development (susceptibility). A genetically selected refractory strain of Anopheles gambiae blocks Plasmodium development, melanizing, and encapsulating the parasite in a reaction that begins with tyrosine oxidation, and involves three quantitative trait loci. Morphological and microarray mRNA expression analysis suggest that the refractory and susceptible strains have broad physiological differe...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04840-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c12.y1 HR85 islet Homo sapiens cDNA 5', mRNA ... 38 0.20 2 ( DQ101722 ) Anopheles arabiensis isolate Bb9 ENS...ANGG000000079... 38 0.20 2 ( DQ101721 ) Anopheles arabiensis isolate Bb8 ENSANGG000000079... 38 0.20 2 ( CD6

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04390-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt EP1865317. 38 2.2 5 ( EU881867 ) Anopheles arabiensis isolate TzN9_S TEP1 gene, pa... 42 2.2 2 ( AE014841...o sapiens Chromosome 15q11-q13 PAC clone pDJ35... 44 4.0 2 ( EU881839 ) Anopheles arabiensis isolate ToMB7_S

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16190-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Taeniopygia guttata clone 0058P004... 40 0.50 GQ146945_1( GQ146945 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isola...Q146931 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis isolate BK46 ... 39 0.65 BX323812_7( BX323812 |pid:none) Zebrafish D

  5. Environmental factors associated with the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Hemingway Janet; Kelly-Hope Louise A; McKenzie F Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquito species complexes are the primary vectors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the environmental factors influencing these species, the abundance, distribution and transmission data from a south-eastern Kenyan study were retrospectively analysed, and the climate, vegetation and elevation data in key locations compared. Methods Thirty villages in Malindi, Kilifi and Kwale Districts...

  6. Remarkable diversity of intron-1 of the para voltage-gated sodium channel gene in an Anopheles gambiae/Anopheles coluzzii hybrid zone.

    OpenAIRE

    Santolamazza, F.; Caputo, B.; Nwakanma, DC; Fanello, C.; Petrarca, V.; Conway, DJ; Weetman, D; J. Pinto; Mancini, E.; della Torre, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genomic differentiation between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii - the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa - is localized into large “islands” toward the centromeres of chromosome-X and the two autosomes. Linkage disequilibrium between these genomic islands was first detected between species-specific polymorphisms within ribosomal DNA genes (IGS-rDNA) on the X-chromosome and a single variant at position 702 of intron 1 (Int-1702) of the para Voltage-Gated Sodium Cha...

  7. Droogboeketten als vector voor exoten (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Everlasting flowers as a vector for exotic insects (Diptera: Tephritidae)? In this paper two rearing occasions of exotic fruit fly species of the genus Terellia are documented. Terellia fuscicornis (Loew, 1844) was reared from a ‘tropical’ plant (probably a thistle species) of unknown origin. Terellia longicauda (Meigen, 1830) was reared from Cirsium rivulare from southern France. On both occasions the plants were left to dry to serve as everlasting flowers. The differences between these exot...

  8. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  9. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadouleton Anges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing areas, and their direct impact on larval populations of An. gambiae in surrounding breeding sites. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of agro-sociological data where farmers were subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on the strategies used for crop protection. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various insecticides. Molecular analysis was performed to characterize the resistance genes and the molecular forms of An. gambiae. Insecticide residues in soil samples from breeding sites were investigated to determine major factors that can inhibit the normal growth of mosquito larvae by exposing susceptible and resistant laboratory strains. Results There is a common use by local farmers of mineral fertilizer NPK at 200 kg/ha and urea at 50 kg/hectare following insecticide treatments in both the Calendar Control Program (CCP and the Targeted Intermittent Control Program (TICP. By contrast, no chemicals are involved in Biological Program (BP where farmers use organic and natural fertilizers which include animal excreta. Susceptibility test results confirmed a high resistance to DDT. Mean mortality of An. gambiae collected from the farms practicing CCP, TICP and BP methods were 33%, 42% and 65% respectively. An. gambiae populations from areas using the CCP and TICP programs showed resistance to permethrin with mortality of 50% and 58% respectively. By contrast, bioassay test results of

  10. "Insecticide Resistance /Susceptibility Monitoring in Anopheles pulcherrimus (Diptera: Culicidae in Ghasreghand District, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Zahirnia

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Two organochlorine, one organophosphate, two carbamate and two pyrethroid insecticides have been studied for their comparative study against fieldcollected An.pulcherrimus. The trail was conducted in Ghasreghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province, Southeastern Iran using WHO impregnated papers at the diagnostic dose. Results revealed that this species exhibit resistant to 0.4% dieldrin (mortality 86 ± 2.07. Dose response regression line from interval exposure times to 0.4% dieldrin showed that LT50 and LT90 was 14 and 76 minutes, respectively. The efficacles of other insecticides such as 4% DDT, 5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% permethrin and 0.1% lambdacyhalothrin were maximum when mosquitoes exposed 1 hour at diagnostic dose followed by 24 hour recovery period.

  11. Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophides, George K; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Birney, Ewan; Blandin, Stephanie; Blass, Claudia; Brey, Paul T; Collins, Frank H; Danielli, Alberto; Dimopoulos, George; Hetru, Charles; Hoa, Ngo T; Hoffmann, Jules A; Kanzok, Stefan M; Letunic, Ivica; Levashina, Elena A; Loukeris, Thanasis G; Lycett, Gareth; Meister, Stephan; Michel, Kristin; Moita, Luis F; Müller, Hans-Michael; Osta, Mike A; Paskewitz, Susan M; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Troxler, Laurent; Vernick, Kenneth D; Vlachou, Dina; Volz, Jennifer; von Mering, Christian; Xu, Jiannong; Zheng, Liangbiao; Bork, Peer; Kafatos, Fotis C

    2002-10-01

    We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting selection pressures from different pathogens encountered in these insects' very different life-styles. In contrast, the multifunctional Toll signal transduction pathway is substantially conserved, presumably because of counterselection for developmental stability. Representative expression profiles confirm that sequence diversification is accompanied by specific responses to different immune challenges. Alternative RNA splicing may also contribute to expansion of the immune repertoire. PMID:12364793

  12. CLIP proteases and Plasmodium melanization in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2007-07-01

    Melanization is a potent immune response mediated by phenoloxidase (PO). Multiple Clip-domain serine proteases (CLIP) regulate PO activation as part of a complex cascade of proteases that are cleaved sequentially. The role of several CLIP as key activators or suppressors of the melanization responses of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium berghei (murine malaria) has been established recently using a genome-wide reverse genetics approach. Important differences in regulation of PO activation between An. gambiae strains were also identified. This review summarizes these findings and discusses our current understanding of the An. gambiae melanization responses to Plasmodium. PMID:17512801

  13. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  14. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S.; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (pp = 0.0), and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission. PMID:27010649

  15. Anopheles of Bolivia : new records with an updated and annotated checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Chavez, Tamara; Rodriguez, Roberto; Torrez, Libia

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles squamifemur has been identified from CDC light trap collections carried out at Arca de Israel, a small community located in the extreme north-east of Bolivia (Pando Department) on the banks of the river Madera, on the border with Brazil. Anopheles costai and An. forattinii have been identified in place of An. mediopunctatus which has been removed from the Bolivian list of Anopheles species. The first identification of An. trinkae in Bolivia by Dr. J.C. Lien in 1984 is cleared. The p...

  16. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Chemosensory Proteins in African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengxi Li; Zuorui Shen; Jingjiang Zhou; Lin Field

    2003-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are identifiable by four spatially conserved Cysteine residues in their primary structure or by two disulfide bridges in their tertiary structure according to the previously identified olfactory specific-D related proteins. A genomics- and bioinformatics-based approach is taken in the present study to identify the putative CSPs in the malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The results show that five out of the nine annotated candidates are the most possible Anopheles CSPs of A. gambiae. This study lays the foundation for further functional identification of Anopheles CSPs, though all of these candidates need additional experimental verification.

  17. The familes Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae and Pipunculidae of Malta (Diptera, Aschiza)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebejer, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    An account is given of the three Aschiza families of Diptera: one species of Lonchopteridae, one species of Opetiidae and four species of Pipunculidae that occur in Malta and which are all new records for this country

  18. Gene expression-based biomarkers for Anopheles gambiae age grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Hui; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Zhong, Daibin; James, Anthony A; Walker, Edward; Guda, Tom; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Githure, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Information on population age structure of mosquitoes under natural conditions is fundamental to the understanding of vectorial capacity and crucial for assessing the impact of vector control measures on malaria transmission. Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age-grading of Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. The transcript abundance of two An. gambiae genes, AGAP009551 and AGAP011615, was measured during aging under laboratory and field conditions in three mosquito strains. Age-dependent monotonic changes in transcript levels were observed in all strains evaluated. These genes were validated as age-grading biomarkers using the mark, release and recapture (MRR) method. The MRR method determined a good correspondence between actual and predicted age, and thus demonstrated the value of age classifications derived from the transcriptional profiling of these two genes. The technique was used to establish the age structure of mosquito populations from two malaria-endemic areas in western Kenya. The population age structure determined by the transcriptional profiling method was consistent with that based on mosquito parity. This study demonstrates that the transcription profiling method based on two genes is valuable for age determination of natural mosquitoes, providing a new approach for determining a key life history trait of malaria vectors. PMID:23936017

  19. Gene expression-based biomarkers for Anopheles gambiae age grading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Information on population age structure of mosquitoes under natural conditions is fundamental to the understanding of vectorial capacity and crucial for assessing the impact of vector control measures on malaria transmission. Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age-grading of Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. The transcript abundance of two An. gambiae genes, AGAP009551 and AGAP011615, was measured during aging under laboratory and field conditions in three mosquito strains. Age-dependent monotonic changes in transcript levels were observed in all strains evaluated. These genes were validated as age-grading biomarkers using the mark, release and recapture (MRR method. The MRR method determined a good correspondence between actual and predicted age, and thus demonstrated the value of age classifications derived from the transcriptional profiling of these two genes. The technique was used to establish the age structure of mosquito populations from two malaria-endemic areas in western Kenya. The population age structure determined by the transcriptional profiling method was consistent with that based on mosquito parity. This study demonstrates that the transcription profiling method based on two genes is valuable for age determination of natural mosquitoes, providing a new approach for determining a key life history trait of malaria vectors.

  20. A proteomic investigation of soluble olfactory proteins in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mastrobuoni

    Full Text Available Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are small soluble polypeptides that bind semiochemicals in the lymph of insect chemosensilla. In the genome of Anopheles gambiae, 66 genes encode OBPs and 8 encode CSPs. Here we monitored their expression through classical proteomics (2D gel-MS analysis and a shotgun approach. The latter method proved much more sensitive and therefore more suitable for tiny biological samples as mosquitoes antennae and eggs. Females express a larger number and higher quantities of OBPs in their antennae than males (24 vs 19. OBP9 is the most abundant in the antennae of both sexes, as well as in larvae, pupae and eggs. Of the 8 CSPs, 4 were detected in antennae, while SAP3 was the only one expressed in larvae. Our proteomic results are in fairly good agreement with data of RNA expression reported in the literature, except for OBP4 and OBP5, that we could not identify in our analysis, nor could we detect in Western Blot experiments. The relatively limited number of soluble olfactory proteins expressed at relatively high levels in mosquitoes makes further studies on the coding of chemical messages at the OBP level more accessible, providing for few specific targets. Identification of such proteins in Anopheles gambiae might facilitate future studies on host finding behavior in this important disease vector.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05923-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a (japonica cultivar-gr... 85 3e-15 AM776660_1( AM776660 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis partial ENSAN... 85...id:none) Caenorhabditis elegans cosmid C45... 85 3e-15 AM776665_1( AM776665 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis ...5_1( EU391485 |pid:none) Glycine soja isolate W_HC17IFS1 is... 82 2e-14 AM776663_1( AM776663 |pid:none) Anopheles arabie...76661 |pid:none) Anopheles arabiensis partial ENSAN... 82 2e-14 AK067591_1( AK067

  2. Limited usefulness of microsatellite markers from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae when applied to the closely related species Anopheles melas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Kevin C; Reddy, Vamsi P; Reddy, Michael R; Satyanarayanah, Neha; Lindsey, Michael W; Overgaard, Hans J; Jawara, Musa; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A

    2012-07-01

    Anopheles melas is a brackish water mosquito found in coastal West Africa where it is a dominant malaria vector locally. In order to facilitate genetic studies of this species, 45 microsatellite loci originally developed for Anopheles gambiae were sequenced in An. melas. Those that were suitable based on repeat number and flanking regions were examined in 2 natural populations from Equatorial Guinea. Only 15 loci were eventually deemed suitable as polymorphic markers in An. melas populations. These loci were screened in 4 populations from a wider geographic range. Heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.79, and 2.5-15 average alleles were observed per locus, yielding 13 highly polymorphic markers and 2 loci with lower variability. To examine the usefulness of microsatellite markers when applied in a sibling species, the original An. gambiae specific markers were used to amplify 5 loci in An. melas. Null alleles were found for 1 An. gambiae marker. We discuss the pitfalls of using microsatellite loci across closely related species and conclude that in addition to the problem of null alleles associated with this practice, many loci may prove to be of very limited use as polymorphic markers even when used in a sibling species. PMID:22593601

  3. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (puseful to ensure their role in malaria transmission. PMID:27010649

  4. ANOSPEX: a stochastic, spatially explicit model for studying Anopheles metapopulation dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga O Oluwagbemi

    Full Text Available Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, a major public health problem among many African countries. One of the most effective methods to control malaria is by controlling the Anopheles mosquito vectors that transmit the parasites. Mathematical models have both predictive and explorative utility to investigate the pros and cons of different malaria control strategies. We have developed a C++ based, stochastic spatially explicit model (ANOSPEX; Ano pheles Spatially-Explicit to simulate Anopheles metapopulation dynamics. The model is biologically rich, parameterized by field data, and driven by field-collected weather data from Macha, Zambia. To preliminarily validate ANOSPEX, simulation results were compared to field mosquito collection data from Macha; simulated and observed dynamics were similar. The ANOSPEX model will be useful in a predictive and exploratory manner to develop, evaluate and implement traditional and novel strategies to control malaria, and for understanding the environmental forces driving Anopheles population dynamics.

  5. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Pirmohammadi; Mansoureh Shayeghi; Hassan Vatandoost; Mohammad Reza Abaei; Ali Mohammadi; Akbar Bagheri; Mehdi Khoobdel; Hasan Bakhshi; Maryam Pirmohammadi; Maryam Tavassoli

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mos­quito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection.Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition....

  6. Gal4-based Enhancer-Trapping in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brochta, David A.; Pilitt, Kristina L.; Harrell, Robert A.; Aluvihare, Channa; Alford, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Transposon-based forward and reverse genetic technologies will contribute greatly to ongoing efforts to study mosquito functional genomics. A piggyBac transposon-based enhancer-trap system was developed that functions efficiently in the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. The system consists of six transgenic lines of Anopheles stephensi, each with a single piggyBac-Gal4 element in a unique genomic location; six lines with a single piggyBac-UAStdTomato element; and two lines, each with...

  7. Existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in Indonesia

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    Asih Puji BS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. GABA-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, A302S/G in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan. Methods A total of 154 mosquito samples from 10 provinces of malaria-endemic areas across Indonesia (Aceh, North Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, Molucca and North Molucca were obtained and identified by species, using morphological characteristic. The DNA was individually extracted using chelex-ion exchanger and the DNA obtained was used for analyses using sequencing method. Results Molecular analysis indicated 11% of the total 154 Anopheles samples examined, carried Rdl mutant alleles. All of the alleles were found in homozygous form. Rdl 302S allele was observed in Anopheles vagus (from Central Java, Lampung, and West Nusa Tenggara, Anopheles aconitus (from Central Java, Anopheles barbirostris (from Central Java and Lampung, Anopheles sundaicus (from North Sumatra and Lampung, Anopheles nigerrimus (from North Sumatra, whereas the 302 G allele was only found in Anopheles farauti from Molucca. Conclusion The existence of the Rdl mutant allele indicates that, either insecticide pressure on the Anopheles population in these areas might still be ongoing (though not directly associated with the malaria control programme or that the mutant form of the Rdl allele is relatively stable in the absence of insecticide. Nonetheless, the finding suggests that integrated pest management is warranted in malaria-endemic areas where insecticides are widely used for other purposes.

  8. Comparative evaluation of systemic drugs for their effects against Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Butters, Matthew P.; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Deus, Kelsey M.; da Silva, Ines Marques; GRAY, MEG; sylla, massamba; Foy, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have shown that ivermectin, a drug that targets invertebrate ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), is potently active against Anopheles spp. mosquitoes at concentrations present in human blood after standard drug administrations; thus ivermectin holds promise as a mass human-administered endectocide that could help suppress malaria parasite transmission. We evaluated other systemic LGIC-targeting drugs for their activities against the African malaria vector Anopheles...

  9. Biting patterns and host preference of Anopheles epiroticus in Chang Island, Trat Province, Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ritthison, W.; Tainchum, K.; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, M.J.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2014-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes, biting patterns, and seasonal abundance of important mosquito vectors was conducted in two villages of Chang Island, Trat Province, in eastern Thailand, one located along the coast and the other in the low hills of the central interior of the island. Of 5,399 captured female anophelines, 70.25% belong to the subgenus Cellia and remaining specimens to the subgenus Anopheles. Five important putative malaria vectors were molecularly identifie...

  10. Entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato at a rural community in south-west Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.E. Noutcha; C.I. Anumdu

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives: Investigations were conducted to obtain key entomological indices of Anopheles gambiae s.l. at Igbo-Ora, a rural community in south-west Nigeria. Methods: Mosquitoes were caught daily for a week from rooms where tenants had slept the previous night in each of the four months June, July (2001), and August, September (2002). Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species were PCR-identified, the blood meal origin was determined by direct ELISA, and the circumsporozoite antigen ...

  11. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen Gerry F; Ng'habi Kija R; Huho Bernadette J; Nkwengulila Gamba; Knols Bart GJ; Ferguson Heather M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland...

  12. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Huho, B J; Ng'habi, K.R.; Kileen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gla...

  13. Influence of Land-use on the Fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Kayode Olayemi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization often results in profound environmental alterations that may promote the transmission of malaria. Though, land-use practices in urban areas have been linked with proliferations of suitable larval breeding habitats of malaria vectors, no attempt has been made to systematically investigate the influence of land-use practices on malaria transmission in Nigeria. Objectives: To elucidate the influence of land-use practices on larval development and adult body size of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes in Minna, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Newly-hatched larvae of An. gmbiae mosquitoes were reared in semi-natural habitats stationed in five different sites, each representing the major land-use types in the area. The larvae were monitored daily for Duration of Immature Development (DID and Immature Survival Rate (ISR; while Wing Length (WL was used as an index of adult body size. Results: DID, ISR and WL varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the land-use categories; with lager numbers of bigger mosquitoes produced at a faster rate in the artificial than natural land-use sites. Water temperature for larval development was best in the Refuse Dump (RD site (mean = 28.11 ± 2.50oC and consequently the shortest DID (mean = 9.70 ± 0.74 days, as well as, the largest mosquitoes (mean WL = 3.10 ± 0.90 mm, were recorded in this land-use category. However, while ISR was highest (mean = 96.30 ± 2.78% in Farm Land (FL, the mosquitoes that emerged from this site were the smallest (mean WL = 1.96 ± 0.51mm. The Natural Vegetation (NV land-use category was the least productive, as the larvae took the longest time (13.29 ± 1.69 days to develop, and survived least (42.94 ± 7.50% in this site. Conclusion: The land-use practices in Minna enhanced the fitness of An. gambiae, and may increase the vectorial capacity of the species for malaria transmission in the area. Targeted larviciding interventions will greatly contribute to

  14. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control. PMID:26364718

  15. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O’nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity. PMID:27138938

  16. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor function by mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-03-20

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  17. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Function by Mosquito Repellents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca2+-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  18. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  19. Molecular Marker Confirmation for Member of Anopheles barbirostris Van Der Wulp 1884 in Different Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vector and non-vector forms of Anopheles barbirostris have been recognized in Indonesia. However, because of their similarity in morphology, they were considered to be a single species. This information has led to the hypothesis that Anopheles barbirostris is a complex of species, which are morphologically indistinguishable from each other by ordinary methods. Objectives of the research was to identify the member of Anopheles barbirostris by PCR Assay. Samples were taken from two localities in Java, two in Sulawesi, two in Flores Indonesia, one from Thailand, one from China. The study was to develop a PCR-based technique of rDNA ITS2 region. Results showed that there are at least four species within the Anopheles barbirostris population studied, namely Anopheles barbirostris species DW, DX, DY and DZ. The length of the sequence amplified for species W, species X, species Y, and species Z were 339bps, 247bps, 165bps. and 157bps, respectively. Verification of the method was carried out with 270 mosquitoes from eight different field-collection sites using various sampling methods. Samples collected from Singaraja-Flores were identified as species W and X. All specimens collected from human bite outdoors were identified as species X; this species showed to be predominant among indoor light trap, indoor human bite and indoor resting collections Samples from Reo-Flores were identified as species W and X. All specimens from Manado and Palopo in Sulawesiwere identified as species Z. Similarly only species Y was found in samples from Thailand, while specimens from Salaman and Jambu in Java were identified as species W or species X. These species-specific molecular markers for the Anopheles barbirostris, complex appear to be reliable over a wide geographical area. However, larger number of samples is still needed from throughout the range of this species.Key words: Anopheles barbirostris, ITS2, PCR, Specific primer diagnostic

  20. New highland distribution records of multiple Anopheles species in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Fiona F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent climate change reviews have stressed the possibility of some malaria vectors occupying regions of higher altitudes than previously recorded. Indeed, highland malaria has been observed in several African nations, possibly attributable to changes in land use, vector control and local climate. This study attempts to expand the current knowledge of the distribution of common Anopheles species in Ecuador, with particular attention to highland regions (> 500 m of the Andes. Methods Extensive field collections of larvae were undertaken in 2008, 2009 and 2010 throughout all regions of Ecuador (except the lower-altitude Amazonian plain and compared to historical distribution maps reproduced from the 1940s. Larvae were identified using both a morphological key and sequencing of the 800 bp region of the CO1 mitochondrial gene. In addition, spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Hotspot Analysis: Gi* were used to determine high and low-density clusters of each species in Ecuador. Results Distributions have been updated for five species of Anopheles in Ecuador: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles eiseni and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l.. Historical maps indicate that An. pseudopunctipennis used to be widespread in highland Andean valleys, while other species were completely restricted to lowland areas. By comparison, updated maps for the other four collected species show higher maximum elevations and/or more widespread distributions in highland regions than previously recorded. Gi* analysis determined some highland hot spots for An. albimanus, but only cold spots for all other species. Conclusions This study documents the establishment of multiple anopheline species in high altitude regions of Ecuador, often in areas where malaria eradication programs are not focused.

  1. African water storage pots for the delivery of the Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Farina, D.; Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Hunt, R.H.; Coetzee, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of African water storage pots for point source application of Metarhizium anisopliae against the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Clay pots were shown to be attractive resting sites for male and female An. gambiae s.s. and were not repellent after impregnat

  2. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yung-Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%, dogs (20%, pig (10%, and non-chicken avian (10%. Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of

  3. Identification of one capa and two pyrokinin receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine S; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    We cloned the cDNA of three evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and functionally expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One receptor, Ang-Capa-R, was only activated by the two Anopheles capa neuropeptides Ang-capa-1 (GPTVGLFAFPRVa......We cloned the cDNA of three evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and functionally expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One receptor, Ang-Capa-R, was only activated by the two Anopheles capa neuropeptides Ang-capa-1...... (GPTVGLFAFPRVamide) and Ang-capa-2 (pQGLVPFPRVamide) with EC(50) values of 8.6x10(-9)M and 3.3x10(-9)M, respectively, but not by any other known mosquito neuropeptide. The second receptor, Ang-PK-1-R, was selectively activated by the Anopheles pyrokinin-1 peptides Ang-PK-1-1 (AGGTGANSAMWFGPRLamide) and Ang-PK-1......-2 (AAAMWFGPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 3.3x10(-8)M and 2.5x10(-8)M, respectively, but not by mosquito capa or pyrokinin-2 peptides. For the third receptor, Ang-PK-2-R, the most potent ligands were the pyrokinin-2 peptides Ang-PK-2-1 (DSVGENHQRPPFAPRLamide) and Ang-PK-2-2 (NLPFSPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 5.2x...

  4. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  5. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  6. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  7. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

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    John C Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread

  8. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  9. Bacterial diversity associated with wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam using culture and DNA fingerprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Thuy Ngo

    Full Text Available Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study.The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR - TTGE method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota.The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.

  10. Innate immunity against malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenand; Zhi-Hui Weng; Liangbiao Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Malaria continues to exert a huge toll in the world today, causing approximately 400 million cases and killing between 1-2 million people annually. Most of the malaria burden is borne by countries in Africa. For this reason, the major vector for malaria in this continent, Anopheles gambiae, is under intense study. With the completion of the draft sequence of this important vector, efforts are underway to develop novel control strategies.One promising area is to harness the power of the innate immunity of this mosquito species to block the transmission of the malaria parasites. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll and Imd signaling pathways and other immunity-related genes (encoding proteins possibly function in recognition or as effector molecules) play significant roles in two different arms of innate immunity: level of infection intensity and melanization of Plasmodium oocysts.The challenges in the future are to understand how the functions of these different genes are coordinated in defense against malaria parasites, and if different arms of innate immunity are cross-regulated or coordinated.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi embryo using expressed sequence tags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Gokhale; Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Rajnikant Dixit; Murlidhar J Mendki; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2013-06-01

    Germ band retraction (GBR) stage is one of the important stages during insect development. It is associated with an extensive epithelial morphogenesis and may also be pivotal in generation of morphological diversity in insects. Despite its importance, only a handful of studies report the transcriptome repertoire of this stage in insects. Here, we report generation, annotation and analysis of ESTs from the embryonic stage (16–22 h post fertilization) of laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. A total of 1002 contigs were obtained upon clustering of 1140 high-quality ESTs, which demonstrates an astonishingly low transcript redundancy (12.1%). Putative functions were assigned only to 213 contigs (21%), comprising mainly of transcripts encoding protein synthesis machinery. Approximately 78% of the transcripts remain uncharacterized, illustrating a lack of sequence information about the genes expressed in the embryonic stages of mosquitoes. This study highlights several novel transcripts, which apart from insect development, may significantly contribute to the essential biological complexity underlying insect viability in adverse environments. Nonetheless, the generated sequence information from this work provides a comprehensive resource for genome annotation, microarray development, phylogenetic analysis and other molecular biology applications in entomology.

  12. Observaciones sobre Phlebotomus y Anopheles en el Callejon de Huaylas

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    Arístides Herrer

    1943-03-01

    Full Text Available Se han llevado a cabo observaciones entomológicas en relación con la verruga y el paludismo en la zona del Callejón de Huaylas comprendida desde la ciudad de Yuramarca a la de Huarás, prestando especial atención a la región del Cañón del Pato. Se indica, como resultados de tales observaciones, la presencia de las titiras: Phlebotomus verrucarum, P. peruensis, P. noguchii y una especia nueva, señalando detenidamente las localidades donde se las han encontrado. El P. verrucarum, principal trasmisor de la verruga, se halla a lo largo de toda la zona estudiada, siendo su número bastante reducido en la ciudad de Huarás. Desde Yuramarca hasta cerca de la ciudad de Carás se ha encontrado únicamente el Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, tanto larvas como adultos. Sus criaderos se encuentran principalmente en las márgenes del río Santa, en las de algunos afluentes de éste y en numerosos, manantiales.

  13. The role of hemocytes in Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; Garver, Lindsey S; Brayner, Fábio André; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Rodrigues, Janneth; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes synthesize key components of the mosquito complement-like system, but their role in the activation of antiplasmodial responses has not been established. The effect of activating Toll signaling in hemocytes on Plasmodium survival was investigated by transferring hemocytes or cell-free hemolymph from donor mosquitoes in which the suppressor cactus was silenced. These transfers greatly enhanced antiplasmodial immunity, indicating that hemocytes are active players in the activation of the complement-like system, through an effector/effectors regulated by the Toll pathway. A comparative analysis of hemocyte populations between susceptible G3 and the refractory L3-5 Anopheles gambiae mosquito strains did not reveal significant differences under basal conditions or in response to Plasmodium berghei infection. The response of susceptible mosquitoes to different Plasmodium species revealed similar kinetics following infection with P. berghei,P. yoelii or P. falciparum, but the strength of the priming response was stronger in less compatible mosquito-parasite pairs. The Toll, Imd,STAT or JNK signaling cascades were not essential for the production of the hemocyte differentiation factor (HDF) in response to P. berghei infection, but disruption of Toll, STAT or JNK abolished hemocyte differentiation in response to HDF. We conclude that hemocytes are key mediators of A. gambiae antiplasmodial responses. PMID:23886925

  14. TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN ANOPHELES ACONITUS DI KABUPATEN JEPARA, JAWA TENGAH

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    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Jepara adalah salah satu kabupaten endemis malaria di Jawa Tengah. Kasus malaria di Kabupaten Jepara terjadi akibat interaksi antara nyamuk/vektor, parasit, lingkungan dan manusia yang mengalami perubahan dari waktu ke waktu. Penelitian tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dilakukan di Desa Buaran, Kecamatan Mayong, Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah pada tahun 2000. Tujuan penelitian mengetahui pengaruh perubahan lingkungan alami dan perubahan buatan oleh manusia terhadap tempat perkembangbiakan An. aconitus. Metode penelitian dengan cara pengumpulan larva dan pupa yang dilakukan pada pagi hari dengan menggunakan cidukan di tempat-tempat genangan air yang diduga sebagai tempat perkembangbiakan An. aconitus Dari hasil pengambilan jentik di sawah, saluran irigasi, sungai dan lubang/kobakan bekas  galian pasir yang digenangi air, ternyata yang banyak ditemukan adalah jentik An. aconitus dari 6 spesies jentik nyamuk yang teridentifikasi. Habitat utama An. aconitus di Kabupaten Jepara adalah persawahan. Perubahan habitat terjadi dengan adanya perubahan lingkungan dan musim, dimana pada musim kemarau sebagian sawah menjadi kering, sehingga mempengaruhi peril'aku nyamuk  untuk mencari habitat yang baru seperti  sungai  dan  saluran irigasi. Selain perubahan musim juga adanya lubang/kobakan yang digenangan air bekas galian pasir di sepanjang tepi sungai, sebagai akibat perbuatan dari penduduk setempat, sehingga menjadi habitat baru dari nyamuk terutama An.aconitus. Kata Kunci : Tempat Perkembangbiakan, An. aconitus, Malaria,

  15. Field evaluation of deet against Anopheles farauti at Ndendo (Santa Cruz) Island, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, S P; Bugoro, H; Butafa, C; Cooper, R D

    2010-09-01

    Field efficacy studies comparing two formulations of deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes were conducted on Ndendo Island, Solomon Islands. The repellent study was conducted at Pala village in November 2008, and the only mosquito species collected was Anopheles farauti Laveran. A formulation containing 35% deet in a gel provided >95% protection for 2 h, whereas a formulation containing 40% deet in ethanol in a spray applicator provided >95% for only 1 h. This field study demonstrated again that repellents containing deet provide a relatively short period of complete protection against Anopheles spp. PMID:20939380

  16. Revision of the subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    José Henrique Guimarães

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Rogenhoferinae stat. nov. (Diptera, Cuterebridae is revised. Two genera are recognized: Rogenhofera Brauer (Type-species, trigonophora Brauer and Andinocutereba Guimarães (Type-species, fassleri Guimarães. Five species are recorded in Rogenhofera, one R. lopesi is described as new. Key to species, illustrations and distribution are presented.

  17. De wapenvlieg Clitellaria ephippium terug van weggeweest (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, W.; Leij, van der, A.

    2000-01-01

    Clitellaria ephippium, rediscovered in the Netherlands after 100 years (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Clitellaria ephippium has been found in the Netherlands only between 1870 and 1880 near Venlo. In 1999 a female of this beautifully coloured fly was caught near Tegelen. This locality is very close to the first site, in the northern part of the province of Limburg.

  18. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  19. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  20. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  1. Vegetable leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their plant hosts in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, S.; B.A. Bhuiya

    2014-01-01

    Most leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are serious polyphytophagous insect pests of vegetables. In the present communication an account of four species of agromyzid flies, viz., Liriomyza chinensis (Kato), L. sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Malloch and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) is provided. Of these, L. chinensis is new to Bangladesh fauna. All these agromyzids were reared from 17 economic vegetable host plants in Bangladesh.

  2. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

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    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  3. Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;

    2001-01-01

    As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...

  4. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

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    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  5. Unexpected high losses of Anopheles gambiae larvae due to rainfall.

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    Krijn P Paaijmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immature stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae experience high mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. Here we study the impact of rainfall, one of the abiotic factors to which the immatures are frequently exposed, on their mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that rainfall significantly affected larval mosquitoes by flushing them out of their aquatic habitat and killing them. Outdoor experiments under natural conditions in Kenya revealed that the additional nightly loss of larvae caused by rainfall was on average 17.5% for the youngest (L1 larvae and 4.8% for the oldest (L4 larvae; an additional 10.5% (increase from 0.9 to 11.4% of the L1 larvae and 3.3% (from 0.1 to 3.4% of the L4 larvae were flushed away and larval mortality increased by 6.9% (from 4.6 to 11.5% and 1.5% (from 4.1 to 5.6% for L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, compared to nights without rain. On rainy nights, 1.3% and 0.7% of L1 and L4 larvae, respectively, were lost due to ejection from the breeding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that immature populations of malaria mosquitoes suffer high losses during rainfall events. As these populations are likely to experience several rain showers during their lifespan, rainfall will have a profound effect on the productivity of mosquito breeding sites and, as a result, on the transmission of malaria. These findings are discussed in the light of malaria risk and changing rainfall patterns in response to climate change.

  6. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  7. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  8. Chloroquine mediated modulation of Anopheles gambiae gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Abrantes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium development in the mosquito is crucial for malaria transmission and depends on the parasite's interaction with a variety of cell types and specific mosquito factors that have both positive and negative effects on infection. Whereas the defensive response of the mosquito contributes to a decrease in parasite numbers during these stages, some components of the blood meal are known to favor infection, potentiating the risk of increased transmission. The presence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine in the mosquito's blood meal has been associated with an increase in Plasmodium infectivity for the mosquito, which is possibly caused by chloroquine interfering with the capacity of the mosquito to defend against the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report a detailed survey of the Anopheles gambiae genes that are differentially regulated by the presence of chloroquine in the blood meal, using an A. gambiae cDNA microarray. The effect of chloroquine on transcript abundance was evaluated separately for non-infected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. Chloroquine was found to affect the abundance of transcripts that encode proteins involved in a variety of processes, including immunity, apoptosis, cytoskeleton and the response to oxidative stress. This pattern of differential gene expression may explain the weakened mosquito defense response which accounts for the increased infectivity observed in chloroquine-treated mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that chloroquine can interfere with several putative mosquito mechanisms of defense against Plasmodium at the level of gene expression and highlight the need for a better understanding of the impacts of antimalarial agents on parasite transmission.

  9. GENETIC ISOLATION WITHIN THE MALARIA MOSQUITO ANOPHELES MELAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Kevin C; Athrey, Giri; Reddy, Michael R; Overgaard, Hans J; Matias, Abrahan; Jawara, Musa; della Torre, Alessandra; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Pinto, Joao; Kiszewski, Anthony; Kengne, Pierre; Costantini, Carlo; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles melas is a brackish water-breeding member of the An. gambiae complex that is distributed along the coast of West Africa and is a major malaria vector within its range. Because little is known about the population structure of this species, we analyzed 15 microsatellite markers and 1,161 bp of mtDNA in 11 An. melas populations collected throughout its range. Compared to its sibling species An. gambiae, An. melas populations have a high level of genetic differentiation between them, representing its patchy distribution due to its fragmented larval habitat which is associated with mangroves and salt marsh grass. Populations clustered into three distinct groups representing Western Africa, Southern Africa, and Bioko Island populations that appear to be mostly isolated. Fixed differences in the mtDNA are present between all three clusters, and a Bayesian clustering analysis of the microsatellite data found no evidence for migration from mainland to Bioko Island populations, and little migration was evident between the Southern to the Western cluster. Surprisingly, mtDNA divergence between the three An. melas clusters is on par with levels of divergence between other species of the An. gambiae complex, and no support for monophyly was observed in a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis. Finally, an Approximate Bayesian Analysis of microsatellite data indicates that Bioko Island An. melas populations were connected to the mainland populations in the past, but became isolated, presumably when sea levels rose after the last glaciation period (≥10,000-11,000 years ago). This study has exposed species level genetic divergence within An. melas, and also has implications for control of this malaria vector. PMID:22882458

  10. The Anopheles dirus complex: spatial distribution and environmental drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defourny Pierre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles dirus complex includes efficient malaria vectors of the Asian forested zone. Studies suggest ecological and biological differences between the species of the complex but variations within species suggest possible environmental influences. Behavioural variation might determine vector capacity and adaptation to changing environment. It is thus necessary to clarify the species distributions and the influences of environment on behavioural heterogeneity. Methods A literature review highlights variation between species, influences of environmental drivers, and consequences on vector status and control. The localisation of collection sites from the literature and from a recent project (MALVECASIA produces detailed species distributions maps. These facilitate species identification and analysis of environmental influences. Results The maps give a good overview of species distributions. If species status partly explains behavioural heterogeneity, occurrence and vectorial status, some environmental drivers have at least the same importance. Those include rainfall, temperature, humidity, shade, soil type, water chemistry and moon phase. Most factors are probably constantly favourable in forest. Biological specificities, behaviour and high human-vector contact in the forest can explain the association of this complex with high malaria prevalence, multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and partial control failure of forest malaria in Southeast Asia. Conclusion Environmental and human factors seem better than species specificities at explaining behavioural heterogeneity. Although forest seems essential for mosquito survival, adaptations to orchards and wells have been recorded. Understanding the relationship between landscape components and mosquito population is a priority in foreseeing the influence of land-cover changes on malaria occurrence and in shaping control strategies for the future.

  11. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the

  12. Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro-Silva, R.; Borges, L.; Coelho, L.P.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; do Rosário, V.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 23 2015 (2015), s. 485. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles coluzzii * Salivary glands * Plasmodium berghei * Sporozoite * RNA-seq * Glucose transporter * RNAi Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  13. New selenoproteins identified in silico from the genome of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Liang; LIU Qiong; CHEN Ping; GAO ZhongHong; XU HuiBi

    2007-01-01

    Selenoprotein is biosynthesized by the incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins, where the TGA codon in the open reading frame does not act as a stop signal but is translated into selenocysteine. The dual functions of TGA result in mis-annotation or lack of selenoproteins in the sequenced genomes of many species. Available computational tools fail to correctly predict selenoproteins. Thus, we developed a new method to identify selenoproteins from the genome of Anopheles gambiae computationally.Based on released genomic information, several programs were edited with PERL language to identify selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, the coding potential of TGA codons, and cysteine-containing homologs of selenoprotein genes. Our results showed that 11365 genes were terminated with TGA codons, 918 of which contained SECIS elements. Similarity search revealed that 58genes contained Sec/Cys pairs and similar flanking regions around in-frame TGA codons. Finally, 7genes were found to fully meet requirements for selenoproteins, although they have not been annotated as selenoproteins in NCBI databases. Deduced from their basic properties, the newly found selenoproteins in the genome of Anopheles gambiae are possibly related to in vivo oxidation tolerance and protein regulation in order to interfere with anopheles' vectorial capacity of Plasmodium. This study may also provide theoretical bases for the prevention of malaria from anopheles transmission.

  14. Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mbadi, P.A.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is considered to be highly anthropophilic and volatiles of human origin provide essential cues during its host-seeking behaviour. A synthetic blend of three human-derived volatiles, ammonia, lactic acid and tetradecanoic acid, attracts A. gambiae. In addi

  15. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  16. Anopheles of Bolivia: new records with an updated and annotated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Chávez, Tamara; Rodríguez, Roberto; Torrez, Libia

    2009-05-01

    Anopheles squamifemur has been identified from CDC light trap collections carried out at Arca de Israel, a small community located in the extreme north-east of Bolivia (Pando Department) on the banks of the river Madera, on the border with Brazil. Anopheles costai and An. forattinii have been identified in place of An. mediopunctatus which has been removed from the Bolivian list of Anopheles species. The first identification of An. trinkae in Bolivia by Dr. J.C. Lien in 1984 is cleared. The presence of An. deaneorum in Bolivia has been confirmed by our mosquito captures carried out in Guayaramerín (Pando Department, north-east of Bolivia), a border city separated from the type locality of An. deaneorum, the Brasilian city of Guajara-Mirin, by the large Mamoré River. These new findings increase to 43 the total number of known Anopheles species for Bolivia for which an updated and partially annotated checklist is given. PMID:19393981

  17. Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : Electrophysiology and identification of kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto are important vectors of human malaria in Africa. It is generally assumed that they locate their human host by odours. These odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons situated within cuticular extensions on the antenna. T

  18. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae ...

  19. Role of Testis-Specific Gene Expression in Sex-Chromosome Evolution of Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dean A.; Russell, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression in Anopheles gambiae shows a deficiency of testis-expressed genes on the X chromosome associated with an excessive movement of retrogene duplication. We suggest that the degeneration of sex chromosomes in this monandrous species is likely the result of pressures from X inactivation, dosage compensation, and sexual antagonism. PMID:21890740

  20. Using a near-infrared spectrometer to estimate the age of anopheles mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T Sikulu

    Full Text Available We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as <7 or ≥7 d old with an overall accuracy of 79%. The age categories of Anopheles mosquitoes that were not exposed to the insecticide papers were predicted with 78% accuracy whereas the age categories of resistant, susceptible and mosquitoes exposed to control papers were predicted with 82%, 78% and 79% accuracy, respectively. The ages of 85% of the wild-collected mixed-age Anopheles were predicted by NIRS as ≤8 d for both susceptible and resistant groups. The age structure of wild-collected mosquitoes was not significantly different for the pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes (P = 0.210. Based on these findings, NIRS chronological age estimation technique for Anopheles mosquitoes may be independent of insecticide exposure and the environmental conditions to which the mosquitoes are exposed.

  1. Tyrosine Hydroxylase is crucial for maintaining pupal tanning and immunity in Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Du, Minghui; Liang, Xin; Hao, Youjin; He, Xiu; Si, Fengling; Mei, Ting; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the initial enzyme in the melanin pathway, catalyzes tyrosine conversion into Dopa. Although expression and regulation of TH have been shown to affect cuticle pigmentation in insects, no direct functional studies to date have focused on the specific physiological processes involving the enzyme during mosquito development. In the current study, silencing of AsTH during the time period of continuous high expression in Anopheles sinensis pupae led to significant impairment of cuticle tanning and thickness, imposing a severe obstacle to eclosion in adults. Meanwhile, deficiency of melanin in interference individuals led to suppression of melanization, compared to control individuals. Consequently, the ability to defend exogenous microorganisms declined sharply. Accompanying down-regulation of the basal expression of five antimicrobial peptide genes resulted in further significant weakening of immunity. TH homologs as well as the composition of upstream transcription factor binding sites at the pupal stage are highly conserved in the Anopheles genus, implying that the TH-mediated functions are crucial in Anopheles. The collective evidence strongly suggests that TH is essential for Anopheles pupae tanning and immunity and provides a reference for further studies to validate the utility of the key genes involved in the melanization pathway in controlling mosquito development. PMID:27416870

  2. Identification of four evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is an important vector for malaria, which is one of the most serious human parasitic diseases in the world, causing up to 2.7 million deaths yearly. To contribute to our understanding of A. gambiae and to the transmission of malaria, we have now cloned four...

  3. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Method

  4. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Sheyla Regina Marques Couceiro; Neusa Hamada; Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro; Maria Conceição Messias

    2004-01-01

    Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  5. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  6. Complete mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi and an approach to anopheline divergence time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA of members of the northern and southern genotypes of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi were used for comparative studies to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for modern anophelines, to evaluate differentiation within this taxon, and to seek evidence of incipient speciation. Methods The mtDNAs were sequenced from mosquitoes from Belize and Brazil and comparative analyses of structure and base composition, among others, were performed. A maximum likelihood approach linked with phylogenetic information was employed to detect evidence of selection and a Bayesian approach was used to date the split between the subgenus Nyssorhynchus and other Anopheles subgenera. Results The comparison of mtDNA sequences within the Anopheles darlingi taxon does not provide sufficient resolution to establish different units of speciation within the species. In addition, no evidence of positive selection in any protein-coding gene of the mtDNA was detected, and purifying selection likely is the basis for this lack of diversity. Bayesian analysis supports the conclusion that the most recent ancestor of Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles+Cellia was extant ~94 million years ago. Conclusion Analyses of mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi do not provide support for speciation in the taxon. The dates estimated for divergence among the anopheline groups tested is in agreement with the geological split of western Gondwana (95 mya, and provides additional support for explaining the absence of Cellia in the New World, and Nyssorhynchus in the Afro-Eurasian continents.

  7. Toxicity comparison of eight repellents against four species of female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative toxicities of eight repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti (L.) Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Anopheles albimanus Weidemann. Based on 24h...

  8. A simplified high-throughput method for pyrethroid knock-down resistance (kdr) detection in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Edward D; Black William C; Randle Nadine P; McCall P J; Ranson Hilary; Lynd Amy; Donnelly Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector control especially considering the current trend for large scale pyrethroid-treated bednet programmes. Screening Anopheles gambiae populations for the kdr mutation has become one of the mainstays of programmes that monitor the development of insecticide resistance. Th...

  9. Anopheles darlingi bionomics and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in Amerindian villages of the Upper-Maroni Amazonian forest, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Girod

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1. A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting

  10. Potential Test of Papaya Leaf and Seed Extract (Carica Papaya) as Larvicides against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae Mortality. SP IN Jayapura, Papua Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Arsunan

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes, sp is the main vector of malaria disease that is widespread in many parts of the world including in Papua Province. There are four speciesof Anopheles mosquitoes, sp, in Papua namely: An.farauti, An.koliensis, An. subpictus, and An.punctulatus. Larviciding synthetic cause resistance. This study aims to analyze the potential of papaya leaf and seeds extracts (Carica papaya) as larvicides against the mosquitoes Anopheles sp. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory o...

  11. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection statu...

  12. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author)

  13. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different reactions during flooding. Some larvae will move to drier parts, others remain on the spot. All species can survive for some time submerged in water, but the uptake of water can be a problem, especially in...

  14. De boorvlieg Tephritis acanthiophilopsis nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The fruitfly Tephritis acanthiophilopsis new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Tephritis acanthiophilopsis Hering, 1938 for the Netherlands is presented. A single male was collected with a malaisetrap on the ‘Stampersplaat’, a shoal in the ‘Grevelingen’, just north of the town of Brouwershaven, province of Zeeland. The genus Tephritis Latreille, 1804 is characterized and the difference between the two Dutch species of the cometa-group is illustrated.

  15. De boorvlieg Trupanea amoena nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Hamers, B

    2006-01-01

    The fruitfly Trupanea amoena new for the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) The first record of Trupanea amoena (Von Frauenfeld, 1857) is given. A female was photographed at the Kunderberg near the town of Voerendaal, province of Limburg. The genus is characterized and a key to the two Northwest European species is given, as well as the differences with the similar Tephritis cometa (Loew, 1840). All three species are illustrated and the distribution of both Trupanea species in the Netherlands...

  16. Distribución espacial de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis en las Yungas de Salta, Argentina Spatial distribution of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in the Yungas de Salta rainforest, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Dantur Juri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la abundancia de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, y otros anofelinos, en tres zonas silvestres y modificadas por el hombre, a fin de verificar en qué medida tales diferencias ambientales afectan la distribución espacial de estos mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron muestreos mensuales (diciembre de 2001 a diciembre de 2002, con trampas de luz CDC con CO2, en cada sitio de muestreo (selva, borde de selva y peridomicilio. En el peridomicilio, además, dos operadores aspiraron mosquitos posados sobre las paredes. Se estimaron índices de diversidad y abundancia de especies, y se intentó caracterizar a los ambientes estudiados mediante ANOVA, cálculo de cosenos y análisis de agrupamientos. RESULTADOS: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis fue la especie más abundante. Se colectaron también An. argyritarsis, An. nuneztovari, An. rangeli y An. strodei. Excepto An. nuneztovari que no se capturó en el peridomicilio, las demás se colectaron en los tres ambientes. No hubo diferencias en los índices de diversidad, ni tampoco entre los ambientes estudiados; sin embargo, el análisis de agrupamiento separó el borde de la selva, donde todas las especies fueron más abundantes en general. CONCLUSIONES: El borde de la selva fue el ambiente que presentó la mayor abundancia, representando, además del peridomicilio, un ambiente de alto riesgo para la transmisión del paludismo.OBJECTIVE: To compare the abundance of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and other anopheline mosquitoes in three different wild areas, modified by human activities, and to verify how environmental differences affect the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes. METHODS: Samples were collected monthly from December 2001 to December 2002 in Yungas de Salta, Argentina. CO2 -baited CDC light traps were placed at each sample site (forest, transition area and peridomiciliary area. In the peridomiciliary area, two agents also suctioned mosquitoes from house walls. Species diversity

  17. Avaliação do desenvolvimento larval de Anopheles darlingi criado em laboratório sob diferentes dietas Evaluation of the larval development of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera - Culicidae raised in the laboratory on different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sterlino Bergo

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available São testadas três dietas para larvas de A. darlingi, buscando-se os seguintes parâmetros indicativos de desenvolvimento nesta fase: tempo de evolução total e de cada estádio, sobrevivência ao estádio, diária e total. A metodologia utilizada na determinação desses parâmetros constitui-se da combinação de dois métodos de análise da estatística vital, adaptados ao estudo de populações mantidas em laboratório. Os tempos de evolução total e de cada estádio foram determinados gráficamente a partir das curvas de tendência dos estádios medianos da colônia, em inspeções sucessivas. Os valores de sobrevivência diária, ao estádio e total foram calculados a partir de tábuas de sobrevivência. Os resultados permitiram eleger a dieta composta de uma parte de farinha de peixe para duas partes de farinha de pão e duas partes de germe de trigo como a mais adequada ao desenvolvimento larval, com duração de 12,9 dias entre o primerio estádio e a emersão do adulto e sobrevivência total de 95%.Three diets for A. darlingi larvae were tested in order to arrive at the following parameters indicative of development in this phase: length of time, both for overall as for each stage of evolution and daily and total stage-survival. A methodology which combined two vital statistical methods of analysis, adjusted to the study of populations under laboratory conditions, was used for determining these parameters. The length of time for overall and for each stage of, evolution were graphically assessed on the basis of trend curves of colony median stages, in sequential surveys. Values for the total and the daily stage-survival were stimated from survival tables. Results permitted the selection of the most adequate diet for the larval development as that composed of one part of fish flour to two parts of bread flour and two parts of a heat germ, giving an average length of 12.9 days between the first larval stage and the emergent adult. Total survival rate was of 95%.

  18. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881), E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830), E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), syn.: E. bicinc...

  19. Complex genome evolution in Anopheles coluzzii associated with increased insecticide usage in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Collier, Travis C; Norris, Laura C; Brisco, Katherine; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Cornel, Anthony J; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-10-01

    In certain cases, a species may have access to important genetic variation present in a related species via adaptive introgression. These novel alleles may interact with their new genetic background, resulting in unexpected phenotypes. In this study, we describe a selective sweep on standing variation on the X chromosome in the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, a principal malaria vector in West Africa. This event may have been influenced by the recent adaptive introgression of the insecticide resistance gene known as kdr from the sister species Anopheles gambiae. Individuals carrying both kdr and a nearly fixed X-linked haplotype, encompassing at least four genes including the P450 gene CYP9K1 and the cuticular protein CPR125, have rapidly increased in relative frequency. In parallel, a reproductively isolated insecticide-susceptible A. gambiae population (Bamako form) has been driven to local extinction, likely due to strong selection from increased insecticide-treated bed net usage. PMID:26359110

  20. Anopheles gambiae exploits the treehole ecosystem in western Kenya: a new urban malaria risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlin, Francois X; Carlson, John C; Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    At six sites in western Kenya, we explored the presence of Anopheles immature stages in treeholes. An. gambiae larvae were found in 19 species, 13 of which are exotic. The most common exotic species were Delonix regia, Jacaranda mimosipholia, and Eucalyptus citrodora. In Kisumu city, longitudinal assessments of 10 Flamboyant trees showed repeated presence of An. gambiae s.s. in treeholes with water. Production of Anopheles larvae did not correlate with habitat volume but with habitat height, showing a strong but statistically insignificant negative correlation. During a dry season, eggs recovered by rinsing dry treeholes hatched into 2.5 +/- 3.06 An. gambiae and 7.9 +/- 8.2 Aedes larvae. In cage experiments, An. gambiae s.s. laid more eggs in water originating from treeholes than in distilled or lake water, implying preference for ovipositing in this habitat. Our findings indicate that treeholes represent a hitherto unrecognized habitat for malaria vectors, which needs further studies. PMID:18165501

  1. Integrated genetic map of Anopheles gambiae: use of RAPD polymorphisms for genetic, cytogenetic and STS landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, G; Zheng, L; Kumar, V; della Torre, A; Kafatos, F C; Louis, C

    1996-06-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been integrated in the genetic and cytogenetic maps of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Fifteen of these markers were mapped by recombination, relative to microsatellite markers that had been mapped previously. Thirty-four gel-purified RAPD bands were cloned and sequenced, generating sequence tagged sites (STSs) that can be used as entry points to the A. gambiae genome. Thirty one of these STSs were localized on nurse cell polytene chromosomes through their unique hybridization signal in in situ hybridization experiments. Five STSs map close to the breakpoints of polymorphic inversions, which are notable features of the Anopheles genome. The usefulness and limitations of this integrated mosquito map are discussed. PMID:8725241

  2. The role of reactive oxygen species on Plasmodium melanotic encapsulation in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Christophides, George K; Cantera, Rafael; Charles, Bradley; Han, Yeon Soo; Meister, Stephan; Dimopoulos, George; Kafatos, Fotis C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2003-11-25

    Malaria transmission depends on the competence of some Anopheles mosquitoes to sustain Plasmodium development (susceptibility). A genetically selected refractory strain of Anopheles gambiae blocks Plasmodium development, melanizing, and encapsulating the parasite in a reaction that begins with tyrosine oxidation, and involves three quantitative trait loci. Morphological and microarray mRNA expression analysis suggest that the refractory and susceptible strains have broad physiological differences, which are related to the production and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Physiological studies corroborate that the refractory strain is in a chronic state of oxidative stress, which is exacerbated by blood feeding, resulting in increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species, which favor melanization of parasites as well as Sephadex beads. PMID:14623973

  3. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Malschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and forecastof losses, protection and use of the natural reservoir of entomophagous in regional diptera populationslimitation, in cereal agroecosystems. The research proved the crucial role of entomophagous as naturalpredators, and their efficiency in decreasing wheat pests abundance, in normal conditions.

  4. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  5. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  6. Ecology of Anopheles Stephensi in a Malarious Area, Southeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Norair Piazak; Minoo Mashayekhi; Ezatoddin Javadian; Hamideh Edalat; Mohammad Reza Abai; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad Mehravaran; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd

    2012-01-01

    District of Jiroft is situated in south-east of Iran which is one of the malarious regions. Anopheles stephensi is considered as one of the main malaria vector in this region. Ecology of this species was studied in the area to understand its vector behavior for implementation of effective vector control measures. Different methods like total catch, pit shelter, night bite collection on human and animal, larval dipping methods were used for species identification, seasonal activity, anthropoph...

  7. Invasion of Wolbachia into Anopheles and Other Insect Germlines in an Ex vivo Organ Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Grant L.; Andrew D Pike; Ping Xue; Jason L Rasgon

    2012-01-01

    The common bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates its host's reproduction to promote its own maternal transmission, and can interfere with pathogen development in many insects making it an attractive agent for the control of arthropod-borne disease. However, many important species, including Anopheles mosquitoes, are uninfected. Wolbachia can be artificially transferred between insects in the laboratory but this can be a laborious and sometimes fruitless process. We used a simple ex viv...

  8. Comparison of the functional features of the pump organs of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Ran Ha; Seung-Chul Lee; Seung-Jun Seo; Jeongeun Ryu; Dong-Kyu Lee; Sang-Joon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors for severe tropical diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases are affected by various factors such as environmental conditions, host body susceptibility, and mosquito feeding behavior. Among these factors, feeding behavior is affected by the feeding pump system located inside the mosquito head and also depends on the species of mosquito. Therefore, the 3D morphological structures of the feeding pumps of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis were comparatively investigated using...

  9. Rhodopsin coexpression in UV photoreceptors of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaobang; Leming, Matthew T; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. The two species express the rhodopsin orthologs Aaop8 and Agop8, respectively, in a large subset of these R7 photoreceptors that function as ultraviolet receptors. We show here that a divergent subfamily of mosquito rhodopsins, Aaop10 and Agop10, is coexpressed in these R7 photoreceptors. The properties of the A. aegypti ...

  10. Larvicidal Effects of a Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil Formulation on the Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Knols Bart GJ; Okumu Fredros O; Fillinger Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to...

  11. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    OpenAIRE

    Bossou, Annick; Mangelinckx, Sven; Yedomonhan, Hounnankpon; Boko, Pelagie M; Akogbeto, Martin C; De Kimpe, Norbert; Avlessi, Felicien; Sohounhloue, Dominique CK

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, we...

  12. Anopheles gambiae mosquito isolated neurons : a new biological model for optimizing insecticide/repellent efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lavialle-Defaix, C.; Apaire-Marchais, V; Legros, C.; Pennetier, Cédric; Mohamed, A; P. Licznar; Corbel, Vincent; Lapied, B

    2011-01-01

    To understand better the mode of action of insecticides and repellents used in vector-borne diseases control, we developed a new biological model based on mosquito neurons isolated from adults Anopheles gambiae heads. This cellular model is well adapted to multidisciplinary approaches: electrophysiology, pharmacology, molecular biology and biochemical assays. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that isolated neurons express the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 1 (Ag alpha 1 nAchR), tw...

  13. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Ndjemai, H. N. M.; Patchoke, S.; Atangana, J.; Etang, J.; Simard, Frédéric; Bilong, C. F. B.; Reimer, L.; Cornel, A.; Lanzaro, G.C.; Fondjo, E

    2009-01-01

    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in popula...

  14. Effective population size of Anopheles funestus chromosomal forms in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini Carlo; Sagnon N'Fale; Guelbeogo Wamdaogo M; Grushko Olga; Michel Andrew P; Besansky Nora J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background As Anopheles funestus is one of the principal Afro-tropical malaria vectors, a more complete understanding of its population structure is desirable. In West and Central Africa, An. funestus population structure is complicated by the coexistence of two assortatively mating chromosomal forms. Effective population size (Ne) is a key parameter in understanding patterns and levels of intraspecific variation, as it reflects the role of genetic drift. Here, Ne was estimated from ...

  15. Effective population size of Anopheles funestus chromosomal forms in Burkina Faso - art. no. 115

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, A P; Grushko, O.; Guelbeogo, W.M.; Sagnon, N.; Costantini, Carlo; Besansky, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: As Anopheles funestus is one of the principal Afro-tropical malaria vectors, a more complete understanding of its population structure is desirable. In West and Central Africa, An. funestus population structure is complicated by the coexistence of two assortatively mating chromosomal forms. Effective population size ( Ne) is a key parameter in understanding patterns and levels of intraspecific variation, as it reflects the role of genetic drift. Here, N-e was estimated from both c...

  16. Extensive circadian and light regulation of the transcriptome in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Rund, Samuel SC; James E. Gentile; Duffield, Giles E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes exhibit 24 hr rhythms in flight activity, feeding, reproduction and development. To better understand the molecular basis for these rhythms in the nocturnal malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, we have utilized microarray analysis on time-of-day specific collections of mosquitoes over 48 hr to explore the coregulation of gene expression rhythms by the circadian clock and light, and compare these with the 24 hr rhythmic gene expression in the diurnal Aedes aegypti dengue vec...

  17. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Chilaka Nora; Perkins Elisabeth; Tripet Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambi...

  18. The impact of insecticides management linked with resistance expression in Anopheles spp. populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Liberato da Silva; Thiago Nunes Pereira; Noeli Juarez Ferla; Onilda Santos da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The resistance of some species of Anopheles to chemical insecticides is spreading quickly throughout the world and has hindered the actions of prevention and control of malaria. The main mechanism responsible for resistance in these insects appears to be the target site known as knock-down resistance (kdr), which causes mutations in the sodium channel. Even so, many countries have made significant progress in the prevention of malaria, focusing largely on vector control through long-...

  19. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L. Salas; Romero, Jackeline F.; Yesid Solarte; Victor Olano; Myriam A. Herrera; Sócrates Herrera

    1994-01-01

    The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per ...

  20. Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : Electrophysiology and identification of kairomones

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerink, J

    1999-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto are important vectors of human malaria in Africa. It is generally assumed that they locate their human host by odours. These odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons situated within cuticular extensions on the antenna. These cuticular extensions, called sensilla, contain numerous pores through which the odours can enter the sensillum and reach the olfactory receptor neuron membrane. Despite the fact that these mos...

  1. Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam Induced Mutations in Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) of Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha; Barna, Bhupinder; Kaur, Satvinderjeet

    2012-01-01

    The present article deals with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotoxicity evaluation of neonicotinoid pesticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, by using the genome of a mosquito Anopheles stephensi taken as an experimental model. After treatment of the second instar larvae with LC20 of the pesticides for 24 h, the induced nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of freshly hatched unfed control and treated individuals was studied from the sequenc...

  2. Insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae against temephos in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. K.; P.K.Mittal; Gaurav Kumar; Dhiman, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Temephos is used as a larvicide in urban areas in India to control the population of mosquito vectors viz. Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi to temophos in various zones of Municipal Corporation of Delhi was evaluated using the WHO method for determining larval susceptibility test kit. Results revealed that the larval mortality of Ae. aegypti collected from different localities ranged between 64.88% to 98.22%. The highest mortali...

  3. The Population Genomics of Trans-Specific Inversion Polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    White, Bradley J.; Cheng, Changde; Sangaré, Djibril; Lobo, Neil F.; Collins, Frank H.; Besansky, Nora J

    2009-01-01

    In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae polymorphic chromosomal inversions may play an important role in adaptation to environmental variation. Recently, we used microarray-based divergence mapping combined with targeted resequencing to map nucleotide differentiation between alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion. Here, we applied the same technique to four different polymorphic inversions on the 2R chromosome of An. gambiae. Surprisingly, divergence was much lower between alternativ...

  4. A behavioral mechanism underlying ecological divergence in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Bouyer, Jérémy; Morand, Serge; Besansky, Nora J.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive selection mediated by predation on aquatic immature stages has been proposed as a major force driving ecological divergence and fostering speciation between the M and S molecular forms of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. In the dry savannahs of West Africa where both molecular forms co-occur, the S form thrives in temporary pools filled with rainwater, whereas the M form preferentially breeds in permanent freshwater habitats where predator pressure is higher. Here, ...

  5. Robust and regulatory expression of defensin A gene driven by vitellogenin promoter in transgenic Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoGuang; ZHANG YaJing; ZHENG XueLi; WANG ChunMei

    2007-01-01

    The use of genetically modified mosquitoes to reduce or replace field populations is a new strategy to control mosquito-borne diseases. The precondition of the implementation of this strategy is the ability to manipulate the genome of mosquitoes and to induce specific expression of the effector molecules driven by a suitable promoter. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of defensin A gene of Anopheles sinensis under the control of a vitellogenin promoter in transgenic Anopheles stephensi. The regulatory region of Anopheles gambiae vitellogenin was cloned and subcloned into transfer vector pSLFa consisting of an expression cassette with defensin A coding sequence. Then, the expression cassette was transferred into transformation vector pBac[3xP3-DsRedafm] using Asc I digestion. The recombinant plasmid DNA of pBac[3xP3DsRed-AgVgT2-DefA] and helper plasmid DNA of phsp-pBac were micro-injected into embryos of An. stephensi. The positive transgenic mosquitoes were screened by observing specific red fluorescence in the eyes of G1 larvae. Southern blot analysis showed that a single-copy transgene integrated into the genome of An. stephensi. RT-PCR analysis showed that the defensin A gene expressed specifically in fat bodies of female mosquitoes after a blood meal. Interestingly, the mRNA of defensin A is more stable compared with that of the endogenous vitellogenin gene. After multiple blood meals, the expression of defensin A appeared as a reducible and non-cycling type, a crucial feature for its anti-pathogen effect. From data above, we concluded that the regulatory function of the Vg promoter and the expression of defensin A gene were relatively conserved in different species of anopheles mosquitoes. These molecules could be used as candidates in the development of genetically modified mosquitoes.

  6. Presence of the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, F.; Minář, Jan; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Gelbič, Ivan; Reiter, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 284-286. ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme(XE) GOCE-2003-010284 EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Anopheles hyrcanus * mosquitoes * geographic range * Central Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.092, year: 2009

  7. Cloning and molecular characterization of two invertebrate-type lysozymes from Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Paskewitz, S M; Li, B.; Kajla, M. K.

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced and characterized two novel invertebrate-type lysozymes from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of these and a number of related insect proteins identified through bioinformatics strategies showed a high degree of conservation of this protein family throughout the Class Insecta. Expression profiles were examined for the two mosquito genes through semiquantitative and real-time PCR analysis. Lys i-1 transcripts were found in adult females in the fa...

  8. Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Afrane, Yaw A; Little, Tom J.; Lawson, Bernard W; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of deforestation on microclimates and sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in an area of the western Kenyan highland prone to malaria epidemics. An. gambiae mosquitoes were fed with P. falciparum–infected blood through membrane feeders. Fed mosquitoes were placed in houses in forested and deforested areas in a highland area (1,500 m above sea level) and monitored for parasite development. Deforested sites had hig...

  9. Factors affecting the vectorial competence of Anopheles gambiae: a question of scale

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W; Lindsay, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria transmission in Africa is without doubt governed by the existence of a group of highly efficient vectors, of which Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto is predominant. The endophilic and anthropophagic behaviours of this mosquito create an intimate association between the human reservoir and insect vectors of malaria. In this paper several mosquito-related and environmental factors that modulate the transmission intensity of malaria in Africa are discussed, in order to illustrate the...

  10. The JNK Pathway Is a Key Mediator of Anopheles gambiae Antiplasmodial Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Garver, Lindsey S.; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes limits Plasmodium infection through multiple molecular mechanisms. For example, midgut invasion by the parasite triggers an epithelial nitration response that promotes activation of the complement-like system. We found that suppression of the JNK pathway, by silencing either Hep, JNK, Jun or Fos expression, greatly enhanced Plasmodium infection; while overactivating this cascade, by silencing the suppressor Puckered, had the opposite ef...

  11. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to ‘remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that t...

  12. A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Rodrigues, Janneth; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrices in diverse biological systems are crosslinked by dityrosine covalent bonds catalyzed by the peroxidase/oxidase system. We show that the Immunomodulatory Peroxidase (IMPer), an enzyme secreted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase (Duox) form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors and protects the microbiota by preventing activation of epithelial immunity. It also provides a suitable environment for malaria parasites...

  13. The STAT pathway mediates late phase immunity against Plasmodium in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Lalita; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rodrigues, Janneth; Dixit, Rajnikant; Zamora, Rodolfo E.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The STAT family of transcription factors activate expression of immune system genes in vertebrates. The ancestral STAT gene (AgSTAT-A) appears to have duplicated in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, giving rise to a second intronless STAT gene (AgSTAT-B), which we show regulates AgSTAT-A expression in adult females. AgSTAT-A participates in the transcriptional activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in response to bacterial and plasmodial infection. Activation of this pathway, however, is not...

  14. Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: Responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, George; Christophides, George K.; Meister, Stephan; SCHULTZ, JÖRG; White, Kevin P.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    2002-01-01

    The complex gene expression responses of Anopheles gambiae to microbial and malaria challenges, injury, and oxidative stress (in the mosquito and/or a cultured cell line) were surveyed by using cDNA microarrays constructed from an EST-clone collection. The expression profiles were broadly subdivided into induced and down-regulated gene clusters. Gram+ and Gram− bacteria and microbial elicitors up-regulated a diverse set of genes, many belonging to the immunity class, and the response to malar...

  15. Ecological Genomics of Anopheles gambiae Along a Latitudinal Cline: A Population-Resequencing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Changde; White, Bradley J.; Kamdem, Colince; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Costantini, Carlo; Matthew W Hahn; Besansky, Nora J

    2012-01-01

    The association between fitness-related phenotypic traits and an environmental gradient offers one of the best opportunities to study the interplay between natural selection and migration. In cases in which specific genetic variants also show such clinal patterns, it may be possible to uncover the mutations responsible for local adaptation. The malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is associated with a latitudinal cline in aridity in Cameroon; a large inversion on chromosome 2L of this mosquito ...

  16. Multiple Origins of Knockdown Resistance Mutations in the Afrotropical Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Joao; Lynd, Amy; Vicente, José L; Santolamazza, Federica; Randle, Nadine P.; Gentile, Gabriele; Moreno, Marta; Simard, Frédéric; Charlwood, Jaques Derek; Rosário, Virgilio E do; Caccone, Adalgisa; Torre, Alessandra della; Donelly, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and L1014S) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, that confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroid insec...

  17. Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Cornel, Anthony J; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly...

  18. The evolution of TEP1, an exceptionally polymorphic immunity gene in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Guiyun; Soares Dinesh C; Jiggins Francis M; Callister Deborah M; Obbard Darren J; Little Tom J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Host-parasite coevolution can result in balancing selection, which maintains genetic variation in the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. It has been suggested that variation in a thioester-containing protein called TEP1 (AGAP010815) may alter the ability of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium parasites, and high divergence between alleles of this gene suggests the possible action of long-term balancing selection. We studied whether TEP1 is a case of an ancient b...

  19. Observations on sporozoite detection in naturally infected sibling species of the Anopheles culicifacies complex and variant of Anopheles stephensi in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susanta Kumar Ghosh; Satyanarayan Tiwari; Kamaraju Raghavendra; Tiruchinapalli Sundaraj; Aditya Prasad Dash

    2008-09-01

    Sporozoites were detected in naturally infected sibling species of the primary rural vector Anopheles culicifacies complex in two primary health centres (PHCs) and a variant of the urban vector Anopheles stephensi in Mangalore city, Karnataka, south India while carrying out malaria outbreak investigations from 1998–2006. Sibling species of An. culicifacies were identified based on the banding patterns on ovarian polytene chromosomes, and variants of An. stephensi were identified based on the number of ridges on the egg floats. Sporozoites were detected in the salivary glands by the dissection method. Of the total 334 salivary glands of An. culicifacies dissected, 17 (5.08%) were found to be positive for sporozoites. Of the 17 positive samples, 11 were suitable for sibling species analysis; 10 were species A (an efficient vector) and 1 was species B (a poor vector). Out of 46 An. stephensi dissected, one was sporozoite positive and belonged to the type form (an efficient vector). In malaria epidemiology this observation is useful for planning an effective vector control programme, because each sibling species/variant differs in host specificity, susceptibility to malarial parasites, breeding habitats and response to insecticides.

  20. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria C Maia; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  1. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  2. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  3. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Malschi

    2009-01-01

    During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and f...

  4. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months ...

  5. Dentification of four vectors of human Plasmodium spp. by multiplex PCR: Anopheles rangeli, An. strodei, An. triannulatus, and An. trinkae (Diptera: Culicidae: Nyssorhynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, G N; Engman, S; Rodriguez, R; Wilkerson, R C

    2004-11-01

    One of the major obstacles for studies of the biology, ecology, and behavior of Neotropical vectors of human Plasmodium has been the lack of reliable and efficient means of identifying many species. Although the subgenus Nyssorhynchus includes most species responsible for human transmission in South America, there are no polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques for identifying members of this taxon. We describe the first multiplex PCR for identifying four species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus that are vectors of human Plasmodium spp. Four species specific primers, together with a universal primer that anneals to the 5.8S rDNA region, produce amplicons of the internal transcribed spacer two with base pair sizes of 131,308,371, and 441 for An. triannulatus, An. trinkae, An. strodei, and An. rangeli, respectively. PMID:15605651

  6. Studies of Anopheles gambiae s.l (Diptera: Culicidae exhibiting different vectorial capacities in lymphatic filariasis transmission in the Gomoa district, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amuzu Hilaria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two lymphatic filariasis endemic communities Mampong and Hwida in Ghana have been regularly monitored for impact on transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin. After six MDAs even though the ABR for Mampong was 55883/person/year and that of Hwida was 2494/person/year, they both had ATPs of 15.21 infective larvae/person/year. Interestingly the human microfilaraemia levels had reduced significantly from 14% to 0% at Mampong and 12% to 3% at Hwida. In an attempt to understand this anomaly, we collected mosquitoes over a 5-month period using human landing catches to determine the species composition, the number of cibarial teeth, the lengths and widths of the cibarium and the cibarial dome of the vector populations. Results Out of 2553 mosquitoes caught at Mampong, 42.6% were An. gambiae s.l. All 280 identified further by PCR were An. gambiae s.s (275 M and 5 S molecular forms. At Hwida, 112 mosquitoes were obtained; 67 (59.8% were An. gambiae s.l, comprised of 40 (59.7% An. melas, 24 (35.8% An. gambiae s.s (17 and 5 M and S molecular forms respectively and 3 (4.5% unidentified. The mean number of teeth for An. melas was 14.1 (median = 14, range = 12-15, An. gambiae s.s., 15.7 (median = 15, range = 13-19 M form 15.5 (median = 15 range = 13-19 and S form 16 (median = 16, range 15-17. The observed differences in teeth numbers were significantly different between An. melas and An. gambiae s.s (p = 0.004, and the M form (p = 0.032 and the S form (p = 0.002. Conclusions In this study, An. gambiae s.s was the main vector at Mampong and was found to possess significantly more cibarial teeth than An. melas, the principal vector at Hwida. We postulate that the different impact observed after 6 MDAs may be due to An. gambiae s.s exhibiting 'facilitation' at Mampong and at Hwida An. melas the main vector exhibits 'limitation'. Thus it may be necessary to compliment MDA with vector control to achieve interruption of transmission in areas where An. melas may exhibit limitation.

  7. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Azokou; Mamidou W. Koné; Koudou, Benjamin G; Honora F. Tra Bi

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity aga...

  8. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  9. A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaghaninia S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A New Species of Chyliza (Diptera, Psilidae from Iran. Khaghaninia, S., Gharajedaghi, Ya. — Chyliza (Dasyna qaradaghi from Iran (type locality: Qaradagh Forests (Qala Deresi, East Azerbaijan Province is described. C. qaradaghi Khaghaninia et Gharajedaghi, sp. n. is similar to Chyliza (Dasyna extenuata (Rossi, 1790 in having arista thickened in basal third with dense black hairs and lacking anteroventral comb of black spinules on male fore tibia. New species differs from C. extenuata by head yellow, only occiput partly black and hind tibia largely black; C. extenuata has head completely black and hind tibia yellow. Both species differ also by the shape of male genitalia.

  10. Review of Temephos Discriminating Concentration for Monitoring the Susceptibility of Anopheles labranchiae (Falleroni, 1926), Malaria Vector in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Chandre, F; Ameur, B; Herrak, T.; E. Adlaoui; Elkohli, M.; Faraj, C.

    2010-01-01

    In Morocco, the resistance monitoring of Anopheles labranchiae larvae to temephos is done using discriminating concentration of 0.125 mg, which is half of the WHO recommended dose for Anopheles. However, this dosage seemed to be too high to allow an early detection of the resistance and its revision was found necessary. The present study was carried out during May-June 2008 and 2009 in nine provinces from the north-west of the country. The aim was to determine the lethal concentrations LC100 ...

  11. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  12. Following in Soper's footsteps: northeast Brazil 63 years after eradication of Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Gerry F

    2003-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has long suffered under the yoke of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, but for northeast Brazil (figure 1) its arrival over 60 years ago was a new and horrifying experience. This African mosquito is an exceptionally effective malaria vector because it is well adapted to feeding upon people and to exploiting aquatic habitats associated with our daily activities. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato probably accounts for most of the world's malaria deaths and socioeconomic burden. Fortunately, the Brazilian experience had a happy ending. The prospect of A gambiae spreading across much of the Americas motivated a ruthlessly effective response that deserves a special and heroic place in the annals of public health. Building on the successes and infrastructure of the Yellow Fever Service for Aedes aegypti elimination, the Rockefeller Foundation and Brazilian government collaborated to form a new Malaria Service of the Northeast. This new entity rolled the invader back into oblivion with an aggressive eradication campaign, focusing primarily upon larviciding of all potential habitats. The driving force of this endeavour was an enigmatic man called Fred Soper whose sheer will and determination was a key element in this success, and a source of inspiration today (see Killeen GF, et al. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa? Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2: 618-27). I recently took an opportunity to fulfil a long-held dream and follow in some of Soper's footsteps. Tired of gazing at yellowing maps like figure 1, I went to see the northeast of Brazil for myself. PMID:14522266

  13. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  14. Gal4-based enhancer-trapping in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brochta, David A; Pilitt, Kristina L; Harrell, Robert A; Aluvihare, Channa; Alford, Robert T

    2012-11-01

    Transposon-based forward and reverse genetic technologies will contribute greatly to ongoing efforts to study mosquito functional genomics. A piggyBac transposon-based enhancer-trap system was developed that functions efficiently in the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. The system consists of six transgenic lines of Anopheles stephensi, each with a single piggyBac-Gal4 element in a unique genomic location; six lines with a single piggyBac-UAStdTomato element; and two lines, each with a single Minos element containing the piggyBac-transposase gene under the regulatory control of the hsp70 promoter from Drosophila melanogaster. Enhancer detection depended upon the efficient remobilization of piggyBac-Gal4 transposons, which contain the yeast transcription factor gene Gal4 under the regulatory control of a basal promoter. Gal4 expression was detected through the expression of the fluorescent protein gene tdTomato under the regulatory control of a promoter with Gal4-binding UAS elements. From five genetic screens for larval- and adult-specific enhancers, 314 progeny were recovered from 24,250 total progeny (1.3%) with unique patterns of tdTomato expression arising from the influence of an enhancer. The frequency of piggyBac remobilization and enhancer detection was 2.5- to 3-fold higher in female germ lines compared with male germ lines. A small collection of enhancer-trap lines are described in which Gal4 expression occurred in adult female salivary glands, midgut, and fat body, either singly or in combination. These three tissues play critical roles during the infection of Anopheles stephensi by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. This system and the lines generated using it will be valuable resources to ongoing mosquito functional genomics efforts. PMID:23173082

  15. Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapa Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax have become increasingly important in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS. MDR malaria is the heritable and hypermutable property of human malarial parasite populations that can decrease in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to proven antimalarial drugs as they exhibit dose-dependent drug resistance and delayed parasite clearance time in treated patients. MDR malaria risk situations reflect consequences of the national policy and strategy as this influences the ongoing national-level or subnational-level implementation of malaria control strategies in endemic GMS countries. Based on our experience along with current literature review, the design of ecotope-based entomological surveillance (EES and molecular xenomonitoring of MDR falciparum and vivax malaria parasites in Anopheles vectors is proposed to monitor infection pockets in transmission control areas of forest and forest fringe-related malaria, so as to bridge malaria landscape ecology (ecotope and ecotone and epidemiology. Malaria ecotope and ecotone are confined to a malaria transmission area geographically associated with the infestation of Anopheles vectors and particular environments to which human activities are related. This enables the EES to encompass mosquito collection and identification, salivary gland DNA extraction, Plasmodium- and species-specific identification, molecular marker-based PCR detection methods for putative drug resistance genes, and data management. The EES establishes strong evidence of Anopheles vectors carrying MDR P. vivax in infection pockets epidemiologically linked with other data obtained during which a course of follow-up treatment of the notified P. vivax patients receiving the first-line treatment was conducted. For regional and global perspectives, the EES would augment the epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of MDR falciparum and

  16. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rider Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically

  17. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Barasa M Maniafu; Lwande Wilber; Ndiege, Isaiah O.; Cornelius C Wanjala; Teresa Ayuko Akenga

    2009-01-01

    Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL) and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL) extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-nap...

  18. Chemical Constituents of Efficacy of Cymbopogon Olivieri (Boiss Bar Essential Oil Against Malaria Vector , Anopheles Stepensi

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    Abbas Hadjiakhoondi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodistillation of aerial parts of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss. Bar (Andropogonae yielded 1.7% v/w of the essential oil. By GC and GC/MS twenty-two components, representing 94.80% of the total oil composition were identified. The major constituents were Δ-3 carene (22.46%, piperitone (44.90% and α-eudesmol (13.33%. The essential oil of Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss. Bar showed interesting activity against larvaes of Anophel stephensi (LD50=321 .902 p.p.m..

  19. Anopheles gambiae heat shock protein cognate 70B impedes o'nyong-nyong virus replication

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs Stephen; Vanlandingham Dana L; Tsetsarkin Konstantin A; Hong Young S; Sim Cheolho; Collins Frank H

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Phylogenetic and functional analysis was conducted on an Anopheles gambiae gene, ENSANGG00000017398. Based on phylogenetic analysis, this gene belongs to the same lineage as Heat shock protein cognate 70-4 (Hsc70-4) in Drosophila. Accordingly, we propose to name this gene Heat shock protein cognate 70B (HSC70B). We previously reported that expression of HSC70B and other genes including elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and the agglutinin attachment subunit (agglutinin) were up-...

  20. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  1. Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Donna O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Solomon Islands, the Malaria Eradication Programmes of the 1970s virtually eliminated the malaria vectors: Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, both late night biting, endophagic species. However, the vector, Anopheles farauti, changed its behaviour to bite early in the evening outdoors. Thus, An. farauti mosquitoes were able to avoid insecticide exposure and still maintain transmission. Thirty years on and the Solomon Islands are planning for intensified malaria control and localized elimination; but little is currently known about the behaviour of the vectors and how they will respond to intensified control. Methods In the elimination area, Temotu Province, standard entomological collection methods were conducted in typical coastal villages to determine the vector, its ecology, biting density, behaviour, longevity, and vector efficacy. These vector surveys were conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention following indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Results Anopheles farauti was the only anopheline in Temotu Province. In 2008 (pre-intervention, this species occurred in moderate to high densities (19.5-78.5 bites/person/night and expressed a tendency to bite outdoors, early in the night (peak biting time 6-8 pm. Surveys post intervention showed that there was little, if any, reduction in biting densities and no reduction in the longevity of the vector population. After adjusting for human behaviour, indoor biting was reduced from 57% pre-intervention to 40% post-intervention. Conclusion In an effort to learn from historical mistakes and develop successful elimination programmes, there is a need for implementing complimentary vector control tools that can target exophagic and early biting vectors. Intensified indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide net use has further promoted the early, outdoor feeding behaviour of An. farauti in the Solomon Islands

  2. Gene expression patterns associated with blood-feeding in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan James R; Lobo Neil F; Harker Brent W; Hillenmeyer Maureen E; Kern Marcia K; Hong Young S; Dana Ali N; Romans Patricia; Collins Frank H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Blood feeding, or hematophagy, is a behavior exhibited by female mosquitoes required both for reproduction and for transmission of pathogens. We determined the expression patterns of 3,068 ESTs, representing ~2,000 unique gene transcripts using cDNA microarrays in adult female Anopheles gambiae at selected times during the first two days following blood ingestion, at 5 and 30 min during a 40 minute blood meal and at 0, 1, 3, 5, 12, 16, 24 and 48 hours after completion of t...

  3. Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, J K

    1996-06-01

    A eucalyptus-based insect repellent (PMD) with the principal active ingredient p-menthane-3,8-diol was evaluated in the field in comparison with deet. In human landing catches in Tanzania, 3 formulations of PMD were tested against Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus. Repellents, applied to the legs and feet at doses chosen as used in practice, gave complete protection from biting for between 6 and 7.75 h, depending upon the formulation type, with no significant difference between PMD and deet in terms of efficacy and duration of protection. PMID:8827599

  4. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E.; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct...

  5. A peroxidase/dual oxidase system modulates midgut epithelial immunity in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Rodrigues, Janneth; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2010-03-26

    Extracellular matrices in diverse biological systems are cross-linked by dityrosine covalent bonds catalyzed by the peroxidase/oxidase system. We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors. This network protects the microbiota by preventing activation of epithelial immunity. It also provides a suitable environment for malaria parasites to develop within the midgut lumen without inducing nitric oxide synthase expression. Disruption of this barrier results in strong and effective pathogen-specific immune responses. PMID:20223948

  6. Immune factor Gambif1, a new rel family member from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillas-Mury, C; Charlesworth, A.; Gross, I; Richman, A; Hoffmann, J A; Kafatos, F C

    1996-01-01

    A novel rel family member, Gambif1 (gambiae immune factor 1), has been cloned from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and shown to be most similar to Drosophila Dorsal and Dif. Gambif1 protein is translocated to the nucleus in fat body cells in response to bacterial challenge, although the mRNA is present at low levels at all developmental stages and is not induced by infection. DNA binding activity to the kappaB-like sites in the A.gambiae Defensin and the Drosophila Diptericin and...

  7. The JAK-STAT Pathway Controls Plasmodium vivax Load in Early Stages of Anopheles aquasalis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Ana C; Marina S Kubota; Antonio J Tempone; Helena R. C. Araújo; Bruno A M Guedes; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Wanderli P Tadei; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; SECUNDINO Nágila F.C.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the tran...

  8. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Ana C; Marina S Kubota; Antonio J Tempone; Helena R. C. Araújo; Bruno A M Guedes; Orfanó, Alessandra S.; Wanderli P Tadei; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M.; Han, Yeon S.; SECUNDINO Nágila F.C.; Carolina Barillas-Mury; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the tran...

  9. A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Rodrigues, Janneth; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrices in diverse biological systems are crosslinked by dityrosine covalent bonds catalyzed by the peroxidase/oxidase system. We show that the Immunomodulatory Peroxidase (IMPer), an enzyme secreted by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase (Duox) form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors and protects the microbiota by preventing activation of epithelial immunity. It also provides a suitable environment for malaria parasites to develop within the midgut lumen without inducing nitric oxide synthase expression. Disruption of this barrier results in strong and effective pathogen-specific immune responses. PMID:20223948

  10. Molecular identification of a myosuppressin receptor from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöller, Susanne; Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe;

    2005-01-01

    The insect myosuppressins (X1DVX2HX3FLRFamide) are neuropeptides that generally block insect muscle activities. We have used the genomic sequence information from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Genome Project to clone a G protein-coupled receptor that was closely related to the two......, showing that the receptor was quite selective for myosuppressin. These results also showed that the myosuppressin receptor needs a much larger portion than the C-terminal FLRFamide sequence for its activation. The insect myosuppressins are often grouped together with the insect FMRFamides under the name...

  11. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  12. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three liv

  13. Ultrastructure of a microsporidium brachiola gambiae n.sp.parasitising a mosquito anopheles gamblae, a malaria vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    - (2003), s. 35-36. ISSN 1214-021X. [Conference on Cell Biology /5./. České Budějovice, 08.09.2003-10.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : anopheles gambiae * malaria * vector Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles - Effects of host characteristics and parasite infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are described in this thesis. Specific

  15. Studies on x-ray induced chromosomal translocations in Anopheles albimanus. II. Laboratory evaluation of sexual competitiveness of translocation males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of a genetic control program in a sexually reproducing species depends largely on the mating competitiveness of the released individuals. The sexual vigor of male Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes carrying a Y-autosome translocation was evaluated in the laboratory and found to be equal to that of wild type males

  16. Indirect evidence that agricultural pesticides select for insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Djogbénou S; Benoit, Assogba; Laurette, Djossou; Michel, Makoutode

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the agricultural use of insecticides and the emergence of insecticide resistance. Bioassays were conducted using simulated mosquito larval habitats and well known Anopheles gambiae strains. Soil samples were collected from vegetable production areas in Benin, including one site with insecticide use, one site where insecticides had not been used for two months, and a third where insecticides had not been used. Pupation and emergence rates were very low in pyrethroid-susceptible strains when exposed to soil that had been recently exposed to insecticides. Pupation and emergence rates in strains with the kdr mutation alone or both the kdr and Ace-1 mutations were much higher. Overall, strains with the kdr mutation survived at higher rates compared to that without kdr mutation. Although this study is observational, we provide indirect evidence indicating that soils from agricultural areas contain insecticide residues that can play a role in the emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles. This aspect should be taken into account to better utilize the insecticide in the context of integrated pest management programs. PMID:27232122

  17. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  18. Morphological assessment and molecular phylogenetics of the Funestus and Minimus groups of Anopheles (Cellia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garros, Claire; Harbach, Ralph E; Manguin, Sylvie

    2005-07-01

    A morphological comparison and molecular study of the Afrotropical Funestus and Afro-Oriental Minimus groups within the Myzomyia series of Anopheles (Cellia) was conducted to determine their phylogenetic affinities. Relationships were investigated using morphological characters and ribosomal (D3) and mitochondrial (COII) nucleotide sequences. Cross-identification of specimens from one group by using keys for the other group confirmed their morphological similarity, i.e., members of one group shared the key characters with members of the other group. Molecular analyses recognized five clades, not strictly related to geographical distribution: the Aconitus, Culicifacies, Funestus, Minimus, and Rivulorum subgroups. Morphological observations were congruent with the results of molecular analyses. Anopheles leesoni, an Afrotropical species, is closely related to the Oriental Minimus complex, and these taxa share a close relationship with the Fluviatilis complex that occurs from the Arabian Peninsula through India. The immature and adult stages of An. rivulorum in Africa bear morphological characters that distinguish this species from members of the Afrotropical Funestus subgroup. A composite scheme of classification based on the results and previously published information is proposed for the two groups. It is noted that An. fluviatilis species S is conspecific with An. minimus species C. PMID:16119539

  19. Population genetics of Plasmodium resistance genes in Anopheles gambiae: no evidence for strong selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, D J; Linton, Y-M; Jiggins, F M; Yan, G; Little, T J

    2007-08-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are the primary vectors for malaria in Africa, transmitting the disease to more than 100 million people annually. Recent functional studies have revealed mosquito genes that are crucial for Plasmodium development, but there is presently little understanding of which genes mediate vector competence in the wild, or evolve in response to parasite-mediated selection. Here, we use population genetic approaches to study the strength and mode of natural selection on a suite of mosquito immune system genes, CTL4, CTLMA2, LRIM1, and APL2 (LRRD7), which have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in functional studies. We sampled these genes from two African populations of An. gambiae s.s., along with several closely related species, and conclude that there is no evidence for either strong directional or balancing selection on these genes. We highlight a number of challenges that need to be met in order to apply population genetic tests for selection in Anopheles mosquitoes; in particular the dearth of suitable outgroup species and the potential difficulties that arise when working within a closely-related species complex. PMID:17688548

  20. FAUNA ANOPHELES DI DAERAH PANTAI BEKAS HUTAN MANGROVE KECAMATAN PADANG CERMIN KABUPATEN LAMPUNG SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sushanti Idris-Idram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mosquito collections were carried out in two villages in subdistrict of Padangcermin during 1992-1993. The method of mosquito collections consisted of night landing on man indoor and outdoor, night resting indoor and outdoor around cattle shelters, light trap in cattle shelters, daytime resting indoor and outdoor, as well as larvae collections to identify anophelines breeding sites. Sixteen anophelines i.e. Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. vagus, An. indefinitus, An. nigerrimus, An. peditaeniatus, An. kochi, An. barbirostris, An. bambumbrosus, An. annularis, An. separatus, An. tesselatus, An. aconitus, An. umbrosus, An. leucosphyrus and An. letifer were collected. Among these mosquitos, An. sundaicus was found predominant, followed by An. vagus and An. subpictus. Other species were collected in small numbers. The behavior of Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus and An. vagus were exophagic and endophilic. The larvae of An. sundaicus was found only in brackish standing water such as abandoned shrimp ponds, An. subpictus in brackish standing water as well as fresh standing water, while An. vagus was found only in fresh standing water. Breeding sites of An. sundaicus was characterized by pond with floating algae while An. subpictus and An. vagus were not depending on vegetation.

  1. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  2. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  3. Comparative evaluation of systemic drugs for their effects against Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Matthew P; Kobylinski, Kevin C; Deus, Kelsey M; da Silva, Ines Marques; Gray, Meg; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have shown that ivermectin, a drug that targets invertebrate ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), is potently active against Anopheles spp. mosquitoes at concentrations present in human blood after standard drug administrations; thus ivermectin holds promise as a mass human-administered endectocide that could help suppress malaria parasite transmission. We evaluated other systemic LGIC-targeting drugs for their activities against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae using in vitro blood feeding assays. Eprinomectin, selamectin, moxidectin, and N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide were evaluated as potentially systemic drugs having similar modes of action to ivermectin; all primarily are agonists of invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride ion channels. Additionally, nitenpyram and spinosad were evaluated as systemic drugs that primarily work as agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels. Only eprinomectin killed An. gambiae at concentrations that were comparable to ivermectin. At sub-lethal doses, nitenpyram and moxidectin marginally affected mosquito re-blood feeding ability. The macrocyclic lactones, particularly eprinomectin, caused significantly increased knockdown and significantly inhibited recovery in blood fed females. These data are a first step in evaluating drugs that might be eventually combined with, or substituted for ivermectin for future malaria parasite transmission control. PMID:22019935

  4. Ecology of Anopheles darlingi Root with respect to vector importance: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwat Hélène

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the Americas. In this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. This paper aims to provide information on the importance, ecology and behavior of An. darlingi. It reviews publications that addressed ecological and behavioral aspects that are important to understand the role and importance of An. darlingi in the transmission of malaria throughout its area of distribution. The results show that Anopheles darlingi is especially important for malaria transmission in the Amazon region. Although numerous studies exist, many aspects determining the vectorial capacity of An. darlingi, i.e. its relation to seasons and environmental conditions, its gonotrophic cycle and longevity, and its feeding behavior and biting preferences, are still unknown. The vector shows a high degree of variability in behavioral traits. This makes it difficult to predict the impact of ongoing changes in the environment on the mosquito populations. Recent studies indicate a good ability of An. darlingi to adapt to environments modified by human development. This allows the vector to establish populations in areas where it previously did not exist or had been controlled to date. The behavioral variability of the vector, its adaptability, and our limited knowledge of these impede the establishment of effective control strategies. Increasing our knowledge of An. darlingi is necessary.

  5. BEBERAPA ASPEK BIONOMIK ANOPHELES SP DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TENGAH, PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Dewi Adyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Some Aspects of Anopheles sp Bionomik in Central Sumba Regency, Province of East Nusa Tenggara. Committed in the territory Maradesa Health Center. Data were collected by catching adult mosquitoes by using bait People inside and outside the home, a collection of breaks in the wall and at home, continued with larval surveys in all potential breeding places.  The results showed that the biting behavior tends eksofagik found on An. kochi, An. aconitus and An.barbirostris with bite density peaks in An. aconitus (0.6 persons/hour with a biting peak at 20:00 to 21:00. Behavior tends eksofilik break in An. kochi, An. aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An.flavirostris, An. maculatus and An. indefinitus with the highest density in An.aconitus (0.9 persons/hour at 1:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. Anopheles larvae breeding places found in the small hole in the ground, creek, wetland, non-permanent irrigation, water reservoirs in the vegetable garden, ditches, puddles, swamps, springs, with species that are found as An.kochi, An.aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. flavirostris, An. maculatus, An. indefinitus and An. annullaris

  6. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  7. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days and old (> 4 days with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes.

  8. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.

  9. Études biologiques et comportementales de deux espèces de moustiques (Aedes albopictus et Anopheles arabiensis) vectrices de maladies en vue du développement de la Technique de l'Insecte Stérile (TIS) contre ces vecteurs à l'île de la Réunion

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Clélia

    2012-01-01

    Les femelles moustiques peuvent être vectrices de nombreux agents infectieux (virus, protozoaires, helminthes) pour l'Homme, qui peuvent être la cause de maladies graves comme le paludisme et la dengue. Ces maladies menacent respectivement 50 et 40% de la population mondiale ; le paludisme étant responsable de près d'un million de décès par an. Les méthodes de lutte anti-vectorielle destinées à limiter les populations vectrices et stopper la transmission de maladies, se heurtent au développem...

  10. A Study of the Essential Oils of Four Sudanese Accessions of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari H. Nour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Certain basil essential oils were claimed to have a larvicidal activity towards mosquito's larvae. To test this claim the essential oils of four accessions of basil grown in Sudan were selected and tested for Anopheles larvae. Malaria is the major health problem in the Sudan and the whole country is now considered endemic, with varying degrees, about 35,000 deaths every year due to malaria. Anopheles mosquito is the major vector of malaria disease in Sudan. Search for larvicidal active compound(s is one of several attempts to fine effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. To determine the toxic effects of basil essential oils extracted by steam distillation against Anopheles larvae. Approach: For the larvicidal bioassay, three concentrations (100, 300, 500 ppm of essential oil solutions of four basil accessions were prepared; 1 mL of ethanol was used to solubilize the oil in water (999 mL. In each concentration of oil solution were inserted 20 larvae (third instars. A set of controls using 0.1% ethanol and untreated sets of larvae in (tap water, were also run for comparison. Data were evaluated through regression analysis, from the regression line; the LC50 values were read. The active ingredients were separated and/ or identified by TLC, IR and GC-MS. Results: Larvicidal activity of the essential oils is varied, lasted for about 9 h and thereafter decreased, LC50 values ranging from 190-300 ppm. Linalool, geraniol and eugenol are active components of basil essential oil against Anopheles larvae. Two accessions were caused 100% mortality at a concentration range 300-500 ppm for 3 h. Conclusion: These results indicated that basil essential oils have larvicidal activity towards Anopheles larvae. Therefore, could be affordable way to control this mosquito.

  11. Field evaluation of ultra-low volume applications with a mixture of d-allethrin and d-phenothrin for control of Anopheles albimanus in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Y; Jean-Francois, V; Saint Jean, Y; Itoh, T

    1991-09-01

    Ultra-low volume applications of d-allethrin and d-phenothrin could possibly reduce populations of Anopheles albimanus when used in conjunction with residual spraying of fenitrothion. The experiments were carried out in Les Cayes, Haiti. PMID:1791463

  12. Diversity and transmission competence in lymphatic filariasis vectors in West Africa, and the implications for accelerated elimination of Anopheles-transmitted filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Dziedzom K; Koudou Benjamin; Kelly-Hope Louise A; Wilson Michael D; Bockarie Moses J; Boakye Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). The strategy adopted is based on the density dependent phenomenon of Facilitation, which hypothesizes that in an area where the vector species transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti are Anopheles mosquitoes, it is feasible to eliminate LF using Mass Drug Administration (MDA) because of the inability of Anopheles species to transmit low-density microfilaraemia....

  13. Activité larvicide sur Anopheles gambiae Giles et composition chimique des huiles essentielles extraites de quatre plantes cultivées au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Tchoumbougnang F.; Dongmo PMJ.; Sameza ML.; Mbanjo EGN.; Fotso GBT.; Zollo PHA.; Menut C.

    2009-01-01

    Larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae Giles and chemical composition of essential oils from four plants cultivated in Cameroon. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dry leaves from Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf, Ocimum canum Sims, Ocimum gratissimum L. var 'gratissimum' L. and Thymus vulgaris L. cultivated in Cameroon were analyzed and their larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles were determined. The yie...

  14. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Maisa; Gil Luiz Herman S; e-Silva Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies re...

  15. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  16. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  17. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  18. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  19. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Farzana Yesmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  20. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  1. Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M.; Oyieke, Florence; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps. Methods Experiments were implemented in an 80 m2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap’s sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap) that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated. Results Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.2; p = 0.284), whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.5; p < 0.001). The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6–0.7; p < 0.001). This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2–2.2; p = 0.001) with the new OviART trap. Conclusion Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles. PMID:23861952

  2. Development of a gravid trap for collecting live malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Dugassa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps. METHODS: Experiments were implemented in an 80 m(2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap's sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated. RESULTS: Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.6-1.2; p = 0.284, whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5; p < 0.001. The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6-0.7; p < 0.001. This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2-2.2; p = 0.001 with the new OviART trap. CONCLUSION: Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles.

  3. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

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    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  4. Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia S. Couri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neodexiopsis Malloch from Bolivia with the description of one new species (Diptera, Muscidae. Neodexiopsis Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae is a very well represented genus in the Neotropical Region, known from almost 100 species. In Bolivia, it is known only from four species: N. declivis, N. incurva, N. oculata and N. recedens, all described by Stein. The study of material from South America deposited at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris, France, enabled the description of one new species to science. A key for the recognition of the five species known to Bolivia is given.

  5. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  6. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

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    Barasa M Maniafu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin 1 (LC50 = 1.9 μg/mL and β-sitosterol 2 were characterised from ethyl acetate extract of root bark of P. dawei, a native medicinal plant growing in Kenya, based on spectral analysis and comparisons with data in literature.

  7. Avoidance Behavior to Essential Oils by Anopheles minimus, a Malaria Vector in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Chauhan, Kamal; Tantakom, Siripun; Eiden, Amanda L; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An. minimus. Citronella and vetiver at 1-5% showed strong irritant effects with>80% escape, while repellent effects of both oils were observed at 1% and 2.5% citronella (73-89% escape) and at 5% vetiver (83.9% escape). Sweet basil had only moderate irritant action at 5% concentration (69.6% escape) and slightly repellent on test mosquitoes (mosquito repellent products for protection against An. minimus. PMID:27105214

  8. PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DDT RESISTANCE IN ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

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    A.Zaini

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  9. Molecular taxonomy provides new insights into anopheles species of the neotropical arribalzagia series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovan F Gómez

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 sequences were used to evaluate initial identification and to investigate phylogenetic relationships of seven Anopheles morphospecies of the Arribalzagia Series from Colombia. Phylogenetic trees recovered highly supported clades for An. punctimaculas.s., An. calderoni, An. malefactor s.l., An. neomaculipalpus, An. apicimacula s.l., An. mattogrossensis and An. peryassui. This study provides the first molecular confirmation of An. malefactorfrom Colombia and discovered conflicting patterns of divergence for the molecular markers among specimens from northeast and northern Colombia suggesting the presence of two previously unrecognized Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs. Furthermore, two highly differentiated An. apicimacula MOTUs previously found in Panama were detected. Overall, the combined molecular dataset facilitated the detection of known and new Colombian evolutionary lineages, and constitutes the baseline for future research on their bionomics, ecology and potential role as malaria vectors.

  10. The impact of insecticides management linked with resistance expression in Anopheles spp. populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Liberato da; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Ferla, Noeli Juarez; Silva, Onilda Santos da

    2016-06-01

    The resistance of some species of Anopheles to chemical insecticides is spreading quickly throughout the world and has hindered the actions of prevention and control of malaria. The main mechanism responsible for resistance in these insects appears to be the target site known as knock-down resistance (kdr), which causes mutations in the sodium channel. Even so, many countries have made significant progress in the prevention of malaria, focusing largely on vector control through long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and (IRS) of insecticides. The objective of this review is to contribute with information on the more applied insecticides for the control of the main vectors of malaria, its effects, and the different mechanisms of resistance. Currently it is necessary to look for others alternatives, e.g. biological control and products derived from plants and fungi, by using other organisms as a possible regulator of the populations of malaria vectors in critical outbreaks. PMID:27383351

  11. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes

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    Martha L. Salas

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per trial, however the Tecojate strain developed higher sporozoite loads. Intravenous inoculation of Aotus monkeys with sporozoites obtained from both anopheline strains resulted in successful blood infections. Animals infected with sporozoites from the Tecojate strain presented a patent period of 21-32 days whereas parasitemia appeared between days 19-53 in monkeys infected with sporozites from Cartagena strain.

  12. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M L; Romero, J F; Solarte, Y; Olano, V; Herrera, M A; Herrera, S

    1994-01-01

    The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per trial, however the Tecojate strain developed higher sporozoite loads. Intravenous inoculation of Aotus monkeys with sporozoites obtained from both anopheline strains resulted in successful blood infections. Animals infected with sporozoites from the Tecojate strain presented a patent period of 21-32 days whereas parasitemia appeared between days 19-53 in monkeys infected with sporozites from Cartagena strain. PMID:7565121

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITIES OF FOUR WHO-RECOMMENDED LARVICIDES AGAINST LAB STRAIN OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI IN IRAN

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    H. Vatandoost

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the current response of An.stephensi larvae to four WHO recommended larvicides, i.e. Malathion, temephos, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion, were carried out in the laboratory in 1999. Diagnostic concentrations of pesticides only yielded 100% mortality with malathion. In contrast, levels of susceptibility to temphos, chlorpyrifos (0.025 mg/l and temephos (0.625 mg/l killed 72%, 90% and 87% of the population of An. Stephensi, respectively. At the LC50 level the efficacies of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion was higher than malathion and temephos. Relative toxicity of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion was 6 and 24 times more than temephos and Malathion. The findings of this study suggest that the diagnostic dose of organophosphate larvicides depends on time, location, strain and genetically background of resistance to insecticides; hence they can be attributed to all species of anopheles.

  14. El doctor moreno pérez y el anopheles crucians

    OpenAIRE

    Revista, Facultad de Medicina

    2011-01-01

    En el año de 1933, con ocasión del conflicto del Amazonas, el doctor Ignacio Moreno·Pérez trabajó como médico de sanidad en la hoya del río Caquetá. Prosiguiendo sus estudios sobre paludismo y mosquitos transmisores a que dedicó gran parte de su meritoria vida, practicó una inspección entomológica de las cercanías de Florencia, capital de la comisaria del Caquetá, y encontró una raza en aguas salobres de Anopheles crucians. El hallazgo comunicado por él en el informe de 1934 de la comisión de...

  15. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in Sri Lanka and options for control through water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Matsuno, Y; Amerasinghe, F P;

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the options for control of malaria vectors through different water management practices in a natural stream in Sri Lanka. The association between water level in the stream and breeding of the immature stages of the primary vector Anopheles culicifacies was investigated and the...... feasibility of using existing irrigation infrastructure to reduce the breeding potential discussed. The most feasible option would be to implement a management routine where water is released periodically from an upstream reservoir to reduce the number of breeding sites downstream. This study indicates that...... by regulating the water level above 20 cm in the stream throughout the dry season the breeding of A. culicifacies could be significantly reduced. The intervention would have only limited impact on the water lost for agriculture and the management input would be minimal. However, for the intervention...

  16. HOUSE-SCALE TRIAL OF FENFLUTHRIN (OMS-2013 AGAINST DDT RESISTANT ANOPHELES ACONITUS IN CENTRAL JAVA

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    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengujian racun serangga fenfluthrin 5% w.d.p. dengan dosis 20 mg/m2 tingkat perumahan telah dilakukan untuk menanggulangi vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus yang sudah kebal terhadap DDT di desa Sekolo, Kecamatan Boja, Jawa Tengah. Penilaian entomologi dikerjakan dengan cara pengujian hayati kontak langsung, kontak tidak langsung dan penangkapan An. aconitus yang istirahat di dalam kandang pagi hari. Hasil pengujian hayati kontak langsung menunjukkan bahwa umur residu fenfluthrin yang disem­protkan pada permukaan dinding dengan dosis 20 mg/m2 adalah tidak lama (hanya sekitar 1 bulan. Umur residu yang efektip (kematian >70% hanya dipermukaan bambu pada 4 hari setelah penyemprot­an. Pengaruh fumigasi racun serangga ini sangat lemah, kematian hanya sebesar 14% dalam pengujian hayati kontak tidak langsung pada 4 hari setelah penyemprotan.

  17. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  18. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A; Serhan, Charles N; Ribeiro, Jose M; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to 'remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that this factor consists of a Lipoxin/Lipocalin complex. We demonstrate that innate immune priming in mosquitoes involves a persistent increase in expression of Evokin (a lipid carrier of the lipocalin family), and in their ability to convert arachidonic acid to lipoxins, predominantly Lipoxin A4. Plasmodium ookinete midgut invasion triggers immune priming by inducing the release of a mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex. PMID:26100162

  19. Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, George; Christophides, George K; Meister, Stephan; Schultz, Jörg; White, Kevin P; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Kafatos, Fotis C

    2002-06-25

    The complex gene expression responses of Anopheles gambiae to microbial and malaria challenges, injury, and oxidative stress (in the mosquito and/or a cultured cell line) were surveyed by using cDNA microarrays constructed from an EST-clone collection. The expression profiles were broadly subdivided into induced and down-regulated gene clusters. Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and microbial elicitors up-regulated a diverse set of genes, many belonging to the immunity class, and the response to malaria partially overlapped with this response. Oxidative stress activated a distinctive set of genes, mainly implicated in oxidoreductive processes. Injury up- and down-regulated gene clusters also were distinctive, prominently implicating glycolysis-related genes and citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation/redox-mitochondrial functions, respectively. Cross-comparison of in vivo and in vitro responses indicated the existence of tightly coregulated gene groups that may correspond to gene pathways. PMID:12077297

  20. Energy metabolism affects susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jose Henrique M; Gonçalves, Renata L S; Oliveira, Giselle A; Oliveira, Pedro L; Oliveira, Marcus F; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies showed that Anopheles gambiae L3-5 females, which are refractory (R) to Plasmodium infection, express higher levels of genes involved in redox-metabolism and mitochondrial respiration than susceptible (S) G3 females. Our studies revealed that R females have reduced longevity, faster utilization of lipid reserves, impaired mitochondrial state-3 respiration, increased rate of mitochondrial electron leak and higher expression levels of several glycolytic enzyme genes. Furthermore, when state-3 respiration was reduced in S females by silencing expression of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), hydrogen peroxide generation was higher and the mRNA levels of lactate dehydrogenase increased in the midgut, while the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection were significantly reduced. We conclude that there are broad metabolic differences between R and S An. gambiae mosquitoes that influence their susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. PMID:21320598