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Sample records for anopheles aquasalis curry

  1. The role of reactive oxygen species in Anopheles aquasalis response to Plasmodium vivax infection.

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    Ana C Bahia

    Full Text Available Malaria affects millions of people worldwide and hundreds of thousands of people each year in Brazil. The mosquito Anopheles aquasalis is an important vector of Plasmodium vivax, the main human malaria parasite in the Americas. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been shown to have a role in insect innate immune responses as a potent pathogen-killing agent. We investigated the mechanisms of free radicals modulation after A. aquasalis infection with P. vivax. ROS metabolism was evaluated in the vector by studying expression and activity of three key detoxification enzymes, one catalase and two superoxide dismutases (SOD3A and SOD3B. Also, the involvement of free radicals in the mosquito immunity was measured by silencing the catalase gene followed by infection of A. aquasalis with P. vivax. Catalase, SOD3A and SOD3B expression in whole A. aquasalis were at the same levels of controls at 24 h and upregulated 36 h after ingestion of blood containing P. vivax. However, in the insect isolated midgut, the mRNA for these enzymes was not regulated by P. vivax infection, while catalase activity was reduced 24 h after the infectious meal. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase reduced enzyme activity in the midgut, resulted in increased P. vivax infection and prevalence, and decreased bacterial load in the mosquito midgut. Our findings suggest that the interactions between A. aquasalis and P. vivax do not follow the model of ROS-induced parasite killing. It appears that P. vivax manipulates the mosquito detoxification system in order to allow its own development. This can be an indirect effect of fewer competitive bacteria present in the mosquito midgut caused by the increase of ROS after catalase silencing. These findings provide novel information on unique aspects of the main malaria parasite in the Americas interaction with one of its natural vectors.

  2. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène; Andriessen, Rob; Rijk, Marjolein de; Koenraadt, Constantianus Johanna Maria; Takken, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52%) were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel). The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8%) were collected by the human landing collection (HLC). None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.

  3. The JAK-STAT pathway controls Plasmodium vivax load in early stages of Anopheles aquasalis infection.

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    Ana C Bahia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects 300 million people worldwide every year and 450,000 in Brazil. In coastal areas of Brazil, the main malaria vector is Anopheles aquasalis, and Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases in the Americas. Insects possess a powerful immune system to combat infections. Three pathways control the insect immune response: Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT. Here we analyze the immune role of the A. aquasalis JAK-STAT pathway after P. vivax infection. Three genes, the transcription factor Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT, the regulatory Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT (PIAS and the Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (NOS were characterized. Expression of STAT and PIAS was higher in males than females and in eggs and first instar larvae when compared to larvae and pupae. RNA levels for STAT and PIAS increased 24 and 36 hours (h after P. vivax challenge. NOS transcription increased 36 h post infection (hpi while this protein was already detected in some midgut epithelial cells 24 hpi. Imunocytochemistry experiments using specific antibodies showed that in non-infected insects STAT and PIAS were found mostly in the fat body, while in infected mosquitoes the proteins were found in other body tissues. The knockdown of STAT by RNAi increased the number of oocysts in the midgut of A. aquasalis. This is the first clear evidence for the involvement of a specific immune pathway in the interaction of the Brazilian malaria vector A. aquasalis with P. vivax, delineating a potential target for the future development of disease controlling strategies.

  4. Manutenção em laboratório de Anopheles albitarsis e Anopheles aquasalis por copulacao induzida Laboratory maintence of Anopheles albitarsis and Anopheles aquasalis by induced copulation

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    Mercia E. Arruda

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduzimos a técnica da copulação induzida para a manutenção e criação em cativeiro, do Anopheles albitarsis e do A. aquasalis, objetivando facilitar futuros trabalhoscom estas espécies de difícil cruzamento espontâneo em laboratório.Many species of mosquitoes are unsuited to life in a laboratory because they fail to copulate in cages. This situation may be largely eliminated by the technique in current use for manually inducing inseminations as outlined. We have used this technique for the first time in relation to Anopheles albitarsis and A. aquasalis, species of malaria vectors which are difficult to mate spontaneously in captivity. The pre-mating age of the males and the temperature at which they are held affect the ability of male to transfer sperm. Mating males 8 to 14 days old with females at any age, resulted in a high order of insemination. Temperature of 25°C and humidity of 80% RH enhanced the degree of insemination.

  5. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina

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    Flores-Mendoza Carmen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.

  6. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Flores-Mendoza

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.

  7. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina Blood-meal sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae in a South-eastern State of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Flores-Mendoza

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.Anopheles aquasalis has shown local variations in blood-host preference in Brazil: it seems to be anthropophilic in the northeast and zoophilic or opportunistic in the Amazon and other regions. A study was carried out in Guapimirim county, State of Rio de Janeiro, from May to November 1992, for the purpose of identifying the blood meal source of this anopheline by capillary tube precipitin test. A total of 1,366 females were captured at natural resting-places, 725 of which were blood-fed. The gut content of 473 blood fed females reacted to the antisera used (human, cow, horse, pig, dog and chicken. The majority of the females ¾ 356 (75.3% ¾ had blood from only one source. A substantial bovine preference was observed ¾ 52.2% had fed on cows, 29.8% on horses, 10.7% on pigs, 4.5% on chickens and 1.7% on dogs, but only few had fed on man (1.1% and none on rats. On the other hand, 24.7% of the females had fed on more than one host, mainly on cows and horses. It was assumed that An. aquasalis is zoophilic

  8. Systematic studies on Anopheles galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane from the subgenus Nysssorhynchus blanchard (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles galvaoi, a member of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, is redescribed based on morphological characters of the adults male and female, fourth-instar larva and pupa. Female, male genitalia, larval and pupal stages are illustrated. Data about medical importance, bionomics, and distribution are given based on literature records. Adult female of An. galvaoi can be easily misidentified as An. benarrochi Gabaldón and An. aquasalis Curry. A few characters are indicated for identifying female and immatures of An. galvaoi. Phylogenetic relationships among An. galvaoi and six other species of the Oswaldoi Subgroup are estimated using COII mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. Lectotype of An. galvaoi, an adult female from Rio Branco, State of Acre, is invalidated.

  9. Curried Persimmon Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    3 1/2 pounds (about 6 cups) of Ming Tomb persimmons, skinned1/2 cup of minced onion1 1/2 tablespoon minced fresh ginger1 cup chicken broth (divided into 4 parts)Another 3 cups of chicken broth1 1/2 teaspoons of curry powder

  10. Development of canned fish curry

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Vijayan; Balachandran, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for canning sardine in two different curry media is presented. One curry medium yields a product with medium pungency while the second one has a low pungency. Sardine canned in curry medium having medium pungency developed signs of internal corrosion as well as slight bitter taste at the end of 15 months storage at ambient temperature. Similar phenomenon took place in the other product only at the end of 18 months storage. Being a ready to serve product it needs no further preparati...

  11. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  12. Anticarcinogenic effects of curry leaves in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, F; Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshana Krishna, K R; Viswanathan, K R; Santhanam, K

    2000-01-01

    Curry leaves are one of the spices used in Indian dishes for aroma and preservation. There are no reports on the antioxidant properties of curry leaves. In this study, the antioxidant potential of curry leaves in rats treated with a known chemical carcinogen, dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) was investigated. Food intake was reduced in the rats fed curry leaf-supplemented diet but the body and the organ weights were not affected. Vitamin A content in the liver was significantly increased whereas glutathione (GSH) content was not altered. A 50% reduction was seen in the micronuclei induced by DMH and a 30% reduction in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase when the rats were fed a curry leaf-supplemented diet. These results indicate that curry leaves have high potential as reducer of the toxicity of DMH.

  13. Anopheles species composition explains differences in Plasmodium transmission in La Guajira, northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Varela, Manuela; Orjuela, Lorena I; Peñalver, Cilia; Conn, Jan E; Quiñones, Martha L

    2014-11-01

    Malaria in La Guajira, the most northern state of Colombia, shows two different epidemiological patterns. Malaria is endemic in the municipality of Dibulla whereas in Riohacha it is characterised by sporadic outbreaks. This study aimed to establish whether differences in transmission patterns could be attributed to different vector species. The most abundant adult female species were Anopheles aquasalis, exclusive to Riohacha, and Anopheles darlingi, restricted to Dibulla. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified using morphology and the molecular markers internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase I. All specimens (n = 1,393) were tested by ELISA to determine natural infection rates with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. An. darlingi was positive for P. vivax 210, with an infection rate of 0.355% and an entomological inoculation rate of 15.87 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles albimanus larvae were the most common species in Riohacha, found in temporary swamps; in contrast, in Dibulla An. darlingi were detected mainly in permanent streams. Distinctive species composition and larval habitats in each municipality may explain the differences in Plasmodium transmission and suggest different local strategies should be used for vector control.

  14. ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN RENEWED MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN ERADICATED AREA. A LOCALIZED OUTBREAK OF A. AQUASALIS-TRANSMITTED MALARIA ON THE DEMERARA RIVER ESTUARY, BRITISH GUIANA, IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF A. DARLINGI AND MALARIA ERADICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIGLIOLI, G

    1963-01-01

    In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete.In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely "fixed" by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself.Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns.

  15. LAUCHLIN CURRIE: DESARROLLO, POBREZA Y DESIGUALDAD DEL INGRESO

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    Blanca Cecilia Zuluaga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el pensamiento de Lauchlin Currie acerca de la pobreza y la distribución del ingreso. Currie fue un economista colombiano que dedicó buena parte de su tiempo al análisis de los problemas sociales y económicos de Colombia, ofreció numerosas y novedosas propuestas para superar el problema de la pobreza en la nación y propició una interesante discusión acerca de la desigualdad entre países. Ambos temas serán tratados en este artículo.

  16. Lauchlin Currie: Desarrollo y crecimiento económico

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo es una guía de las ideas de Lauchlin Currie sobre los procesos de desarrollo y de crecimiento económico. El crecimiento es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo y un mínimo de ley y orden es una condición necesaria para el crecimiento. Para Currie, la causa del crecimiento no son los factores tradicionales sino la interacción social que provoca en los individuos el deseo de tener lo que otros tienen. Ese deseo los impulsa a trabajar más, abrir nuevos mercados, inventar prod...

  17. Espécies de Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae em área endêmica de malária, Maranhão, Brasil Species of Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae in a malaria-endemic area, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Maria M dos SP Xavier

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a flutuação sazonal, freqüência horária, abundância relativa e riqueza de espécies de Anopheles em ambiente antrópico, para entender a bioecologia do grupo e para a monitorização do programa de controle da malária. MÉTODOS: Os anofelinos foram estudados durante um ano, de outubro de 1996 a setembro de 1997, das 18 às 6 horas, a cada 30 dias, no Município da Raposa, Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o método de captura de fêmeas em iscas humanas no intra e peridomicílio, com tubo de sucção e foco luminoso orientado. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 1.407 espécimes assim distribuídos: Anopheles aquasalis (82%, Anopheles galvaoi (10,2% e Anopheles albitarsis (6,4%. As demais espécies, Anopheles evansae, Anopheles nuneztovari e Anopheles triannulatus davisi representaram juntas 1,4%. Os anofelinos ocorreram o ano inteiro, principalmente no período chuvoso, sendo mais freqüentes no intra (75,3% do que no peridomicílio (24,7%, preferindo sugar sangue no crepúsculo vespertino e nas primeiras horas da noite. CONCLUSÃO: As variações observadas no comportamento do anofelino mostram que as diferentes espécies vêm adaptando-se, em maior ou menor grau, ao convívio com o homem nas suas habitações.INTRODUCTION: The study of the seasonal fluctuation, nocturnal activity, relative abundance and the richness of Anopheles species in anthropic environment is essential to the understanding of the their bioecology and to the surveillance program of malaria control. METHODS: The Anopheles species were studied from 6 P.M. to 6 A.M., once a month, for one year, from October 1996 to September 1997, in the municipal district of Raposa, of the São Luís island, Maranhão state. The basic method was the capture of female specimens on human baits in peri and intradomicile sites by means of aspiration tube and guided luminous focus. RESULTS: A total of 1.407 specimens were collected and distributed as follow: Anopheles

  18. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

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    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  19. Espécies de Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae em área endêmica de malária, Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M dos SP Xavier

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a flutuação sazonal, freqüência horária, abundância relativa e riqueza de espécies de Anopheles em ambiente antrópico, para entender a bioecologia do grupo e para a monitorização do programa de controle da malária. MÉTODOS: Os anofelinos foram estudados durante um ano, de outubro de 1996 a setembro de 1997, das 18 às 6 horas, a cada 30 dias, no Município da Raposa, Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o método de captura de fêmeas em iscas humanas no intra e peridomicílio, com tubo de sucção e foco luminoso orientado. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 1.407 espécimes assim distribuídos: Anopheles aquasalis (82%, Anopheles galvaoi (10,2% e Anopheles albitarsis (6,4%. As demais espécies, Anopheles evansae, Anopheles nuneztovari e Anopheles triannulatus davisi representaram juntas 1,4%. Os anofelinos ocorreram o ano inteiro, principalmente no período chuvoso, sendo mais freqüentes no intra (75,3% do que no peridomicílio (24,7%, preferindo sugar sangue no crepúsculo vespertino e nas primeiras horas da noite. CONCLUSÃO: As variações observadas no comportamento do anofelino mostram que as diferentes espécies vêm adaptando-se, em maior ou menor grau, ao convívio com o homem nas suas habitações.

  20. Espécies de Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae em área endêmica de malária, Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Maria M dos SP

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a flutuação sazonal, freqüência horária, abundância relativa e riqueza de espécies de Anopheles em ambiente antrópico, para entender a bioecologia do grupo e para a monitorização do programa de controle da malária. MÉTODOS: Os anofelinos foram estudados durante um ano, de outubro de 1996 a setembro de 1997, das 18 às 6 horas, a cada 30 dias, no Município da Raposa, Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o método de captura de fêmeas em iscas humanas no intra e peridomicílio, com tubo de sucção e foco luminoso orientado. RESULTADOS: Foram coletados 1.407 espécimes assim distribuídos: Anopheles aquasalis (82%, Anopheles galvaoi (10,2% e Anopheles albitarsis (6,4%. As demais espécies, Anopheles evansae, Anopheles nuneztovari e Anopheles triannulatus davisi representaram juntas 1,4%. Os anofelinos ocorreram o ano inteiro, principalmente no período chuvoso, sendo mais freqüentes no intra (75,3% do que no peridomicílio (24,7%, preferindo sugar sangue no crepúsculo vespertino e nas primeiras horas da noite. CONCLUSÃO: As variações observadas no comportamento do anofelino mostram que as diferentes espécies vêm adaptando-se, em maior ou menor grau, ao convívio com o homem nas suas habitações.

  1. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

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    Paulo FP Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

  2. Comparison of quality attributes of buffalo meat curry at different storage temperature

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    Gurunathan Kandeepan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Material and methods. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. Results. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Conclusions. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.

  3. Lauchlin Currie: Desarrollo y crecimiento económico

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    Álvaro Montenegro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una guía de las ideas de Lauchlin Currie sobre los procesos de desarrollo y de crecimiento económico. El crecimiento es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo y un mínimo de ley y orden es una condición necesaria para el crecimiento. Para Currie, la causa del crecimiento no son los factores tradicionales sino la interacción social que provoca en los individuos el deseo de tener lo que otros tienen. Ese deseo los impulsa a trabajar más, abrir nuevos mercados, inventar productos, recortar gastos; todo lo cual aumenta la producción per cápita

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_steph...ensi_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anoph...eles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  5. Raudtee uus tegevjuht lubab pikki ronge ja rohkem tonne / Earl Currie ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Currie, Earl

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee juhatuse esimees Earl Currie raudtee eelmise juhtkonna tegutsemisest, uue juhtkonna seisukohast läbirääkimistel ametiühingutega muutustest ER-i juhtimises, olulisematest investeeringutest jm. Earl Currie eluloost. Vt. samas "Rask näeb Savisaare avalduses kommunismi"

  6. JetCurry: Modeling 3D geometry of AGN jets from 2D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosak, Katie; Li, KunYang; Avachat, Sayali S.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2017-02-01

    Written in Python, JetCurry models the 3D geometry of jets from 2-D images. JetCurry requires NumPy and SciPy and incorporates emcee (ascl:1303.002) and AstroPy (ascl:1304.002), and optionally uses VPython. From a defined initial part of the jet that serves as a reference point, JetCurry finds the position of highest flux within a bin of data in the image matrix and fits along the x axis for the general location of the bends in the jet. A spline fitting is used to smooth out the resulted jet stream.

  7. Natural Antibacterial Activity of Thai Red Curry Paste in Coconut Milk based Curry; Kang-Kati, Model on Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchod SAPABGUY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks have occurred frequently in a variety food types all over the world. Thai red curry paste is composed of 7 herbs which have been investigated for their antimicrobial activity in different independent laboratories. The investigation aimed to study the antibacterial activity of Thai red curry paste in a coconut milk based curry; Kang-Kati, as a real food model against S. enteric Enteritidis (human and L. monocytogenes 10403S. The standard plate count method as CFU/ml was used to evaluate the Thai red curry paste’s in vitro antibacterial activity every hour for 6 h at room temperature. The Thai red curry paste was extracted according to the traditional Thai home cooking as Kang-Kati. The log CFU/ml of S. enteric Enteritidis (human level was significantly lower (P < 0.05 in the Kang-Kati model than in nutrient broth (NB as control at only 3rd and 4th h; 3rd h; 5.53±0.027 and 5.65±0.019, and at 4th h; 5.62±0.07 and 5.80±0.03 log CFU/ml, respectively. While the log CFU/ml of the L. monocytogenes level was also significantly lower (P < 0.05 in Kang-Kati than in NB at 3rd and 4th h; 3rd h; 5.49±0.01 and 5.61±0.02, and at 4th h 5.63±0.02 and 5.70±0.04 for log CFU/ml, respectively. The Thai red curry paste in Kang-Kati as a real food model showed promising natural antibacterial activity against the food borne pathogens, enteric Enteritidis (human and L. monocytogenes 104003S.

  8. Development of curry beef sausage%咖喱牛肉肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国荣

    2015-01-01

    Beef was taken as the main raw material. The processing formula of curry beef sausage was studied. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments, the optimum formula of curry beef sausage was defined. The result showed that the addition of starch, water, curry flavor and beef ex⁃tract was 10%, 35%, 0. 1% and 0. 3%, respectively. The curry beef sausage with smooth surface, high flexibility, compact texture, integrated slice, delicate taste, moderate salinity and full curry beef flavor was obtained.%以牛肉为主要原料,研究了咖喱牛肉肠的制作工艺配方。通过单因素试验和L9(34)正交试验,确定出咖喱牛肉肠的最佳工艺配方:淀粉添加量为10%,水添加量为35%,咖喱香精添加量为0.1%,牛肉膏添加量为0.3%。制出的肠体表面光滑,富有弹性,组织致密,切片光滑平整,切面呈棕黄色,口感细腻嫩滑,咸淡适中,具有饱满的咖喱牛肉香味。

  9. Trace elemental composition of curry by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, A; Armenta, S; De La Guardia, M

    2008-01-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion was developed to determine the content of traces elements in curry samples from the Spanish market. The methodology was validated in terms of accuracy by the analysis of citrus and tomato leaf reference materials achieving comparable results with the certified values. The trace metal content of curry samples was compared with data available from previously published reports concerning Indian samples, especially in terms of heavy metal composition, in order to guarantee the quality of the commercially available spices in the European countries. Values found for the analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium were significantly lower than the maximum limit allowed by European Union statutory limits for heavy metals and lower than those obtained for Indian curry leaves reported by Indian research teams by using neutron activation and γ-ray analysis.

  10. Rock falls from Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A series of rock falls from the north face of Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California, have caused reexamination of the rock-fall hazard because beginning in June, 1999 a system of cracks propagated through a nearby rock mass outlining a future potential rock fall. If the estimated volume of the potential rock fall fails as a single piece, there could be a risk from rock-fall impact and airborne rock debris to cabins in Camp Curry. The role of joint plane orientation and groundwater pressure in the fractured rock mass are discussed in light of the pattern of developing cracks and potential modes of failure.

  11. Becoming through Revolutionary Pedagogy: An Interview with Curry Malott and Derek R. Ford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbena, Zane C.

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Curry Malott and Derek R. Ford discuss their new book, "Marx, Capital, and Education: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Becoming." The interview begins with a general inquiry into their intellectual backgrounds as scholar-activists and, importantly, comrades. The authors then discuss the process of collaborating together…

  12. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  13. Male motion coordination in swarming Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa; most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, parallel flight patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description o...

  14. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Bacillus sphaericus 2362 AGAINST Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi AND Anopheles braziliensis (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES Iléa Brandão

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, preliminary data was obtained regarding the mortality rate of the Amazonian anophelines, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles braziliensis when subjected to treatment with Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362, the WHO standard strain. Initially, experiments were conducted to test the mortality rate of the three species of anopheline larvae. The third larval instar of An. nuneztovari and the second and third larval instars of An. darlingi proved to be the least susceptible. In other experiments, the same three mosquito species were tested with the standard strain 2362, An. nuneztovari was the least susceptible to this insect pathogen, while An. braziliensis was the most susceptible. This latter species showed a difference in the level of LC50 concentration, when compared to the former, of 2.4, 2.5 and 1.8 in readings taken 24, 48 and 72 hours after exposure to the bacillus.

  15. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  16. The income gradient in children's health: a comment on Currie, Shields and Wheatley Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anne; Lee, Diana; Paxson, Christina

    2008-05-01

    This paper re-examines differences found between income gradients in American and English children's health, in results originally presented by [Case, A., Lubotsky, D., Paxson, C., 2002. Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. American Economic Review 92, 1308-1334] for the US, and by [Currie, A., Shields, M.A., Wheatley Price, S., 2007. The child health/family income gradient: evidence from England. Journal of Health Economics 26, 213-232] for England. We find that these differences are reduced when English and American data from the same time period are compared. In addition, Currie, Shields and Wheatley Price's measures of chronic conditions from the Health Survey of England were incorrectly coded. Corrected data indicate that income plays a larger role in buffering children's health from the effects of chronic conditions in England.

  17. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  18. Sobre la contribución de Lauchlin Currie a la teoría monetaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner Karl

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Brunner presenta el libro de Currie, The Supply and Control of Money in the United States y destaca su aporte en la construcción de lo que es hoy una política monetaria en tres aspectos; Currie fue uno de los pioneros en la recolección y evaluación de estadísticas monetarias; brindóun marco interpretativo para ellas; y relaciono la discusión teórica con las medidas de política. Las ideas de Currie sobre la efectividad de la política monetaria durante los años treinta son, a juicio del autor, un desarrollo de la nación de Burgess-Riefler sobre el proceso de la oferta monetaria pero cambian la relación de causalidad; para Currie únicamente la política contractiva se aprecia como impotente durante el periodo en cuestión. La formulación y el desarrollo de una teoría basada en un acucioso análisis del mecanismo de le oferta monetaria y en una sólida fundamentación empírica, y su uso para una interpretación inteligente de la política monetaria representan las más importantes contribuciones del autor.

    Brunner presents Currie's book, The Supply and Control of Money in the United States He highlights three aspects of its contribution to the development of what is today a monetary policy. Currie was one of the pioneers in the recollection and evaluation of monetary statistics; he offered an interpretative framerwork for them, and he related the theoretical discussion with policy measures. Currie's ideas on the effectiveness of monetary policy during the 1930s  are, in the author's opinion, a development: of  the Burgess-Riefler notion about the process of money supply, but change the caused relationship. For Currie, only restrictive policy is considered impotent: during tile period in question. The formulation and development of a theory based on an impelling

  19. On Natural Deduction for Herbrand Constructive Logics I: Curry-Howard Correspondence for Dummett's Logic LC

    OpenAIRE

    Aschieri, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Dummett's logic LC is intuitionistic logic extended with Dummett's axiom: for every two statements the first implies the second or the second implies the first. We present a natural deduction and a Curry-Howard correspondence for first-order and second-order Dummett's logic. We add to the lambda calculus an operator which represents, from the viewpoint of programming, a mechanism for representing parallel computations and communication between them, and from the point of view logic, Dummett's...

  20. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical Quality, and Anticancer Activity of Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L. extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW, followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW, respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW, catechin (0.325 mg/g DW, epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW, naringin (0.203 mg/g DW, and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW. Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41% and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25 μm of Fe(II/g followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37 μm of Fe(II/g and Johor (50.76% and 563.42 μm of Fe(II/g, respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.

  1. Effects of temperature and solvent on antioxidant properties of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Indu; Menon, A Nirmala

    2011-06-01

    Total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of curry leaf extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethanol-water (1:1) and water at ambient (AT, 25 °C) and boiling temperature (BT) (Soxhlet extraction), were determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt), and total reductive potential assays. TPC was in the order ethanol-water (1:1) (AT) > water (AT) > chloroform (AT) > ethanol-water (1:1) (BT) > hexane (AT) > ethanol (BT) > water (BT) > hexane (BT). Ethanol-water (AT) had the maximum TPC of 501 ± 4.6 mg/g GAE and 82% radical scavenging activity (RSA) at 10 μg/ml level (DPPH) and 100% RSA (ABTS) at 10 μg/ml and at hot conditions (ethanol-water (BT)) had less TPC (28.7 ± 0.9%), and 43% RSA by DPPH and 53.6% by ABTS assays. Hot extracts had lesser antioxidant activities than ambient extracts. The best solvent system for getting maximum antioxidant activity from curry leaves was ethanol-water (1:1)-(AT).

  2. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  3. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (specie

  4. Quality characteristics of raw and canned goat meat in water, brine, oil and Thai curry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoottana Polpara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P0.05 during storage. The influence of groups of goat meat on TBARS value was significantly observed (P<0.05 when processed in water and brine. Massaman curry could reduce the change in TBARS value of canned goat meat during storage. The results based on texture, color and lipid oxidation suggested that there were no significant differences between the groups of goat meat from 3 years Anglonubian crossed native and 7 years Saanen crossed native for being processed in canned goat meat curry products.

  5. On Being Holier-Than-Thou: A Critique of Curry Malott's "Pseudo-Marxism and the Reformist Retreat from Revolution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In the May 2011 edition of this journal, Curry Malott contributed an essay review of Jean Anyon's "Marx and Education" (2011). The author would summarize Mallot's critiques of her book as follows: (1) she didn't write the book that he wanted her to write; (2) she didn't cite the authors that he wanted her to cite; and (3) her work is anti-Marxist…

  6. Genomic Dark Matter Illuminated: Anopheles Y Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Seth N; Neafsey, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    Hall et al. have strategically used long-read sequencing technology to characterize the structure and highly repetitive content of the Y chromosome in Anopheles malaria mosquitoes. Their work confirms that this important but elusive heterochromatic sex chromosome is evolving extremely rapidly and harbors a remarkably small number of genes.

  7. Curcumin: An Anti-Inflammatory Molecule from a Curry Spice on the Path to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purusotam Basnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation have been pointed out in preclinical studies as the root cause of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that cancer could be prevented or significantly reduced by treatment with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, therefore, curcumin, a principal component of turmeric (a curry spice showing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile targeting multiple diseases with strong evidence on the molecular level, could not achieve its optimum therapeutic outcome in past clinical trials, largely due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Curcumin can be developed as a therapeutic drug through improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems, enabling its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. This review mainly focuses on the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and recent developments in dosage form and nanoparticulate delivery systems with the possibilities of therapeutic application of curcumin for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.

  8. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae susceptibility to pyrethroids in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Anopheles darlingi Root (1926 and Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (1942 to pyrethroids used by the National Malaria Control Program in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes from Amapá, Brazilian Amazon, were assessed for resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Insecticide-impregnated bottles were used as suggested by the CDC/Atlanta. RESULTS: Diagnostic dose for Anopheles darlingi was 12.5µg/bottle during 30 min of exposure. Concentrations for Anopheles marajoara were 20µg/bottle of cypermethrin and deltamethrin and 12.5µg/bottle of alpha-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS : No resistance was recorded for Anopheles darlingi , but Anopheles marajoara requires attention.

  9. Anopheles (Anopheles) petragnani Del Vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Norbert; Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Czajka, Christina; Kaiser, Achim; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The so far known species of the Anopheles Claviger Complex, Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The known distribution of An. petragnani is so far restricted to the western Mediterranean region, whereas An. claviger s.s. occurs across most of Europe, up to the Middle East and North Africa. In our study, we investigated the larval mosquito fauna in rock pools of the Murg valley (Black Forest, Germany) once a month from April to December 2015.Among other species, larvae belonging to the Anopheles Claviger Complex were found. The fourth instar larvae were morphologically identified by chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen. The results were confirmed by a multiplex PCR and additional sequencing of the amplificates.Of the 1289 collected larvae from the rock pools, seven belonged to the Anopheles Claviger Complex. Five individuals were determined morphologically as An. petragnani and two as An. claviger s.s. The associated mosquito fauna comprised of Aedes japonicus japonicus (548 individuals), Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (493 individuals) and Culex hortensis (241 individuals).This is the first record of An. petragnani north of the Alps. Further studies will reveal whether this is an isolated population of An. petragnani and if the investigated rock pool breeding sites represent typical habitats of this species in temperate regions in Central Europe.

  10. Engineered anopheles immunity to Plasmodium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Dong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A causative agent of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria parasite is under intensive attack from the mosquito's innate immune system during its sporogonic development. We have used genetic engineering to create immune-enhanced Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes through blood meal-inducible expression of a transgene encoding the IMD pathway-controlled NF-kB Rel2 transcription factor in the midgut and fat-body tissue. Transgenic mosquitoes showed greater resistance to Plasmodium and microbial infection as a result of timely concerted tissue-specific immune attacks involving multiple effectors. The relatively weak impact of this genetic modification on mosquito fitness under laboratory conditions encourages further investigation of this approach for malaria control.

  11. An expression map for Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum Robert M; Redmond Seth N; Christophides George K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative transcriptome data for the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles gambiae covers a broad range of biological and experimental conditions, including development, blood feeding and infection. Web-based summaries of differential expression for individual genes with respect to these conditions are a useful tool for the biologist, but they lack the context that a visualisation of all genes with respect to all conditions would give. For most organisms, including A....

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) and the phylogenetics of known Anopheles mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ya-Qiong; Ding, Yi-Ran; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Luo, Qian-Chun; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Anopheles minimus is an important vector of human malaria in southern China and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetics of mosquitoes has not been well resolved, and the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) has proven to be an important marker in the study of evolutionary biology. In this study, the complete mtgenome of An. minimus was sequenced for the first time. It is 15 395 bp long and encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a non-coding region. The gene organization is consistent with those of known Anopheles mtgenomes. The mtgenome performs a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All 13 PCGs prefer to use the codon UUA (Leu), ATN as initiation codon but cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ND5, with TCG and GTG, and TAA as termination codon, but COI, COII, COIII and ND4, all with the incomplete T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but tRNA(Ser(AGN)) is consistent with known Anopheles mtgenomes. The control region includes a conserved T-stretch and a (TA)n stretch, and has the highest A+T content at 93.1%. The phylogenetics of An. minimus with 18 other Anopheles species was constructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, based on concatenated PCG sequences. The subgenera, Cellia and Anopheles, and Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia have mutually close relationships, respectively. The Punctulatus group and Leucosphyrus group of Neomyzomyia Series, and the Albitarsis group of Albitarsis Series were suggested to be monophyletic. The monophyletic status of the subgenera, Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia need to be further elucidated.

  13. Laboratory studies on the olfactory behaviour of Anopheles quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pates, H.V.; Takken, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The host preference of Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), the zoophilic member of the malaria mosquito complex Anopheles gambiae Giles, was investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. Naïve female mosquitoes were exposed to CO2, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, and skin emanations from c

  14. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in a malaria endemic region of southern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Ng'habi; B.G.J. Knols; Y. Lee; H.M. Ferguson; G.C. Lanzaro

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural population's dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are t

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water in a stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varuna Iyengar, were investigated during August-September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oya watershed...

  16. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  17. Anopheles (Anopheles) Lesteri Biases and Hu (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    Anopheles) anthropoplwglts: Ma 1981: 1I (key; distribution, China: Fukien. Kiangsi. Kiangsu. Kwangsi. Kweichow. Shanghai. provinces south of Yantze River ...lowing: Taina Litwak for her illustrations; Bel Rueda, Buddy Buenavista. Lerma Bue- navista. Benjie Puma. and Modesta Coro- nado-Puma for their help in

  18. Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Michael A.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Crim, Joe W.; Hill, Catherine A.; Brown, Mark R.

    2002-10-01

    The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is specialized for rapid completion of development and reproduction. A vertebrate blood meal is required for egg production, and multiple feedings subsequently allow transmission of malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp. Regulatory peptides from 35 genes annotated from the A. gambiae genome likely coordinate these and other physiological processes. Plasmodium parasites may affect actions of newly identified insulin-like peptides, which coordinate growth and reproduction of its vector, A. gambiae, as in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammals. This genomic information provides a basis to expand understanding of hematophagy and pathogen transmission in this mosquito.

  19. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus. PMID:28316896

  20. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  1. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Brittany L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  2. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L. and Trachyspermum ammi (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanes Gunasegaran

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens.

  3. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

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    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  4. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) and Trachyspermum ammi (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanes Gunasegaran; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Kathiresan Sathasivam; Sasidharan Sreenivasan; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To isolate Salmonella from curry samples and to evaluate the drug sensitivity of the food-borne Salmonella and its susceptibility to specific plant extracts. Methods: Salmonella was isolated from the curry samples by standard microbiological methods and was confirmed by biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted by disc diffusion method using commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and penicillin. In addition, the susceptibility of the food-borne Salmonella was also evaluated against the aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) Theaceae (tea leaves) and the Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Apiaceae ( ajwain or omum seeds). Results: Out of fifty curry samples, only seven samples were identified to have Salmonella contamination. The Salmonella isolates showed a significant drug resistance pattern except for kanamycin. The plant extracts showed a considerable antibacterial activity against the isolates, indicating the presence of antimicrobial principle which can be exploited after complete pharmacological investigations. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens.

  5. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  6. "LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON THE IRRITABILITY OF ANOPHELES ATROPARVUS AND ANOPHELES STEPHENSI TO DDT "

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    N. Eshghy

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Anopheles atroparvus, one resistant and another sceptible to DDT and two of Anopheles stephensi, one resistant and one susceptible to DDT were tested for their irritability to DDT. Various laboratory investigations of the effects of insecticides on mosquito behavior and their irritability were carried out. In these series of experiments a comparison was made between the results obtained by a tentative method proposed in 1960 by the WHO, Expert Committee on Insecticides in which the mosquitoes are confined over the treated surface in a small plastic chamber and in a large cage. Under the large cage conditions DDT-resistant A. stephensi were more readily irritated by the insecticide than a susceptible strain of the same species

  7. Genetic compatibility between Anopheles lesteri from Korea and Anopheles paraliae from Thailand

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    Kritsana Taai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess differentiation and relationships between Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of An. lesteri from Korea and An. paraliae from Thailand, respectively. These isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing DNA sequences of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and subunit II (COII. Results of reciprocal and F1-hybrid crosses between An. lesteri and An. paraliae indicated that they were compatible genetically producing viable progenies and complete synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes without inversion loops in all chromosome arms. The pairwise genetic distances of ITS2, COI and COII between these morphological species were 0.040, 0.007-0.017 and 0.008-0.011, respectively. The specific species status of An. paraliae in Thailand and/or other parts of the continent are discussed.

  8. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Lindsey, Currie and Clark

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Astronauts (from left) Steven W. Lindsey, Nancy Jane Currie and Laurel B. Clark. The team arrived at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  9. Global Convergence of a New Conjugate Gradient Methods with a Modification of the Curry-Altman Step-size Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOLi-hua; SUNQing-ying

    2004-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions with different choices for the parameter in the search directions. In this note, conditions are given on the parameter in the conjugate gradient directions to ensure the descent property of the search directions. Global convergence of such a class of methods is discussed. It is shown that, using reverse modulus of continuity function and forcing function, the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continuously differentiable function with a modification of the Curry-Altman's step-size rule and a bounded level set. Combining PR method with our new method, PR method is modified to have global convergence property.Numerical experiments show that the new methods are efficient by comparing with FR conjugate gradient method.

  10. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  11. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  12. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, P N; Ademowo, O G; Irving, H; Kelly-Hope, L A; Wondji, C S

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes has great implications for malaria control in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the dynamics of insecticide susceptibility levels and the frequency of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations (L1014F) in wild Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp. n. and Anopheles gambiae Giles from the Ojoo and Bodija areas of Ibadan, in southwest Nigeria. Insecticide susceptibility to pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and organochlorines was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) bioassays. A subset of the mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids and DDT was used for species and molecular form identification; kdr genotyping was determined using the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The mosquitoes were resistant to pyrethroids and DDT but completely susceptible to organophosphates and carbamates. Bodija samples (n = 186) consisted of An. gambiae (91.4%) and An. coluzzii (8.1%) and included one An. coluzzii/An. gambiae hybrid specimen. All mosquitoes screened in Ojoo (n = 26) were An. gambiae. The 1014F kdr mutation was detected at frequencies of 24.5 and 5.8% in Bodija and Ojoo, respectively. No correlation was observed between kdr genotypes and resistance phenotypes. The results indicate that metabolic resistance probably plays an important role in the development of resistance and highlight the need to implement insecticide resistance management strategies.

  13. Composition of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae microbiota from larval to adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Boissière, Anne; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Christen, Richard; Morlais, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    During their immature life stages, malaria mosquitoes are exposed to a wide array of microbes and contaminants from the aquatic habitats. Although prior studies have suggested that environmental exposure shapes the microbial community structure in the adult mosquito, most reports have focused on laboratory-based experiments and on a single mosquito epithelium, the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of the breeding site on the development of the Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae microbiota in natural conditions. We characterized bacterial communities from aquatic habitats, at surface microlayer and subsurface water levels, to freshly emerge adult mosquitoes using multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and we separately analyzed the microbiota associated with the different epithelia of adult individual, midguts, ovaries and salivary glands. We found that the distribution of bacterial communities in the aquatic habitats differed according to the depth of water collections. Inter-individual variation of bacterial composition was large in larvae guts but adult mosquitoes from a same breeding site shared quite similar microbiota. Although some differences in bacterial abundances were highlighted between the different epithelia of freshly emerged An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, an intriguing feature from our study is the particular similarity of the overall bacterial communities. Our results call for further investigations on the bacterial population dynamics in the different tissues to determine the distinctive characteristics of each microbiota during the mosquito lifespan and to identify specific interactions between certain key phyla or species and the insect life history traits.

  14. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi to tropical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum

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    Ranford-Cartwright Lisa C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The susceptibility of anopheline mosquito species to Plasmodium infection is known to be variable with some mosquitoes more permissive to infection than others. Little work, however, has been carried out investigating the susceptibility of major malaria vectors to geographically diverse tropical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum aside from examining the possibility of infection extending its range from tropical regions into more temperate zones. Methods This study investigates the susceptibility of two major tropical mosquito hosts (Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi to P. falciparum isolates of different tropical geographical origins. Cultured parasite isolates were fed via membrane feeders simultaneously to both mosquito species and the resulting mosquito infections were compared. Results Infection prevalence was variable with African parasites equally successful in both mosquito species, Thai parasites significantly more successful in An. stephensi, and PNG parasites largely unsuccessful in both species. Conclusion Infection success of P. falciparum was variable according to geographical origin of both the parasite and the mosquito. Data presented raise the possibility that local adaptation of tropical parasites and mosquitoes has a role to play in limiting gene flow between allopatric parasite populations.

  15. Transcriptomic insight into terpenoid and carbazole alkaloid biosynthesis, and functional characterization of two terpene synthases in curry tree (Murraya koenigii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Rajeev Kumar, Sarma; Dwivedi, Varun; Kumar Singh, Anup; Chanotiya, Chandan S.; Akhtar, Md. Qussen; Kumar, Krishna; Kumar Shasany, Ajit; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2017-01-01

    Curry tree (Murraya koenigii L.) is a rich source of aromatic terpenes and pharmacologically important carbazole alkaloids. Here, M. koenigii leaf transcriptome was generated to gain insight into terpenoid and alkaloid biosynthesis. Analysis of de novo assembled contigs yielded genes for terpene backbone biosynthesis and terpene synthases. Also, gene families possibly involved in carbazole alkaloid formation were identified that included polyketide synthases, prenyltransferases, methyltransferases and cytochrome P450s. Further, two genes encoding terpene synthases (MkTPS1 and MkTPS2) with highest in silico transcript abundance were cloned and functionally characterized to determine their involvement in leaf volatile formation. Subcellular localization using GFP fusions revealed the plastidial and cytosolic localization of MkTPS1 and MkTPS2, respectively. Enzymatic characterization demonstrated the monoterpene synthase activity of recombinant MkTPS1, which produced primarily (−)-sabinene from geranyl diphosphate (GPP). Recombinant MkTPS2 exhibited sesquiterpene synthase activity and formed (E,E)-α-farnesene as the major product from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). Moreover, mRNA expression and leaf volatile analyses indicated that MkTPS1 accounts for (−)-sabinene emitted by M. koenigii leaves. Overall, the transcriptome data generated in this study will be a great resource and the start point for characterizing genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of medicinally important carbazole alkaloids. PMID:28272514

  16. Analysis of whole chloroplast genomes from the genera of the Clauseneae, the curry tribe (Rutaceae, Citrus family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Vikram S; Appelhans, Marc S; Johnson, Gabriel; Carlsen, Monica; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-11

    The Clauseneae (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is a tribe in the Citrus family that, although economically important as it contains the culinary and medicinally-useful curry tree (Bergera koenigii), has been relatively understudied. Due to the recent significant taxonomic changes made to this tribe, a closer inspection of the genetic relationships among its genera has been warranted. Whole genome skimming was used to generate chloroplast genomes from six species, representing each of the four genera (Bergera, Clausena, Glycosmis, Micromelum) in the Clauseneae tribe plus one closely related outgroup (Merrillia), using the published plastome sequence of Citrus sinensis as a reference. Phylogenetically informative character (PIC) data were analyzed using a genome alignment of the seven species, and variability frequency among the species was recorded for each coding and non-coding region, with the regions of highest variability identified for future phylogenetic studies. Non-coding regions exhibited a higher percentage of variable characters as expected, and the phylogenetic markers ycf1, matK, rpoC2, ndhF, trnS-trnG spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer proved to be among the most variable regions. Other markers that are frequently used in phylogenetic studies, e.g. rps16, atpB-rbcL, rps4-trnT, and trnL-trnF, proved to be far less variable. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequences were conducted using Bayesian inference (MrBayes) and Maximum Likelihood (RAxML), yielding highly supported divisions among the four genera.

  17. Staircase Falls Rockfall on December 26, 2003, and Geologic Hazards at Curry Village, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.; Borchers, James W.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Since 1857, several hundred rockfalls, rockslides, and debris flows have been observed in Yosemite National Park. At 12:45 a.m. on December 26, 2003, a severe winter storm triggered a rockfall west of Glacier Point in Yosemite Valley. Rock debris moved quickly eastward down Staircase Falls toward Curry Village. As the rapidly moving rock mass reached talus at the bottom of Staircase Falls, smaller pieces of flying rock penetrated occupied cabins. Physical characterization of the rockfall site included rockfall volume, joint patterns affecting initial release of rock and the travel path of rockfall, factors affecting weathering and weakening of bedrock, and hydrology affecting slope stability within joints. Although time return intervals are not predictable, a three-dimensional rockfall model was used to assess future rockfall potential and risk. Predictive rockfall and debris-flow methods suggest that landslide hazards beneath these steep cliffs extend farther than impact ranges defined from surface talus in Yosemite Valley, leaving some park facilities vulnerable.

  18. Engineered resistance to Plasmodium falciparum development in transgenic Anopheles stephensi.

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    Alison T Isaacs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposon-mediated transformation was used to produce Anopheles stephensi that express single-chain antibodies (scFvs designed to target the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The scFvs, m1C3, m4B7, and m2A10, are derived from mouse monoclonal antibodies that inhibit either ookinete invasion of the midgut or sporozoite invasion of salivary glands. The scFvs that target the parasite surface, m4B7 and m2A10, were fused to an Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide, Cecropin A. Previously-characterized Anopheles cis-acting DNA regulatory elements were included in the transgenes to coordinate scFv production with parasite development. Gene amplification and immunoblot analyses showed promoter-specific increases in transgene expression in blood-fed females. Transgenic mosquito lines expressing each of the scFv genes had significantly lower infection levels than controls when challenged with P. falciparum.

  19. Metabolic Pathways in Anopheles stephensi mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Horton, Ashley A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2017-01-01

    No studies have been performed on mitochondria of malaria vector mosquitoes. This information would be valuable in understanding mosquito aging and detoxification of insecticides, two parameters that significantly impact malaria parasite transmission in endemic regions. Here, we report the analyses of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of cultured cells (ASE line) from Anopheles stephensi, a major vector of malaria in India, Southeast Asia and parts of the Middle East. ASE cell mitochondria shared many features in common with mammalian muscle mitochondria, despite the fact that these cells have a larval origin. However, two major differences with mammalian mitochondria were apparent. One, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle plays a major role in NADH oxidation in ASE cell mitochondria as it does in insect muscle mitochondria. In contrast, mammalian white muscle mitochondria depend primarily on lactate dehydrogenase, whereas red muscle mitochondria depend on the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle. Two, ASE mitochondria were able to oxidize Pro at a rate comparable with that of α-glycerophosphate. However, the Pro pathway appeared to differ from the currently accepted pathway, in that ketoglutarate could be catabolyzed completely by the Krebs cycle or via transamination depending on the ATP need. PMID:18588503

  20. Metabolic pathways in Anopheles stephensi mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Horton, Ashley A; Luckhart, Shirley

    2008-10-15

    No studies have been performed on the mitochondria of malaria vector mosquitoes. This information would be valuable in understanding mosquito aging and detoxification of insecticides, two parameters that have a significant impact on malaria parasite transmission in endemic regions. In the present study, we report the analyses of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of cultured cells [ASE (Anopheles stephensi Mos. 43) cell line] from A. stephensi, a major vector of malaria in India, South-East Asia and parts of the Middle East. ASE cell mitochondria share many features in common with mammalian muscle mitochondria, despite the fact that these cells are of larval origin. However, two major differences with mammalian mitochondria were apparent. One, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle plays as major a role in NADH oxidation in ASE cell mitochondria as it does in insect muscle mitochondria. In contrast, mammalian white muscle mitochondria depend primarily on lactate dehydrogenase, whereas red muscle mitochondria depend on the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle. Two, ASE mitochondria were able to oxidize proline at a rate comparable with that of alpha-glycerophosphate. However, the proline pathway appeared to differ from the currently accepted pathway, in that oxoglutarate could be catabolized completely by the tricarboxylic acid cycle or via transamination, depending on the ATP need.

  1. Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

    2009-12-01

    A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

  2. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

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    Kobylinski Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551 of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal

  3. Fitness consequences of Anopheles gambiae population hybridization

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    Beier John C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of transgenic mosquitoes with parasite inhibiting genes has been proposed as an integral strategy to control malaria transmission. However, release of exotic transgenic mosquitoes will bring in novel alleles along with parasite-inhibiting genes that may have unknown effects on native populations. Thus it is necessary to study the effects and dynamics of fitness traits in native mosquito populations in response to the introduction of novel genes. This study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of fitness traits in a simulation of introduction of novel alleles under laboratory conditions using two strains of Anopheles gambiae: Mbita strain from western Kenya and Ifakara strain from Tanzania. Methods The dynamics of fitness traits were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the two An. gambiae strains. These two geographically different strains were cross-bred and monitored for 20 generations to score fecundity, body size, blood-meal size, larval survival, and adult longevity, all of which are important determinants of the vector's potential in malaria transmission. Traits were analysed using pair-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA for fecundity, body size, and blood-meal size while survival analysis was performed for larval survival and adult longevity. Results Fecundity and body size were significantly higher in the progeny up to the 20th generation compared to founder strains. Adult longevity had a significantly higher mean up to the 10th generation and average blood-meal size was significantly larger up to the 5th generation, indicating that hybrids fitness is enhanced over that of the founder strains. Conclusion Hybridization of the two mosquito populations used in this study led to increased performance in the fitness traits studied. Given that the studied traits are important determinants of the vector's potential to transmit malaria, these results suggest the need to release genetically modified mosquitoes

  4. The evolution of the Anopheles 16 genomes project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Lawson, Daniel; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Williams, Louise J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the imminent completion of a set of reference genome assemblies for 16 species of Anopheles mosquitoes. In addition to providing a generally useful resource for comparative genomic analyses, these genome sequences will greatly facilitate exploration of the capacity exhibited by some Anophe

  5. Cannibalism and predation among larvae of the Anopheles gambiae complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2003-01-01

    Among the aquatic developmental stages of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), both inter- and intra-specific interactions influence the resulting densities of adult mosquito populations. For three members of the complex, An. arabiensis Patton, An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) and An. g

  6. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  7. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  8. Description of the egg of Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius (Peryassu, 1908 (Diptera: Culicidae by scanning electron microscopy

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg of Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius (Peryassu, 1908 is described and illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Literature data on An. (Ano. maculipes (Theobald, 1903 is providedOs ovos de An. intermedius foram descritos e ilustrados por Costa Lima (1929. Este autor, baseando-se nos desenhos de Peryassu (1908 para An. maculipes, chamou atenção para o fato do ovo desta espécie ser semelhante ao de An. maculipes. Posteriormente, Causey e col. (1944, estudando os ovos de An. intermedius e An. maculipes ao estereomicroscópio, diferenciou-os por caracteres da franja. Em An. intermedius a franja é oblíqua ao eixo longitudinal do ovo, mas perpendicular em An. maculipes. Causey e col. (1944 ilustraram as variações morfológicas que encontraram na franja do ovo de An. intermedius. Os autores observaram que a franja apresentava-se descotínua em alguns espécimens de An. intermedius, tornando-se em pequenos círculos nessa região. Embora semelhante ao de An. maculipes, os ovos de An. intermedius podem ser facilmente reconhecidos por características da franja, flutuadores e tubérculos lobados, como pode ser observado na descrição. Contudo, será necessário estudar a morfologia dos ovos de outras espécies do subgênero para que se possa estabelecer as diferenças e fazer comparações precisas entre as espécies

  9. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  10. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  11. Genomic islands of speciation in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae, provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These "speciation islands" remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral

  12. Relationship of Remote Sensing Normalized Differential Vegetation Index to Anopheles Density and Malaria Incidence Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. Methods Data of monthly average climate, environment, Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate, and remote sensing NDVI were collected from 27 townships of 10 counties in southeastern Yunnan Province from 1984 to 1993. The relationship of remote sensing ecological proxy index, NDVI, to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate was studied by principal component analysis, factor analysis and grey correlation analysis. Results The correlation matrix showed that NDVI highly correlated with Anopheles density in 4 townships of Mengla, Jinghong, and Yuanjiang counties, but in other 23 townships the relationship was not clear. Principal component and factor analyses showed that remote sensing NDVI was the representative index of the first principal component and the first common factor of Anopheles density evaluation. Grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season NDVI had a high grey correlation with Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. The grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season the grey degree of NDVI correlated with Anopheles. Minimus density was 0.730, and 0.713 with Anopheles sinensis density, and 0.800 with malarial incidence rate. Conclusion Remote sensing NDVI can serve as a sensitive evaluation index of Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate.

  13. HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN AKTIVITAS MENGGIGIT NYAMUK ANOPHELES SUNDAICUS DAN ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS DI PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

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    Supratman Sukowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a public health problem, it causes morbidity, mortality as well as outbreak in several remote areas in Indonesia. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission. The understanding of mosquito species, its bio-ecology, and the characteristic of their habitats are very important to formulate the vector control strategy. It was recognized that there are many aspects of behavior that are directly and indirectly important in the prevention and control of malaria. One of the main cause of malaria control failure due to lack of understanding vector spesies and its bio-ecology.This paper reported the study of breeding places and biting activities of malaria vector Anophles sundaicus and An. subpictus from coastal area of Purworejo area in year 2004. Natural population of anopheline species was sampled from larval survey, landing collection, animal resting collection, resting collection to study the larval habitat, biting activities, resting habit and biting sites. Nine species of anopheline werefound in Jati Malang e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. aconitus, An.indefinitus, An. tesselatus, An. nigerrimus, An. annularis. In Gedangan village was found 5 species of Anopheles e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. aconitus.The breeding places of Anopheles spp. are varied, in Jati Malang and Gedangan were found lagoon, brackish water fish-pond, rice field, freshwater fishpond, irrigation channel, and pit hole. Therefore, the breeding places of An. sundaicus and An. subpictus confined in the lagoon and brackish water fish ponds, with its characteristics e.g. water temperature ranges 25,6°C-27,8°C, pH ranges 7,2-7,6, water salinity 3,0-3,4%, and water dept is 20,3 cm-25,2 cm, muddy undergroud, stagnant or slow running water with the water weed mostly green algae (Chlorophyta and lichen.The biting activities of An. sundaicus and An

  14. La misión del Banco Mundial a Colombia de 1949, y las visiones opuestas de Lauchlin Currie y Albert Hirschman

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    Roger Sandilands

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La misión del Banco Mundial de 1949, encabezada por Lauchlin Currie, recomendó un ataque integral a los círculos viciosos entrelazados del subdesarrollo mediante una ampliación del mercado local e internacional y la reforma de la formulación de la política macroeconómica. En 1950 el gobierno colombiano invitó a Currie para que volviera como asesor de una nueva junta de planeación nacional. En 1952 Albert Hirschman también fue contratado como asesor de esa junta. Este artículo discute los acalorados desacuerdos entre estos dos distinguidos economistas, su influencia en la teoría y la práctica del desarrollo económico en Colombia y del Banco Mundial; en particular sus puntos de vista sobre el enfoque de la planeación basado en un programa integral o en proyectos individuales.

  15. A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Dennison, Nathan J; Lycett, Gareth J; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-07-01

    The molecular pathways controlling gender are highly variable and have been identified in only a few nonmammalian model species. In many insects, maleness is conferred by a Y chromosome-linked M factor of unknown nature. We have isolated and characterized a gene, Yob, for the M factor in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Yob, activated at the beginning of zygotic transcription and expressed throughout a male's life, controls male-specific splicing of the doublesex gene. Silencing embryonic Yob expression is male-lethal, whereas ectopic embryonic delivery of Yob transcripts yields male-only broods. This female-killing property may be an invaluable tool for creation of conditional male-only transgenic Anopheles strains for malaria control programs.

  16. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akorli, Jewelna; Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K; Wilson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings.

  17. On the conspecificity of Anopheles fluviatilis species S with Anopheles minimus species C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Singh; D Chandra; N Nanda; S K Sharma; Pe Than Htun; T Adak; S K Subbarao; A P Dash

    2006-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis and An. minimus complexes, each comprising of at least three sibling species, are closely related and important malaria vectors in Oriental Region. Recently An. fluviatilis species S, which is a highly efficient malaria vector in India, has been made conspecific with An. minimus species C (senior synonym) on the basis of homology in 335 base pair nucleotide sequence of D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). We examined the conspecificity of these two nominal species by obtaining and analysing the DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal loci internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and D2-D3 domain of 28S rDNA (28S-D2/D3) from those of An. fluviatilis S and An. minimus C. We found that the sequences of An. fluviatilis S are appreciably different from those of An. minimus C with pair-wise distance (Kimura-2-parametre model) of 3.6 and 0.7% for loci ITS2 and 28S-D2/D3, respectively. Pair-wise distance and phylogenetic analyses using ITS2 sequences of members of Minimus and Fluviatilis Complexes revealed that An. fluviatilis S is distantly related to An. minimus C as compared to any other members of the Fluviatilis Complex. These findings suggest that the two nominal species, An. fluviatilis S and An. minimus C, do not merit synonymy. The study also confirms that the reported species An. fluviatilis X is synonym with species S.

  18. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  19. Locomotor behavioral responses of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles harrisoni to alpha-cypermethrin in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaithong, Naritsara; Tisgratog, Rungarun; Tainchum, Krajana; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2011-09-01

    Excito-repellency responses of 3 test populations, representing 2 sibling species within the Minimus Complex, Anopheles minimus and An. harrisoni, were characterized for contact irritant and noncontact repellent actions of chemicals during and after exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at half the recommended field (0.010 g/m2), the recommended field (0.020 g/m2), and double the recommended field concentration (0.040 g/m2), using an excito-repellency escape chamber system. Two field populations of An. minimus and An. harrisoni collected from the malaria-endemic areas in Tak and Kanchanuburi provinces in western Thailand, respectively, were tested along with a laboratory population of An. minimus maintained since 1993. Females of all 3 test populations rapidly escaped after direct contact with treated surfaces for each concentration. In general, increased escape responses in the An. minimus test populations were proportionate to increased insecticide dosages. The greatest escape response for An. harrisoni was observed at the operational field concentration of alpha-cypermethrin. The noncontact repellency response to alpha-cypermethrin was comparatively weak for all 3 test populations, but significantly different from each paired contact test and respective noncontact controls. We conclude that strong contact irritancy is a major action of alpha-cypermethrin, whereas noncontact repellency plays no role in the escape responses of 2 species in the Minimus Complex in Thailand.

  20. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The i...

  1. Diversity of the Bacterial Microbiota of Anopheles Mosquitoes from Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chung T; Romano-Bertrand, Sara; Manguin, Sylvie; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vector's susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (eight Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to seven phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall of Anopheles-associated bacteria is confirmed with, to our knowledge, 51 genera described for the first time in Anopheles microbiota. However, the diversity per specimen was low with average diversity index and the average Shannon-Wiener score (H) of 4.843 and 5.569, respectively. The most represented bacterial genera were present in microbiota share by Anopheles from Binh Phuoc was very narrow, suggesting that Anopheles microbiota was greatly influenced by local environments. The repertory of bacterial genera in two specimens of An. dirus and An. pampanai naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax was also described as preliminary results. Finally, this study completed the repertory of bacteria associated to wild Anopheles. Anopheles associated-bacteria appeared specimen-dependent rather than mosquitoe species- or group-dependent. Their origin and the existence of Anopheles-specific bacterial taxa are discussed.

  2. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  3. Identification of one capa and two pyrokinin receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine S; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We cloned the cDNA of three evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and functionally expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One receptor, Ang-Capa-R, was only activated by the two Anopheles capa neuropeptides Ang-capa-1 (GPTVGLFAFPRVa...

  4. KARAKTERISTIK TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN LARVA ANOPHELES DI DESA BULUBETE KECAMATAN DOLO SELATAN KABUPATEN SIGI PROVINSISULAWESI TENGAH

    OpenAIRE

    Bustam; Ruslan; Erniwati

    2008-01-01

    Malaria merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh plasmodium yang ditularkan melalui gigitan nyamuk Anopheles, merupakan suatu penyakit yang mengancam umat manusia terutama yang tinggal di daerah tropik dan sub tropic. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran tentang kepadatan jentik vektor Malaria berdasarkan Karakteristik tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk Anopheles di Desa Bulubete Kecamatan Dolo Selatan Kabupaten Sigi Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan...

  5. Tingkat Kepadatan Larva Anopheles spp. di Delta Lakkang Kecamatan Tallo Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Mardilah

    2016-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang tingkat kepadatan larva Anopheles spp di Delta Lakkang Kecamatan Tallo. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kepadatan larva dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode observasi dengan mengambil larva nyamuk selanjutnya dipelihara kemudian dilakukan perhitungan tingkat kepadatan larva. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kepadatan larva Anopheles tertinggi ditemukan di bagian barat dengan jumlah larva 179 larva p...

  6. Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Freitas

    Full Text Available The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma. Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

  7. Mosquito Studies (Dipera: Culicidae) 34. A Revision of the Albimanus Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles. (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 15, Number 7, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    aquasalis) nas marcacoes do alado, ao A. oswaldoi na terminalia do macho, ao A. noroestensis na fase Zarvaria e possue ovos do tipo oswaldoi, donde se...conclue que para se fazer urn diagnostico conscientodas dessa especie e indispensavel que se analise todo esse conjun to, isto e todos as suas fases ...Middle America. Am. Entomol. Inst., Contrib. l(2): 1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio

  8. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Such non-retroviral endogenization of RNA viruses is consistent with a shared evolutionary history between flaviviruses and Anopheles mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described EVEs support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated ISFs.

  9. Environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Bangs, Michael J; Sukowati, Supratman

    2007-07-01

    A 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of Anopheles species was conducted in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia. The study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained Anopheles larvae. Principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [Anopheles aconitus Doenitz, Anopheles annularis Van de Wulp, Anopheles barbirostris Van der Wulp, Anopheles flavirostris (Ludlow), Anopheles insulaeflorum (Swellengrebel and Swellengrebel de Graaf), Anopheles kochi Doenitz, Anopheles maculatus Theobald, Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt), and Anopheles vagus Doenitz] of 15 Anopheles species collected. Combined data for all nine species showed increased Anopheles presence associated with wet season periods and higher elevation habitats exhibiting reduced tree canopy coverage, higher water temperatures, and shallower water depths. Habitat variables measured included topography (elevation), water conditions (temperature, pH, salinity depth, and velocity), habitat characteristics (substrate and canopy cover), density and type of aquatic vegetation coverage (riparian, floating, and emergent), and distance from nearest human habitation. Significant relationships were found for nine species when using all habitats in the analysis. Habitat characteristics for three species were refined. An. aconitus and An. barbirostris were associated with higher elevation rice, Oryza savita L., paddies with relatively shallow water depths, higher water temperatures, higher acidity and salinity concentrations, and a greater average distance from human habitation. An. vagus presence in rice paddies was associated with lower elevation fields, deeper and cooler water, less acidic and saline conditions, and habitats closer to human dwellings. Overall, the distribution of Anopheles species in Sukabumi was found to be nonrandom

  10. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    simultaneously for all the populations studied and population pairs using R ST software. 30 From these heterogeneity statis- tics , theoretical gene-flow...statis- tic was used, the average values ranged from 0.042 to 0.047, depending on the procedures used. This statistic again showed a moderate divergence...S , Suárez M , Sánchez G , Quiñones M , Herrera M , 1987 . Uso de la técnica inmunoradiometrica (IRMA) en Anopheles de Colombia para la

  11. Responsiveness of Anopheles maculipennis to different imagicides during resurgent malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hasasan; Zahirnia Amir Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility of main malaria vector in Astra County, borderline of Iran and Republic of Azerbaijan for better control. Methods:Susceptibility of Anopheles maculipennis to diagnostic doses of DDT 4%, dieldrin 0.4%, malathion 5%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1%, and delamethrin 0.025%, was tested according to method recommended by WHO. All the impregnated papers were provided by WHO. Results: It was shown that this species exhibited resistance to DDT, dieldrin, whereas susceptible to malathrion, lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Conclusions:Findings of susceptibility tests of this species provided a clue for control of malaria vector in the region.

  12. Identifying Anophele fauna in Qayenat city in the South khorasan Province (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Borna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Biological vectors of malaria are only anopheles mosquitoes. Since the vector control without identifying them and understanding their biology is not possible, the present study was designed to identify anopheles fauna in different areas of Qayenat city and their internal or external shelters.   Materials and Methods: Larvae, pupae, and adults of anopheles mosquitoes were collected from their internal and external shelters in rural areas in plains and mountainous spots in Qayenat city during a cross-sectional and descriptive study between April 2010 and October 2011. This was done either singularly or collectively through taking samples of the larvae from various inhabitats through scooping. The caught samples were transferred to laboratory in order to determine their type using the valid key to identify adult anopheles and larvae in Iran (Shahgvdyan.   Results: A total of 2165 samples including 1711 larvae and 454 adults were collected from different parts of Qayenat city. After identification and validation of the samples 4 species of Anopheles were diagnosed. The samples were superpictus, multicolor, sacharovi, and turkhodai with the percent 72.2%, 27.9%, 0.44%, and 0.44% respectively. Most abundant Anopheles were reported to exist in the months of July and August.   Conclusion: Regarding the high frequency of superpictus anopheles in the area and its condition, it is necessary to make essential provision for a comprehensive program to control malaria In order to prevent outbreaks of the epidemic in suitable seasons of the year.

  13. Identification of field caught Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis by TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayoh Nabie M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis from field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. is often necessary in basic and applied research, and in operational control programmes. The currently accepted method involves use of standard polymerase chain reaction amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA from the 3' 28S to 5' intergenic spacer region of the genome, and visual confirmation of amplicons of predicted size on agarose gels, after electrophoresis. This report describes development and evaluation of an automated, quantitative PCR method based upon TaqMan™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Methods Standard PCR, and TaqMan SNP genotyping with newly designed primers and fluorophore-labeled probes hybridizing to sequences of complementary rDNA specific for either An. gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis, were conducted in three experiments involving field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from western Kenya, and defined laboratory strains. DNA extraction was from a single leg, sonicated for five minutes in buffer in wells of 96-well PCR plates. Results TaqMan SNP genotyping showed a reaction success rate, sensitivity, and species specificity comparable to that of standard PCR. In an extensive field study, only 29 of 3,041 (0.95% were determined to be hybrids by TaqMan (i.e., having rDNA sequences from both species, however, all but one were An. arabiensis by standard PCR, suggesting an acceptably low (ca. 1% error rate for TaqMan genotyping in mistakenly identifying species hybrids. Conclusion TaqMan SNP genotyping proved to be a sensitive and rapid method for identification of An. gambiae s.l. and An. arabiensis, with a high success rate, specific results, and congruence with the standard PCR method.

  14. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Chemosensory Proteins in African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengxi Li; Zuorui Shen; Jingjiang Zhou; Lin Field

    2003-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are identifiable by four spatially conserved Cysteine residues in their primary structure or by two disulfide bridges in their tertiary structure according to the previously identified olfactory specific-D related proteins. A genomics- and bioinformatics-based approach is taken in the present study to identify the putative CSPs in the malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The results show that five out of the nine annotated candidates are the most possible Anopheles CSPs of A. gambiae. This study lays the foundation for further functional identification of Anopheles CSPs, though all of these candidates need additional experimental verification.

  15. Differentially expressed genes between female and male adult Anopheles anthropophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yi-Jie; Gao, Shi-Tong; Huang, Da-Na; Zhao, Yi-Rui; Liu, Jian-ping; Li, Xiao-Heng; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sex-specific genes in adult Anopheles anthropophagus. As the major malaria vector and Brugia malayi vector in the Asian continent, female Anopheles mosquitoes take blood meals and transmit pathogens through this pathway, while males are nectar feeders. This complex behavior is controlled at several levels, but is probably initiated by the genetic background difference between these two groups. In our study, a subtractive cDNA library for female A. anthropophagus was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique and then 3,074 clones from the female SSH library were analyzed using a microarray-based survey. Genes that were expressed differentially according to sex in A. anthropophagus were screened using real-time polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In our results, we report a series of genes which may be involved in female-specific mosquito behavior, including an inorganic phosphate transporter, a serine protease, the salivary protein GP35-2, and the D7 cluster salivary protein. These findings will provide clues to the nature of insect vectors and open up unprecedented opportunities to develop novel strategies for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  16. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  17. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Makanga, Boris; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rahola, Nil; Durand, Patrick; Magnus, Julie; Willaume, Eric; Renaud, François; Fontenille, Didier; Prugnolle, Franck

    2013-01-01

    During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  18. Isoenzymatic variability among five Anopheles species belonging to the Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles subgenera of the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An isoenzymatic comparative analysis of the variability and genetics differentiation among Anopheles species was done in populations of An. (Nys. intermedius and An. (Ano. mattogrossensis of the Anopheles subgenus, and of An. darlingi, An. albitarsis and An. triannulatus of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus, with the aim of detecting differences between both subgenera and of estimating the degree of genetic intere specific divergence. Samples from Macapá, State of Amapá and Janauari Lake, near Manaus, State of Amazonas, were analyzed for eight isoenzymatic loci. Analysis revealed differences in the average number of alleles per locus (1.6-2.3 and heterozygosity (0.060-0.284. However, the proportion of polymorphic loci was the same for An. (Nys. darlingi, An. (Nys. triannulatus and An. (Ano. mattogrossensis (50%, but differed for An. (Nys. albitarsis (62.5% and An. (Ano. intermedius (25%. Only the IDH1 (P > 0.5 locus in all species studied was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The fixation index demonstrated elevated genetic structuring among species, based on values of Fst = 0.644 and genetic distance (0.344-0.989. Genetic difference was higher between An. (Nys. triannulatus and An. (Ano. intermedius (0.989 and smaller between An. (Nys. albitarsis sensu lato and An. (Nys. darlingi (0.344. The data show interspecific genetic divergence which differs from the phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological characters.

  19. Evidence of natural Wolbachia infections in field populations of Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Segata, Nicola; Pompon, Julien; Marcenac, Perrine; Robert Shaw, W.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that invade insect populations by manipulating their reproduction and immunity and thus limiting the spread of numerous human pathogens. Experimental Wolbachia infections can reduce Plasmodium numbers in Anopheles mosquitoes in the laboratory, however, natural Wolbachia infections in field anophelines have never been reported. Here we show evidence of Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Wolbachia sequences in both female and male germlines across two seasons, and determined that these sequences are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. Whole-genome sequencing of positive samples suggests that the genetic material identified in An. gambiae belongs to a novel Wolbachia strain, related to but distinct from strains infecting other arthropods. The evidence of Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations promotes further investigations on the possible use of natural Wolbachia–Anopheles associations to limit malaria transmission. PMID:24905191

  20. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  1. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrabrova, Natalia V; Andreeva, Yulia V; Sibataev, Anuarbek K; Alekseeva, Svetlana S; Esenbekova, Perizat A

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5' end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic.

  2. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  3. BEBERAPA ASPEK PERILAKU NYAMUK Anopheles barbirostris DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TENGAH TAHUN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Noshirma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some aspects of Anopheles barbirostris behavior in Central Sumba Regency was conducted in July– October in District Umbu Ratu Nggai (Village Padira Tana which represents in mountain ecology and the district of Mamboro (Manu Wollu Village representing the coastal ecology. Both villages are selected to have high malaria cases during the past year. The objective of the study is to determine Some aspect of Anopheles barbirostris behavior in Central Sumba Regency. The result showed that the characteristics of  breeding habitats of Anopheles barbirostris in the padira tana village is in fields (both in use, not use or ready for planting and in kobakan. in Manu Wolu Village the breeding habitats are in former ponds, puddles an kobakan. The bitting activity of Anopheles barbirostris the in Padira Tana Village highest in July (MBR = 0.08 outside the house,  while in Manu Wolu Village bite out of the house in July and October (MBR = 0.04. in the Padira Tana Village and Manu Wollu village the Anopheles barbirostris is most prevalent in the cage with peak hours 11.00 pm to 04.00 am. Keyword: some aspect of vector behavior, Anopheles barbirostris Abstrak Studi beberapa aspek perilaku vektor malaria Anopheles barbirostris di Kabupaten Sumba Tengah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli – Oktober di 2 Kecamatan yaitu Kecamatan Umbu Ratu (Desa Padira Tana yang mewakili ekologi pegunungan dan Kecamatan Mamboro (Desa Manu Wolu yang mewakili ekologi pantai. Kedua desa yang dipilih mempunyai kasus malaria tinggi selama satu tahun terakhir. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui beberapa aspek perilaku vektor Anopheles barbirostris di Kabupaten Sumba Tengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik habitat perkembangbiakan Anopheles barbirostris di desa Padira Tana adalah sawah (baik yang terpakai, tidak dipakai maupun siap tanam dan di kobakan. Sedangkan di desa Manu Wolu ditemukan di bekas kolam, kubangan dan kobakan.    Kepadatan nyamuk An

  4. Molecular Comparison of Topotypic Specimens Confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    of Health, Albany, NY, USA 5Facultad de Medicina , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia 6Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades...Tropicales, Facultad de Medicina , Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia...Anopheles nuneztovari C used in this study, alongside GenBank accessions for second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI

  5. Hemozoin activates the innate immune system and reduces Plasmodium berghei infection in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Maria L; Gonçalves, Luzia; Silveira, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is a worldwide infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The malaria vector mosquito Anopheles can trigger effective mechanisms to control completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle; the mosquito immune response to the parasite involves several pathways which are not yet well characterized. Plasmodium metabolite hemozoin has emerged as a potent immunostimulator of mammalian tissues. In this study, we aim to investigate the...

  6. Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuemei Dong; Ruth Aguilar; Zhiyong Xi; Emma Warr; Emmanuel Mongin; George Dimopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. I...

  7. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

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    Ali Zakia M I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6 and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46 that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45. Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed.

  8. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  9. 结合修正Curry-Altman步长搜索一个新的共轭梯度算法的收敛性%Global Convergence of a New Conjugate Gradient Methods with a Modification of the Curry-Altman Step-size Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽华; 孙清滢

    2004-01-01

    Conjugate gradient optimization algorithms depend on the search directions with different choices for the parameter in the search directions. In this note, conditions are given on the parameter in the conjugate gradient directions to ensure the descent property of the search directions. Global convergence of such a class of methods is discussed. It is shown that, using reverse modulus of continuity function and forcing function, the new method for solving unconstrained optimization can work for a continuously differentiable function with a modification of the Curry-Altman's step-size rule and a bounded level set. Combining PR method with our new method, PR method is modified to have global convergence property.Numerical experiments show that the new methods are efficient by comparing with FRconjugate gradient method.

  10. Organization of olfactory centres in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Riabinina, Olena; Task, Darya; Marr, Elizabeth; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Alford, Robert; O'Brochta, David A.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region. We present detailed anatomical maps of olfactory innervations in the AL and the SEZ, identifying glomeruli that may respond to human body odours or carbon dioxide. Our results pave the way for anatomical and functional neurogenetic studies of sensory processing in mosquitoes. PMID:27694947

  11. Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae

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    Eliningaya J.Kweka; Tamires Cardoso Lima; Chrian M.Marciale; Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.Methods:Larvicidal effects of each compound were evaluated in both laboratory and semi-field trials.Stock solution was prepared and serial dilutions were made in six concentrations for each compound.A total of 20 larvae were exposed to larvicides for each replicate and monitored at intervals of 12,24,48 and 72 h.Larvae monitoring was done on basis of dead and live larvae in all intervals.Results:All assayed compounds were larvicides and presented varying degrees of larval toxicity,with LC50 values ranging from 1.28 to 1 938.92 mg/L depending on the treatment time(12,24,48 or 72 h).(-)-Perillyl alcohol presented the strongest larvicidal activity towards Anopheles gambiae larvae,with LC50 values of 73.60,18.36,1.72 and1.28 mg/L after 12,24,48 and 72 h of exposure,respectively.The next strongest were(-)-isopulegol(LC50= 135.10,49.39,34.39 and 20.22 mg/L) and(-)-carvone epoxide(LC50= 168.86,124.74,80.84 and 23.46 mg/L).After 12,24 and 48 h of treatment,hydroxydihydrocarvone was the least toxic compound,with LC50 values of 1 938.92,1 172.18 and 401.03 mg/L,respectively.Conclusions:The data obtained in this study suggest that all evaluated monoterpenes,especially(-)-perillyl alcohol,have remarkable larvicidal effects and may be considered as potential sources for the development of suitable natural larvicides for mosquito management programs.Further small-scale field trials should be conducted.

  12. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin

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    Corbel Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae has become a serious concern to the future success of malaria control. In Benin, the National Malaria Control Programme has recently planned to scaling up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria prevention. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor the level and type of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae, particularly in southern Benin where reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and IRS has previously been reported. Methods The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across forty districts selected in southern Benin. Bioassay were performed on adults collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1% following WHOPES guidelines. The species within An. gambiae complex, molecular form and presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were determined by PCR. Results Strong resistance to permethrin and DDT was found in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, except in Aglangandan where mosquitoes were fully susceptible (mortality 100% to all insecticides tested. PCR showed the presence of two sub-species of An. gambiae, namely An. gambiae s.s, and Anopheles melas, with a predominance for An. gambiae s.s (98%. The molecular M form of An. gambiae was predominant in southern Benin (97%. The kdr mutation was detected in all districts at various frequency (1% to 95% whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%. Conclusion This study showed a widespread resistance to permethrin in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, with a significant increase of kdr frequency compared to what was observed previously in Benin. The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to

  13. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

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    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  14. The neotype of anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: culicidae O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles albitarsis neotype is described from specimens collected in Baradero, Argentina, in Shannon's trap, in horse and pig stables and on the progeny of engorded females. The description includes illustrations of adult female, male and female genitalias, scanning electron miscroscopy of the eggs and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva. The importance for electing a neotype is based on the realization that An. albitarsis is a complex of cryptic species. It is an attempt to provide typt-locality specimens with which other memebers of the group can be compared.O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis é descrito a partir de espécimens coletados em armadilha tipo Shannon, em estábulos de cavalos e porcos e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas em Baradero, Argentina, localidade-tipo da espécie. A descrição inclui ilustrações da fêmea adulda, genitálias masculina e feminina, ovos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e da quetotaxia completa das larvas de 4º estádio e pupas. A eleição de um neótipo para albitarsis baseia-se em dados recentes que apontam a espécie como um complexo de espécies crípticas, o que evidencia a importância de uma descrição detalhada de espécimens da localidade-tipo com o qual outros membros do grupo possam ser comparados.

  15. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae in Colombia and Ecuador through molecular and morphological correlation with topotypic material

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    Ranulfo González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. calderoni, a species which has never previously been reported in Colombia. Although discontinuity of the postsubcostal pale spots on the costa (C and first radial (R1 wing veins is purportedly diagnostic for An. calderoni, the degree of overlap of the distal postsubcostal spot on C and R1 were variable in Colombian specimens (0.003-0.024. In addition, in 98.2% of larvae, seta 1-X was located off the saddle and seta 3-C had 4-7 branches in 86.7% of specimens examined. Correlation of DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer and mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI barcodes (658 bp of the COI gene generated from Colombian progeny material and wild-caught mosquitoes from Ecuador with those from the Peruvian type series of An. calderoni confirmed new country records. DNA barcodes generated for the closely related taxa, An. malefactor and An. punctimacula are also presented for the first time. Examination of museum specimens at the University of the Valle, Colombia, revealed the presence of An. calderoni in inland localities across Colombia and at elevations up to 1113 m.

  16. African water storage pots for the delivery of the Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Farina, D.; Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Hunt, R.H.; Coetzee, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of African water storage pots for point source application of Metarhizium anisopliae against the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Clay pots were shown to be attractive resting sites for male and female An. gambiae s.s. and were not repellent after impregnat

  17. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

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    Chen Yung-Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%, dogs (20%, pig (10%, and non-chicken avian (10%. Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of

  18. Sperm quantity and size variation in un-irradiated and irradiated males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton

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    Helinski, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are important candidates for genetic control strategies. However, little is known about sperm quality and quantity as determinants of male reproductive success. In this study, sperm quantity and length variation were assessed in testes of un-irradiated and irradiated Anopheles a

  19. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae in Thailand

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    Adulsak Wijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.

  20. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew K; Grauso, Marta; Sattelle, David B

    2005-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets of widely selling insecticides. We have identified the nAChR gene family from the genome of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, to be the second complete insect nAChR gene family described following that of Drosophila melanogaster. Like Drosophila, Anopheles possesses 10 nAChR subunits with orthologous relationships evident between the two insects. Interestingly, the Anopheles orthologues of Dbeta2 and Dbeta3 possess the vicinal cysteines that define alpha subunits. As with Dalpha4 and Dalpha6, the Anopheles orthologues are alternatively spliced at equivalent exons. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis shows that RNA A-to-I editing sites conserved between Dalpha6 of Drosophila and alpha7-2 of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, are not shared with the equivalent nAChR subunit of Anopheles. Indeed, RNA-editing sites identified in functionally significant regions of Dbeta1, Dalpha5, and Dalpha6 are not conserved in the mosquito orthologues, indicating considerable divergence of RNA molecules targeted for editing within the insect order Diptera. These findings shed further light on the diversity of nAChR subunits and may present a useful basis for the development of improved malaria control agents by enhancing our understanding of a validated mosquito insecticide target.

  1. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS NYAMUK Anopheles DI DAERAH DENGAN ATAU TANPA KEBUN SALAK DI KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA

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    Dyah Widiastuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles has been known as vectors of malaria and filaria. A research which was aimed to evaluate the diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at Salak and Non Salak Areas was conducted. This Research located in Banjarnegara Regency which lay in a mountainous in the middle of Central Java (7'12"- 7'31 N and 109'20"-109'45"W. The location was divided into two groups i.e. (1 Kendaga Village (Banjarmangu Subdistrict representing of Salak area, (2 Badakarya Village (Punggelan Subdistrict representing Non Salak area. Mosquitoes were collected by landing and resting collection methods. All mosquitoes were anaesthetized with chloroform and identified under microscope. Shanon-Weaver Index and Eveness Index were measured to evaluate the diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. The results showed there were 6 species of Anopheles from both areas i.e. A. aconitus. A. balabacensis. A. barbirostris. A. kochi. A. vagus and A. maculatus. Result of examination by Independent Sample T-Test indicated that the diversity index value between two areas were not significantly different. Keywords: Anopheles, diversity, salakarea, non salakarea

  2. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

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    John C Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread

  3. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

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    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  4. Bacterial diversity associated with wild caught Anopheles mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam using culture and DNA fingerprint.

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    Chung Thuy Ngo

    Full Text Available Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study.The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR - TTGE method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota.The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes.

  5. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  6. Determinants of Anopheles seasonal distribution patterns across a forest to periurban gradient near Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Sardelis, Michael R; Jones, James W; Watts, Douglas M; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A; Turell, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region.

  7. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Tapan K; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Rasgon, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae, the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae.

  8. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV in mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan K. Barik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae, the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae.

  9. Observaciones sobre Phlebotomus y Anopheles en el Callejon de Huaylas

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    Arístides Herrer

    1943-03-01

    Full Text Available Se han llevado a cabo observaciones entomológicas en relación con la verruga y el paludismo en la zona del Callejón de Huaylas comprendida desde la ciudad de Yuramarca a la de Huarás, prestando especial atención a la región del Cañón del Pato. Se indica, como resultados de tales observaciones, la presencia de las titiras: Phlebotomus verrucarum, P. peruensis, P. noguchii y una especia nueva, señalando detenidamente las localidades donde se las han encontrado. El P. verrucarum, principal trasmisor de la verruga, se halla a lo largo de toda la zona estudiada, siendo su número bastante reducido en la ciudad de Huarás. Desde Yuramarca hasta cerca de la ciudad de Carás se ha encontrado únicamente el Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, tanto larvas como adultos. Sus criaderos se encuentran principalmente en las márgenes del río Santa, en las de algunos afluentes de éste y en numerosos, manantiales.

  10. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos

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    Aboozar Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

  11. Innate immunity against malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenand; Zhi-Hui Weng; Liangbiao Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Malaria continues to exert a huge toll in the world today, causing approximately 400 million cases and killing between 1-2 million people annually. Most of the malaria burden is borne by countries in Africa. For this reason, the major vector for malaria in this continent, Anopheles gambiae, is under intense study. With the completion of the draft sequence of this important vector, efforts are underway to develop novel control strategies.One promising area is to harness the power of the innate immunity of this mosquito species to block the transmission of the malaria parasites. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll and Imd signaling pathways and other immunity-related genes (encoding proteins possibly function in recognition or as effector molecules) play significant roles in two different arms of innate immunity: level of infection intensity and melanization of Plasmodium oocysts.The challenges in the future are to understand how the functions of these different genes are coordinated in defense against malaria parasites, and if different arms of innate immunity are cross-regulated or coordinated.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi embryo using expressed sequence tags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaustubh Gokhale; Deepak P Patil; Dhiraj P Dhotre; Rajnikant Dixit; Murlidhar J Mendki; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2013-06-01

    Germ band retraction (GBR) stage is one of the important stages during insect development. It is associated with an extensive epithelial morphogenesis and may also be pivotal in generation of morphological diversity in insects. Despite its importance, only a handful of studies report the transcriptome repertoire of this stage in insects. Here, we report generation, annotation and analysis of ESTs from the embryonic stage (16–22 h post fertilization) of laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. A total of 1002 contigs were obtained upon clustering of 1140 high-quality ESTs, which demonstrates an astonishingly low transcript redundancy (12.1%). Putative functions were assigned only to 213 contigs (21%), comprising mainly of transcripts encoding protein synthesis machinery. Approximately 78% of the transcripts remain uncharacterized, illustrating a lack of sequence information about the genes expressed in the embryonic stages of mosquitoes. This study highlights several novel transcripts, which apart from insect development, may significantly contribute to the essential biological complexity underlying insect viability in adverse environments. Nonetheless, the generated sequence information from this work provides a comprehensive resource for genome annotation, microarray development, phylogenetic analysis and other molecular biology applications in entomology.

  13. Biolistic techniques for transfection of mosquito embryos (Anopheles gambiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialhe, E; Miller, L H

    1994-05-01

    To compensate for the extremely low rates of transformation by DNA microinjection into mosquito embryos of Anopheles gambiae, biolistic techniques were evaluated for introduction of DNA into large numbers of mosquito embryos. Biolistic experiments were first performed with a commercially available instrument intended for this purpose, according to the recommended procedure. The amount of DNA delivered was measured by the expression of luciferase under the control of the Drosophila heat shock protein (hsp) 70 promoter. Despite attempts to optimize biolistic parameters, the level of luciferase activity was low and highly variable. Two other methods of biolistic delivery of DNA-coated particles in aqueous suspension were then evaluated. One method used the gas explosion of the commercially available instrument (mentioned above) to drive an aqueous suspension of DNA-coated particles at high pressure. This method reproducibly increased the level of expression about 100-fold without greatly reducing embryo viability. Another method, which was recently described for plant transfection, uses lower pressure to deliver the aqueous suspension of DNA-coated particles. The level of expression of luciferase and the survival of embryos were equivalent to that obtained with the instrument modified for aqueous delivery of particles. Thus, both aqueous methods offer the advantages of reproducibly delivering more DNA to the embryos. Moreover, these methods could be suitable for delivering DNA mixed with proteins, such as restriction endonucleases and integrases, that may be destroyed by ethanol precipitation used in the standard PDS-1000/He method.

  14. Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

    1997-01-01

    Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) are observed 20-30 h after ingestion of an infected blood-meal, at a time which indicates that this induction is a response to parasite invasion of the midgut epithelium. The induction is dependent upon the ingestion of infective, sexual-stage parasites, and is not due to opportunistic co-penetration of resident gut micro-organisms into the hemocoel. The response is activated following infection both locally (in the midgut) and systemically (in remaining tissues, presumably fat body and/or hemocytes). The observation that Plasmodium can trigger a molecularly defined immune response in the vector constitutes an important advance in our understanding of parasite-vector interactions that are potentially involved in malaria transmission, and extends knowledge of the innate immune system of insects to encompass responses to protozoan parasites. PMID:9321391

  15. [Anopheles funestus and rice agriculture in the Madagascar highlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrama, L; Rajaonarivelo, E; Laventure, S; Rabarison, P

    1995-01-01

    An exhaustive study of the potential habitats of Anopheles funestus was led during 1992 in Ankazobe on the Plateau of Madagascar, 95 km northwest of the capital Tananarive. The rice fields provide more than 90% of the positive habitats versus less than 10% for the nonhuman biotopes. Larva are especially abundant on the surfaces of the rice during grain head formation and maturation. The dense vegetation coverage provides them with shade and protection against predators. After harvesting, the follows can be filled with water and wild vegetation, and then also provide an important share of the habitats. The rice fields are omnipresent on the Plateau where they supply the basis of local alimentation. A. funestus then constitutes a serious risk for all of the villages. The role of the rice fields as habitats for A. funestus has already been noted in Kenya but in West Africa the rice fields do not host this species, even if this species is very abundant in the other types of habitats.

  16. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

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    Patience Marimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GSTs are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1 was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs.

  17. FAUNA DAN TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN POTENSIAL NYAMUK Anopheles spp DI KECAMATAN MAYONG, KABUPATEN JEPARA, JAWA TENGAH

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    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di beberapa daerah pedesaan di Jawa Tengah. Usaha pemberantasan malaria telah dilakukan oleh program baik secara kimiawi maupun hayati, guna memutuskan rantai penularan. Penelitian fauna dan tempat perindukan potensial nyamuk Anopheles telah dilakukan di Desa Buaran, Kecamatan Mayong I, Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah. Penangkapan nyamuk dengan umpan orang dilakukan di dalam dan di luar rumah pada malam hari dari pukul 18.00-24.00 yang masing-masing dilakukan oleh dua orang kolektor. Penangkapan nyamuk yang istirahat di dalam dan luar rumah (vegetasi pada pagi hari dilakukan pukul 06.00-08.00, yang dilakukan satu bulan 4 kali penangkapan selama 6 bulan. Pengambilan larva dan pupa dilakukan dari pukul 06.00-08.00 pagi di tempat genangan air dan sawah serta tempat yang potensial diduga sebagai perindukan Anopheles. Hasil penangkapan selama 6 bulan, diperoleh 1248 ekor nyamuk Anopheles yang terdiri dari 6 spesies yaitu: An. aconitus 442 ekor (35,42%, An. annularis 69 ekor (5,53% , An. barbirostris 30 ekor (2,4%, An. maculatus 2 ekor (0,16%, An. tesselatus 5 ekor (0,40% dan An. vagus 700 ekor (56,09%. Populasi aconitus ditemukan dari penangkapan di luar rumah, pada bulan Juli (56,40%, Agustus (42,80% dan Oktober (39,50% sedangkan pada bulan Mei (52,9%, Juni (44% dan September (50,40% dari penangkapan di kandang sapi. Pengambilan larva dan pupa Anopheles dilakukan di tempat habitat seperti sawah yang pada bulan Aguslus terbanyak ditemukan sebesar 85 (1.70, di sungai ditemukan hanya 4 (0.08 serta di genangan air bekas telapak kaki/kobokan ditemukan sebesar 6 (0.12. Ternyata tempat perindukan yang potensial larva Anopheles pada musim kemarau, ditemukan pada sungai yang ditanami kangkung oleh masyarakat selempat. Kata kunci: Fauna, tempat perindukan, Anopheles, vector

  18. Paridade de Anopheles cruzii em Floresta Ombrófila Densa no Sul do Brasil Anopheles cruzii parity in dense rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Dalla Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a paridade e desenvolvimento ovariano da espécie Anopheles cruzii, durante os períodos estacionais. MÉTODOS: As capturas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, no período matutino, de abril/2004 a abril/2005, no Parque Estadual do Palmito, município de Paranaguá litoral do Estado do Paraná. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados usando a técnica pouso homem. As dissecções foram feitas utilizando-se a técnica de Detinova e de Polovodova e a avaliação do desenvolvimento folicular, segundo os critérios de Christophers e Mer. RESULTADOS: Foram dissecadas 208 fêmeas de Anopheles cruzii. A maioria das fêmeas dissecadas nas estações eram nulíparas. Sendo que 14,4% eram nulíparas com folículo além do estádio II de Christophers & Mer, o que evidencia o exercício da hematofagia previamente à primeira oviposição. Observou-se que as populações de Anopheles cruzii são constituídas de indivíduos jovens, talvez em razão da alta mortalidade de fêmeas paridas. CONCLUSÕES: A provável discordância gonotrófica das fêmeas dissecadas é importante do ponto de vista epidemiológico, considerando que a fêmea pode procurar mais de um hospedeiro para completar a maturação dos seus ovos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the parity and ovarian development of Anopheles cruzii species during the seasons. METHODS: Collections were carried out fortnightly in the morning in the Palmito State Park in the municipality of Paranaguá, Southern Brazil, between April 2004 and April 2005. Adult mosquitoes were captured using human landing rate. Dissections were performed using Detinova's and Polovodova's methods and follicular development was assessed following Christophers and Mer's criteria. RESULTS: A total of 208 specimens of Anopheles cruzii were dissected. Most females dissected were nulliparous in the seasons; 14.4% of them were found to be nulliparous above Christophers and Mer's stage II, which shows previous blood meal prior to the

  19. Fauna and some biological characteristics of Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kalaleh County, Golestan Province, northeast of lran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aioub Sofizadeh; Hamideh Edalat; Mohammad Reza Abai; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine fauna and some ecological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in northeast of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 3 villages in Kalaleh County were selected in different geographical zones. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biweekly from May to October using standard dipping method for larvae, and hand catch, total catch, artificial pit shelter as well as night-biting collections on human and animal baits for adults. Results: Totally 399 larvae and 2 602 adults of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected and identified as 2 species: Anopheles superpictus s.l. (An. superpictus s.l.) and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. The dominant species was An. superpictus s.l. (92.1%). Activity of these mosquitoes found to be started from middle of May and extended till September with two peaks of activity in July and August. Conclusions: An. superpictus s.l. as one of the main malaria vectors in Iran as well as some other parts of the world is the dominant species in the study area. This species has high potential for transmission and possibility of establishing a transmission cycle with low abundance. Other species, Anopheles maculipennis s.l. also has introduced as a malaria vector in northern parts of Iran. As this Anopheles is a complex species, genetic studies are recommended to determine the members of this complex in the study area.

  20. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  1. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

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    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  2. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in wild mating swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Diallo, Moussa; Ribeiro, José M C; Paley, Derek A

    2013-05-01

    An important element of mating in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles in nature is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and insemination is generally believed to occur. In this study, we mathematically characterize the oscillatory movement of male An. gambiae in terms of an established individual-based mechanistic model that parameterizes the attraction of a mosquito toward the center of the swarm using the natural frequency of oscillation and the resistance to its motion, characterized by the damping ratio. Using three-dimensional trajectory data of ten wild mosquito swarms filmed in Mali, Africa, we show two new results for low and moderate wind conditions, and indicate how these results may vary in high wind. First, we show that in low and moderate wind the vertical component of the mosquito motion has a lower frequency of oscillation and higher damping ratio than horizontal motion. In high wind, the vertical and horizontal motions are similar to one another and the natural frequencies are higher than in low and moderate wind. Second, we show that the predicted average disagreement in the direction of motion of swarming mosquitoes moving randomly is greater than the average disagreement we observed between each mosquito and its three closest neighbors, with the smallest level of disagreement occurring for the nearest neighbor in seven out of 10 swarms. The alignment of the direction of motion between nearest neighbors is the highest in high wind. This result provides evidence for flight-path coordination between swarming male mosquitoes.

  3. Genetic population structure of Anopheles gambiae in Equatorial Guinea

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    Caccone Adalgisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic structure among mosquito vector populations in islands have received particular attention as these are considered potentially suitable sites for experimental trials on transgenic-based malaria control strategies. In this study, levels of genetic differentiation have been estimated between populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from the islands of Bioko and Annobón, and from continental Equatorial Guinea (EG and Gabon. Methods Genotyping of 11 microsatellite loci located in chromosome 3 was performed in three island samples (two in Bioko and one in Annobón and three mainland samples (two in EG and one in Gabon. Four samples belonged to the M molecular form and two to the S-form. Microsatellite data was used to estimate genetic diversity parameters, perform demographic equilibrium tests and analyse population differentiation. Results High levels of genetic differentiation were found between the more geographically remote island of Annobón and the continent, contrasting with the shallow differentiation between Bioko island, closest to mainland, and continental localities. In Bioko, differentiation between M and S forms was higher than that observed between island and mainland samples of the same molecular form. Conclusion The observed patterns of population structure seem to be governed by the presence of both physical (the ocean and biological (the M-S form discontinuity barriers to gene flow. The significant degree of genetic isolation between M and S forms detected by microsatellite loci located outside the "genomic islands" of speciation identified in A. gambiae s.s. further supports the hypothesis of on-going incipient speciation within this species. The implications of these findings regarding vector control strategies are discussed.

  4. Chloroquine mediated modulation of Anopheles gambiae gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Abrantes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium development in the mosquito is crucial for malaria transmission and depends on the parasite's interaction with a variety of cell types and specific mosquito factors that have both positive and negative effects on infection. Whereas the defensive response of the mosquito contributes to a decrease in parasite numbers during these stages, some components of the blood meal are known to favor infection, potentiating the risk of increased transmission. The presence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine in the mosquito's blood meal has been associated with an increase in Plasmodium infectivity for the mosquito, which is possibly caused by chloroquine interfering with the capacity of the mosquito to defend against the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report a detailed survey of the Anopheles gambiae genes that are differentially regulated by the presence of chloroquine in the blood meal, using an A. gambiae cDNA microarray. The effect of chloroquine on transcript abundance was evaluated separately for non-infected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. Chloroquine was found to affect the abundance of transcripts that encode proteins involved in a variety of processes, including immunity, apoptosis, cytoskeleton and the response to oxidative stress. This pattern of differential gene expression may explain the weakened mosquito defense response which accounts for the increased infectivity observed in chloroquine-treated mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that chloroquine can interfere with several putative mosquito mechanisms of defense against Plasmodium at the level of gene expression and highlight the need for a better understanding of the impacts of antimalarial agents on parasite transmission.

  5. The Susceptibility and Behavioral Response of Anopheles Albimanus Weidemann and Anopheles Vestitipennis Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in Northern Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    33:205-211. 66 Marquetti, M.C.., A. Navarro and JA Bisset. 1990. Estudio de la actividad hematofagica de Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab, 1906...Garcia. 1986. Estudio estaeional de sitios de reposo de anophelinos (Diptera: Culicidae). [Studies of the resting places ofanophelines (Diptera...Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion [Mexican anophelines. Taxonomy and distribution]. Mex.., D.F.., ecr. Salubr. Assist. CNEP/SS~ 181 pp

  6. Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A K; Chatli, M K; Sahoo, J

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of curry and mint leaf and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat stored at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated that among the two individual leaf categories, the ethanol extract of curry leaf (EHEC) and the water extract of mint leaf (WEM) showed higher DPPH and ABTS(+) activity. EHEC also exhibited the highest total phenolic contents while these were the lowest for WEM. WEM showed the highest superoxide anionic scavenging activity (%). The pork meat samples treated with EHEC and WEM showed a decrease in the Hunter L- and a-values and a increase in b-value during storage at 4°C. However, the pH and TBARS values were higher in control samples irrespective of storage periods. In conclusion, EHEC and WEM have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimise lipid oxidation of pork products.

  7. Molecular identification of a myosuppressin receptor from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöller, Susanne; Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The insect myosuppressins (X1DVX2HX3FLRFamide) are neuropeptides that generally block insect muscle activities. We have used the genomic sequence information from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Genome Project to clone a G protein-coupled receptor that was closely related to the two previo...

  8. Identification of four evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is an important vector for malaria, which is one of the most serious human parasitic diseases in the world, causing up to 2.7 million deaths yearly. To contribute to our understanding of A. gambiae and to the transmission of malaria, we have now cloned four evolutio...

  9. Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance and Organophosphate Susceptibility among Anopheles spp. Mosquitoes, Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjala, Christine L; Mbugi, Jernard P; Ototo, Edna; Gesuge, Maxwell; Afrane, Yaw A; Atieli, Harrysone E; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-12-01

    We conducted standard insecticide susceptibility testing across western Kenya and found that the Anopheles gambiae mosquito has acquired high resistance to pyrethroids and DDT, patchy resistance to carbamates, but no resistance to organophosphates. Use of non-pyrethroid-based vector control tools may be preferable for malaria prevention in this region.

  10. Biology and Description of the Larva and Pupa of Anopheles (Cellia) elegans James (1903),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Ramakrishnan. 1963. Experimental susceptibility of Anophe line mosquitoes to simian malaria in N the Nilgiris , Madras State, South India. Indian J...simian malaria in the Nilgiris , Madras State, India. Indian J. Malariol. 17:243-247. Colless, D.H. 1956. The Anopheles leucoph ,rus group. Trans. R

  11. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  12. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae ...

  13. New selenoproteins identified in silico from the genome of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Liang; LIU Qiong; CHEN Ping; GAO ZhongHong; XU HuiBi

    2007-01-01

    Selenoprotein is biosynthesized by the incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins, where the TGA codon in the open reading frame does not act as a stop signal but is translated into selenocysteine. The dual functions of TGA result in mis-annotation or lack of selenoproteins in the sequenced genomes of many species. Available computational tools fail to correctly predict selenoproteins. Thus, we developed a new method to identify selenoproteins from the genome of Anopheles gambiae computationally.Based on released genomic information, several programs were edited with PERL language to identify selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, the coding potential of TGA codons, and cysteine-containing homologs of selenoprotein genes. Our results showed that 11365 genes were terminated with TGA codons, 918 of which contained SECIS elements. Similarity search revealed that 58genes contained Sec/Cys pairs and similar flanking regions around in-frame TGA codons. Finally, 7genes were found to fully meet requirements for selenoproteins, although they have not been annotated as selenoproteins in NCBI databases. Deduced from their basic properties, the newly found selenoproteins in the genome of Anopheles gambiae are possibly related to in vivo oxidation tolerance and protein regulation in order to interfere with anopheles' vectorial capacity of Plasmodium. This study may also provide theoretical bases for the prevention of malaria from anopheles transmission.

  14. Effect of larval crowding on mating competitiveness of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'habi, K.R.; John, B.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Killeen, G.F.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The success of sterile or transgenic Anopheles for malaria control depends on their mating competitiveness within wild populations. Current evidence suggests that transgenic mosquitoes have reduced fitness. One means of compensating for this fitness deficit would be to identify environme

  15. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Pictipennis: A New Mosquito Record from the Atacama Region of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, this species rarely feeds on humans, but it is highly attracted to domestic animals (Linthicum 1988). In this paper, we report An. (N...Mosq Control Assoc 12:619-626. Neghme AR. 1943. Contribucion a la biologia del Anopheles pictipenllis (Philippi, 1865). I. Communica- cion

  16. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Githeko, A.K.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2003-01-01

    Background - Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods - The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats,

  17. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study, th

  18. Inhibition of host-seeking response and olfactory responsiveness in Anopheles gambiae following blood feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Adam, W.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of a single blood meal on the host-seeking response of Anopheles gambiae was investigated in the laboratory using a behavioural bioassay, whereas possible changes at the chemosensory level were monitored using electroantennogram recording (EAG). To avoid the possible confounding effect of

  19. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  20. Olfaction in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : Electrophysiology and identification of kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Female mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto are important vectors of human malaria in Africa. It is generally assumed that they locate their human host by odours. These odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons situated within cuticular extensions on the antenna. T

  1. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western Ke

  2. Using a near-infrared spectrometer to estimate the age of Anopheles mosquitoes exposed to pyrethroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as ,7 or $7 d ol...

  3. [Radiosensitivity curve of different stages of spermatogenesis of Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera:Nematocera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecis, A R; Figus, V; Santarini, C

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain a dose-hatchability curve for irradiated spermatogenetic stages of Anopheles atroparvus, we have irradiated with the same dose "4500 r" young fourth larval stages, old fourth larval stages, nymphae and adult males. Those different stages represent different phases of spermatogenesis. The peak of radiosensitivity for embryonic mortality, was found in spermatids, lowest appeared in spermatogonies.

  4. Ecology of Anopheles Stephensi in a Malarious Area, Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norair Piazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District of Jiroft is situated in south-east of Iran which is one of the malarious regions. Anopheles stephensi is considered as one of the main malaria vector in this region. Ecology of this species was studied in the area to understand its vector behavior for implementation of effective vector control measures. Different methods like total catch, pit shelter, night bite collection on human and animal, larval dipping methods were used for species identification, seasonal activity, anthropophilic index and egg morphological characteristics. Anthropophilicity index was assessed by ELISA test. Activity of Anopheles species started at the beginning of April, and its peak occurs in late spring. The larvae were found in the river bed with pools, stagnant streams, slow foothill streams, temporary pools, and slowly moving water with and without vegetation, drainage containers of air conditioner and palm irrigation canals. From different methods of adult collection, it was found that spray sheet collection is the appropriate method. ELISA testing of 144 blood meals of females revealed the anthropophilicity of 11.8% indicating host preference on animal, mainly cow. Ridge length and their number on the egg floats confirmed Anopheles stephensi mysorensis form. This study showed that Anopheles stephensi is the main vector of malaria in the region, although some other species may play a role. Our findings could provide a valuable clue for epidemiology and control of malaria in the southeast of Iran.

  5. Factors affecting the vectorial competence of Anopheles gambiae: a question of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria transmission in Africa is without doubt governed by the existence of a group of highly efficient vectors, of which Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto is predominant. The endophilic and anthropophagic behaviours of this mosquito create an intimate association between the human reservoir an

  6. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria mosquitoes). Mosquitoes feed on humans (and other animals

  7. Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mbadi, P.A.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is considered to be highly anthropophilic and volatiles of human origin provide essential cues during its host-seeking behaviour. A synthetic blend of three human-derived volatiles, ammonia, lactic acid and tetradecanoic acid, attracts A. gambiae. In addi

  8. Was Anopheles donaldi a vector of malaria in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J A

    1980-01-01

    Anopheles donaldi Reid, a member of the A. barbirostris species group, is a vector of human filariasis and probably malaria. The discovery of some old specimens of this species, collected in Kuala Lumpur town where it no longer occurs, together with evidence from the literature about past malaria in the town, suggest that donaldi may have played a part in transmitting that malaria.

  9. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Method

  10. Species-specific chemosensory gene expression in the olfactory organs of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodges, Theresa K.; Cosme, Luciano V.; Athrey, Giridhar; Pathikonda, Sharmila; Takken, Willem; Slotman, Michel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae has a high preference for human hosts, a characteristic that contributes greatly to its capacity for transmitting human malaria. A sibling species, An. quadriannulatus, has a quite different host preference and feeds mostly on bovids. For this re

  11. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  12. Genomic and evolutionary analyses of Tango transposons in Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and other mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Tu, Z

    2007-08-01

    Tango is a transposon of the Tc1 family and was originally discovered in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Here we report a systematic analysis of the genome sequence of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which uncovered three distinct Tango transposons. We name the only An. gambiae Tango transposon AgTango1 and the three Ae. aegypti Tango elements AeTango1-3. Like AgTango1, AeTango1 and AeTango2 elements both have members that retain characteristics of autonomous elements such as intact open reading frames and terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). AeTango3 is a degenerate transposon with no full-length members. All full-length Tango transposons contain subterminal direct repeats within their TIRs. AgTango1 and AeTango1-3 form a single clade among other Tc1 transposons. Within this clade, AgTango1 and AeTango1 are closely related and share approximately 80% identity at the amino acid level, which exceeds the level of similarity of the majority of host genes in the two species. A survey of Tango in other mosquito species was carried out using degenerate PCR. Tango was isolated and sequenced in all members of the An. gambiae species complex, Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus atropalpus. Oc. atropalpus contains a rich diversity of Tango elements, while Tango elements in Ae. albopictus and the An. gambiae species complex all belong to Tango1. No Tango was detected in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles farauti or Anopheles albimanus using degenerate PCR. Bioinformatic searches of the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (~10 x coverage) and An. stephensi (0.33 x coverage) databases also failed to uncover any Tango elements. Although other evolutionary scenarios cannot be ruled out, there are indications that Tango1 underwent horizontal transfer among divergent mosquito species.

  13. Curry County 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  14. Curry County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  15. Curry County 2000 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  16. Curry County 2010 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  17. Curry County 2000 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  18. Curry County 2010 Census Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  19. BIONOMIK NYAMUK MANSONIA DAN ANOPHELES DI DESA KARYA MAKMUR, KABUPATEN OKU TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelza Supranelfy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is still become the health problem in Indonesia, the disease almost found inthe entire area with fairly high level endemicity. Karya Makmur Village, Madang Suku III District, EastOgan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatera Province in 2007 has micofilariae rate of 1,05% based fromblood survey. The aims of the research is to identify vector and the breeding habitat. This research has beenconducted in Karya Makmur Village from May to November 2011. This type of research is noninterventionstudy with spot survey research design. Mosquitoes collection using human landing andresting collection methods, while mosquito larvae were collected from breeding sites. This research found14 species of Mansonia and Anopheles were collected and the species were Mansonia uniformis, Ma.annulata, Ma. indiana, Ma. dives, Ma. bonneae, Ma. annulifera, Anopheles nigerrimus , An. annularis, An.maculatus, An. letifer, An. vagus, An. barbumbrosus, An. barbirostris and An. tesselatus. Mansoniauniformis and Anopheles nigerrimus was confirmed as filariasis vector but none containing microfilariae.Breeding habitat of Anopheles have water temperature 280C — 300C and pH 7 with vegetation (grass andEichhornia crassipes / water hyacinth and predator (Oreochromis niloticus / nile tilapia and Aplocheiluspanchax / fish head lead. Thus the community are expected to behave positively, especially avoidmosquito bites and manipulate the environment that potentially as mosquito larvae breeding habitat.Keywords: Mansonia, Anopheles, filariasis, Karya Makmur Village AbstrakFilariasis limfatik masih merupakan masalah kesehatandi Indonesia, penyebaran penyakit ini hampirdi seluruh wilayah dan dibeberapa daerah dengan tingkatendemic yang cukup tinggi. Desa Karya Makmur, Kecamatan Madang SukuIII, Kabupaten Ogan KomeringUlu Timur, Propinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tahun2007, mikrofilariarate sebesar1,05% berdasarkansurvey darah jari. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui

  20. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  1. Distribución espacial de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis en las Yungas de Salta, Argentina Spatial distribution of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in the Yungas de Salta rainforest, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Dantur Juri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la abundancia de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, y otros anofelinos, en tres zonas silvestres y modificadas por el hombre, a fin de verificar en qué medida tales diferencias ambientales afectan la distribución espacial de estos mosquitos. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron muestreos mensuales (diciembre de 2001 a diciembre de 2002, con trampas de luz CDC con CO2, en cada sitio de muestreo (selva, borde de selva y peridomicilio. En el peridomicilio, además, dos operadores aspiraron mosquitos posados sobre las paredes. Se estimaron índices de diversidad y abundancia de especies, y se intentó caracterizar a los ambientes estudiados mediante ANOVA, cálculo de cosenos y análisis de agrupamientos. RESULTADOS: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis fue la especie más abundante. Se colectaron también An. argyritarsis, An. nuneztovari, An. rangeli y An. strodei. Excepto An. nuneztovari que no se capturó en el peridomicilio, las demás se colectaron en los tres ambientes. No hubo diferencias en los índices de diversidad, ni tampoco entre los ambientes estudiados; sin embargo, el análisis de agrupamiento separó el borde de la selva, donde todas las especies fueron más abundantes en general. CONCLUSIONES: El borde de la selva fue el ambiente que presentó la mayor abundancia, representando, además del peridomicilio, un ambiente de alto riesgo para la transmisión del paludismo.OBJECTIVE: To compare the abundance of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and other anopheline mosquitoes in three different wild areas, modified by human activities, and to verify how environmental differences affect the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes. METHODS: Samples were collected monthly from December 2001 to December 2002 in Yungas de Salta, Argentina. CO2 -baited CDC light traps were placed at each sample site (forest, transition area and peridomiciliary area. In the peridomiciliary area, two agents also suctioned mosquitoes from house walls. Species diversity

  2. A simple 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and curry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    A method using simple extraction and 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and various mixed curry powder formulations. The method offers resolution (Rf) of turmeric pigments, namely, curcumin (0.77), demethoxycurcumin (0.69), bis(demethoxy)curcumin (0.61), and the synthetic dye metanil yellow (0.05) by the first-directional mobile phase, chloroform-methanol (9 + 1, v/v). The resolution (Rf) of sudan I (0.30) and sudan IV (0.23) was achieved by the second-directional mobile phase, toluene-hexane-acetic acid (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v). Natural pigments of both turmeric and chili showed no interference in the detection and quantification of synthetic colors. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for curcumin, metanil yellow, sudan I, and sudan IV were 17.39, 42.90, 15.45, and 7.01 and 52.71,130.0, 46.80, and 21.24 ng/spot, respectively. Analysis of a few market samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (1.5-4.6 mg/g), sudan I (4.8-12.1 mg/g), and sudan IV (0.9-2.0 mg/g) in loose turmeric and chili samples, whereas the curcumin content in turmeric and mixed curry powder samples ranged from 6.5 to 36.4 and from 0.3 to 1.9 mg/g, respectively. The method is relatively simple, offers reasonable sensitivity, and can be used to screen a large number of samples.

  3. KONFIRMASI STATUS ANOPHELES VAGUS SEBAGAI VEKTOR PENDAMPING SAAT KEJADIAN LUAR BIASA MALARIA DI KABUPATEN SUKABUMI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrul Munif

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Confirmation A nopheles Vagus As Vector Implicated Malaria Outbreak In Sukabumi District, Indonesia.A study on adult anopheline of malaria vector incrimination for the vector status ofAn. aconitus, An.sundaicus and An. barbirostris, An. vagus were infected with malaria parasites was conducted in Simpenan sub-district, Sukabumi district, West Java from January 2003 to February 2003. The observation of the identification of Anopheles spp. and its relationship with outbreak malaria as well as the determination of Anopheles spp. as malaria vectors in endemic areas should be given attention as an effort in preventing malaria outbreaks. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human bait indoor and outdoor catches. Mosquitoes head-thoraces were tested for the presence of circumsporozoite of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax for the presence of human blood by ELISA. A total of 3,308 female anophelines representing 9 spesies were collected. Nine identified Anopheles species ie: An.aconitus, An.sundaicus, An maculatus, An.indefinitus, An. vagus, An. baezai, An.kochi, An.barbirostris and An.annularis, recorded during outbreak, were the main vectors of malaria in the Simpenan district. Malaria parasite infections were seen in nine mosquito species, with natural infection 0.12% of the positive An. vagus mosquitoes containing P. faciparum. An. vagus occurring in abundance, was involved in malaria transmission in outbreak period. The average inoculation rate was 0,213 While there was strong ELISA-based evidence implicating An. vagus as a dominant vector. Of these, An.aconitus, An.maculatus and An.sundaicus are suspected primary malaria vector in Simpenan sub-district, Sukabumi district, Indonesia, but An. vagus has been implicated with certainty in malaria transmission in the country.Keywords: Anopheles, vagus, vector status, ELISA, outbreak, implicated vector

  4. Identification and characterization of the expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenquan; Huang, Huicong; Xing, Cuicui; Li, Chunxiang; TAN, FENG; Liang, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles anthropophagus, one of the most important mosquito-borne disease vectors in Asia, mainly takes blood meals from humans and transmits both malaria and filariae. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, and play a critical role in many cellular processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis and innate immunity. Methods We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of male and female adults of A. anthropophagus using illumina Hiseq2000 sequencing com...

  5. Limited Diversity of Anopheles Darlingi in The Peruvian Amazon Region of Iquitos

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Sheen, Patricia; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; OSWALD, WILLIAM E.; JERI, CESAR; VITTOR, AMY YOMIKO; Patz, Jonathan A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Amazon basin of South America, and is capable of transmitting both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. To understand the genetic structure of this vector in the Amazonian region of Peru, a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test to identify this species of mosquito was used. A random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR was used to study genetic variation at the micro-geographic level in nine geographically separate populations...

  6. Blood feeding induces hemocyte proliferation and activation in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, William B.; Michel, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a global public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles serves as the major vector for the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum Welch. One determinant of malaria vector competence is the mosquito's immune system. Hemocytes are a critical component as they produce soluble immune factors that either support or prevent malaria parasite development. However, despite their importance in vector competence, understanding of their basic biolo...

  7. Metabolic and Target-Site Mechanisms Combine to Confer Strong DDT Resistance in Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The development of resistance to insecticides has become a classic exemplar of evolution occurring within human time scales. In this study we demonstrate how resistance to DDT in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a result of both target-site resistance mechanisms that have introgressed between incipient species (the M- and S-molecular forms) and allelic variants in a DDT-detoxifying enzyme. Sequencing of the detoxification enzyme, Gste2, from DDT resistant and susceptible ...

  8. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  9. Robust and regulatory expression of defensin A gene driven by vitellogenin promoter in transgenic Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiaoGuang; ZHANG YaJing; ZHENG XueLi; WANG ChunMei

    2007-01-01

    The use of genetically modified mosquitoes to reduce or replace field populations is a new strategy to control mosquito-borne diseases. The precondition of the implementation of this strategy is the ability to manipulate the genome of mosquitoes and to induce specific expression of the effector molecules driven by a suitable promoter. The objective of this study is to evaluate the expression of defensin A gene of Anopheles sinensis under the control of a vitellogenin promoter in transgenic Anopheles stephensi. The regulatory region of Anopheles gambiae vitellogenin was cloned and subcloned into transfer vector pSLFa consisting of an expression cassette with defensin A coding sequence. Then, the expression cassette was transferred into transformation vector pBac[3xP3-DsRedafm] using Asc I digestion. The recombinant plasmid DNA of pBac[3xP3DsRed-AgVgT2-DefA] and helper plasmid DNA of phsp-pBac were micro-injected into embryos of An. stephensi. The positive transgenic mosquitoes were screened by observing specific red fluorescence in the eyes of G1 larvae. Southern blot analysis showed that a single-copy transgene integrated into the genome of An. stephensi. RT-PCR analysis showed that the defensin A gene expressed specifically in fat bodies of female mosquitoes after a blood meal. Interestingly, the mRNA of defensin A is more stable compared with that of the endogenous vitellogenin gene. After multiple blood meals, the expression of defensin A appeared as a reducible and non-cycling type, a crucial feature for its anti-pathogen effect. From data above, we concluded that the regulatory function of the Vg promoter and the expression of defensin A gene were relatively conserved in different species of anopheles mosquitoes. These molecules could be used as candidates in the development of genetically modified mosquitoes.

  10. SNP discovery and molecular evolution in Anopheles gambiae, with special emphasis on innate immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsos Anastasios; Morlais Isabelle; Simard Frédéric; Krishnakumar Sujatha; Cohuet Anna; Fontenille Didier; Mindrinos Michael; Kafatos Fotis C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Anopheles innate immunity affects Plasmodium development and is a potential target of innovative malaria control strategies. The extent and distribution of nucleotide diversity in immunity genes might provide insights into the evolutionary forces that condition pathogen-vector interactions. The discovery of polymorphisms is an essential step towards association studies of susceptibility to infection. Results We sequenced coding fragments of 72 immune related genes in natur...

  11. Evidence for Population-Specific Positive Selection on Immune Genes of Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Jacob E; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Garnier, Thierry; Gneme, Awa; Eiglmeier, Karin; Holm, Inge; Michelle M Riehle; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Sagnon, N’Fale; Brian P Lazzaro; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2012-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions can be powerful drivers of adaptive evolution, shaping the patterns of molecular variation at the genes involved. In this study, we sequenced alleles from 28 immune-related loci in wild samples of multiple genetic subpopulations of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, obtaining unprecedented sample sizes and providing the first opportunity to contrast patterns of molecular evolution at immune-related loci in the recently discovered GOUNDRY population to t...

  12. High Genetic Differentiation between the M and S Molecular Forms of Anopheles gambiae in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Esnault; Matthieu Boulesteix; Jean Bernard Duchemin; Koffi, Alphonsine A; Fabrice Chandre; Roch Dabiré; Vincent Robert; Frédéric Simard; Frédéric Tripet; Donnelly, Martin J.; Didier Fontenille; Christian Biémont

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of malaria, is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to eliminate infective mosquitoes, researchers are trying to develop transgenic strains that are refractory to the Plasmodium parasite. Before any release of transgenic mosquitoes can be envisaged, we need an accurate picture of the differentiation between the two molecular forms of An. gambiae, termed M and S, which are of uncertain taxonomic status. METHODOLOGY/PRINCI...

  13. Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Andrew F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of Anopheles. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii. Methods Over two experiments, groups of An. stephensi were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or P. yoelii. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed. Results and conclusion Both infected and uninfected An. stephensi showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult Anopheles.

  14. New selenoproteins identified in silico from the genome of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Selenoprotein is biosynthesized by the incorporation of selenocysteine into proteins,where the TGA codon in the open reading frame does not act as a stop signal but is translated into selenocysteine.The dual functions of TGA result in mis-annotation or lack of selenoproteins in the sequenced genomes of many species.Available computational tools fail to correctly predict selenoproteins.Thus,we devel-oped a new method to identify selenoproteins from the genome of Anopheles gambiae computationally.Based on released genomic information,several programs were edited with PERL language to identify selenocysteine insertion sequence(SECIS)element,the coding potential of TGA codons,and cys-teine-containing homologs of selenoprotein genes.Our results showed that 11365 genes were termi-nated with TGA codons,918 of which contained SECIS elements.Similarity search revealed that 58 genes contained Sec/Cys pairs and similar flanking regions around in-frame TGA codons.Finally,7 genes were found to fully meet requirements for selenoproteins,although they have not been anno-tated as selenoproteins in NCBI databases.Deduced from their basic properties,the newly found se-lenoproteins in the genome of Anopheles gambiae are possibly related to in vivo oxidation tolerance and protein regulation in order to interfere with anopheles’ vectorial capacity of Plasmodium.This study may also provide theoretical bases for the prevention of malaria from anopheles transmission.

  15. [The Anopheles fauna and the transmission of human malaria in Kinshasa (Zaire)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, S; Asidi, N; Manzambi, Z M; Salaun, J J

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal epidemiological study of malaria and its vectors was conducted in Kinshasa. 264 night-bite collections on human bait (1,056 man nights) and 384 collections of the house-resting fauna were carried out from April 1989 to October 1990. The anophelian fauna was identified and inventoried, 7 Anopheles species were found: Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus, An. paludis, An. hancocki, An. counstani, An. brunnipes, and An. nili. A single species, An. gambiae s. l. is responsible for the transmission of malaria, it represents 93.27% of the anopheline fauna. The average number of anophele bites man day was 16.28 bites/man/night, it varied between 1 b/m/n in urban area to 26.05 b/m/n in semi-rural area. The average of the sporozoite index for An. gambiae was 3.3%, but it varied from 0% in the urban area to 6.52% in the semi-rural area. The entomological inoculation rate (h) was 197 infective bites per year. This rate fluctuated from 1 infective bite each 128 nights in urban area to 1.7 infective night-bite in semi-rural area. Other epidemiological index were also determined: the level of daily survival rate (p = 8.75 days), the vectorial capacity of 17.97 and the Macdonald's stability 3.5 bites on man taken by a vector during its entire lifetime.

  16. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kolanthasamy Prabhu; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Nareshkumar; Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of spinosad againstAnopheles stephensi Listen.Methods: Spinosad from the actinomycete,Saccharopolyspora spinosa was tested againstAnopheles stephensi at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and0.08ppm.), and against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae.Results: The larval mortality ranged from36.1±1.7 in (0.01 ppm) to 79.3±1.8 (0.08 ppm) the first instar larva. The LC50andLC90values of first, second, third and fourth instar larva were0.001, 0.031, 0.034, 0.036and0.0113, 0.102, 0.111, 0.113, respectively. The pupal mortality ranged from33.0±2.0 (0.01 ppm) to 80.0±0.9 (0.08 ppm). The LC50 andLC90values were0.028 and 0.1020, respectively. The reduction percentage ofAnopheles larvae was82.7%, 91.4% and96.0% after 24, 48, 72 hours, respectively, while more than80% reduction was observed after3 weeks.Conclusions:In the present study spinosad effectively caused mortality of mosquito larvae in both the laboratory and field trial. It is predicted that spinosad is likely to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito breeding sites.

  17. Reticulate Speciation and Barriers to Introgression in the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Riehle, Michelle M; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Gneme, Awa; Sagnon, N'Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D; Nielsen, Rasmus; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2015-11-28

    Speciation as a process remains a central focus of evolutionary biology, but our understanding of the genomic architecture and prevalence of speciation in the face of gene flow remains incomplete. The Anopheles gambiae species complex of malaria mosquitoes is a radiation of ecologically diverse taxa. This complex is well-suited for testing for evidence of a speciation continuum and genomic barriers to introgression because its members exhibit partially overlapping geographic distributions as well as varying levels of divergence and reproductive isolation. We sequenced 20 genomes from wild A. gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, and compared these with 12 genomes from the "GOUNDRY" subgroup of A. gambiae s.l. Amidst a backdrop of strong reproductive isolation, we find strong evidence for a speciation continuum with introgression of autosomal chromosomal regions among species and subgroups. The X chromosome, however, is strongly differentiated among all taxa, pointing to a disproportionately large effect of X chromosome genes in driving speciation among anophelines. Strikingly, we find that autosomal introgression has occurred from contemporary hybridization between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis despite strong divergence (∼5× higher than autosomal divergence) and isolation on the X chromosome. In addition to the X, we find strong evidence that lowly recombining autosomal regions, especially pericentromeric regions, serve as barriers to introgression secondarily to the X. We show that speciation with gene flow results in genomic mosaicism of divergence and introgression. Such a reticulate gene pool connecting vector taxa across the speciation continuum has important implications for malaria control efforts.

  18. A viral over-expression system for the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Niu, Guodong; Hughes, Grant L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2014-05-30

    Understanding pathogen/mosquito interactions is essential for developing novel strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Technical advances in reverse-genetics, such as RNA interference (RNAi), have facilitated elucidation of components of the mosquito immune system that are antagonistic to pathogen development, and host proteins essential for parasite development. Forward genetic approaches, however, are limited to generation of transgenic insects, and while powerful, mosquito transgenesis is a resource- and time-intensive technique that is not broadly available to most laboratories. The ability to easily "over-express" genes would enhance molecular studies in vector biology and expedite elucidation of pathogen-refractory genes without the need to make transgenic insects. We developed and characterized an efficient Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) over-expression system for the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. High-levels of gene expression were detected at 3 days post-infection and increased over time, suggesting this is an effective system for gene induction. Strong expression was observed in the fat body and ovaries. We validated multiple short promoters for gene induction studies. Finally, we developed a polycistronic system to simultaneously express multiple genes of interest. This AgDNV-based toolset allows for consistent transduction of genes of interest and will be a powerful molecular tool for research in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

  19. Ability of TEP1 in intestinal flora to modulate natural resistance of Anopheles dirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jingru; Xu, Wenyue; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Fu Sheng

    2013-08-01

    Blocking transmission of malaria is a reliable way to control and eliminate infection. However, in-depth knowledge of the interaction between Plasmodium and mosquito is needed. Studies suggest that innate immunity is the main mechanism inhibiting development of malaria parasites in the mosquito. Recent studies have found that use of antibiotics that inhibit the mosquito gut flora can reduce the immune response of Anopheles gambiae, thereby contributing to the development of malaria parasites. In our study, we used the non susceptible model of Anopheles dirus-Plasmodium yoelii to explore the effect of Anopheles intestinal flora on the natural resistance of A. dirus to P. yoelii. We found that in mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium, the intestinal flora can regulate expression of thioester-containing protein (TEP1) via an RNAi gene-silencing approach. Our results suggest that in the absence of TEP1, the natural microbiota cannot suppress the development of P. yoelii in A. dirus. This suggests that AdTEP1 plays an important role in the resistance of A. dirus to P. yoelii. The intestinal flora may modulate the development of P. yoelii in A. dirus by regulating TEP1 expression.

  20. Análisis geomorfológico del tramo medio e inferior de la cuenca de drenaje del río Curri Leuvú, Neuquén Geomorphologic analysis of the lower and middle section of the drainage basin of the Curri Leuvú river, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio f González Díaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las geoformas individualizadas en el área de la cuenca de drenaje que tiene como eje el valle del río Curri Leuvú. El estudio ha permitido no sólo explicar las características del relieve de la región, sino también diferenciar algunas formaciones no consideradas en previas investigaciones, demostrando la utilidad de la investigación geomórfica para la distinción de unidades geológicas más jóvenes, en particular aquellas cuaternarias. Se han diferenciado trece grandes unidades geomorfoló-gicas, las que generadas por diversos procesos geomórficos, han determinado el carácter complejo del paisaje regional. Se reconoció una concentración de la morfogénesis glaciaria en la zona occidental correspondiente a la cordillera del Viento; un paisaje volcánico que predomina en los sectores norte y este y un control estructural que ha determinado la morfología que expone el proceso fluvial en el área centro-sur. Un importante deslizamiento es localizado en las cercanías de Tricao Malal. La metodología empleada ha sugerido la incorporación de nuevas formaciones al cuadro geológico regional del área de estudio.The geomorphologic analysis of the study area led to distinguish some formations not considered in previous geological research, as well as to explain the characteristics of the present relief. Thirteen principal geomorphic units produced by different geomorphic processes are recognized. Their variety and incidence through the time are expressed in the glacial morphogenesis concentrated in the western part of the Cordillera del Viento, in the volcanic landscape that predominates in the northern and eastern sectors (calderas, volcanoes, lava flows, in the structural control that defines the morphology of the fluvial process in the central zone and a firstly recognized important landslide to the north of Tricao Malal. As a result of the methodology employed two geological units of different age in the western part of

  1. Observations on sporozoite detection in naturally infected sibling species of the Anopheles culicifacies complex and variant of Anopheles stephensi in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susanta Kumar Ghosh; Satyanarayan Tiwari; Kamaraju Raghavendra; Tiruchinapalli Sundaraj; Aditya Prasad Dash

    2008-09-01

    Sporozoites were detected in naturally infected sibling species of the primary rural vector Anopheles culicifacies complex in two primary health centres (PHCs) and a variant of the urban vector Anopheles stephensi in Mangalore city, Karnataka, south India while carrying out malaria outbreak investigations from 1998–2006. Sibling species of An. culicifacies were identified based on the banding patterns on ovarian polytene chromosomes, and variants of An. stephensi were identified based on the number of ridges on the egg floats. Sporozoites were detected in the salivary glands by the dissection method. Of the total 334 salivary glands of An. culicifacies dissected, 17 (5.08%) were found to be positive for sporozoites. Of the 17 positive samples, 11 were suitable for sibling species analysis; 10 were species A (an efficient vector) and 1 was species B (a poor vector). Out of 46 An. stephensi dissected, one was sporozoite positive and belonged to the type form (an efficient vector). In malaria epidemiology this observation is useful for planning an effective vector control programme, because each sibling species/variant differs in host specificity, susceptibility to malarial parasites, breeding habitats and response to insecticides.

  2. The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sonye, G.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2004-01-01

    Control of aquatic-stage Anopheles is one of the oldest and most historically successful interventions to prevent malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa. Consequently, the ecology of immature afrotropical Anopheles has received insufficient attention. We therefore examined the populat

  3. Description of Anopheles gabonensis, a new species potentially involved in rodent malaria transmission in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahola, Nil; Makanga, Boris; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Ayala, Diego; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    The genus Anopheles includes mosquito vectors of human malaria and arboviruses. In sub-Saharan Africa, the anopheline fauna is rich of nearly 150 species, few of which are anthropophilic and capable of transmitting pathogens to humans. Some of the remaining species are found in forests far from human environments and are vectors of wildlife pathogens. The diversity and the biology of these species have yet to be fully described. As a contribution to furthering knowledge of sylvan Anophelinae, using morphological and molecular tools we describe a new Anopheles species collected in Gabon (Central Africa), which we have named Anopheles gabonensis n. sp. We also molecularly screened this species to detect infections by Plasmodium parasites. The results showed the species to have been infected by Plasmodium vinckei, a rodent parasite. We discuss the role of An. gabonensis n. sp. in the transmission of P. vinckei in the rainforest areas of Central Africa and its potential to transfer pathogens to humans.

  4. Distribution of the species of the Anopheles gambiae complex and first evidence of Anopheles merus as a malaria vector in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goff Gilbert

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are amongst the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in various bioclimatic domains of Madagascar. Local abundance of an unexpected member of this complex raised questions regarding its role in malaria transmission. Methods Sampling took place at 38 sites and 2,067 females were collected. Species assessment was performed using a PCR targeting a sequence in the IGS of the rDNA. Analysis focused on the relative prevalence of the species per site, bioclimatic domain and altitude. Infectivity of Anopheles merus was assessed using an ELISA to detect the presence of malarial circumsporozoite protein in the head-thorax. Results Three species were identified: An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and An. merus. The distribution of each species is mainly a function of bioclimatic domains and, to a lesser extent, altitude. An. arabiensis is present in all bioclimatic domains with highest prevalence in sub-humid, dry and sub-arid domains. An. gambiae has its highest prevalence in the humid domain, is in the minority in dry areas, rare in sub-humid and absent in sub-arid domains. An. merus is restricted to the coastal fringe in the south and west; it was in the majority in one southern village. The majority of sites were sympatric for at least two of the species (21/38 and two sites harboured all three species. The role of An. merus as malaria vector was confirmed in the case of two human-biting females, which were ELISA-positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusion Despite the huge environmental (mainly man-made changes in Madagascar, the distribution of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis appears unchanged for the past 35 years. The distribution of An. merus is wider than was previously known, and its effectiveness as a malaria vector has been shown for the first time; this

  5. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  6. Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapa Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant (MDR malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax have become increasingly important in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS. MDR malaria is the heritable and hypermutable property of human malarial parasite populations that can decrease in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to proven antimalarial drugs as they exhibit dose-dependent drug resistance and delayed parasite clearance time in treated patients. MDR malaria risk situations reflect consequences of the national policy and strategy as this influences the ongoing national-level or subnational-level implementation of malaria control strategies in endemic GMS countries. Based on our experience along with current literature review, the design of ecotope-based entomological surveillance (EES and molecular xenomonitoring of MDR falciparum and vivax malaria parasites in Anopheles vectors is proposed to monitor infection pockets in transmission control areas of forest and forest fringe-related malaria, so as to bridge malaria landscape ecology (ecotope and ecotone and epidemiology. Malaria ecotope and ecotone are confined to a malaria transmission area geographically associated with the infestation of Anopheles vectors and particular environments to which human activities are related. This enables the EES to encompass mosquito collection and identification, salivary gland DNA extraction, Plasmodium- and species-specific identification, molecular marker-based PCR detection methods for putative drug resistance genes, and data management. The EES establishes strong evidence of Anopheles vectors carrying MDR P. vivax in infection pockets epidemiologically linked with other data obtained during which a course of follow-up treatment of the notified P. vivax patients receiving the first-line treatment was conducted. For regional and global perspectives, the EES would augment the epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of MDR falciparum and

  7. Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Beier, John C; Blackshear, Millon; Wauna, James; Sang, Rosemary; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2013-09-01

    Ecological changes associated with anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances can influence human risk of exposure to malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases. This study in Mwea, Kenya, investigated the pattern of insecticide use in irrigated and nonirrigated agroecosystems and association with the density, survival, and blood-feeding behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. The parity rates of adult An. arabiensis from randomly selected houses were determined by examining their ovaries for tracheal distension, and polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the host blood meals. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to generate data on insecticide use. Anopheles arabiensis densities were highest in irrigated rice agroecosystems, intermediate in irrigated French beans agroecosystems, and lowest in the nonirrigated agroecosystem. Anopheles arabiensis adult survivorship was significantly lower in irrigated rice agroecosystems than in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. The human blood index (HBI) was significantly higher in the nonirrigated agroecosystem compared to irrigated agroecosystems. Moreover, there was marked variation in HBI among villages in irrigated agroecosystems with significantly lower HBI in Kangichiri and Mathangauta compared to Kiuria, Karima, and Kangai. The proportion of mosquitoes with mixed blood meals varied among villages ranging from 0.25 in Kangichiri to 0.83 in Kiuria. Sumithion, dimethoate, and alpha cypermethrin were the most commonly used insecticides. The 1st was used mostly in irrigated rice agroecosystems, and the last 2 were used mostly in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. These findings indicate that agricultural practices may influence the ecology and behavior of malaria vectors and ultimately the risk of malaria transmission.

  8. Gal4-based enhancer-trapping in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brochta, David A; Pilitt, Kristina L; Harrell, Robert A; Aluvihare, Channa; Alford, Robert T

    2012-11-01

    Transposon-based forward and reverse genetic technologies will contribute greatly to ongoing efforts to study mosquito functional genomics. A piggyBac transposon-based enhancer-trap system was developed that functions efficiently in the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. The system consists of six transgenic lines of Anopheles stephensi, each with a single piggyBac-Gal4 element in a unique genomic location; six lines with a single piggyBac-UAStdTomato element; and two lines, each with a single Minos element containing the piggyBac-transposase gene under the regulatory control of the hsp70 promoter from Drosophila melanogaster. Enhancer detection depended upon the efficient remobilization of piggyBac-Gal4 transposons, which contain the yeast transcription factor gene Gal4 under the regulatory control of a basal promoter. Gal4 expression was detected through the expression of the fluorescent protein gene tdTomato under the regulatory control of a promoter with Gal4-binding UAS elements. From five genetic screens for larval- and adult-specific enhancers, 314 progeny were recovered from 24,250 total progeny (1.3%) with unique patterns of tdTomato expression arising from the influence of an enhancer. The frequency of piggyBac remobilization and enhancer detection was 2.5- to 3-fold higher in female germ lines compared with male germ lines. A small collection of enhancer-trap lines are described in which Gal4 expression occurred in adult female salivary glands, midgut, and fat body, either singly or in combination. These three tissues play critical roles during the infection of Anopheles stephensi by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. This system and the lines generated using it will be valuable resources to ongoing mosquito functional genomics efforts.

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  10. Effect of ivermectin on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Malongo, Bernard B.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ivermectin is used extensively globally for treatment of helminthic and ectoparasitic infections in animals and humans. The effect of excreted ivermectin on non-target organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been increasingly reported. Due to its low water solubility...... and adsorption to sediments, the ivermectin exposure-risk to aquatic organisms dwelling in different strata of water bodies varies. This study assessed the survival of larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, when exposed to low concentrations of ivermectin under laboratory conditions...

  11. Small-scale field evaluation of the monomolecular surface film 'Arosurf MSF' against Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, D M; Githeko, A K; Vulule, J M

    1994-04-01

    A field trial was conducted to test the insecticidal action of the monolayer surface film 'Arosurf MSF' applied by knapsack sprayers, against larvae and pupae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton in a rice irrigation scheme in Western Kenya. Larval and pupal densities and the number of emerging adults were determined by dipping and emergence cages respectively. Application of the monolayer by knapsack sprayers provided good coverage. There were high daily mortalities of the fourth instar larvae, with no adult emergence from 'Arosurf MSF' treated plots compared to lower fourth instar mortalities and continuous adult emergence from untreated control plots, indicating the potential of the monolayer for control of An. arabiensis mosquitoes in rice fields.

  12. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus transcaspicus against Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leila Dargahi; Kamal Razavi-Azarkhiavi; Mohammad Ramezani; Mohammad Reza Abaee; Javad Behravan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Thymus transcaspicus (T. transcaspicus) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods:An. stephensi were exposed to 31, 63, 125 and 250 µg/L of essential oil of T. transcaspicus for 24 h. Results:The most toxicity was observed at 250 µg/L of essential oil with the LC50 values of 134.1 µg/L after 24 h. Conclusions:The essential oil of T. transcaspicus exhibited strong insecticidal activity against An. stephensi which can be attributed to its constituent especially carvacrol and thymol phenols.

  13. Análisis geomorfológico del tramo medio e inferior de la cuenca de drenaje del río Curri Leuvú, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio f González Díaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las geoformas individualizadas en el área de la cuenca de drenaje que tiene como eje el valle del río Curri Leuvú. El estudio ha permitido no sólo explicar las características del relieve de la región, sino también diferenciar algunas formaciones no consideradas en previas investigaciones, demostrando la utilidad de la investigación geomórfica para la distinción de unidades geológicas más jóvenes, en particular aquellas cuaternarias. Se han diferenciado trece grandes unidades geomorfoló-gicas, las que generadas por diversos procesos geomórficos, han determinado el carácter complejo del paisaje regional. Se reconoció una concentración de la morfogénesis glaciaria en la zona occidental correspondiente a la cordillera del Viento; un paisaje volcánico que predomina en los sectores norte y este y un control estructural que ha determinado la morfología que expone el proceso fluvial en el área centro-sur. Un importante deslizamiento es localizado en las cercanías de Tricao Malal. La metodología empleada ha sugerido la incorporación de nuevas formaciones al cuadro geológico regional del área de estudio.

  14. Karakteristik Habitat Larva Anopheles spp. di Desa Sungai Nyamuk, Daerah Endemik Malaria di Kabupaten Nunukan, Kalimantan Utara

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    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A research about Habitat Characteristics of Anopheles spp. larvae was done in Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. This research aims to analyse the characteristics of breeding places of Anopheles spp. The larvae taken from various types of habitat with detention and maintained until it was developed into mosquitoes, then later identified. The results showed that there are four types of potential breeding places of Anopheles spp. ie lagoon, ditches, fish ponds and marshes. Anopheles types that are found consist of five species, namely An. vagus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, An. indefinitus dan An. peditaeniatus. Types of potential breeding places are dominated by the unused fish pond, with the substrate in the form of mud and water is not flowing, located around settlements surrounded by grasses, shrubs and trees. Breeding places contains of aquatic plants such as grasses and moss. Predators are found in the form of a dragonfly nymph, crustaceans, tadpoles and small fish. Early malaria vector control at the level of the larvae is a critical point of the success of malaria elimination programs in endemic areas.

  15. Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Seda, P.; Killeen, G.F.; Hawley, W.A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The success of distinguishing blood meal sources of Anopheles gambiae Giles through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification at the TC-11 and VWA human short tandem repeats (STR) loci. Blood meal size and locus had no significant effect

  16. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Kirby, M.J.; Luz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the

  17. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

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    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  18. Odour sensitivity of antennal olfactory cells underlying grooved pegs of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, IVF; den Otter, CJ

    2000-01-01

    In female mosquitoes of the anthropophilic species Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. and the zoophilic An. quadriannulatus Theobald single sensillum recordings from grooved pegs were made. In both species, the majority of these sensilla responded to ammonium hydroxide, butylamine and propanoic acid, wher

  19. Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia

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    Yezid Solarte

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.

  20. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Age-Grade and Identify Siblings of Anopheles Gambiae Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly and non-destructively determine species and age of Anopheles gambiae ss (G3, Mali-NIH, Kisumu, ZANU, and Ifakara strains) and An. arabiensis (Dongola, KGB, and Ifakara strains). We developed NIR calibrations using mosquitoes reared and scanned at ...

  1. A new robust diagnostic polymerase chain reaction for determining the mating status of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'habi, K.R.; Horton, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Lanzaro, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The principal malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae, contains two pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome is only associated with males and other Y chromosome¿specific DNA sequences, which are transferred to women during mating. A reliable tool to determine the mat

  2. Differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles - Effects of host characteristics and parasite infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are described in this thesis. Specific

  3. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  4. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  5. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  6. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three liv

  7. An Annotated Checklist of the Anopheles of Thailand (Diptera : Culicidae) (Thai National Scientific Papers, Fauna Series Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-08-01

    Discussion: In most urban and agricultura ! areas of Thailand this is the most abundant Anopheles species encountered. The larvae are found in wide variety of...Entomological Society of America : Washington.) TAUSATHIT. Prasit, TH \\vAR:\\v.\\R\\, Bunyong, CH YL~IVYOO, Skol. and KAMPANARDSAENY~KARA. Chaiyan (1962

  8. BEBERAPA ASPEK BIONOMIK ANOPHELES SP DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TENGAH, PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

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    Ni Wayan Dewi Adyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Some Aspects of Anopheles sp Bionomik in Central Sumba Regency, Province of East Nusa Tenggara. Committed in the territory Maradesa Health Center. Data were collected by catching adult mosquitoes by using bait People inside and outside the home, a collection of breaks in the wall and at home, continued with larval surveys in all potential breeding places.  The results showed that the biting behavior tends eksofagik found on An. kochi, An. aconitus and An.barbirostris with bite density peaks in An. aconitus (0.6 persons/hour with a biting peak at 20:00 to 21:00. Behavior tends eksofilik break in An. kochi, An. aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An.flavirostris, An. maculatus and An. indefinitus with the highest density in An.aconitus (0.9 persons/hour at 1:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. Anopheles larvae breeding places found in the small hole in the ground, creek, wetland, non-permanent irrigation, water reservoirs in the vegetable garden, ditches, puddles, swamps, springs, with species that are found as An.kochi, An.aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. flavirostris, An. maculatus, An. indefinitus and An. annullaris

  9. Unassisted isolated-pair mating of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Rafferty, Cristina S

    2002-11-01

    Female Anopheles mosquitoes usually mate only once, but mating is seldom seen in small containers containing only one female and male. Therefore, matings are often performed among many adults in large cages or by forced copulation. Isolated-pair mating of Anopheles gambiae G3 strain-derived mosquitoes without forced copulation in small vials is described. We observed that the experimental variables eye color and male number were significant factors in the mating frequency. Females mated more frequently when three males were present over only one male. White-eyed females were more likely to be mated than wild-eyed females, but wild males mated more frequently than did white-eyed males. Experiments were also conducted to determine when mating was occurring by using wild-eye-color mosquitoes in isolated pairs. Almost no matings were observed before day 6 rather than the frequencies typically observed after 1-2 d in standard large-cage matings among large numbers of adults.

  10. KOMPOSISI UMUR NYAMUK ANOPHELES sp YANG DIDUGA SEBAGAI VEKTOR DI DAERAH PEGUNUNGAN KECAMATAN LENGKONG, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles mosquito could be as a disease vector if having age for the growth of malaria parasitein its body. The research was conducted by catching mosquito in nature, namely: using human collection,wall-resting collection, around cattle and using light trap. The caught mosquito was assessing its proportionof parous and longevity, the composition of parous proportion in each species difference, namely: An.aconitvs reached its highest 0.8 and its lowest 0.2. An. barbirostris reached its highest 0.55 and its lowest0.02. The low Index parous indicates that mosquito could not transmit plasmodium to human. The estimation of An.aconitus age reaches the highest of 8.58 days and the lowest 1.23 days. At the age of 8.58 days An.aconitus is able to grow plasmodium in its body. The estimation of An. barbirostris age reachesits highest of 3.49 days and its lowest 1.3 days. An. maculatus age reached its highest age of 2.65 days and its lowest 1.44 days. The mosquito with short age could not be as a malaria vector. It is concluded that An.aconitus was potential as malaria vector. Key words: Anopheles sp, age composition, vector, hill

  11. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

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    H Vatandoost

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  12. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  13. Indirect evidence that agricultural pesticides select for insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Djogbénou S; Benoit, Assogba; Laurette, Djossou; Michel, Makoutode

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the agricultural use of insecticides and the emergence of insecticide resistance. Bioassays were conducted using simulated mosquito larval habitats and well known Anopheles gambiae strains. Soil samples were collected from vegetable production areas in Benin, including one site with insecticide use, one site where insecticides had not been used for two months, and a third where insecticides had not been used. Pupation and emergence rates were very low in pyrethroid-susceptible strains when exposed to soil that had been recently exposed to insecticides. Pupation and emergence rates in strains with the kdr mutation alone or both the kdr and Ace-1 mutations were much higher. Overall, strains with the kdr mutation survived at higher rates compared to that without kdr mutation. Although this study is observational, we provide indirect evidence indicating that soils from agricultural areas contain insecticide residues that can play a role in the emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles. This aspect should be taken into account to better utilize the insecticide in the context of integrated pest management programs.

  14. Phylogenetics and Srf Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COII Gene in Anopheles Species (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Monika Sharma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA COII gene was used to study the interspecific variation and molecular analysis among six species of genus Anopheles belonging to subgenus Cellia i.e. An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. annularis and An. splendidus. The sequence was found to be AT rich with maximum of 75.07% in An. culicifacies. The sequence analysis revealed the number of transversions to be more than transitions which is opposite of the general contention with transitions being more frequent than transversions in mitochondrial genes. However, among the Anopheles species, the maximum number of substitutions was found in An. maculatus. The phylogenetic analysis using the three methods MP, ML and NJ methods was also carried out for which Cx. quinquefasciatus was taken as outgroup. Analysis showed that An. stephensi and An. culicifacies shared a close genetic homology while An. annularis and An. splendidus made another group with identical genetic qualities. To the contrary, An. subpictus and An. maculatus had hypervariable non-homologous genomic qualities. Short tandem as well as nontandem repeats were also studied using SRF (Spectral Repeat Finder programme. The repeats were conserved in all the species except certain polymorphic repeats such as TAT and TTTAT were present in An. stephensi whereas no polymorphic repeats were present in An. subpictus. Identification of repeats is crucial to shed light on the function and structure of proteins, and explain their evolutionary past.

  15. Spermless males elicit large-scale female responses to mating in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thailayil, Janis; Magnusson, Kalle; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Crisanti, Andrea; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the major vector of malaria, a disease with devastating consequences for human health. Given the constant spread of the disease, alternative approaches to the use of insecticides are urgently needed to control vector populations. Females of this species undergo large behavioral changes after mating, which include a life-long refractoriness to further insemination and the induction of egg laying in blood-fed individuals. Genetic control strategies aimed at impacting Anopheles fertility through the release of sterile males are being advocated to reduce the size of mosquito field populations. Such strategies depend on the ability of the released sterile males to mate successfully with wild females and to switch off the female receptivity to further copulation. Here we evaluate the role of sperm in regulating female behavioral responses after mating in An. gambiae. We developed spermless males by RNAi silencing of a germ cell differentiation gene. These males mated successfully and preserved standard accessory gland functions. Females mated to spermless males exhibited normal postcopulatory responses, which included laying large numbers of eggs upon blood feeding and becoming refractory to subsequent insemination. Moreover, spermless males induced transcriptional changes in female reproductive genes comparable to those elicited by fertile males. Our data demonstrate that, in contrast to Drosophila, targeting sperm in An. gambiae preserves normal male and female reproductive behavior for the traits and time frame analyzed and validate the use of approaches based on incapacitation or elimination of sperm for genetic control of vector populations to block malaria transmission. PMID:21825136

  16. Phytochemistry and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensisagainst malaria vector,Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedaghat Mohamad Medhi; SaneiAli Reza; Khnavi Mahnaz; Abai Mohammad Reza; Hadjiakhoondi Abbas; MohtaramiFatemeh; VatandoostHassan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine phytochemistry and larvicidal activity ofEucalyptus camaldulensis againstAnopheles stephensi.Methods:The chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The larvicidal activity of essential oils and extract of leaf were tested against 4th instar larvae of laboratory-rearedAnopheles stephensi.Results:GC/MS analyses identified the presence of28 compounds corresponding to 99.60%of the total oil. The main constituents in the leaf essential oil were1,8-cineole(69.46%), γ-Terpinene(15.10%), α-Pinene(5.47%)and Globulol(2%). The leaf extract and volatile oil exerted significant larvicidal activity withLC50 values of89.85 and397.75ppm, respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of320 ppm essential oil extract resulted almost100% mortality in the population.Conclusions:The larvicidal properties suggest that the essential oil of plant is a potential source of valuable larvicidal compounds against malaria vector and can be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  17. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus in southern Europe

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    Romi Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern that global climate change will affect the potential for pathogen transmission by insect species that are vectors of human diseases. One of these species is the former European malaria vector, Anopheles atroparvus. Levels of population differentiation of An. atroparvus from southern Europe were characterized as a first attempt to elucidate patterns of population structure of this former malaria vector. Results are discussed in light of a hypothetical situation of re-establishment of malaria transmission. Methods Genetic and phenotypic variation was analysed in nine mosquito samples collected from five European countries, using eight microsatellite loci and geometric morphometrics on 21 wing landmarks. Results Levels of genetic diversity were comparable to those reported for tropical malaria vectors. Low levels of genetic (0.004 FST An. atroparvus populations spanning over 3,000 km distance. Genetic differentiation (0.202 FST An. atroparvus and Anopheles maculipennis s.s. Differentiation between sibling species was not so evident at the phenotype level. Conclusions Levels of population differentiation within An. atroparvus were low and not correlated with geographic distance or with putative physical barriers to gene flow (Alps and Pyrenées. While these results may suggest considerable levels of gene flow, other explanations such as the effect of historical population perturbations can also be hypothesized.

  19. Exogenous gypsy insulator sequences modulate transgene expression in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballar-Lejarazú, Rebeca; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A

    2013-04-30

    Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, and these insects are the targets of innovative vector control programs. Proposed approaches include the use of genetic strategies based on transgenic mosquitoes to suppress or modify vector populations. Although substantial advances have been made in engineering resistant mosquito strains, limited efforts have been made in refining mosquito transgene expression, in particular attenuating the effects of insertions sites, which can result in variations in phenotypes and impacts on fitness due to the random integration of transposon constructs. A promising strategy to mitigate position effects is the identification of insulator or boundary DNA elements that could be used to isolate transgenes from the effects of their genomic environment. We applied quantitative approaches that show that exogenous insulator-like DNA derived from the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon can increase and stabilize transgene expression in transposon-mediated random insertions and recombinase-catalyzed, site-specific integrations in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. These sequences can contribute to precise expression of transgenes in mosquitoes engineered for both basic and applied goals.

  20. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

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    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  1. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus extends to Likoma Island in Lake Malawi

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    Edwardes M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mosquito survey was carried out on the island of Likoma in Lake Malawi with a view to collecting baseline data to determine the feasibility of implementing an integrated malaria vector control programme. No vector control interventions are currently being applied on the island apart from the sporadic use of treated and untreated bed nets. Results Large numbers of Anopheles funestus were found resting inside houses. WHO susceptibility tests were carried out on wild caught females and 1-5 day old F-1 female progeny. Wild caught females were tested on deltamethrin (77.8% mortality and bendiocarb (56.4% mortality. Female progeny were tested on deltamethrin (41.4% mortality, permethrin (40.4%, bendiocarb (52.5%, propoxur (7.4%, malathion, fenitrothion, DDT, dieldrin (all 100% and pirimiphos-methyl (98.9%. The malaria parasite rate was 4.9%. A small number of Anopheles arabiensis were also collected. Conclusion This locality is 1,500 km north of the currently known distribution of pyrethroid resistant An. funestus in southern Africa. The susceptibility results mirror those found in southern Mozambique and South African populations, but are markedly different to An. funestus populations in Uganda, indicating that the Malawi resistance has spread from the south.

  2. "Comparison of Midgut Hemagglutination Activity in Three Different Geographical Populations of Anopheles stephensi"

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    HR Basseri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lectins that agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs were demonstrated in Anopheles stephensi mosquito midgut extracts using human (four groups: A, B, AB and O, RH+ rat, sheep and rabbit blood cells. Only rabbit RBCs showed agglutination reaction against the midgut extracts. Significant differences in hemagglutinin titers and carbohydrate specifity were detected between male and female mosquitoes as well as among three different geographical populations of Anopheles stephensi from south of Iran. Overall agglutinin levels were increased following a blood meal. The highest hemagglintination titers were due to Kazerun population. All hemagglutination assays were versus rabbit RBCS. A significant difference was detected among the number of egg-float ridges. Iranshahr population was different from Bandar-abbas and Kazerun population in egg-float ridges number. Bandr-abbas population was in the intermediate category. Iranshahr population fell between mysoransis and intermediate group and Kazerun population was between intermediate and type form. This study presents the first report on the occurrence of heterogeneous anti Rabbit RBC agglutinins in the midget extracts of the different geographical populations of An.stephensi with the sugar – binding specificities. The sugar- inhibition pattern was different between & within geographical population of An.stephensi.

  3. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

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    Maung Liam

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested. Results Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment. Conclusion So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.

  4. FAUNA ANOPHELES DI DAERAH PANTAI BEKAS HUTAN MANGROVE KECAMATAN PADANG CERMIN KABUPATEN LAMPUNG SELATAN

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    N. Sushanti Idris-Idram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mosquito collections were carried out in two villages in subdistrict of Padangcermin during 1992-1993. The method of mosquito collections consisted of night landing on man indoor and outdoor, night resting indoor and outdoor around cattle shelters, light trap in cattle shelters, daytime resting indoor and outdoor, as well as larvae collections to identify anophelines breeding sites. Sixteen anophelines i.e. Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. vagus, An. indefinitus, An. nigerrimus, An. peditaeniatus, An. kochi, An. barbirostris, An. bambumbrosus, An. annularis, An. separatus, An. tesselatus, An. aconitus, An. umbrosus, An. leucosphyrus and An. letifer were collected. Among these mosquitos, An. sundaicus was found predominant, followed by An. vagus and An. subpictus. Other species were collected in small numbers. The behavior of Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus and An. vagus were exophagic and endophilic. The larvae of An. sundaicus was found only in brackish standing water such as abandoned shrimp ponds, An. subpictus in brackish standing water as well as fresh standing water, while An. vagus was found only in fresh standing water. Breeding sites of An. sundaicus was characterized by pond with floating algae while An. subpictus and An. vagus were not depending on vegetation.

  5. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

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    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I.; Blumberg, Benjamin J.; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L.; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect’s ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito’s anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito’s susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito’s innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission. PMID:27678168

  6. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  7. Human antibody response to Anopheles saliva for comparing the efficacy of three malaria vector control methods in Balombo, Angola.

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    Laura Brosseau

    Full Text Available Human antibody (Ab response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008-2009, in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS--Zero Fly® (ITPS-ZF, deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall Lining (ITPS-DL--Zerovector® alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%, parasitological (54.8% and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles, positive blood smears, and the levels of anti-saliva IgG Ab were most reduced when LLIN and ITPS-ZF were used in combination, compared to the use of one vector control method alone, either ITPS-DL or IRS. Therefore, as a combination of two vector control methods is significantly more effective than one control method only, this control strategy should be further developed at a more global scale.

  8. A Study of the Essential Oils of Four Sudanese Accessions of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

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    Azhari H. Nour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Certain basil essential oils were claimed to have a larvicidal activity towards mosquito's larvae. To test this claim the essential oils of four accessions of basil grown in Sudan were selected and tested for Anopheles larvae. Malaria is the major health problem in the Sudan and the whole country is now considered endemic, with varying degrees, about 35,000 deaths every year due to malaria. Anopheles mosquito is the major vector of malaria disease in Sudan. Search for larvicidal active compound(s is one of several attempts to fine effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. To determine the toxic effects of basil essential oils extracted by steam distillation against Anopheles larvae. Approach: For the larvicidal bioassay, three concentrations (100, 300, 500 ppm of essential oil solutions of four basil accessions were prepared; 1 mL of ethanol was used to solubilize the oil in water (999 mL. In each concentration of oil solution were inserted 20 larvae (third instars. A set of controls using 0.1% ethanol and untreated sets of larvae in (tap water, were also run for comparison. Data were evaluated through regression analysis, from the regression line; the LC50 values were read. The active ingredients were separated and/ or identified by TLC, IR and GC-MS. Results: Larvicidal activity of the essential oils is varied, lasted for about 9 h and thereafter decreased, LC50 values ranging from 190-300 ppm. Linalool, geraniol and eugenol are active components of basil essential oil against Anopheles larvae. Two accessions were caused 100% mortality at a concentration range 300-500 ppm for 3 h. Conclusion: These results indicated that basil essential oils have larvicidal activity towards Anopheles larvae. Therefore, could be affordable way to control this mosquito.

  9. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

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    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  10. Detection of the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis

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    Backeljau Thierry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate monitoring of vector resistance to insecticides is an integral component of planning and evaluation of insecticide use in malaria control programmes. The malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, better known as knockdown resistance (kdr. In An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, two different substitutions in the para-type sodium channel, a L1014F substitution common in West Africa and a L1014S replacement found in Kenya, are linked with kdr. Two different allele-specific polymerase chain reactions (AS-PCR are needed to detect these known kdr mutations. However, these AS-PCR assays rely on a single nucleotide polymorphism mismatch, which can result in unreliable results. Methods Here, a new assay for the detection of knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/Melt Curve analysis (FRET/MCA is presented and compared with the existing assays. Results The new FRET/MCA method has the important advantage of detecting both kdr alleles in one assay. Moreover, results show that the FRET/MCA is more reliable and more sensitive than the existing AS-PCR assays and is able to detect new genotypes. By using this technique, the presence of the East African kdr mutation (L1014S is shown for the first time in An. arabiensis specimens from Uganda. In addition, a new kdr genotype is reported in An. gambiae s.s. from Uganda, where four An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes possess both, the West (L1014F and East (L1014S African kdr allele, simultaneously. Conclusion The presence of both kdr mutations in the same geographical region shows the necessity of a reliable assay that enables to detect both mutations in one single assay. Hence, this new assay based on FRET/MCA will improve the screening of the kdr frequencies in An. gambiae s

  11. Molecular evolution and population genetics of a Gram-negative binding protein gene in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato)

    OpenAIRE

    Salgueiro, Patrícia; Lopes, Ana Sofia; Mendes, Cristina; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; Arez, Ana Paula; Pinto, João; Silveira, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Clarifying the role of the innate immune system of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a potential way to block the development of the Plasmodium parasites. Pathogen recognition is the first step of innate immune response, where pattern recognition proteins like GNBPs play a central role. Results We analysed 70 sequences of the protein coding gene GNBPB2 from two species, Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii, collected in six African countries. We detected 135 segregating ...

  12. Population Structure of the Primary Malaria Vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, Using Isozyme, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and Morphologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    derscoring some congruence, in this case, between two dif- ferent molecular markers. Intraspecific variation in the ITS2 region of 21 members of...morphism in the salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles darlingi. Mosq News 32: 555-565. 29. Tadei WP, Santos JMN, Rabbani MG, 1982. Biologia de ano...Contel EPB, dos Santos JMM, Tadei Wp, 1984. Biologia de Anophelinos Amazonicos. VI. Enzimatica em Anopheles dar- lingi Root (Dipt.: Culicidae). Acta

  13. Identification of one capa and two pyrokinin receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

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    Olsen, Stine S; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2007-10-19

    We cloned the cDNA of three evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and functionally expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One receptor, Ang-Capa-R, was only activated by the two Anopheles capa neuropeptides Ang-capa-1 (GPTVGLFAFPRVamide) and Ang-capa-2 (pQGLVPFPRVamide) with EC(50) values of 8.6x10(-9)M and 3.3x10(-9)M, respectively, but not by any other known mosquito neuropeptide. The second receptor, Ang-PK-1-R, was selectively activated by the Anopheles pyrokinin-1 peptides Ang-PK-1-1 (AGGTGANSAMWFGPRLamide) and Ang-PK-1-2 (AAAMWFGPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 3.3x10(-8)M and 2.5x10(-8)M, respectively, but not by mosquito capa or pyrokinin-2 peptides. For the third receptor, Ang-PK-2-R, the most potent ligands were the pyrokinin-2 peptides Ang-PK-2-1 (DSVGENHQRPPFAPRLamide) and Ang-PK-2-2 (NLPFSPRLamide) with EC(50) values of 5.2x10(-9)M and 6.4x10(-9)M, respectively. However, this receptor could also be activated by the two pyrokinins-1, albeit with lower potency (EC(50): 2-5x10(-8)M). Because Ang-capa-1 and -2 and Ang-PK-1-1 are located on one preprohormone and the other peptides on another prohormone, these results imply a considerable crosstalk between the capa, pyrokinin-1 and pyrokinin-2 systems. Gene structure and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that Ang-Capa-R was the orthologue of the Drosophila capa receptor CG14575, Ang-PK-1-R the orthologue of the Drosophila pyrokinin-1 receptor CG9918, and Ang-PK-2-R the orthologue of the Drosophila pyrokinin-2 receptors CG8784 and CG8795. This is the first report on the functional characterization and crosstalk properties of capa and pyrokinin receptors in mosquitoes.

  14. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

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    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and

  15. Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Kronefeld Mandy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n = 384, An. maculipennis (n = 82, An. daciae (n = 10 and An. atroparvus (n = 1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is

  16. Predicting the potential distribution of main malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l. in Iran based on maximum entropy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas.

  17. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VII. Fergusobia from 'leafy' leaf bud galls in Australia, with re-description of Fergusobia tumifaciens (Currie 1937) Wachek 1955 and descriptions of Fergusobia planchonianae n. sp. and Fergusobia viminalisae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Taylor, Gary S; Hodda, Mike; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-26

    Fergusobia tumifaciens (Currie 1937) Wachek 1955, the type species for the genus Fergusobia, is re-described from specimens collected from 'leafy' leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus bridgesiana near Albury in New South Wales, Australia. It is morphologically characterized by the combination of an open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small broadly conoid tail, a C-shaped infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate to J-shaped male with angular spicules, not heavily sclerotised, and short to mid-length peloderan bursa. Two new species of Fergusobia, collected from 'leafy' leaf bud galls on, respectively, Eucalyptus planchoniana in Queensland, and E. viminalis in South Australia, Australia, are described. Fergusobia planchonianae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and an almost straight to arcuate to C-shaped male with an angular spicule, a long peloderan bursa and a narrow tail. Fergusobia viminalisae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of an open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, a C-shaped infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate to J-shaped male with an angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short to mid-length peloderan bursa. The shield morphologies of the fly larvae associated with the 'leafy' leaf bud galls and their possible relationships are outlined. Possible evolutionary relationships of the Fergusobia nematodes from these galls are discussed, considering their morphology, DNA sequences, and the relationships of the associated Fergusonina flies and host plants. 

  18. The impact of insecticides management linked with resistance expression in Anopheles spp. populations

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    Guilherme Liberato da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The resistance of some species of Anopheles to chemical insecticides is spreading quickly throughout the world and has hindered the actions of prevention and control of malaria. The main mechanism responsible for resistance in these insects appears to be the target site known as knock-down resistance (kdr, which causes mutations in the sodium channel. Even so, many countries have made significant progress in the prevention of malaria, focusing largely on vector control through long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs, indoor residual spraying and (IRS of insecticides. The objective of this review is to contribute with information on the more applied insecticides for the control of the main vectors of malaria, its effects, and the different mechanisms of resistance. Currently it is necessary to look for others alternatives, e.g. biological control and products derived from plants and fungi, by using other organisms as a possible regulator of the populations of malaria vectors in critical outbreaks.

  19. Cytogenetic evidence for a species complex within Anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, M; Estrada-Franco, J G; Wunderlich, C A; Hunt, R H

    1999-04-01

    Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was collected from Acapulco, Mexico and Sallee River, Grenada, West Indies and used in cross-mating experiments. Larvae from the cross, Mexico female X Grenada male, died in the third instar. However, adult progeny were obtained from the reciprocal cross Grenada female x Mexico male. These hybrid males had testes with apparently normal appearance but some without viable sperm. Polytene chromosomes obtained from hybrid females exhibited extensive asynapsis of the X chromosomes. Previously undescribed fixed inversion differences between the two populations were noted on the X chromosome. It is concluded that the two populations belong to different species. The Grenada population is designated An. pseudopunctipennis species C, since it is the third taxon recognized in this species complex.

  20. Anopheles barbirostris Confirmation as Malaria Vector in Waikabubak through the Detection of Circumsporozoit Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuneu Yuliasih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anopheline species confirmed as malaria vector if the salivary gland contained sporozoites. One of the method to confirmed it was through an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of circum sporozoite protein (CSP in the mosquito of Anopheles barbirostris with ELISA method. The study was conducted in malaria endemic area named Modu Waimaringu Village, Waikabubak District, Sumba Barat Regency in March 2011. The study design was cross-sectional study, mosquito for the ELISA test were collected only from animal bait. ELISA method examination used on An. barbirostris body parts (i.e. the head-thorax where sporozoites of P. falciparum or P. Vivax possibly be found. The results showed that 40 samples of An. barbirostris mosquitoes which acquired from the mosquite bait in Modu Waimaringu Village was negative (100%. It means that there was no CSP found and An. barbirostris was not a malaria vector in the area

  1. Genetic Study of Propoxur Resistance—A Carbamate Insecticide in the Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sanil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae is the urban vector of malaria in the Indian subcontinent and several countries of the Middle East. The genetics of propoxur resistance (pr in An. stephensi larvae was studied to determine its mode of inheritance. A diagnostic dose of 0.01 mg/L as recommended by WHO was used to establish homozygous resistant and susceptible strains. Reciprocal crosses between the resistant and susceptible strains showed an F1 generation of incomplete dominance. The progenies of backcrosses to susceptible parents were in 1 : 1 ratio of the same phenotypes as the parents and hybrids involved. The dosage mortality (d-m lines were constructed for each one of the crosses, and the degree of dominance was calculated. It is concluded that propoxur resistance in An. stephensi larvae is due to monofactorial inheritance with incomplete dominance and is autosomal in nature.

  2. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.

  3. Molecular taxonomy provides new insights into anopheles species of the neotropical arribalzagia series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovan F Gómez

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 sequences were used to evaluate initial identification and to investigate phylogenetic relationships of seven Anopheles morphospecies of the Arribalzagia Series from Colombia. Phylogenetic trees recovered highly supported clades for An. punctimaculas.s., An. calderoni, An. malefactor s.l., An. neomaculipalpus, An. apicimacula s.l., An. mattogrossensis and An. peryassui. This study provides the first molecular confirmation of An. malefactorfrom Colombia and discovered conflicting patterns of divergence for the molecular markers among specimens from northeast and northern Colombia suggesting the presence of two previously unrecognized Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs. Furthermore, two highly differentiated An. apicimacula MOTUs previously found in Panama were detected. Overall, the combined molecular dataset facilitated the detection of known and new Colombian evolutionary lineages, and constitutes the baseline for future research on their bionomics, ecology and potential role as malaria vectors.

  4. Susceptibility of Anopheles maculipennis to different classes of insecticides in West Azarbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Reza; Chavshin; Farrokh; Dabiri; Hassan; Vatandoost; Mulood; Mohammadi; Bavani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles maculipennis(An. maculipennis) against the major insecticides used in the health sectors in West Azarbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.Methods: Unfed 3-5 days old adult females of An. maculipennis were collected across the West Azarbaijan Province and were subjected to evaluation of their susceptibility following World Health Organization recommended protocol against six insecticides(permethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, bendiocarb, malathion and dieldrin) belonging to four different classes. Results: In this study, 916 specimens of An. maculipennis were examined against the insecticides which indicated that An. maculipennis was tolerant to permethrin, deltamethrin and dielderin, but displayed resistance against propoxur, bendiocarb and malathion. Conclusions: The pattern of resistance in An. maculipennis could be attributed to the agricultural landscapes, agricultural pesticides used and the exposure of the mosquitoes to insecticides. Logical cooperation is needed between the agriculture and health sectors to ensure the judicious use of pesticides in each sector and the management of probable resistance.

  5. Quetzal: a transposon of the Tc1 family in the mosquito Anopheles albimanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Z; Grossman, G L; Cornel, A J; Collins, F H

    1996-10-01

    A member of the Tc1 family of transposable elements has been identified in the Central and South American mosquito Anopheles albimanus. The full-length Quetzal element is 1680 base pairs (bp) in length, possesses 236 bp inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), and has a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential of encoding a 341-amino-acid (aa) protein that is similar to the transposases of other members of the Tc1 family, particularly elements described from three different Drosophila species. The approximately 10-12 copies per genome of Quetzal are found in the euchromatin of all three chromosomes of A. albimanus. One full-length clone, Que27, appears capable of encoding a complete transposase and may represent a functional copy of this element.

  6. The genetics of inviability and male sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotman, M; Della Torre, A; Powell, J R

    2004-05-01

    Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found.

  7. Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations affect egg laying and negatively correlate with Plasmodium development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W. Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M.; Buckee, Caroline O.; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27243367

  8. HOUSE-SCALE TRIAL OF FENFLUTHRIN (OMS-2013 AGAINST DDT RESISTANT ANOPHELES ACONITUS IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengujian racun serangga fenfluthrin 5% w.d.p. dengan dosis 20 mg/m2 tingkat perumahan telah dilakukan untuk menanggulangi vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus yang sudah kebal terhadap DDT di desa Sekolo, Kecamatan Boja, Jawa Tengah. Penilaian entomologi dikerjakan dengan cara pengujian hayati kontak langsung, kontak tidak langsung dan penangkapan An. aconitus yang istirahat di dalam kandang pagi hari. Hasil pengujian hayati kontak langsung menunjukkan bahwa umur residu fenfluthrin yang disem­protkan pada permukaan dinding dengan dosis 20 mg/m2 adalah tidak lama (hanya sekitar 1 bulan. Umur residu yang efektip (kematian >70% hanya dipermukaan bambu pada 4 hari setelah penyemprot­an. Pengaruh fumigasi racun serangga ini sangat lemah, kematian hanya sebesar 14% dalam pengujian hayati kontak tidak langsung pada 4 hari setelah penyemprotan.

  9. Limited Diversity of Anopheles Darlingi in The Peruvian Amazon Region of Iquitos

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINEDO-CANCINO, VIVIANA; SHEEN, PATRICIA; TARAZONA-SANTOS, EDUARDO; OSWALD, WILLIAM E.; JERI, CESAR; VITTOR, AMY YOMIKO; PATZ, JONATHAN A.; GILMAN, ROBERT H.

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Amazon basin of South America, and is capable of transmitting both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. To understand the genetic structure of this vector in the Amazonian region of Peru, a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test to identify this species of mosquito was used. A random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR was used to study genetic variation at the micro-geographic level in nine geographically separate populations of An. darlingi collected in areas with different degrees of deforestation surrounding the city of Iquitos. Within-population genetic diversity in nine populations, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity (HE), ranged from 0.27 to 0.32. Average genetic distance (FST) among these populations was 0.017. These results show that the nine studied populations are highly homogeneous, suggesting that strategies can be developed to combat this malaria vector as a single epidemiologic unit. PMID:16896125

  10. PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DDT RESISTANCE IN ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Zaini

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in southeastern part of Iran, India, West Pakistan and Ceylon. In 1959 the LC50 % DDT in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state (India had increased. DDT resistant population of A. culicifacies has been reported from West Pakistan, Burma and Iran. After application of DDT in 1959, the density of A. culicifacies decreased sharply. The susceptibility test carried out in 1963 showed that the LC50 was 0.5%.After DDT spraying, followed by Dieldrin, for about 10 years the density of A. culicifacies was so negligible that it was not possible to perform susceptibility tests. By April and May of 1973 the density of A.culicifacies in Saidabad, Khairabad and Hit in Baluchesten province, Southeast of Iran, increased to about 500 per shelter. The susceptibility tests carried out showed that A. culicfacies is resistant to DDT and susceptible to Dieldrin and Malathion.

  11. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  12. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles dirus (Culicidae: Diptera) in Mudon, Mon State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Thin Thin; Storch, Volker; Becker, Norbert

    2002-06-01

    This study examined some environmental factors influencing the larval habitats of Anopheles dirus (breeding in wells) in Mudon, Myanmar, from May 1998 to March 2000. The larval/pupal density was found to be directly proportional to rainfall and indirectly proportional to the well water level. Shade, vegetation and debris on the surface of well water were important factors influencing the abundance of the aquatic stages of An. dirus. Salinity had an inverse correlation with the larval and pupal density. Other mosquito species associated with An. dirus were identified. Important predators of the mosquito larvae were larvivorous fish, damselfly and dragonfly nymphs. All wells examined were lined with lateritic rocks. Chemical analysis of water samples from wells was conducted.

  13. Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam Induced Mutations in Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) of Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha; Barna, Bhupinder; Kaur, Satvinderjeet

    2012-05-01

    The present article deals with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotoxicity evaluation of neonicotinoid pesticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, by using the genome of a mosquito Anopheles stephensi taken as an experimental model. After treatment of the second instar larvae with LC(20) of the pesticides for 24 h, the induced nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of freshly hatched unfed control and treated individuals was studied from the sequence alignment data and the mutations in the form of insertion, deletion and substitution of bases were recorded. Measurable differences, indicative of the genetic damage due to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were observed when ITS2 sequences of control and treated individuals were compared. It was found that imidacloprid-treated individual had 8 deletions, 29 insertions, 18 transitions and 33 transversions, whereas thiamethoxam-treated individual had 10 deletions, 8 insertions, 47 transitions and 68 transversions.

  14. Differential effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread and large scale use of ivermectin in humans and domestic animals can have unexpected effects on non-target organisms. As a search for a possible explanation for an observed longitudinal decline in density of anopheline vector mosquitoes, but not in Culex quinquefasciatus......, in an area of north-eastern Tanzania which has been exposed to ivermectin mass drug administration, this study assessed and compared the effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Consenting adult volunteers were randomized into two groups...... to receive either ivermectin or placebo. Twenty four hours after treatment, one volunteer from each group was concurrently exposed to 50 laboratory reared An. gambiae on one arm and 50 laboratory reared Cx. quinquefasciatus on the other arm for 15-30 minutes. Engorged mosquitoes were maintained on 10...

  15. Effect of ivermectin on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Malongo, Bernard B.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    and adsorption to sediments, the ivermectin exposure-risk to aquatic organisms dwelling in different strata of water bodies varies. This study assessed the survival of larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, when exposed to low concentrations of ivermectin under laboratory conditions......Background: Ivermectin is used extensively globally for treatment of helminthic and ectoparasitic infections in animals and humans. The effect of excreted ivermectin on non-target organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been increasingly reported. Due to its low water solubility....... Methods: A total of 1800 laboratory reared mosquito larvae of each species were used in the bioassays. Twelve replicates were performed, each testing 6 concentrations of ivermectin (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 parts per million (ppm)) against third instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx...

  16. PROPOXUR SELECTION OF THE ADULTS OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI FROM MINAB, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Edalat

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in south of Iran. It has been known to be resistant to DDT, malathion and dieldrin. After appearance of resistance the area was treated with propoxur, at the rate of 2 g/m2 twice a year for 14 successive years. This species is still susceptible to propoxur. In order to forecast the possibility of development of propoxur resistance in An.stephensi, the females of this species were put under the pressure of propoxur for 14 generations in 1988. Fourteen generations of propoxur selection on the adult females of An.stephensi resulted in an increase in LT60 from 8.5 min to 24.30 minutes, i.e. 2.86 fold increase in tolerance.

  17. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  18. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in Sri Lanka and options for control through water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Matsuno, Y; Amerasinghe, F P

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the options for control of malaria vectors through different water management practices in a natural stream in Sri Lanka. The association between water level in the stream and breeding of the immature stages of the primary vector Anopheles culicifacies was investigated...... and the feasibility of using existing irrigation infrastructure to reduce the breeding potential discussed. The most feasible option would be to implement a management routine where water is released periodically from an upstream reservoir to reduce the number of breeding sites downstream. This study indicates...... that by regulating the water level above 20 cm in the stream throughout the dry season the breeding of A. culicifacies could be significantly reduced. The intervention would have only limited impact on the water lost for agriculture and the management input would be minimal. However, for the intervention to work...

  19. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F

    2000-01-01

    between the 4th and 1st instar larvae in the subplots was only 0.08, indicating very low survival rates. In contrast, the 4th/1st instar ratio for subplots with other water management regimes ranged between 0.27 and 0.68, suggesting a correspondingly higher survival than observed with intermittent...... differences among subplots with different water regimes. The average yield per hectare ranged from 4.8-5.3 metric tonnes. The average daily water percolation/seepage rate was 3.6 mm and did not significantly differ among different water management regimes. Further research is necessary to, among other things......An experiment to assess the impact of intermittent irrigation on Anopheles larval populations, rice yields and water use was conducted in the Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. Four water regimes including intermittent irrigation were tested in a complete randomized block experimental design...

  20. Le système des estérases carboxyliques chez Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Riandey, Marie-France

    1993-01-01

    L'étude des estérases carboxyliques d'#Anopheles stephensi$ a été réalisée par électrophorèse. L'utilisation d'insecticides inhibiteurs des estérases et la modification des conditions opératoires ont permis de mettre en évidence trois classes d'estérases. Un dimorphisme sexuel est observé : dans les deux sexes, on a identifié un gène diallélique codant pour une estérase sensible aux inhibiteurs, mais, chez des mâles uniquement, il existe un autre gène, également diallélique codant pour une au...

  1. Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, S K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is a complex disease that afflicts human today. Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. Efforts are being made to eradicate malaria but burden of malaria is still increasing. Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. About 12% of malaria cases of malaria in India are contributed by A. stephensi. Studies conducted on population genetics of A. stephensi using various markers in different parts of the world are discussed in this communication.

  2. Anopheles gambiae eicosanoids modulate Plasmodium berghei survival from oocyst to salivary gland invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosanoids affect the immunity of several pathogen/insect models, but their role on the Anopheles gambiae response to Plasmodium is still unknown. Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes were injected with an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (IN, or a substrate, arachidonic acid (AA, at day 7 or day 12 post-infection (p.i.. Salivary gland invasion was evaluated by sporozoite counts at day 21 p.i. IN promoted infection upon sporozoite release from oocysts, but inhibited infection when sporozoites were still maturing within the oocysts, as observed by a reduction in the number of sporozoites reaching the salivary glands. AA treatment had the opposite effect. We show for the first time that An. gambiae can modulate parasite survival through eicosanoids by exerting an antagonistic or agonistic effect on the parasite, depending on its stage of development.

  3. Anopheles gambiae eicosanoids modulate Plasmodium berghei survival from oocyst to salivary gland invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Susana; Custódio, Ana; Silveira, Henrique

    2014-08-01

    Eicosanoids affect the immunity of several pathogen/insect models, but their role on the Anopheles gambiae response to Plasmodium is still unknown. Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes were injected with an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (IN), or a substrate, arachidonic acid (AA), at day 7 or day 12 post-infection (p.i.). Salivary gland invasion was evaluated by sporozoite counts at day 21 p.i. IN promoted infection upon sporozoite release from oocysts, but inhibited infection when sporozoites were still maturing within the oocysts, as observed by a reduction in the number of sporozoites reaching the salivary glands. AA treatment had the opposite effect. We show for the first time that An. gambiae can modulate parasite survival through eicosanoids by exerting an antagonistic or agonistic effect on the parasite, depending on its stage of development.

  4. RESISTANCE OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI LISTON TO MALATHION IN THE PROVICE OF FARS, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Eshghy

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles Stephensi is an important malaria vector in southern Iran. This species developed resistance to DDT in 1975 and subsequently to dieldrin in 1960. Since 1968 this species has been under pressure of malathin house sprayin. 50% w.d.p. , 2g/m2, 1-2 rounds per year. Susceptibility tests carried out with malathion impregnated papers during 1979 showed that An.stephensi has acquired resistant to malathion too. With regard to the 0.1% propoxur, a study was carried out to obtain base-line data in the localities under routine observations and also the discriminating dosage that could kill 100% of An.stephensi. The objective of the present paper is to summarize and discuss briefly the field investigations concerning insecticide resistance in An.stephensi.

  5. “Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L.M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K.N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M.C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; Ribeiro, José M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover, but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  6. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets.

  7. Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, George; Christophides, George K; Meister, Stephan; Schultz, Jörg; White, Kevin P; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Kafatos, Fotis C

    2002-06-25

    The complex gene expression responses of Anopheles gambiae to microbial and malaria challenges, injury, and oxidative stress (in the mosquito and/or a cultured cell line) were surveyed by using cDNA microarrays constructed from an EST-clone collection. The expression profiles were broadly subdivided into induced and down-regulated gene clusters. Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and microbial elicitors up-regulated a diverse set of genes, many belonging to the immunity class, and the response to malaria partially overlapped with this response. Oxidative stress activated a distinctive set of genes, mainly implicated in oxidoreductive processes. Injury up- and down-regulated gene clusters also were distinctive, prominently implicating glycolysis-related genes and citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation/redox-mitochondrial functions, respectively. Cross-comparison of in vivo and in vitro responses indicated the existence of tightly coregulated gene groups that may correspond to gene pathways.

  8. In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K; Johnson, Rebecca M; Rasgon, Jason L

    2015-07-29

    AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential biological control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects.

  9. [The mosquitocidal efficacy of microcapsules of alpha-cypermethrin against Anopheles sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K Y; Ye, B H; Zhi, C L

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of spraying of alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule for the control of Anopheles sinensis was investigated when alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule was sprayed at 0.5 g/m2, the KT50 was 7.9 min and a 100% of 24 hours' mortality of An. sinensis, the efficacy being similar to that of the emulsion. 180 days after spray, the KT50 was 28.2 min, the 24 hours' mortality was 85.7%, the residual efficacy was 3 times over that of the emulsion. In the mimic field experiment, similar results were obtained. In the field trial, the residual efficacy of the alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule was 5.9 times that of the emulsion. Alpha-cypermethrin microcapsules is recommended as a good formulation of mosquitocide for mosquito control, considering its mosquitocidal efficacy and residual efficacy.

  10. Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species.

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    Yuemei Dong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. Invasion by P. berghei had a more profound impact on the mosquito transcriptome, including a variety of functional gene classes, while P. falciparum elicited a broader immune response at the gene transcript level. Ingestion of human malaria-infected blood lacking invasive ookinetes also induced a variety of immune genes, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. Twelve selected genes were assessed for effect on infection with both parasite species and bacteria using RNAi gene silencing assays, and seven of these genes were found to influence mosquito resistance to both parasite species. An MD2-like receptor, AgMDL1, and an immunolectin, FBN39, showed specificity in regulating only resistance to P. falciparum, while the antimicrobial peptide gambicin and a novel putative short secreted peptide, IRSP5, were more specific for defense against the rodent parasite P. berghei. While all the genes that affected Plasmodium development also influenced mosquito resistance to bacterial infection, four of the antimicrobial genes had no effect on Plasmodium development. Our study shows that the impact of P. falciparum and P. berghei infection on A. gambiae biology at the gene transcript level is quite diverse, and the defense against the two Plasmodium species is mediated by antimicrobial factors with both universal and Plasmodium-species specific activities. Furthermore, our data indicate that the mosquito is capable of sensing infected blood constituents in the absence

  11. Environmental covariates of Anopheles arabiensis in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2007-12-01

    Water quality of aquatic habitats is an important determinant of female mosquito oviposition and successful larval development. This study examined the influence of environmental covariates on Anopheles arabiensis mosquito abundance in the Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Central Province of Kenya, prior to implementation of a malaria vector control program. Experimental rice plots were used to examine the environmental covariates responsible for regulating abundance and diversity of the aquatic stages of malaria vectors. Mosquito larval sampling and water quality analysis were done weekly from the flooding stage to the rice maturation stage. Sampling for mosquito larvae was conducted using standard dipping technique. During each larval collection, environmental covariates such as pH, temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water depth, and rice stage were measured. Anopheles arabiensis larval density was highest between 1 wk before transplanting and 4 wk after transplanting with peaks at weeks 0, 3, and 8. The fluctuation in values of the various environmental covariates showed characteristic patterns in different rice growth phases depending on the changes taking place due to the agronomic practices. Using a backward linear regression model, the factors that were found to be associated with abundance of An. arabiensis larvae at any of the rice growing phases included the following: dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, water depth, rice height, number of rice tillers, salinity, conductivity, and temperature. The environmental covariates associated with abundance of An. arabiensis were associated with early vegetative stage of the rice growth. For effective control of developmental stages of mosquito larvae, the application of larvicides should be done at the vegetative stage and the larvicides should persist until the beginning of the reproductive stage of the rice.

  12. Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis from Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya

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    Vulule John M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of the Anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria by use of insecticides has been shown to impact on both morbidity and mortality due to this disease. Evidence of insecticide resistance in different settings necessitates surveillance studies to allow prompt detection of resistance should it arise and thus enable its management. Possible resistance by Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes from Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Central Kenya to insecticides in the four classes of insecticides approved by WHO for indoor residual spraying was investigated. Methods Susceptibility to DDT (an organochlorine, fenitrothion (an organophosphate, bendiocarb (a carbamate, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin (both pyrethroids was tested using standard WHO diagnostic bioassay kits. Bioassays were performed on non-blood fed mosquitoes one- to three-day old. Knockdown was recorded every 10 min and mortality 24 h post-exposure was noted. Results Mortality 24 h post-exposure was 100% for all insecticides except for lambdacyhalothrin, which averaged 99.46%. Knockdown rates at 10 min intervals were not significantly different between the Mwea population and the susceptible KISUMU strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto control. The KDT50 and KDT95 values for the Mwea population were either lower than those for the control or higher by factors of no more than 2 for most comparisons and compared well with those of An. gambiae sensu lato categorized as susceptible in other studies. Conclusion These results suggest that the Mwea population of An. arabiensis is susceptible to all the insecticides tested. This implies that vector control measures employing any of these insecticides would not be hampered by resistance.

  13. Functional characterization of the NF-κB transcription factor gene REL2 from Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGO T. HOA; LIANGBIAO ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    The REL2 gene plays an important role in innate immunity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria and malaria parasites in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Through alternative splicing, REL2 produces two protein products, REL2F (with a Rel-homology domain as well as an inhibitory ankyrin repeat region) and REL2S (without the ankyrin repeats). In the immune-competent cell line Sua1B from An. Gambiae, REL2 has been shown to be a key regulator for cecropin A (or CEC1). The high level expression of CEC1 in Sua1B was postulated to be the result of constitutive activation of REL2F. Here we showed that REL2F is indeed processed, albeit at a low level, in the Sua1B cell line. The primary cleavage requires residue 678 (an aspartic acid). Proteolytic cleavage of REL2F can be enhanced by challenge with bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, but not with fungus Beauveria bassiana. The inducible cleavage can be substantially reduced by RNA interference against PGRP-LC and CASPL1. Over-expression of REL2S or a constitutively active form of REL2F (REL2F380C or REL2F678) in An. Gambiae cell line can further increase expression of CEC1 and other antimicrobial peptide genes. Over-expression of these constitutive active proteins in an immune na?ve cell line, MSQ43, from Anopheles stephensi, results in even more dramatic increased expression of antimicrobial peptides.

  14. Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Saenger, Mélanie; Soichot, Julien; Scholze, Heidi; Boch, Jens; Blandin, Stéphanie A.; Marois, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter transgene, we determined that the fat body is the main site of TEP1 expression. We generated transgenic mosquitoes that express TEP1r, a potent refractory allele of TEP1, in the fat body and examined the activity of the transgenic protein in wild-type or TEP1 mutant genetic backgrounds. Transgenic TEP1r rescued loss-of-function mutations, but did not increase parasite resistance in the presence of a wild-type susceptible allele. Consistent with previous reports, TEP1 protein expressed from the transgene in the fat body was taken up by hemocytes upon a challenge with injected bacteria. Furthermore, although maturation of transgenic TEP1 into the cleaved form was impaired in one of the TEP1 mutant lines, it was still sufficient to reduce parasite numbers and induce parasite melanization. We also report here the first use of Transcription Activator Like Effectors (TALEs) in Anopheles gambiae to stimulate expression of endogenous TEP1. We found that artificial elevation of TEP1 expression remains moderate in vivo and that enhancement of endogenous TEP1 expression did not result in increased resistance to Plasmodium. Taken together, our results reveal the difficulty of artificially influencing TEP1-mediated Plasmodium resistance, and contribute to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mosquito resistance to Plasmodium parasites. PMID:28095489

  15. Bendiocarb, a potential alternative against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in Benin, West Africa

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    Irish Seth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Benin has developed high level of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides, which is a serious concern to the future use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and indoor residual spraying (IRS. In this context, one of the pathways available for malaria vector control would be to investigate alternative classes of insecticides with different mode of action than that of pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the efficacy of a carbamate (bendiocarb and an organophosphate (fenitrothion against pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. Methods Wild populations and females from laboratory colonies of five days old An. gambiae were bio-assayed during this study. Two pyrethroids (deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin, an organophosphate (fenitrothion, a carbamate (bendiocarb and a mixture of an organophosphate (chlorpyriphos + a pyrethroid deltamethrin were compared in experimental huts as IRS treatments. Insecticides were applied in the huts using a hand-operated compression sprayer. The deterrency, exophily, blood feeding rate and mortality induced by these insecticides against An. gambiae were compared to the untreated control huts. Results Deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin and bendiocarb treatment significantly reduced mosquito entry into the huts (p An. gambiae (in the first month and 77.8% (in the fourth month. Bendiocarb and the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin mortality rates ranged from 97.9 to 100% the first month and 77.7-88% the third month respectively. Conclusion After four months, fenitrothion, bendiocarb and the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin performed effectively against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles. These results showed that bendiocarb could be recommended as an effective insecticide for use in IRS operations in Benin, particularly as the mixture chlorpyriphos/deltamethrin does not have WHOPES authorization and complaints were mentioned

  16. Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania

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    Oxborough Richard M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of resistance. In this study, metabolic-based mechanisms conferring permethrin (pyrethroid resistance were investigated in Anopheles arabiensis of Lower Moshi, Kilimanjaro region of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods WHO susceptibility test kits were used to detect resistance to permethrin in An. arabiensis. The levels and mechanisms of permethrin resistance were determined using CDC bottle bioassays and microplate (biochemical assays. In bottle bioassays, piperonyl butoxide (PBO and s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF were used as synergists to inhibit mixed function oxidases and non-specific esterases respectively. Biochemical assays were carried out in individual mosquitoes to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism (mixed function oxidases, α- and β-esterases. Results Anopheles arabiensis from the study area was found to be partially resistant to permethrin, giving only 87% mortality in WHO test kits. Resistance ratios at KT50 and KT95 were 4.0 and 4.3 respectively. The permethrin resistance was partially synergized by DEF and by PBO when these were mixed with permethrin in bottle bioassays and was fully synergized when DEF and PBO were used together. The levels of oxidase and β-esterase activity were significantly higher in An. arabiensis from Lower Moshi than in the laboratory susceptible strain. There was no difference in α-esterase activity between the two strains. Conclusion Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and β-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of the Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.

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    Jose Manuel C Tubio

    Full Text Available Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis.

  18. Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae midgut transcriptome

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    Mahairaki Vassiliki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The midgut of hematophagous insects, such as disease transmitting mosquitoes, carries out a variety of essential functions that mostly relate to blood feeding. The midgut of the female malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major site of interactions between the parasite and the vector. Distinct compartments and cell types of the midgut tissue carry out specific functions and vector borne pathogens interact and infect different parts of the midgut. Results A microarray based global gene expression approach was used to compare transcript abundance in the four major female midgut compartments (cardia, anterior, anterior part of posterior and posterior part of posterior midgut and between the male and female Anopheles gambiae midgut. Major differences between the female and male midgut gene expression relate to digestive processes and immunity. Each compartment has a distinct gene function profile with the posterior midgut expressing digestive enzyme genes and the cardia and anterior midgut expressing high levels of antimicrobial peptide and other immune gene transcripts. Interestingly, the cardia expressed several known anti-Plasmodium factors. A parallel peptidomic analysis of the cardia identified known mosquito antimicrobial peptides as well as several putative short secreted peptides that are likely to represent novel antimicrobial factors. Conclusion The A. gambiae sex specific midgut and female midgut compartment specific transcriptomes correlates with their known functions. The significantly greater functional diversity of the female midgut relate to hematophagy that is associated with digestion and nutrition uptake as well as exposes it to a variety of pathogens, and promotes growth of its endogenous microbial flora. The strikingly high proportion of immunity related factors in the cardia tissue most likely serves the function to increase sterility of ingested sugar and blood. A detailed characterization of the

  19. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  20. Effects of Anti-Mosquito Salivary Glands and Deglycosylated Midgut Antibodies of Anopheles stephensi on Fecundity and Longevity

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    H Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of controlling malaria by reducing vector population, the effects of antibodies produced against salivary glands and deglycosylated midgut antigens of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes on fecundity and longevity of the same species were tested. Three deglycosylated preparations of midgut and two preparations of salivary glands were produced, conjugated with aluminum hydroxide gel, and subcutaneously injected to shoulders of TO (Turner Out-bred mice. After 4 immunizations and assurance of enough antibody production against utilized antigenic suspensions, effects of blood feeding on immunized and control mice were assayed. Insoluble preparation of midgut showed the strongest effect with 23.5% reduction in egg laying, and increasing death rate of vectors in third day after feeding. No significant reduction in fecundity or survivorship was seen with other preparations. Anopheles midgut insoluble antigens are potential candidates for designing vaccines against malaria vectors and further investigations need to be done to find effective antigens and the best way of their use.

  1. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  2. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

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    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  3. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

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    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  4. Species-richness of the Anopheles annulipes Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Revealed by Tree and Model-Based Allozyme Clustering Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    and systematics ofAnopheles: insights from a molecular phy· logeny of Australasian mosquitoes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 262-275. Foley... systematics and pop- ulation studies. Sydney: Academic Press. Roscnberg NA, Burke T, Elo K, Feldman MW, Freidlin PJ, Groenen MAM, Hillel J, Maki·Taniia...of molecular-functional variation patterns among butterfly species complexes IColias: Lepidoptera , Pieridae). Molecular Ecology 12: 1265-1275. © 2007

  5. Bayesian coclustering of Anopheles gene expression time series: Study of immune defense response to multiple experimental challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, Nicholas A.; Holmes, Christopher C.; Stephens, David A.; Hand, David J.; Dimopoulos, George

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for Bayesian model-based hierarchical coclustering of gene expression data and use it to study the temporal transcription responses of an Anopheles gambiae cell line upon challenge with multiple microbial elicitors. The method fits statistical regression models to the gene expression time series for each experiment and performs coclustering on the genes by optimizing a joint probability model, characterizing gene coregulation between multiple experiments. We compute the mo...

  6. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  7. Larvicidal and repellent properties of Adansonia digitata against medically important human malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concen...

  8. Alstonia boonei De Wild oil extract in the management of mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), a vector of malaria disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode David Ileke; Olaniyi Charles Ogungbite

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal potential of Alstonia boonei (A. boonei) oils and derivatives against different life stages of a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Methods: The leaf, stem bark and root bark of A. boonei were collected from an open field and air dried before being blended to fine powder. Oils from this plant were extracted by cold extraction and were prepared at different concentrations. Contact toxicity of A. boonei was tested against the larvae an...

  9. Fitness of Transgenic Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes Expressing the SM1 Peptide under the Control of a Vitellogenin Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaoyang; Marrelli, Mauro T.; Yan, Guiyun; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Three transgenic Anopheles stephensi lines were established that strongly inhibit transmission of the mouse malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Fitness of the transgenic mosquitoes was assessed based on life table analysis and competition experiments between transgenic and wild-type mosquitoes. Life table analysis indicated low fitness load for the 2 single-insertion transgenic mosquito lines VD35 and VD26 and no load for the double-insertion transgenic mosquito line VD9. However, in cage ex...

  10. Dissecting the organ specificity of insecticide resistance candidate genes in Anopheles gambiae: known and novel candidate genes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The elevated expression of enzymes with insecticide metabolism activity can lead to high levels of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. In this study, adult female mosquitoes from an insecticide susceptible and resistant strain were dissected into four different body parts. RNA from each of these samples was used in microarray analysis to determine the enrichment patterns of the key detoxification gene families within the mosquito and to identify additio...

  11. The Anopheles gambiae detoxification chip: A highly specific microarray to study metabolic-based insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an important role in insecticide resistance, but the full spectra of the genes involved in resistance has not been established. We constructed a microarray containing unique fragments from 230 Anopheles gambiae genes putatively involved in insecticide metabolism [cytochrome P450s (P450s), GSTs, and carboxylesterases and redox genes, partners of the P450 oxidative metabolic complex, and various controls]. We used this detox chip to monitor the expression of the detoxify...

  12. Impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles epiroticus population from southern Vietnam tested in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Trung Ho; Speybroeck Niko; Berkvens Dirk; Chinh Vu; Van Bortel Wim; Coosemans Marc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of Anopheles epiroticus in southern Vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the Mekong delta. Method An experimental station, based on the model of West Africa and adapted to the behaviour of the target...

  13. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

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    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and

  14. Spatio-temporal variations of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae and their Plasmodium infectivity rates in Lobito, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Pierre; Toto, Jean-Claude; Besnard, Patrick; Santos, Maria Adelaide Dos; Fortes, Filomeno; Allan, Richard; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    From 2003 to 2007, entomological surveys were conducted in Lobito town (Benguela Province, Angola) to determine which Anopheles species were present and to identify the vectors responsible for malaria transmission in areas where workers of the Sonamet Company live. Two types of surveys were conducted: (1) time and space surveys in the low and upper parts of Lobito during the rainy and dry periods; (2) a two-year longitudinal study in Sonamet workers' houses provided with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), "PermaNet," along with the neighboring community. Both species, An. coluzzii (M molecular form) and An. gambiae (S molecular form), were collected. Anopheles coluzzii was predominant during the dry season in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in natural ponds and temporary pools. However, during the rainy season, An. gambiae was found in higher proportions in the upper part of the town where larvae were collected in domestic water tanks built near houses. Anopheles melas and An. listeri were captured in higher numbers during the dry season and in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in stagnant brackish water pools. The infectivity rates of An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.90% to 3.41%.

  15. Unexpected diversity of Anopheles species in Eastern Zambia: implications for evaluating vector behavior and interventions using molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neil F; St Laurent, Brandyce; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Hamainza, Busiku; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M; Mueller, Jonathan D; Deason, Nicholas A; Hoang, Quynh T; Boldt, Heather L; Thumloup, Julie; Stevenson, Jennifer; Seyoum, Aklilu; Collins, Frank H

    2015-12-09

    The understanding of malaria vector species in association with their bionomic traits is vital for targeting malaria interventions and measuring effectiveness. Many entomological studies rely on morphological identification of mosquitoes, limiting recognition to visually distinct species/species groups. Anopheles species assignments based on ribosomal DNA ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA COI were compared to morphological identifications from Luangwa and Nyimba districts in Zambia. The comparison of morphological and molecular identifications determined that interpretations of species compositions, insecticide resistance assays, host preference studies, trap efficacy, and Plasmodium infections were incorrect when using morphological identification alone. Morphological identifications recognized eight Anopheles species while 18 distinct sequence groups or species were identified from molecular analyses. Of these 18, seven could not be identified through comparison to published sequences. Twelve of 18 molecularly identified species (including unidentifiable species and species not thought to be vectors) were found by PCR to carry Plasmodium sporozoites - compared to four of eight morphological species. Up to 15% of morphologically identified Anopheles funestus mosquitoes in insecticide resistance tests were found to be other species molecularly. The comprehension of primary and secondary malaria vectors and bionomic characteristics that impact malaria transmission and intervention effectiveness are fundamental in achieving malaria elimination.

  16. Antiviral immunity of Anopheles gambiae is highly compartmentalized, with distinct roles for RNA interference and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Pondeville, Emilie; McFarlane, Melanie; Dietrich, Isabelle; Mitri, Christian; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Bourgouin, Catherine; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Kohl, Alain; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2015-01-13

    Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and other arthropods to humans and animals. The risk associated with these viruses is increasing worldwide, including new emergence in Europe and the Americas. Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria but are believed to transmit one known arbovirus, o'nyong-nyong virus, whereas Aedes mosquitoes transmit many. Anopheles interactions with viruses have been little studied, and the initial antiviral response in the midgut has not been examined. Here, we determine the antiviral immune pathways of the Anopheles gambiae midgut, the initial site of viral infection after an infective blood meal. We compare them with the responses of the post-midgut systemic compartment, which is the site of the subsequent disseminated viral infection. Normal viral infection of the midgut requires bacterial flora and is inhibited by the activities of immune deficiency (Imd), JAK/STAT, and Leu-rich repeat immune factors. We show that the exogenous siRNA pathway, thought of as the canonical mosquito antiviral pathway, plays no detectable role in antiviral defense in the midgut but only protects later in the systemic compartment. These results alter the prevailing antiviral paradigm by describing distinct protective mechanisms in different body compartments and infection stages. Importantly, the presence of the midgut bacterial flora is required for full viral infectivity to Anopheles, in contrast to malaria infection, where the presence of the midgut bacterial flora is required for protection against infection. Thus, the enteric flora controls a reciprocal protection tradeoff in the vector for resistance to different human pathogens.

  17. Life-table analysis of Anopheles malaria vectors: generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies

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    Godwin Ray Anugboba Okogun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vector control will for sometime remain a primary weapon in the waragainst vector borne diseases. Malaria is of paramount importance in this with its associated highmorbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study on generational mortality associatedfactors in Anopheles mosquitoes life-table analysis was designed to investigate the fecundity,levels of mortality and mortality associated factors at the aquatic stages of anopheline malaria vectors.Methods: Mortality associated factors were investigated at the eggs, I and II instar larval, III and IVinstar larval and pupal stages of two anopheline species— Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobaldand An. gambiae life-cycles in screen cages. Adult male and female mosquitoes were membrane filterfedand algae in culture medium formed the bulk of food substances for the larval stage. Environmentaltemperature of culture media, pH and some associated physio-chemical factors were also determined.Results: Results showed significant mortality rates at various aquatic stages. Infertility, cannibalismand environmental factors were the major factors responsible for mortality at the egg, larval and pupalstages respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: The aquatic stages of Anopheles mosquito mortality factor K and themortality factors at the various stages investigated k1, k2, k3 and k4 are discussed. Our recommendationsinclude further studies on the possible genetic modification of predacious An. pseudopunctipennislarvae and/or its modification for the production of sterile/infertile eggs as possible alternativesin the reduction and control of anopheline malaria burden.

  18. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  19. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

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    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  20. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

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    Badolo Athanase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and

  1. Susceptibility of eight species members in the Anopheles hyrcanus group to nocturnally subperiodic Brugia malayi

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    Saeung Atiporn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filariasis, caused by Brugia malayi, is a public health problem in Thailand. Currently, at least two locations in southern Thailand are reported to be active endemic areas. Two and four Mansonia species are primary and secondary vectors, respectively, of the nocturnally subperiodic race, whereas, Coquillettidia crassipes is a vector of the diurnally subperiodic race. Although several Anopheles species have been incriminated extensively as natural and/or suspected vectors of B. malayi, little is known about vector competence between indigenous Anopheles and this filaria in Thailand. Thus, the susceptibility levels of eight species members in the Thai An. hyrcanus group to nocturnally subperiodic B. malayi are presented herein, and the two main refractory factors that affect them in different degrees of susceptibility have been elucidated. Methods Aedes togoi (a control vector, An. argyropus, An. crawfordi, An. nigerrimus, An. nitidus, An. paraliae, An. peditaeniatus, An. pursati and An. sinensis were allowed to feed artificially on blood containing B. malayi microfilariae, and dissected 14 days after feeding. To determine factors that take effect at different susceptibility levels, stain-smeared blood meals were taken from the midguts of Ae. togoi, An. peditaeniatus, An. crawfordi, An. paraliae, An. sinensis and An. nitidus immediately after feeding, and their dissected-thoraxes 4 days post blood-feedings were examined consecutively for microfilariae and L1 larvae. Results The susceptibility rates of Ae. togoi, An. peditaeniatus, An. crawfordi, An. nigerrimus, An. argyropus, An. pursati, An. sinensis, An. paraliae and An. nitidus to B. malayi were 70–95%, 70–100%, 80–85%, 50–65%, 60%, 60%, 10%, 5%, and 0%, respectively. These susceptibility rates related clearly to the degrees of normal larval development in thoracic muscles, i.e., Ae. togoi, An. peditaeniatus, An. crawfordi, An. paraliae, An. sinensis and An. nitidus

  2. Analysis of two novel midgut-specific promoters driving transgene expression in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

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    Tony Nolan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific promoters controlling the expression of transgenes in Anopheles mosquitoes represent a valuable tool both for studying the interaction between these malaria vectors and the Plasmodium parasites they transmit and for novel malaria control strategies based on developing Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes by expressing anti-parasitic genes. With this aim we have studied the promoter regions of two genes from the most important malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, whose expression is strongly induced upon blood feeding. RESULTS: We analysed the A. gambiae Antryp1 and G12 genes, which we have shown to be midgut-specific and maximally expressed at 24 hours post-bloodmeal (PBM. Antryp1, required for bloodmeal digestion, encodes one member of a family of 7 trypsin genes. The G12 gene, of unknown function, was previously identified in our laboratory in a screen for genes induced in response to a bloodmeal. We fused 1.1 kb of the upstream regions containing the putative promoter of these genes to reporter genes and transformed these into the Indian malaria vector A. stephensi to see if we could recapitulate the expression pattern of the endogenous genes. Both the Antryp1 and G12 upstream regions were able to drive female-predominant, midgut-specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. Expression of the Antryp1-driven reporter in transgenic A. stephensi lines was low, undetectable by northern blot analysis, and failed to fully match the induction kinetics of the endogenous Antryp1 gene in A. gambiae. This incomplete conservation of expression suggests either subtle differences in the transcriptional machinery between A. stephensi and A. gambiae or that the upstream region chosen lacked all the control elements. In contrast, the G12 upstream region was able to faithfully reproduce the expression profile of the endogenous A. gambiae gene, showing female midgut specificity in the adult mosquito and massive induction PBM, peaking at 24

  3. Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae

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    Jackson Robert R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed for Anopheles gambiae s.s. a gradation of feeding preference on common plant species growing in a malaria holoendemic area in western Kenya. The present follow-up study determines whether there is a relationship between the mosquito's preferences and its survival and fecundity. Methods Groups of mosquitoes were separately given ad libitum opportunity to feed on five of the more preferred plant species (Hamelia patens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Senna didymobotrya, and Tecoma stans and one of the less preferred species (Lantana camara. The mosquitoes were monitored daily for survival. Sugar solution (glucose 6% and water were used as controls. In addition, the fecundity of mosquitoes on each plant after (i only one blood meal (number of eggs oviposited, and (ii after three consecutive blood meals (proportion of females ovipositing, number of eggs oviposited and hatchability of eggs, was determined. The composition and concentration of sugar in the fed-on parts of each plant species were determined using gas chromatography. Using SAS statistical package, tests for significant difference of the fitness values between mosquitoes exposed to different plant species were conducted. Results and Conclusion Anopheles gambiae that had fed on four of the five more preferred plant species (T. stans, S. didymobotrya, R. communis and H. patens, but not P. hysterophorus lived longer and laid more eggs after one blood meal, when compared with An. gambiae that had fed on the least preferred plant species L. camara. When given three consecutive blood-meals, the percentage of females that oviposited, but not the number of eggs laid, was significantly higher for mosquitoes that had previously fed on the four more preferred plant species. Total sugar concentration in the preferred plant parts was significantly correlated with survival and with the proportion of females that laid eggs. This effect was

  4. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

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    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  5. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations.

  6. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

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    Sonam Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  7. Metabolic and target-site mechanisms combine to confer strong DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N; Rigden, Daniel J; Dowd, Andrew J; Lu, Fang; Wilding, Craig S; Weetman, David; Dadzie, Samuel; Jenkins, Adam M; Regna, Kimberly; Boko, Pelagie; Djogbenou, Luc; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ranson, Hilary; Paine, Mark J I; Mayans, Olga; Donnelly, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The development of resistance to insecticides has become a classic exemplar of evolution occurring within human time scales. In this study we demonstrate how resistance to DDT in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a result of both target-site resistance mechanisms that have introgressed between incipient species (the M- and S-molecular forms) and allelic variants in a DDT-detoxifying enzyme. Sequencing of the detoxification enzyme, Gste2, from DDT resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae, revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism (I114T), proximal to the DDT binding domain, which segregated with strain phenotype. Recombinant protein expression and DDT metabolism analysis revealed that the proteins from the susceptible strain lost activity at higher DDT concentrations, characteristic of substrate inhibition. The effect of I114T on GSTE2 protein structure was explored through X-ray crystallography. The amino acid exchange in the DDT-resistant strain introduced a hydroxyl group nearby the hydrophobic DDT-binding region. The exchange does not result in structural alterations but is predicted to facilitate local dynamics and enzyme activity. Expression of both wild-type and 114T alleles the allele in Drosophila conferred an increase in DDT tolerance. The 114T mutation was significantly associated with DDT resistance in wild caught M-form populations and acts in concert with target-site mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1575Y and Vgsc-1014F) to confer extreme levels of DDT resistance in wild caught An. gambiae.

  8. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles sundaicus Mosquitoes Against Insecticides Cypermethrin in Garut Regency

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    Nunung Seniawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the time of high vector populations and malaria transmission is in progress, it is necessary to use insecticides to control vector using the house spraying. To get the results as objective the eradication of the vector that is able to suppress the vector population so that no longer play a role in malaria transmission, the insecticide used should be effective against mosquitoes and the mosquitoes are still susceptible to the insecticide used. To determine the level of malaria vector mosquito susceptibility to insecticides, in the terri-tory of Garut district has conducted susceptibility tests of Anopheles sundaicus mosquitoes to insecticides Cypermethrin held in November up to December 2008. Mosquitoes tested were captured in the form of larvae from ponds and estuaries in Karyamukti Cibalong Garut, and then reared in the field insektarium. The adult level were then tested for their susceptibility. Mosquito susceptibility tests conducted using the WHO Susceptibility Test Kit as many as four repetitions performed simultaneously, while the insecticide used in the form of imprag-nated paper with a dose of 0.05%. From tests it is known that mosquito mortality rate up to 100% test. This indicates that the mosquito An. sundaicus in Garut regency of West Java, is still susceptible to the insecticide Cypermenthrin. Therefore, it can still be used in the eradication of malaria vectors in the recommended dosage of 0.20 g/m2.

  9. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

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    Kevin C. Deitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  10. Avoidance Behavior to Essential Oils by Anopheles minimus, a Malaria Vector in Thailand.

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    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Chauhan, Kamal; Tantakom, Siripun; Eiden, Amanda L; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An. minimus. Citronella and vetiver at 1-5% showed strong irritant effects with>80% escape, while repellent effects of both oils were observed at 1% and 2.5% citronella (73-89% escape) and at 5% vetiver (83.9% escape). Sweet basil had only moderate irritant action at 5% concentration (69.6% escape) and slightly repellent on test mosquitoes (<50% escape). The results found that hairy basil, citronella, and vetiver are promising potential mosquito repellent products for protection against An. minimus.

  11. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2003-12-01

    Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appears again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  12. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  13. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae populations

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    Carvalho-Pinto Carlos José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appers again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  14. Authentication scheme for routine verification of genetically similar laboratory colonies: a trial with Anopheles gambiae

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    Sutcliffe Alice C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When rearing morphologically indistinguishable laboratory strains concurrently, the threat of unintentional genetic contamination is constant. Avoidance of accidental mixing of strains is difficult due to the use of common equipment, technician error, or the possibility of self relocation by adult mosquitoes ("free fliers". In many cases, laboratory strains are difficult to distinguish because of morphological and genetic similarity, especially when laboratory colonies are isolates of certain traits from the same parental strain, such as eye color mutants, individuals with certain chromosomal arrangements or high levels of insecticide resistance. Thus, proving genetic integrity could seem incredibly time-consuming or impossible. On the other hand, lacking proof of genetically isolated laboratory strains could question the validity of research results. Results We present a method for establishing authentication matrices to routinely distinguish and confirm that laboratory strains have not become physically or genetically mixed through contamination events in the laboratory. We show a specific example with application to Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strains at the Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center. This authentication matrix is essentially a series of tests yielding a strain-specific combination of results. Conclusion These matrix-based methodologies are useful for several mosquito and insect populations but must be specifically tailored and altered for each laboratory based on the potential contaminants available at any given time. The desired resulting authentication plan would utilize the least amount of routine effort possible while ensuring the integrity of the strains.

  15. Innexin AGAP001476 is critical for mediating anti-Plasmodium responses in Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michelle W M; Wang, Jiuling; Zhao, Yang O; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-09-05

    The Toll and IMD pathways are known to be induced upon Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum infection, respectively. It is unclear how Plasmodium or other pathogens in the blood meal and their invasion of the midgut epithelium would trigger the innate immune responses in immune cells, in particular hemocytes. Gap junctions, which can mediate both cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular communication, may participate in this signal transduction. This study examined whether innexins, gap junction proteins in insects, are involved in anti-Plasmodium responses in Anopheles gambiae. Inhibitor studies using carbenoxolone indicated that blocking innexons resulted in an increase in Plasmodium oocyst number and infection prevalence. This was accompanied by a decline in TEP1 levels in carbenoxolone-treated mosquitoes. Innexin AGAP001476 mRNA levels in midguts were induced during Plasmodium infection and a knockdown of AGAP001476, but not AGAP006241, caused an induction in oocyst number. Silencing AGAP001476 caused a concurrent increase in vitellogenin levels, a TEP1 inhibitor, in addition to a reduced level of TEP1-LRIM1-APL1C complex in hemolymph. Both vitellogenin and TEP1 are regulated by Cactus under the Toll pathway. Simultaneous knockdown of cactus and AGAP001476 failed to reverse the near refractoriness induced by the knockdown of cactus, suggesting that the AGAP001476-mediated anti-Plasmodium response is Cactus-dependent. These data demonstrate a critical role for innexin AGAP001476 in mediating innate immune responses against Plasmodium through Toll pathway in mosquitoes.

  16. Characterization of Plasmodium developmental transcriptomes in Anopheles gambiae midgut reveals novel regulators of malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinosoglou, Karolina A; Bushell, Ellen S C; Ukegbu, Chiamaka Valerie; Schlegelmilch, Timm; Cho, Jee-Sun; Redmond, Seth; Sala, Katarzyna; Christophides, George K; Vlachou, Dina

    2015-02-01

    The passage through the mosquito is a major bottleneck for malaria parasite populations and a target of interventions aiming to block disease transmission. Here, we used DNA microarrays to profile the developmental transcriptomes of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in vivo, in the midgut of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, from parasite stages in the midgut blood bolus to sporulating oocysts on the basal gut wall. Data analysis identified several distinct transcriptional programmes encompassing genes putatively involved in developmental processes or in interactions with the mosquito. At least two of these programmes are associated with the ookinete development that is linked to mosquito midgut invasion and establishment of infection. Targeted disruption by homologous recombination of two of these genes resulted in mutant parasites exhibiting notable infection phenotypes. GAMER encodes a short polypeptide with granular localization in the gametocyte cytoplasm and shows a highly penetrant loss-of-function phenotype manifested as greatly reduced ookinete numbers, linked to impaired male gamete release. HADO encodes a putative magnesium phosphatase with distinctive cortical localization along the concave ookinete periphery. Disruption of HADO compromises ookinete development leading to significant reduction of oocyst numbers. Our data provide important insights into the molecular framework underpinning Plasmodium development in the mosquito and identifies two genes with important functions at initial stages of parasite development in the mosquito midgut.

  17. Essential oils enhance the toxicity of permethrin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A D; Norris, E J; Kimber, M J; Bartholomay, L C; Coats, J R

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 35 essential oils were co-delivered with permethrin at two doses (2 and 10 µg) to determine if they could enhance the 1-h knockdown and the 24-h mortality of permethrin. Several of the tested essential oils enhanced the efficacy of permethrin equally and more effectively than piperonyl butoxide PBO, which is the commercial standard to synergize chemical insecticide like pyrethroids. PBO had a strikingly negative effect on the 1-h knockdown of permethrin against Ae. aegypti, which was not observed in An. gambiae. Botanical essential oils have the capability of increasing the efficacy of permethrin allowing for a natural alternative to classic chemical synergists, like PBO.

  18. Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Mitchell, Sara N.; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J.; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

  19. Characterization of Anopheles gambiae Transglutaminase 3 (AgTG3) and Its Native Substrate Plugin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Binh V.; Nguyen, Jennifer B.; Logarajah, Shankar; Wang, Bo; Marcus, Jacob; Williams, Hazel P.; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Male Anopheles mosquitoes coagulate their seminal fluids via cross-linking of a substrate, called Plugin, by the seminal transglutaminase AgTG3. Formation of the “mating plug” by cross-linking Plugin is necessary for efficient sperm storage by females. AgTG3 has a similar degree of sequence identity (∼30%) to both human Factor XIII (FXIII) and tissue transglutaminase 2 (hTG2). Here we report the solution structure and in vitro activity for the cross-linking reaction of AgTG3 and Plugin. AgTG3 is a dimer in solution and exhibits Ca2+-dependent nonproteolytic activation analogous to cytoplasmic FXIII. The C-terminal domain of Plugin is predominantly α-helical with extended tertiary structure and oligomerizes in solution. The specific activity of AgTG3 was measured as 4.25 × 10−2 units mg−1. AgTG3 is less active than hTG2 assayed using the general substrate TVQQEL but has 8–10× higher relative activity when Plugin is the substrate. Mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked Plugin detects specific peptides including a predicted consensus motif for cross-linking by AgTG3. These results support the development of AgTG3 inhibitors as specific and effective chemosterilants for A. gambiae. PMID:23288850

  20. HOUSE—SCALE TRIALS OF ALPHAMETHRIN (OMS—3004 AGAINST DDT RESISTANT ANOPHELES ACONITUS IN CENTRAL JAVA

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    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uji coba racun serangga alphamethrin (OMS—3004 tingkat perumahan (Stage IV telah dilakukan untuk menanggulangi vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di desa Kaligading, Kecamatan Boja, Jawa Tengah. Alphamethrin 5 % disemprotkan pada permukaan dinding dengan dosis 100 mg/m2 dan 200 mg/m2. Penilaian entomologi dilakukan dengan cara pengujian hayati kontak langsung, kontak tidak langsung dan penangkapan An. aconitus di kandang pagi hari. An. aconitus penuh darah hasil penangkapan dipelihara selama 24 jam untuk diperiksa kematiannya. Hasil pengujian hayati kontak langsung menunjukkan bahwa umur residu racun serangga alphamethrin adalah cukup baik pada permukaan bambu maupun kayu. Umur residu yang^efek-tip (kematian > 70 % adalah selama 25 minggu setelah penyemprotan dosis 100 mg/m dan selama 29 minggu setelah penyemprotan 200 mg/m2. Efek fumigasi racun serangga alphamethrin adalah sangat lemah baik pada penyemprotan dosis 100 mg/m2 maupun pada 200 mg/m2. Kema­tian An. aconitus hanya sebesar 2 % pada 4 hari setelah penyemprotan dosis 100 mg/m2 dan 4 % pada 4 hari setelah penyemprotan 200 mg/m2.

  1. Functional characterization of PGRP-LC1 of Anopheles gambiae through deletion and RNA interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chen; Erjun Ling; Zhihui Weng

    2009-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP) play an important role in innate immunity in insects through the activation of the Imd pathway, which has been shown to be required in the antibacterial response in insects and in the limitation of the number of Plasmodium berghei oocysts developing in mosquito midgut. The LC1gene of the PRGP family in Anopheles gambiae produces many products through alternative splicing. In this work, we demonstrate that PGRP-LC1a alone is sufficient to activate the Imd pathway in the A. gambiae L3-5 cell line through a combination of terminal or internal deletions, and RNA interference against endogenous PGRP-LC products. In the absence of endogenous PGRP-LC proteins, the integrity of the cytoplasmic domain is necessary for LC1 a function, while that of the extracellular domain is not. Moreover, the shorter the extracellular domain, the higher the activity for LC1a. However, the removal of either the cytoplasmic or the extracellular PGRP-binding domain has little impact on the activity of LC1a in the presence of endogenous PGRP-LC proteins.

  2. Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta menthoides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanavi Mahnaz; Fallah Alireza; Vatandoost Hassan; Sedaghat Mahdi; Abai Mohammad Reza; Hadjiakhoondi Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of theNepeta menthoides (N. menthoides) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The essential oil of plant was obtained by Clevenger type apparatus and the methanol extract was supplied with Percolation method. Larvicidal activity was tested by WHO method. Twenty five fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were used in the larvicidal assay and four replicates were tested for each concentration. Five different concentrations of the oil and extract were tested for calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 was 69.5 and 234.3 ppm and LC90 was 175.5 and 419.9 ppm for the extract and essential oil respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this study methanolic extract of plant exhibited more larvicidal activity than essential oil. This could be useful for investigation of new natural larvicidal compounds.

  3. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

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    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  4. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rice growing area of central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Baliraine, Frederick N; Musani, Solomon; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme and surrounding areas in Central Kenya, under different agricultural systems. This study was motivated by observed differences in malaria transmission indices of An. arabiensis within the scheme compared with adjacent nonirrigated areas. Agricultural practices can modify local microclimate and influence the number and diversity of larval habitats and in so doing may occasion subpopulation differentiation. Thirty samples from each of the three study sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Seven microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism but revealed no genetic differentiation (FST = 0.006, P = 0.312) and high gene flow (Nm = 29-101) among the three populations. Genetic bottleneck analysis showed no indication of excess heterozygosity in any of the populations. There was high frequency of rare alleles, suggesting that An. arabiensis in the study area has a high potential of responding to selective pressures from environmental changes and vector control efforts. These findings imply that An. arabiensis in the study area occurs as a single, continuous panmictic population with great ability to adapt to human-imposed selective pressures.

  5. Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Aurelio M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are not known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. Here we show, using nucleic acid-based methods, that 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to a recently described mosquito midgut bacterium, Thorsellia anophelis, is predominant in the midgut of adult An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes captured in residences in central Kenya, and also occurs in the aquatic rice paddy environment nearby. PCR consistently detected T. anophelis in the surface microlayer of rice paddies, which is also consistent with the surface-feeding behavior of A. gambiae s.l. larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned environmental 16S rRNA genes identified four major Thorsellia lineages, which are closely affiliated to an insect endosymbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. Physiological characterizations support the hypothesis that T. anophelis is well adapted to the female anopheline midgut by utilizing blood and tolerating the alkaline conditions in this environment. The results suggest that aquatically derived bacteria such as T. anophelis can persist through mosquito metamorphosis and become well-established in the adult mosquito midgut.

  6. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

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    Maharaj Rajendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, methanol and purified water of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo, an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

  7. Larvicidal activity of metabolites from the endophytic Podospora sp. against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasyoh, Josphat C; Dittrich, Birger; Schueffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    In a screening for natural products with mosquito larvicidal activities, the endophytic fungus Podospora sp. isolated from the plant Laggera alata (Asteraceae) was conspicuous. Two xanthones, sterigmatocystin (1) and secosterigmatocystin (2), and an anthraquinone derivative (3) 13-hydroxyversicolorin B were isolated after fermentation on M(2) medium. These compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis and examined against third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. The results demonstrated that compound 1 was the most potent one with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 13.3 and 73.5 ppm, respectively. Over 95% mortality was observed at a concentration 100 ppm after 24 h. These results compared farvorably with the commercial larvicide pylarvex® that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. Compound 3 was less potent and had an LC(50) of 294.5 ppm and over 95% mortality was achieved at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Secosterigmatocystin (2) revealed relatively weak activity and therefore LC values were not determined.

  8. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

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    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  9. Preferencias alimenticias del Anopheles pseudopunctipennis y A. triannulatus en el Perú

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    Manuel Acosta

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la prueba serológica de las pricipitinas, entre agosto y noviembre, 1958, se ha tratado de determinar las preferencias alimenticias del Anopheles pseudopunctipennis y del A. triannulatus en varias localidades peruanas, con los siguientes resultados: 1. En una serie, con insectos procedentes de dos regiones geográficas diferentes y usando sueros inmunes correspondientes a la especie humana y a varios animales inferiores, se obtuvo: a que el A. pseudopunctipennis no presenta comportamiento uniforme en cuanto a su alimentación en el hombre; y b que los animales inferiores sobre los que se alimenta con mayor frecuencia son la vaca y el perro. 2. En otra serie, en la que se usó tan sólo el suero anti-hombre, se verificó que el A. pseudopunctipennis había ingerido sangre humana entre el 87.3 y 100.0 por ciento. 3. En 0.5 por ciento de 977 especímenes del A. triannulatus se puso de manifiesto la presencia de sangre humana. 4. Se discute las circunstancias que condicionarían la preferencia que los insectos estudiados suelen mostrar en cuanto a sus huéspedes.

  10. Molecular taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria epidemiology in southern Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2 + COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR.

  11. Exploring proteins in Anopheles gambiae male and female antennae through MALDI mass spectrometry profiling.

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    Francesca R Dani

    Full Text Available MALDI profiling and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS are novel techniques for direct analysis of peptides and small proteins in biological tissues. In this work we applied them to the study of Anopheles gambiae antennae, with the aim of analysing expression of soluble proteins involved in olfaction perireceptor events. MALDI spectra obtained by direct profiling on single antennae and by the analysis of extracts, showed similar profiles, although spectra obtained through profiling had a richer ion population and higher signal to noise ratio. Male and female antennae showed distinct protein profiles. MALDI imaging experiments were also performed and differences were observed in the localization of some proteins. Two proteins were identified through high resolution measurement and top-down MS/MS experiments. A 8 kDa protein only present in the male antennae matched with an unannotated sequence of the An. gambiae genome, while the presence of odorant binding protein 9 (OBP-9 was confirmed through experiments of 2-DE, followed by MS and MS/MS analysis of digested spots. This work shows that MALDI MS profiling is a technique suitable for the analysis of proteins of small and medium MW in insect appendices, and allows obtaining data for several specimens which can be investigated for differences between groups. Proteins of interest can be identified through other complementary MS approaches.

  12. Partial genomic organization of ribosomal protein S7 gene from malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJNIKANT DIXIT; SARITA DIXIT; UPAL ROY; YOGESH S.SHOUCHE; SURENDRA GAKHAR

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe the partial genomic organization of ribosomal protein S7 gene isolated from the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Initially a 558 bp partial cDNA sequence was amplified as precursor mRNA sequence containing 223 bp long intron. 5' and 3' end sequences were recovered using end specific rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) polymerase chain reaction. The full-length cDNA sequence was 914 nucleotide long with an open reading frame capable of encoding 192 amino acid long protein with calculated molecular mass of 22174 Da and a pI point of 9.94. Protein homology search revealed >75% identity to other insect's S7 ribosomal proteins. Analysis of sequence alignment revealed several highly conserved domains, one of which is related to nuclear localization signal (NLS) region of human rpS7. Interestingly, intron nucleotide sequence comparison with A. gambiae showed a lesser degree of conservation as compared to coding and untranslated regions. Like this, early studies on the genomic organization and cDNA/Expressed sequence tag analysis (EST) could help in genome annotation ofA. stephensi, and would be likely to be sequenced in the future.

  13. Larval density dependence in Anopheles gambiae s.s., the major African vector of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriu, Simon M.; Coulson, Tim; Mbogo, Charles M.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the most important vector of malaria in Africa although relatively little is known about the density-dependent processes determining its population size.Mosquito larval density was manipulated under semi-natural conditions using artificial larval breeding sites placed in the field in coastal Kenya; two experiments were conducted: one manipulating the density of a single cohort of larvae across a range of densities and the other employing fewer densities but with the treatments crossed with four treatments manipulating predator access.In the first experiment, larval survival, development rate and the size of the adult mosquito all decreased with larval density (controlling for block effects between 23% and 31% of the variance in the data could be explained by density).In the second experiment, the effects of predator manipulation were not significant, but again we observed strong density dependence in larval survival (explaining 30% of the variance).The results are compared with laboratory studies of A. gambiae larval competition and the few other studies conducted in the field, and the consequences for malaria control are discussed PMID:23163565

  14. The role of proboscis of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi in host-seeking behavior

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    Yoshimura Aya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proboscis is an essential head appendage in insects that processes gustatory code during food intake, particularly useful considering that blood-sucking arthropods routinely reach vessels under the host skin using this proboscis as a probe. Results Here, using an automated device able to quantify CO2-activated thermo (35°C-sensing behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, we uncovered that the protruding proboscis of mosquitoes contributes unexpectedly to host identification from a distance. Ablation experiments indicated that not only antennae and maxillary palps, but also proboscis were required for the identification of pseudo-thermo targets. Furthermore, the function of the proboscis during this behavior can be segregated from CO2 detection required to evoke mosquito activation, suggesting that the proboscis of mosquitoes divide the proboscis into a "thermo-antenna" in addition to a "thermo-probe". Conclusions Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs.

  15. Multiple origins of knockdown resistance mutations in the Afrotropical mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    João Pinto

    Full Text Available How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and L1014S in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, that confer knockdown resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides, have been described. In order to determine whether resistance alleles result from single or multiple mutation events, genotyping of the kdr locus and partial sequencing of the upstream intron-1 was performed on a total of 288 A. gambiae S-form collected from 28 localities in 15 countries. Knockdown resistance alleles were found to be widespread in West Africa with co-occurrence of both 1014S and 1014F in West-Central localities. Differences in intron-1 haplotype composition suggest that kdr alleles may have arisen from at least four independent mutation events. Neutrality tests provided evidence for a selective sweep acting on this genomic region, particularly in West Africa. The frequency and distribution of these kdr haplotypes varied geographically, being influenced by an interplay between different mutational occurrences, gene flow and local selection. This has important practical implications for the management and sustainability of malaria vector control programs.

  16. Anopheles culicifacies: siblings species composition and its relationship to malaria incidence.

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    Subbarao, S K; Vasantha, K; Raghavendra, K; Sharma, V P; Sharma, G K

    1988-03-01

    Entomological and epidemiological surveys in May, August and November 1985 and March 1986 were conducted in villages in Bulandshahr, a western district in Uttar Pradesh and in three eastern districts, Jaunpur, Ballia and Saran. In Bulandshahr, Anopheles culicifacies sibling species A and B were found, with a predominance of species A. Both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum were present and the malaria incidence remained high (SPR, 6-50%) indicating an active transmission. In contrast, in three eastern districts predominance of species B with an occasional occurrence of species A was observed. Malaria cases were almost absent in Ballia and Saran and in Jaunpur 10.3% slide positivity rate was observed in May but in later surveys cases were considerably lower (SPR, 0.5-2.9%) indicating the absence of indigenous transmission. In the eastern districts, malaria parasites are regularly brought in from endemic areas by the migrant labor population. Although An. culicifacies s.l. occurs in both the areas, the difference in malaria incidence appears to be due to the difference in the composition of the sibling species which is, the predominant presence of species A in the western district and its absence in eastern districts. This indicates that species A is responsible for active malaria transmission while species B is not.

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

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    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  18. GNBP domain of Anopheles darlingi: are polymorphic inversions and gene variation related to adaptive evolution?

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    Bridi, L C; Rafael, M S

    2016-02-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in humans in South America. In the Amazon basin, it lives along the banks of rivers and lakes, which responds to the annual hydrological cycle (dry season and rainy season). In these breeding sites, the larvae of this mosquito feed on decomposing organic and microorganisms, which can be pathogenic and trigger the activation of innate immune system pathways, such as proteins Gram-negative binding protein (GNBP). Such environmental changes affect the occurrence of polymorphic inversions especially at the heterozygote frequency, which confer adaptative advantage compared to homozygous inversions. We mapped the GNBP probe to the An. darlingi 2Rd inversion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which was a good indicator of the GNBP immune response related to the chromosomal polymorphic inversions and adaptative evolution. To better understand the evolutionary relations and time of divergence of the GNBP of An. darlingi, we compared it with nine other mosquito GNBPs. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of the GNBP sequence between the species of mosquitoes demonstrated three clades. Clade I and II included the GNBPB5 sequence, and clade III the sequence of GNBPB1. Most of these sequences of GNBP analyzed were homologous with that of subfamily B, including that of An. gambiae (87 %), therefore suggesting that GNBP of An. darling belongs to subfamily B. This work helps us understand the role of inversion polymorphism in evolution of An. darlingi.

  19. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  20. The transmembrane isoform of Plasmodium falciparum MAEBL is essential for the invasion of Anopheles salivary glands.

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    Fabian E Saenz

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission depends on infective stages in the mosquito salivary glands. Plasmodium sporozoites that mature in midgut oocysts must traverse the hemocoel and invade the mosquito salivary glands in a process thought to be mediated by parasite ligands. MAEBL, a homologue of the transmembrane EBP ligands essential in merozoite invasion, is expressed abundantly in midgut sporozoites. Alternative splicing generates different MAEBL isoforms and so it is unclear what form is functionally essential. To identify the MAEBL isoform required for P. falciparum (NF54 sporozoite invasion of salivary glands, we created knockout and allelic replacements each carrying CDS of a single MAEBL isoform. Only the transmembrane form of MAEBL is essential and is the first P. falciparum ligand validated as essential for invasion of Anopheles salivary glands. MAEBL is the first P. falciparum ligand experimentally determined to be essential for this important step in the life cycle where the vector becomes infectious for transmitting sporozoites to people. With an increasing emphasis on advancing vector-based transgenic methods for suppression of malaria, it is important that this type of study, using modern molecular genetic tools, is done with the agent of the human disease. Understanding what P. falciparum sporozoite ligands are critical for mosquito transmission will help validate targets for vector-based transmission-blocking strategies.

  1. Analysis of apyrase 5' upstream region validates improved Anopheles gambiae transformation technique

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    Lanfrancotti Alessandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic transformation of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been successfully achieved in recent years, and represents a potentially powerful tool for researchers. Tissue-, stage- and sex-specific promoters are essential requirements to support the development of new applications for the transformation technique and potential malaria control strategies. During the Plasmodium lifecycle in the invertebrate host, four major mosquito cell types are involved in interactions with the parasite: hemocytes and fat body cells, which provide humoral and cellular components of the innate immune response, midgut and salivary glands representing the epithelial barriers traversed by the parasite during its lifecycle in the mosquito. Findings We have analyzed the upstream regulatory sequence of the An. gambiae salivary gland-specific apyrase (AgApy gene in transgenic An. gambiae using a piggyBac transposable element vector marked by a 3xP3 promoter:DsRed gene fusion. Efficient germ-line transformation in An. gambiae mosquitoes was obtained and several integration events in at least three different G0 families were detected. LacZ reporter gene expression was analyzed in three transgenic lines/groups, and in only one group was tissue-specific expression restricted to salivary glands. Conclusion Our data describe an efficient genetic transformation of An. gambiae embryos. However, expression from the selected region of the AgApy promoter is weak and position effects may mask tissue- and stage- specific activity in transgenic mosquitoes.

  2. Transgenic Anopheles stephensi coexpressing single-chain antibodies resist Plasmodium falciparum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alison T; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Tretiakov, Mikhail; Thiery, Isabelle; Zettor, Agnès; Bourgouin, Catherine; James, Anthony A

    2012-07-10

    Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing m1C3, m4B7, or m2A10 single-chain antibodies (scFvs) have significantly lower levels of infection compared to controls when challenged with Plasmodium falciparum, a human malaria pathogen. These scFvs are derived from antibodies specific to a parasite chitinase, the 25 kDa protein and the circumsporozoite protein, respectively. Transgenes comprising m2A10 in combination with either m1C3 or m4B7 were inserted into previously-characterized mosquito chromosomal "docking" sites using site-specific recombination. Transgene expression was evaluated at four different genomic locations and a docking site that permitted tissue- and sex-specific expression was researched further. Fitness studies of docking site and dual scFv transgene strains detected only one significant fitness cost: adult docking-site males displayed a late-onset reduction in survival. The m4B7/m2A10 mosquitoes challenged with P. falciparum had few or no sporozoites, the parasite stage infective to humans, in three of four experiments. No sporozoites were detected in m1C3/m2A10 mosquitoes in challenge experiments when both genes were induced at developmentally relevant times. These studies support the conclusion that expression of a single copy of a dual scFv transgene can completely inhibit parasite development without imposing a fitness cost on the mosquito.

  3. A user-friendly software to easily count Anopheles egg batches

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    Mollahosseini Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on malaria vector ecology and development/evaluation of vector control strategies often require measures of mosquito life history traits. Assessing the fecundity of malaria vectors can be carried out by counting eggs laid by Anopheles females. However, manually counting the eggs is time consuming, tedious, and error prone. Methods In this paper we present a newly developed software for high precision automatic egg counting. The software written in the Java programming language proposes a user-friendly interface and a complete online manual. It allows the inspection of results by the operator and includes proper tools for manual corrections. The user can in fact correct any details on the acquired results by a mouse click. Time saving is significant and errors due to loss of concentration are avoided. Results The software was tested over 16 randomly chosen images from 2 different experiments. The results show that the proposed automatic method produces results that are close to the ground truth. Conclusions The proposed approaches demonstrated a very high level of robustness. The adoption of the proposed software package will save many hours of labor to the bench scientist. The software needs no particular configuration and is freely available for download on: http://w3.ualg.pt/∼hshah/eggcounter/.

  4. Dynamic gut microbiome across life history of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Kenya.

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    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The mosquito gut represents an ecosystem that accommodates a complex, intimately associated microbiome. It is increasingly clear that the gut microbiome influences a wide variety of host traits, such as fitness and immunity. Understanding the microbial community structure and its dynamics across mosquito life is a prerequisite for comprehending the symbiotic relationship between the mosquito and its gut microbial residents. Here we characterized gut bacterial communities across larvae, pupae and adults of Anopheles gambiae reared in semi-natural habitats in Kenya by pyrosequencing bacterial 16S rRNA fragments. Immatures and adults showed distinctive gut community structures. Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria were predominant in the larval and pupal guts while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the adult guts, with core taxa of Enterobacteriaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. At the adult stage, diet regime (sugar meal and blood meal significantly affects the microbial structure. Intriguingly, blood meals drastically reduced the community diversity and favored enteric bacteria. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the enriched enteric bacteria possess large genetic redox capacity of coping with oxidative and nitrosative stresses that are associated with the catabolism of blood meal, suggesting a beneficial role in maintaining gut redox homeostasis. Interestingly, gut community structure was similar in the adult stage between the field and laboratory mosquitoes, indicating that mosquito gut is a selective eco-environment for its microbiome. This comprehensive gut metatgenomic profile suggests a concerted symbiotic genetic association between gut inhabitants and host.

  5. Carbamate and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Akron Strain of Anopheles gambiae

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    Mutunga, James M.; Anderson, Troy D.; Craft, Derek T.; Gross, Aaron D.; Swale, Daniel R.; Tong, Fan; Wong, Dawn M.; Carlier, Paul R.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae is a serious problem, epitomized by the multi-resistant Akron strain, originally isolated in the country of Benin. Here we report resistance in this strain to pyrethroids and DDT (13-fold to 35-fold compared to the susceptible G3 strain), but surprisingly little resistance to etofenprox, a compound sometimes described as a “pseudo-pyrethroid.” There was also strong resistance to topically-applied commercial carbamates (45-fold to 81-fold), except for the oximes aldicarb and methomyl. Biochemical assays showed enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activity, but not that of glutathione-S-transferase. A series of substituted α,α,α,-trifluoroacetophenone oxime methylcarbamates were evaluated for enzyme inhibition potency and toxicity against G3 and Akron mosquitoes. The compound bearing an unsubstituted phenyl ring showed the greatest toxicity to mosquitoes of both strains. Low cross resistance in Akron was retained by all analogs in the series. Kinetic analysis of acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition by insecticides in the G3 strain showed inactivation rate constants greater than that of propoxur, and against Akron enzyme inactivation rate constants similar to that of aldicarb. However, inactivation rate constants against recombinant human AChE were essentially identical to that of the G3 strain. Thus, the acetophenone oxime carbamates described here, though potent insecticides that control resistant Akron mosquitoes, require further structural modification to attain acceptable selectivity and human safety. PMID:26047119

  6. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  7. Site-specific genetic engineering of the Anopheles gambiae Y chromosome.

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    Bernardini, Federica; Galizi, Roberto; Menichelli, Miriam; Papathanos, Philippos-Aris; Dritsou, Vicky; Marois, Eric; Crisanti, Andrea; Windbichler, Nikolai

    2014-05-27

    Despite its function in sex determination and its role in driving genome evolution, the Y chromosome remains poorly understood in most species. Y chromosomes are gene-poor, repeat-rich and largely heterochromatic and therefore represent a difficult target for genetic engineering. The Y chromosome of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae appears to be involved in sex determination although very little is known about both its structure and function. Here, we characterize a transgenic strain of this mosquito species, obtained by transposon-mediated integration of a transgene construct onto the Y chromosome. Using meganuclease-induced homologous repair we introduce a site-specific recombination signal onto the Y chromosome and show that the resulting docking line can be used for secondary integration. To demonstrate its utility, we study the activity of a germ-line-specific promoter when located on the Y chromosome. We also show that Y-linked fluorescent transgenes allow automated sex separation of this important vector species, providing the means to generate large single-sex populations. Our findings will aid studies of sex chromosome function and enable the development of male-exclusive genetic traits for vector control.

  8. High genetic differentiation between the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae in Africa.

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    Caroline Esnault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of malaria, is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to eliminate infective mosquitoes, researchers are trying to develop transgenic strains that are refractory to the Plasmodium parasite. Before any release of transgenic mosquitoes can be envisaged, we need an accurate picture of the differentiation between the two molecular forms of An. gambiae, termed M and S, which are of uncertain taxonomic status. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insertion patterns of three transposable elements (TEs were determined in populations from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, and Tanzania, using Transposon Display, a TE-anchored strategy based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. The results reveal a clear differentiation between the M and S forms, whatever their geographical origin, suggesting an incipient speciation process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any attempt to control the transmission of malaria by An. gambiae using either conventional or novel technologies must take the M/S genetic differentiation into account. In addition, we localized three TE insertion sites that were present either in every individual or at a high frequency in the M molecular form. These sites were found to be located outside the chromosomal regions that are suspected of involvement in the speciation event between the two forms. This suggests that these chromosomal regions are either larger than previously thought, or there are additional differentiated genomic regions interspersed with undifferentiated regions.

  9. High Genetic Differentiation between the M and S Molecular Forms of Anopheles gambiae in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Caroline; Boulesteix, Matthieu; Duchemin, Jean Bernard; Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabiré, Roch; Robert, Vincent; Simard, Frédéric; Tripet, Frédéric; Donnelly, Martin J.; Fontenille, Didier; Biémont, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of malaria, is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to eliminate infective mosquitoes, researchers are trying to develop transgenic strains that are refractory to the Plasmodium parasite. Before any release of transgenic mosquitoes can be envisaged, we need an accurate picture of the differentiation between the two molecular forms of An. gambiae, termed M and S, which are of uncertain taxonomic status. Methodology/Principal Findings Insertion patterns of three transposable elements (TEs) were determined in populations from Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, and Tanzania, using Transposon Display, a TE-anchored strategy based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. The results reveal a clear differentiation between the M and S forms, whatever their geographical origin, suggesting an incipient speciation process. Conclusions/Significance Any attempt to control the transmission of malaria by An. gambiae using either conventional or novel technologies must take the M/S genetic differentiation into account. In addition, we localized three TE insertion sites that were present either in every individual or at a high frequency in the M molecular form. These sites were found to be located outside the chromosomal regions that are suspected of involvement in the speciation event between the two forms. This suggests that these chromosomal regions are either larger than previously thought, or there are additional differentiated genomic regions interspersed with undifferentiated regions. PMID:18414665

  10. Molecular characterization, biological forms and sporozoite rate of Anopheles stephensi in southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Chavshin; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Hasan Vatandoost; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Ahmad Raeisi; Fatemeh Nikpoor

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the biological forms, sporozoite rate and molecular characterization of the Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) in Hormozgan and Sistan-Baluchistan provinces, the most important malarious areas in Iran. Methods: Wild live An. stephensi samples were collected from different malarious areas in southern Iran. The biological forms were identified based on number of egg-ridges. Molecular characterization of biological forms was verified by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II (mtDNA-COI/COII). The Plasmodium infection was examined in the wild female specimens by species-specific nested–PCR method. Results: Results showed that all three biological forms including mysorensis, intermediate and type are present in the study areas. Molecular investigations revealed no genetic variation between mtDNA COI/COII sequences of the biological forms and no Plasmodium parasites was detected in the collected mosquito samples. Conclusions:Presence of three biological forms with identical sequences showed that the known biological forms belong to a single taxon and the various vectorial capacities reported for these forms are more likely corresponded to other epidemiological factors than to the morphotype of the populations. Lack of malaria parasite infection in An. stephensi, the most important vector of malaria, may be partly due to the success and achievement of ongoing active malaria control program in the region.

  11. Indication of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vectorAnopheles stephensi from Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Vatandoost; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investiagte insecticide resistance in target species for better insecticide resistance managemnet in malaria control programs.Methods:The status of insecticide resistance to different imagicides inAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi) includingDDT4%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.50%, deltamethrin0.05%, permethrin0.75%, cyfluthrin0.15% and etofenprox0.50% was performed according toWHO standard method.Results:The mortality rate to lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox andDDT was(88.0±3.2),(92.0±2.7),(52.0±5.0),(96.0±2.2),(90.0±3.0) and(41.0±5.7) percent, respectively at diagnostic dose for one hour exposure time followed by24 h recovery period.Conclusions:These results showed first indication of pyrethroid resistance inAn. stephensiin a malarious area, from southernIran.There is widespread, multiple resistances in the country inAn. stephensi to organochlorine and some report of tolerance to organophosphate insecticides and recently to pyrethroids.However, results of this paper will provide a clue for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance in the main malaria vector for implementation of any vector control.

  12. Some ecological attributes of malarial vector Anopheles superpictus Grassi in endemic foci in southeastern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalil Nejati; Hasan Vatandoost; Mohammad Ali Oshghi; Masud Salehi; Ehssan Mozafari; Seyed Hasan Moosa-Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector Anopheles superpictus (An. superpictus) to different insecticides in the Sistan-Baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in Iran. Methods:Different sampling methods, in addition to scoring abdominal conditions, were used to define the seasonal activity and endo/exophilic behavior of this species. In addition, the standard WHO susceptibility tests were applied on adult field strains. Results: Most adult mosquitoes were collected from outdoor shelters. The peak of seasonal activity of An. superpictus occurred at the end of autumn. Most larvae were collected from natural and permanent breeding places with full sunlight and no vegetation. Blood feeding activities occurred around midnight. Compared with the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected indoors, the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected outdoors were gravid and semigravid. This species was suspected to be resistant to DDT, but was susceptible to other insecticides. Conclusions:An. superpictus was present in almost all outdoor shelters, and the ratios of gravid, semigravid/unfed, and freshly fed confirmed that this species had a higher tendency to rest outdoors than indoors. This behavior can protect An. superpictus from indoor residual spraying in this malarious area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the susceptibility status of An. superpictus in Southeastern Iran. We do not suggest the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying in southeast Iran.

  13. Laser dosimetry for disabling anopheles stephensi mosquitoes in-flight (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Norton, Bryan J.; Rutschman, Phil; Farrar, David J.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Artyom

    2016-03-01

    The Photonic Fence is a system designed to detect mosquitoes and other pestilent flying insects in an active region and to apply lethal doses of laser light to them. Previously, we determined lethal fluence levels for a variety of lasers and pulse conditions on anesthetized Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. In this work, similar studies were performed while the bugs were freely flying within transparent cages. Dose-response curves were created for various beam diameter, pulse width, and power conditions at 455 nm, 532 nm, 1064nm, and 1540 nm wavelengths. Besides mortality outcomes, the flight behavior of the bugs and the performance of the tracking system were monitored for consistency and to ensure that they had no impact on the mortality outcomes. As in anesthetized experiments, the visible wavelengths required significantly less fluence than near infrared wavelengths to reliably disable bugs. For the visible wavelengths, lethal fluence values were generally equivalent to those found in anesthetized dosing, while near infrared wavelengths required approximately twice the fluence compared with anesthetized experiments. The performance of the optical tracking system remained highly stable throughout the experiments, and it was found not to influence mortality results for pulse widths up to 25 ms. In general, keeping energy constant while decreasing power and increasing pulse width reduced mortality levels. The results of this study further affirm the practicality of using optical approaches to protect people and crops from flying insects.

  14. A splice variant of PGRP-LC required for expression of antimicrobial peptides in Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LIN; LINGMIN ZHANG; CORALIA LUNA; NGO T.HOA; LIANGBIAO ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Members of the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) family play essential roles in different manifestations of immune responses in insects. PGRP-LC, one of seven members of this family in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae produced several spliced variants. Here we show that PGRP-LC, and not other members of the PGRP family nor the six members of the Gram-negative binding protein families, is required for the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes (such as CEC1 and GAM1) under the control of the Imd-Rel2 pathway in an A. gambiae cell line, 4a3A. PGRP-LC produces many splice variants that can be classified into three sub-groups (LC1, LC2 and LC3), based on the carboxyl terminal sequences. RNA interference against one LC1 sub-group resulted in dramatic reduction of CEC1 and GAM1. Over-expression of LC1 a and to a lesser extent LC3a (a member of the LC1 and LC3 sub-group, respectively) in the 4a3A cell line enhances the expression of CEC1 and GAM1. These results demonstrate that the LC1-subgroup splice variants are essential for the expression of CEC1 and GAM1 in A. gambiae cell line.

  15. The evolution of TEP1, an exceptionally polymorphic immunity gene in Anopheles gambiae

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    Yan Guiyun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite coevolution can result in balancing selection, which maintains genetic variation in the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. It has been suggested that variation in a thioester-containing protein called TEP1 (AGAP010815 may alter the ability of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium parasites, and high divergence between alleles of this gene suggests the possible action of long-term balancing selection. We studied whether TEP1 is a case of an ancient balanced polymorphism in an animal immune system. Results We found evidence that the high divergence between TEP1 alleles is the product of genetic exchange between TEP1 and other TEP loci, i.e. gene conversion. Additionally, some TEP1 alleles showed unexpectedly low variability. Conclusion The TEP1 gene appears to be a chimera produced from at least two other TEP loci, and the divergence between TEP1 alleles is probably not caused by long-term balancing selection, but is instead due to two independent gene conversion events from one of these other genes. Nevertheless, TEP1 still shows evidence of natural selection, in particular there appears to have been recent changes in the frequency of alleles that has diminished polymorphism within each allelic class. Although the selective force driving this dynamic was not identified, given that susceptibility to Plasmodium parasites is known to be associated with allelic variation in TEP1, these changes in allele frequencies could alter the vectoring capacity of populations.

  16. Low linkage disequilibrium in wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations

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    Harris Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, understanding diversity in natural populations and genetic components of important phenotypes such as resistance to malaria infection is crucial for developing new malaria transmission blocking strategies. The design and interpretation of many studies here depends critically on Linkage disequilibrium (LD. For example in association studies, LD determines the density of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs to be genotyped to represent the majority of the genomic information. Here, we aim to determine LD in wild An. gambiae s.l. populations in 4 genes potentially involved in mosquito immune responses against pathogens (Gambicin, NOS, REL2 and FBN9 using previously published and newly generated sequences. Results The level of LD between SNP pairs in cloned sequences of each gene was determined for 7 species (or incipient species of the An. gambiae complex. In all tested genes and species, LD between SNPs was low: even at short distances (2 2 ranged from 0.073 to 0.766. In most genes and species LD decayed very rapidly with increasing inter-marker distance. Conclusions These results are of great interest for the development of large scale polymorphism studies, as LD generally falls below any useful limit. It indicates that very fine scale SNP detection will be required to give an overall view of genome-wide polymorphism. Perhaps a more feasible approach to genome wide association studies is to use targeted approaches using candidate gene selection to detect association to phenotypes of interest.

  17. Curry County Blocks, Housing Occupancy Status (2010)

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Curry County 2000 Census Block Groups

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. Curry County Blocks, Total Population (2010)

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  20. Curry County Blocks, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  1. Curry County Block Groups, Housing Tenure (2010)

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. Curry County Blocks, Households by Type (2010)

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  3. Curry County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. Curry County 2010 Census Block Groups

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  5. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. Curry County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. 2010, Curry County, NM, Current Area Hydrography

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  8. 2010, Curry County, NM, Linear Hydrography

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  9. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

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    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  10. Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus Anopheles do subgênero Nyssorhynchus, vetores da malária na Amazônia brasileira

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    Wanderli Pedro TADEI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Various species of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus were studied in the Amazon with the objective of determining their importance as malaria vectors. Of the 33 known Anopheles species occurring in the Amazon, only 9 were found to be infected with Plasmodium. The different species of this subgenus varied both in diversity and density in the collection areas. The populations showed a tendency towards lower density and diversity in virgin forest than in areas modified by human intervention. The principal vector, An. darlingi, is anthropophilic with a continuous activity cycle lasting the entire night but peaking at sunset and sunrise. These species (Nyssorhynchus are peridomiciliary, entering houses to feed on blood and immediately leaving to settle on nearby vegetation. Anopheles nuneztovari proved to be zoophilic, crepuscular and peridomiciliary. These habits may change depending on a series of external factors, especially those related to human activity. There is a possibility that sibling species exist in the study area and they are being studied with reference to An. darlingi, An. albitarsis and An. nuneztovari. The present results do not suggest the existence of subpopulations of An. darlingi in the Brazilian Amazon.Várias espécies de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus foram estudadas na Amazônia a fim de se determinar sua importância na transmissão da malária. Das 33 espécies de Anopheles de ocorrência conhecida na Amazônia, apenas 8 foram encontradas infectadas por Plasmodium. O principal vetor, An. darlingi, é antropofílico com um ciclo contínuo de atividade que dura a noite inteira mas que tem picos ao anoitecer e ao amanhecer. As diferentes espécies desse subgênero variaram tanto em diversidade como em densidade nas áreas de coleta. A população de anofelinos apresentou tendências de menor densidade e diversidade em florestas virgens do que em áreas que sofreram intervenção humana. Essas espécies (Nyssorhynchus são peridomiciliares

  11. Distribuição vertical e sazonal de Anopheles (Kerteszia em Ilha Comprida, SP Vertical and seasonal distribution of Anopheles (Kerteszia in Ilha Comprida, Southeastern Brazil

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    Helene Mariko Ueno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii são vetores da malária-bromélia, característicos de áreas preservadas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a distribuição sazonal e vertical desses anofelinos, visando contribuir para a avaliação do risco de transmissão desse agravo. MÉTODOS: No município de Ilha Comprida, SP, foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC iscadas com gelo seco, das 17 às 20h, a um, seis e 12m do solo, quinzenalmente, de setembro de 2001 a setembro de 2002. A relação da densidade desses anofelinos com o clima foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de Spearman e suas densidades entre os estratos foram comparadas pelo teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Do total de 55.226 mosquitos, 1.341 eram An. bellator (2,4% do total de Culicidae, sendo capturados 278 indivíduos próximo ao solo, 261 a seis metros e 802 na copa (12 m. Na mesma ordem, foram capturados 452, 1.032 e 4.420 adultos de An. cruzii, totalizando 5.904 mosquitos desta espécie (10,7%. Houve correlação positiva entre a densidade das duas espécies com a temperatura máxima, e entre An. bellator e amplitude térmica diária. As densidades das duas espécies foram maiores na copa. Nos três estratos, An. cruzii predominou sobre An. bellator. CONCLUSÕES: Confirmou-se o comportamento acrodendrófilo dessas espécies, principalmente An. cruzii. Após medidas drásticas de controle, esses anofelinos permaneceram na região mas, atualmente, não são alvo de vigilância entomológica. A persistência da transmissão de malária autóctone e o incremento de atividades de ecoturismo na região apontam a necessidade de monitoramento dessas espécies.OBJECTIVE: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii are vectors of the so-called bromeliad-malaria, typical of conserved areas. The objective was to evaluate the seasonal and vertical distribution of these anophelines, aiming at assessing the risk of malaria transmission. METHODS: In the municipality of Ilha

  12. Comportamiento estacional del Anopheles (nyssorhynchus) darlingi root 1926 en localidades de Loreto y Madre de Dios, Perú 1999- 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Walter León C; Jorge Valle T; Rubén Naupay O; Edwin Tineo V; Angel Rosas A; Mirían Palomino S

    2003-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar el comportamiento estacional del Anopheles darlingi en las localidades de Santa Clara (Loreto) y Villa Luz (Madre de Dios). Materiales y métodos: En las localidades de Santa Clara y Villa Luz, entre agosto de 1999 y junio de 2000 se realizó mensualmente la inspección de criaderos, colecta de larvas de Anopheles darlingi por el método del cucharón y colecta de mosquitos adultos por el método cebo humano (intradomicilio y peri domicilió), trampa Shannon y refugio animal (e...

  13. Efetividade de formulações nanoestruturadas com dilapiol (Piper aduncum Linnaeus, 1753) e piretróides no controle de Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES,Erika de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    A malária é uma doença infecciosa, causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium, transmitidos ao homem pela picada de mosquitos do gênero Anopheles. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o dilapiol isolado de Piper aduncum e em formulações nanoestruturadas utilizado contra adultos de Anopheles darlingi, identificando-se o potencial de repelência, o efeito sinergístico quando associado aos inseticidas químicos Deltametrina, Cipermetrina e Alfacipermetrina, e o efeito do contato tópico destes...

  14. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

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    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  15. Biology, distribution and control of Anopheles (Cellia) minimus in the context of malaria transmission in northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Vas; Manguin, Sylvie

    2016-11-15

    Among six dominant mosquito vector species involved in malaria transmission in India, Anopheles minimus is a major species in northeast India and held responsible for focal disease outbreaks characterized by high-rise of Plasmodium falciparum infections and attributable death cases. It has been now genetically characterized that among the three-member species of the Minimus Complex spread in Asia, An. minimus (former species A) is prevalent in India including northeastern states and east-central state of Odisha. It is recorded in all seasons and accounts for perennial transmission evidenced by records of sporozoite infections. This species is highly anthropophilic, and largely endophilic and endophagic, recorded breeding throughout the year in slow flowing seepage water streams. The populations of An. minimus in India are reported to be highly diverse indicating population expansion with obvious implications for judicious application of vector control interventions. Given the rapid ecological changes due to deforestation, population migration and expansion and developmental activities, there is scope for further research on the existence of potential additional sibling species within the An. minimus complex and bionomics studies on a large geographical scale for species sanitation. For control of vector populations, DDT continues to be applied on account of retaining susceptibility status even after decades of residual spraying. Anopheles minimus is a highly adaptive species and requires continuous and sustained efforts for its effective control to check transmission and spread of drug-resistant malaria. Anopheles minimus populations are reportedly diminishing in northeastern India whereas it has staged comeback in east-central State of Odisha after decades of disappearance with its eco-biological characteristics intact. It is the high time to siege the opportunity for strengthening interventions against this species for its population diminution to sub

  16. The polymorphism and the geographical distribution of the knockdown resistance (kdr of Anopheles sinensis in the Republic of Korea

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    Kang Seunghyun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Republic of Korea (ROK, six sibling species of the Anopheles sinensis complex are considered the vector species of malaria, but data on their susceptibilities to malaria and vector capacities have been controversial. The intensive use of insecticides has contributed to the rapid development and spread of insecticide resistance in the An. sinensis complex. Knockdown resistance (kdr to pyrethroids and DDT in the An. sinensis complex is associated with a mutation in codon 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene. Because the degree of insecticide resistance varies among mosquito species and populations, the detection of kdr mutations among the six sibling species of the An. sinensis complex is a prerequisite for establishing effective long-term vector control strategies in the ROK Methods In order to investigate species-specific kdr mutations, An. sinensis complex specimens have been collected from 22 sites in the ROK. Because of the difficulties with species identifications that are based only on morphological characteristics, molecular identification methods have been conducted on every specimen. Part of the IIS6 domain of the VGSC was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and directly sequenced. Results The molecular analyses revealed that mutations existed at codon 1014 only in An. sinensis sensu stricto and no mutations were found in the other five Anopheles species. In An. sinensis s.s., one wild type (TTG L1014 and three mutant types (TTT L1014F, TTC L1014F, and TGT L1014C of kdr alleles were detected. The TTC L1014F mutation was observed for the first time in this species. Conclusions The fact that the highly polymorphic kdr gene is only observed in An. sinensis s.s., out of the six Anopheles species and their geographical distribution suggest the need for future studies of insecticide resistance monitoring and investigations of species-specific resistance mechanisms in order to build successful malaria

  17. Spatial distribution, blood feeding pattern, and role of Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kamau, Luna; Jacob, Benjamin G; Muriu, Simon; Mbogo, Charles M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of sibling species of Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in three agro-ecosystems in central Kenya. Mosquitoes were sampled indoors and outdoors, and rDNA PCR was successfully used to identify 340 specimens. Anopheles parensis (91.8%), A. funestus (6.8%), and Anopheles leesoni (1.5%) were the three sibling species identified. A. parensis was the dominant species at all study sites, while 22 of 23 A. funestus were collected in the non-irrigated study site. None of the 362 specimens tested was positive for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The most common blood-meal sources (mixed blood meals included) for A. parensis were goat (54.0%), human (47.6%), and bovine (39.7%), while the few A. funestus s.s. samples had fed mostly on humans. The human blood index (HBI) for A. parensis (mixed blood meals included) in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem was 0.93 and significantly higher than 0.33 in planned rice agro-ecosystem. The few samples of A. funestus s.s. and A. funestus s.l. also showed a trend of higher HBI in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem. We conclude that agricultural practices have significant influence on distribution and blood feeding behavior of A. funestus complex. Although none of the species was implicated with malaria transmission, these results may partly explain why non-irrigated agro-ecosystems are associated with higher risk of malaria transmission by this species compared to irrigated agro-ecosystems.

  18. Mitochondrial NAD+-dependent malic enzyme from Anopheles stephensi: a possible novel target for malaria mosquito control

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    Pon Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles stephensi mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME emerged as having a relevant role in the provision of pyruvate for the Krebs' cycle because inhibition of this enzyme results in the complete abrogation of oxygen uptake by mitochondria. Therefore, the identification of ME in mitochondria from immortalized A. stephensi (ASE cells and the investigation of the stereoselectivity of malate analogues are relevant in understanding the physiological role of ME in cells of this important malaria parasite vector and its potential as a possible novel target for insecticide development. Methods To characterize the mitochondrial ME from immortalized ASE cells (Mos. 43; ASE, mass spectrometry analyses of trypsin fragments of ME, genomic sequence analysis and biochemical assays were performed to identify the enzyme and evaluate its activity in terms of cofactor dependency and inhibitor preference. Results The encoding gene sequence and primary sequences of several peptides from mitochondrial ME were found to be highly homologous to the mitochondrial ME from Anopheles gambiae (98% and 59% homologous to the mitochondrial NADP+-dependent ME isoform from Homo sapiens. Measurements of ME activity in mosquito mitochondria isolated from ASE cells showed that (i Vmax with NAD+ was 3-fold higher than that with NADP+, (ii addition of Mg2+ or Mn2+ increased the Vmax by 9- to 21-fold, with Mn2+ 2.3-fold more effective than Mg2+, (iii succinate and fumarate increased the activity by 2- and 5-fold, respectively, at sub-saturating concentrations of malate, (iv among the analogs of L-malate tested as inhibitors of the NAD+-dependent ME catalyzed reaction, small (2- to 3-carbons organic diacids carrying a 2-hydroxyl/keto group behaved as the most potent inhibitors of ME activity (e.g., oxaloacetate, tartronic acid and oxalate. Conclusions The biochemical characterization of Anopheles stephensi ME is of critical relevance given its important role in

  19. BIONOMIK NYAMUK Anopheles DAN KEBIASAAN PENDUDUK YANG MENUNJANG KEJADIAN MALARIA DI KECAMATAN PAGEDONGAN KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA TAHUN 2005

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    Jarohman Raharjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan global termasuk di Indonesia. Kabupaten Banjarnegara merupakan salah satu kabupaten di Jawa Tengah yang mempunyai masalah malaria cukup serius. Sampai dengan tahun 2002 telah tercatat 86 desa endemis dari 276 desa yang ada, sedangkan 175 desa terancam menjadi daerah HCI (High Case lncidens, jumlah penderita malaria pada tahun 2001 sebanyak 6.793 orang (API: 7,47%o meningkat menjadi 13.401 orang (API: 15,33%o pada tahun 2002 dan 90,2% dari kasus penderita indigenous.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui bionomik nyamuk anopheles dan kebiasaan penduduk yang menunjang kejadian malaria di lokasi penelitian.Penelitian ini termasuk dalam jenis penelitian deskriptif, karena menggambarkan bionomik nyamuk vektor dan kebiasaan penduduk. Penelitian ini bertempat di Kecamatan Pagedongan, KabupatenBanjarnegara, Provinsi Jawa Tengah dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari Nopember 2005.Tempat berkembangbiak Anopheles spp positif adalah kobakan air (belik dan bekas galian pasir disungai dan mata air. Kebiasaan nyamuk Anopheles spp menggigit orang di dalam dan di luar rumah hampir sama banyaknya. Terjadi peningkatan jumlah nyamuk yang tajam pada bulan September. Aktivitas menggigit di dalam rumah dimulai pada pukul 18.00-19.00. Sedangkan aktivitas menggigit di luar rumah meningkat pada pukul 21. 00-22.00 dan mencapai puncaknya pada pukul 22. 00-23.00 dan 03.00-04.00.Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah adanya nyamuk tersangka vektor, kondisi lingkungan dan pengetahuan masyarakat menjadi faktor yang menunjang kejadian malaria di desa wilayah Kecamatan Pagedongan. Saran yang diberikan adalah meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat tentang malaria dan mengurangi keberadaan tempat-tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk. Kata Kunci : Malaria, Biomonik

  20. Anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes Mwea irrigation scheme, central Kenya

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    Mwangangi Joseph M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity and abundance of Anopheles larvae has significant influence on the resulting adult mosquito population and hence the dynamics of malaria transmission. Studies were conducted to examine larval habitat dynamics and ecological factors affecting survivorship of aquatic stages of malaria vectors in three agro-ecological settings in Mwea, Kenya. Methods Three villages were selected based on rice husbandry and water management practices. Aquatic habitats in the 3 villages representing planned rice cultivation (Mbui Njeru, unplanned rice cultivation (Kiamachiri and non-irrigated (Murinduko agro-ecosystems were sampled every 2 weeks to generate stage-specific estimates of mosquito larval densities, relative abundance and diversity. Records of distance to the nearest homestead, vegetation coverage, surface debris, turbidity, habitat stability, habitat type, rice growth stage, number of rice tillers and percent Azolla cover were taken for each habitat. Results Captures of early, late instars and pupae accounted for 78.2%, 10.9% and 10.8% of the total Anopheles immatures sampled (n = 29,252, respectively. There were significant differences in larval abundance between 3 agro-ecosystems. The village with 'planned' rice cultivation had relatively lower Anopheles larval densities compared to the villages where 'unplanned' or non-irrigated. Similarly, species composition and richness was higher in the two villages with either 'unplanned' or limited rice cultivation, an indication of the importance of land use patterns on diversity of larval habitat types. Rice fields and associated canals were the most productive habitat types while water pools and puddles were important for short periods during the rainy season. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that presence of other invertebrates, percentage Azolla cover, distance to nearest homestead, depth and water turbidity were the best predictors for Anopheles mosquito larval

  1. Single concentration tests show synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins against the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, María Teresa; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Miranda-Ríos, Juan

    2010-07-01

    Bioassays of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus showed that the cytolytic protein Cyt1Aa was not toxic alone, but it increased the toxicity of the crystalline proteins Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa. Synergism also occurred between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. Whereas many previous analyses of synergism have been based on a series of toxin concentrations leading to comparisons between expected and observed values for the concentration killing 50% of insects tested (LC(50)), we describe and apply a method here that enables testing for synergism based on single concentrations of toxins.

  2. INKRIMINASI VEKTOR MALARIA DAN IDENTIFIKASI PAKAN DARAH PADA NYAMUK AnopHELEs SPP DI KECAMATAN BOROBUDUR, KABUPATEN MAGELANG

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    Umi Widyastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di Kabupaten Magelang, khususnya di Kecamatan Borobudur. Annual Parasite Incidence (API dua tahun terakhir sebesar 0,19 pada tahun 2004 dan meningkat 0,34 pada tahun 2005, menunjukkan status Low Case Incidence (LCI. Kasus malaria di daerah tersebut sehubungan dengan  adanya  beberapa  spesies  nyamuk  Anopheles  yang  potensial  sebagai  vektor  malaria.  Kompetensi vektorial  nyamuk  Anopheles  di  Kecamatan  Borobudur  belum  banyak  dilaporkan,  khususnya  halam  hal kerentanannya terhadap Plasmodium dan sifat antropofilik (kesukaan menghisap darah manusia. Berbagai spesies seperti Anopheles aconitus, An maculatus, dan An. balabacensis merupakan tersangka vektor malaria di daerah tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: a. mendeteksi antigen protein circum sporozoit P. falciparum atau P. vivax pada nyamuk Anopheles sp dengan teknik Enzyme Linked Immunosarbant Assay (Elisa dan b.  mengidentifikasi  pakan  darah  manusia  pada  nyamuk  Anopheles  spp  dengan  teknik  Elisa.  Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Mei 2006 di 2 desa HCI yaitu di Giripurno dan Giritengah, Kecamatan Borobudur. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menangkap nyamuk yang istirahat di dalam dan luar rumah pada malam hari (18.00-12.00 dan pagi hari (06.00-08.00 sesuai dengan metode WHO, 2003. Nyamuk Anopheles spp dipisahkan berdasarkan spesies untuk dihitung kepadatannya. Selanjutnya dilakukan pembedahan ovarium untuk  mengetahui  paritasnya  (parous  atau  nulliparous. Anopheles  spp  parous  (4  spesies  yaitu Anopheles aconitus, An maculatus, An. balabacensis dan An. barbirostris diperiksa kondisi abdomennya untuk kepentingan pengujian dengan ELISA. Keempat spesies nyamuk parous (semua kondisi abdomen yaitu unfed, blood fed, half gravid dan gravid diambil bagian dada-kepala untuk kepentingan Elisa sporozoit. Nyamuk parous dengan kondisi blood fed dan half gravid diambil bagian

  3. P elements and MITE relatives in the whole genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae

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    Nouaud Danielle

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miniature Inverted-repeat Terminal Elements (MITEs, which are particular class-II transposable elements (TEs, play an important role in genome evolution, because they have very high copy numbers and display recurrent bursts of transposition. The 5' and 3' subterminal regions of a given MITE family often show a high sequence similarity with the corresponding regions of an autonomous Class-II TE family. However, the sustained presence over a prolonged evolutionary time of MITEs and TE master copies able to promote their mobility has been rarely reported within the same genome, and this raises fascinating evolutionary questions. Results We report here the presence of P transposable elements with related MITE families in the Anopheles gambiae genome. Using a TE annotation pipeline we have identified and analyzed all the P sequences in the sequenced A. gambiae PEST strain genome. More than 0.49% of the genome consists of P elements and derivates. P elements can be divided into 9 different subfamilies, separated by more than 30% of nucleotide divergence. Seven of them present full length copies. Ten MITE families are associated with 6 out of the 9 Psubfamilies. Comparing their intra-element nucleotide diversities and their structures allows us to propose the putative dynamics of their emergence. In particular, one MITE family which has a hybrid structure, with ends each of which is related to a different P-subfamily, suggests a new mechanism for their emergence and their mobility. Conclusion This work contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between full-length class-II TEs and MITEs, in this case P elements and their derivatives in the genome of A. gambiae. Moreover, it provides the most comprehensive catalogue to date of P-like transposons in this genome and provides convincing yet indirect evidence that some of the subfamilies have been recently active.

  4. Natural plant sugar sources of Anopheles mosquitoes strongly impact malaria transmission potential.

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    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available An improved knowledge of mosquito life history could strengthen malaria vector control efforts that primarily focus on killing mosquitoes indoors using insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Natural sugar sources, usually floral nectars of plants, are a primary energy resource for adult mosquitoes but their role in regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations is unclear. To determine how the sugar availability impacts Anopheles sergentii populations, mark-release-recapture studies were conducted in two oases in Israel with either absence or presence of the local primary sugar source, flowering Acacia raddiana trees. Compared with population estimates from the sugar-rich oasis, An. sergentii in the sugar-poor oasis showed smaller population size (37,494 vs. 85,595, lower survival rates (0.72 vs. 0.93, and prolonged gonotrophic cycles (3.33 vs. 2.36 days. The estimated number of females older than the extrinsic incubation period of malaria (10 days in the sugar rich site was 4 times greater than in the sugar poor site. Sugar feeding detected in mosquito guts in the sugar-rich site was significantly higher (73% than in the sugar-poor site (48%. In contrast, plant tissue feeding (poor quality sugar source in the sugar-rich habitat was much less (0.3% than in the sugar-poor site (30%. More important, the estimated vectorial capacity, a standard measure of malaria transmission potential, was more than 250-fold higher in the sugar-rich oasis than that in the sugar-poor site. Our results convincingly show that the availability of sugar sources in the local environment is a major determinant regulating the dynamics of mosquito populations and their vector potential, suggesting that control interventions targeting sugar-feeding mosquitoes pose a promising tactic for combating transmission of malaria parasites and other pathogens.

  5. The Maternally Inheritable Wolbachia wAlbB Induces Refractoriness to Plasmodium berghei in Anopheles stephensi

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    Joshi, Deepak; Pan, Xiaoling; McFadden, Michael J.; Bevins, David; Liang, Xiao; Lu, Peng; Thiem, Suzanne; Xi, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia wAlbB induces refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles stephensi, the primary mosquito vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asia. However, it remains unknown whether such refractoriness can be extended to other malaria species. In particular, it was reported that under very specific conditions, wAlbB can enhance Plasmodium infection in some hosts. Here, we measured the impact of wAlbB on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in A. stephensi by comparing the load of oocysts and sporozoites in midguts and salivary glands, respectively, between wAlbB-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes. To investigate whether wAlbB modulated mosquito immune defense against parasites, we compared the expression of the immune genes, which were previously reported to involve in antimalarial response, in both midguts and the remaining carcass tissues of mosquitoes. The stable association of wAlbB with A. stephensi resulted in reduction of parasites by more than half at the oocyst stage, and up to 91.8% at the sporzoite stage. The anti-plasmodium immune genes, including TEP1, LRIM1, Toll pathway gene Rel1 and the effector Defensin 1, were induced by wAlbB in different mosquito body tissues. These findings suggest that immune priming is a potential cause of wAlbB-mediated antimalarial response in A. stephensi. More importantly, no evidence was found for any enhancement of Plasmodium infection in A. stephensi stably infected with wAlbB. We discuss these findings with possible implementations of Wolbachia for malaria control in disease endemic areas. PMID:28337184

  6. MicroRNA-regulation of Anopheles gambiae immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection and midgut microbiota.

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    Dennison, Nathan J; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Dimopoulos, George

    2015-03-01

    Invasion of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae midgut by Plasmodium parasites triggers transcriptional changes of immune genes that mediate the antiparasitic defense. This response is largely regulated by the Toll and Immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To determine whether A. gambiae microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating the anti-Plasmodium defense, we showed that suppression of miRNA biogenesis results in increased resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection. In silico analysis of A. gambiae immune effector genes identified multiple transcripts with miRNA binding sites. A comparative miRNA microarray abundance analysis of P. falciparum infected and naïve mosquito midgut tissues showed elevated abundance of miRNAs aga-miR-989 and aga-miR-305 in infected midguts. Antagomir inhibition of aga-miR-305 increased resistance to P. falciparum infection and suppressed the midgut microbiota. Conversely, treatment of mosquitoes with an artificial aga-miR-305 mimic increased susceptibility to P. falciparum infection and resulted in expansion of midgut microbiota, suggesting that aga-miR-305 acts as a P. falciparum and gut microbiota agonist by negatively regulating the mosquito immune response. In silico prediction of aga-miR-305 target genes identified several anti-Plasmodium effectors. Our study shows that A. gambiae aga-miR-305 regulates the anti-Plasmodium response and midgut microbiota, likely through post-transcriptional modification of immune effector genes.

  7. Radiation-induced sterility for pupal and adult stages of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT, radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age, and adults Results Irradiation of pupae, for all doses tested, had no effect on adult emergence. Survival curves of males irradiated as pupae or adults were similar or even slightly higher than non-irradiated males. Overall, adults appeared to be slightly more susceptible to irradiation, although no significant differences for individual doses were observed. In the pupal stage, a significant negative correlation was found between insemination and dose, but the correlation-coefficient was associated with less than 25% of the total variation. A review of the literature indicated that An. arabiensis is more radiation resistant than other anopheline mosquitoes. Conclusion The optimal dose for male insects to be released in an SIT programme depends on their level of sterility and competitiveness. The use of semi-sterilizing doses to produce more competitive insects is discussed. The most convenient developmental stage for mosquito irradiation on a mass-scale are pupae, but pupal irradiation resulted in a lower insemination rate at the highest dose compared to adult irradiation. On the basis of this study, a suitable dose range that includes semi-sterilizing doses is identified to initiate competitiveness experiments for males irradiated at both developmental stages.

  8. Evidence for X-linked introgression between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae from Angola.

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    Choi, K S; Townson, H

    2012-06-01

    The M and S molecular forms of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) are morphologically identical incipient species in which reproductive isolation is incomplete, enabling low-level gene flow between forms. In an attempt to find differences between the M and S forms, sequence variation was studied at loci along the X chromosome in adult female An. gambiae from Angola. A high proportion of M form specimens from Angola (79% of the 456 X chromosomes sampled) were found to contain a 16-bp insertion in intron 4 of the X-linked GPRCCK1 locus, relative to the AgamP3 release of the An. gambiae PEST genome sequence. The insertion was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Angolan M form populations. The same insertion was found in all S form specimens examined, regardless of where in Africa they were sampled, but was absent from a sample of M form specimens collected in Ghana, Bioko and Mali. In M form specimens from Angola, there was an association between alleles at the GPRCCK1 locus and those at a microsatellite locus, AGXH678, close to the centromere of the X chromosome, with significant linkage disequilibrium between loci separated by 0.472 Mbp (P < 0.033). We show that the insertion results from introgression from the S form into the M form, rather than from the retention of an ancestral character. Gene flow from the S to M form could allow genes of adaptive value to be transferred, including those conferring insecticide resistance and others influencing ecology and behaviour, and thus malaria transmission and control. We discuss factors that may have led to this introgression event.

  9. Identification and analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the mosquito Anopheles funestus, malaria vector

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    Hemingway Janet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common source of genetic variation in eukaryotic species and have become an important marker for genetic studies. The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet, prior to this study, no SNPs have been described for this species. Here we report a genome-wide set of SNP markers for use in genetic studies on this important human disease vector. Results DNA fragments from 50 genes were amplified and sequenced from 21 specimens of An. funestus. A third of specimens were field collected in Malawi, a third from a colony of Mozambican origin and a third form a colony of Angolan origin. A total of 494 SNPs including 303 within the coding regions of genes and 5 indels were identified. The physical positions of these SNPs in the genome are known. There were on average 7 SNPs per kilobase similar to that observed in An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Transitions outnumbered transversions, at a ratio of 2:1. The increased frequency of transition substitutions in coding regions is likely due to the structure of the genetic code and selective constraints. Synonymous sites within coding regions showed a higher polymorphism rate than non-coding introns or 3' and 5'flanking DNA with most of the substitutions in coding regions being observed at the 3rd codon position. A positive correlation in the level of polymorphism was observed between coding and non-coding regions within a gene. By genotyping a subset of 30 SNPs, we confirmed the validity of the SNPs identified during this study. Conclusion This set of SNP markers represents a useful tool for genetic studies in An. funestus, and will be useful in identifying candidate genes that affect diverse ranges of phenotypes that impact on vector control, such as resistance insecticide, mosquito behavior and vector competence.

  10. Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands

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    Nyindo Mramba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the effects of insecticides on non-target insect species have raised the need for alternative control methods for malaria vectors. Predation has been suggested as one of the important regulation mechanisms for malaria vectors in long-lasting aquatic habitats, but the predation efficiency of the potential predators is largely unknown in the highlands of western Kenya. In the current study, we examined the predation efficiency of five predators on Anopheles gambiae s.s larvae in 24 hour and semi- field evaluations. Methods Predators were collected from natural habitats and starved for 12 hours prior to starting experiments. Preliminary experiments were conducted to ascertain the larval stage most predated by each predator species. When each larval instar was subjected to predation, third instar larvae were predated at the highest rate. Third instar larvae of An. gambiae were introduced into artificial habitats with and without refugia at various larval densities. The numbers of surviving larvae were counted after 24 hours in 24. In semi-field experiments, the larvae were counted daily until they were all either consumed or had developed to the pupal stage. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of An. gambiae DNA in predator guts. Results Experiments found that habitat type (P P P P An. gambiae DNA was found in at least three out of ten midguts for all predator species. Gambusia affins was the most efficient, being three times more efficient than tadpoles. Conclusion These experiments provide insight into the efficiency of specific natural predators against mosquito larvae. These naturally occurring predators may be useful in biocontrol strategies for aquatic stage An. gambiae mosquitoes. Further investigations should be done in complex natural habitats for these predators.

  11. Evaluation of herbal essential oil as repellents against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrion

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    Duangkamon Sritabutra; Mayura Soonwera; Sirirat Waltanachanobon; Supaporn Poungjai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repellent activity of herbal essential oils from garlic (Allium sativum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon grass (Cybopogon citratus), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and their combinations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) and Anopheles dirus (An. dirus) Peyton & Harrion under laboratory conditions.Methods:In laboratory condition, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3-10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer’s forearm. The test was carried out every 30 min until fewer than two mosquitoes bit or land during the 3 min study period and then the repellency test was stopped.Results:Essential oil from lemon grass exhibited protection against biting from two mosquito species, for Ae. aegypti [(98.66±11.56) min protection time and 0.97% biting rate] and for An. dirus [(98.00±15.28) min protection time and 0.80% biting rate]. The combinations from eucalyptus oil and sweet basil oil were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against Ae. aegypti [(98.87±10.28) min protection time and 0.90% biting rate] and An. dirus [(210±10.70) min protection time and 0.93% biting rate]. All herbal repellents exhibited the period of protection time against Ae. aegypti which was lower than 120 min. Conlussions: It can be concluded that oils of lemon grass and combination from eucalyptus-sweet basil are the most effective in repellent activity.

  12. Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Coetzee M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in South Africa is primarily transmitted by Anopheles funestus Giles. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in An. funestus in northern Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa, and in neighbouring areas of southern Mozambique enabled populations of this species to increase their ranges into areas where pyrethroids were being exclusively used for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African An. funestus is primarily conferred by monooxygenase enzyme metabolism. However, selection for this resistance mechanism is likely to have occurred in conjunction with other factors that improve production of the resistance phenotype. A strong candidate is cuticle thickening. This is because thicker cuticles lead to slower rates of insecticide absorption, which is likely to increase the efficiency of metabolic detoxification. Results Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed. Prior to cuticle thickness measurements, these samples were characterised as either more or less tolerant to permethrin exposure in one experiment, and either permethrin resistant or susceptible in another experiment. There was a significant and positive correlation between mean cuticle thickness and time to knock down during exposure to permethrin. Mean cuticle thickness was significantly greater in those samples characterised either as more tolerant or resistant to permethrin exposure compared to those characterised as either less tolerant or permethrin susceptible. Further, insecticide susceptible female An. funestus have thicker cuticles than their male counterparts. Conclusion Pyrethroid tolerant or resistant An. funestus females are likely to have thicker cuticles than less tolerant or susceptible females, and females generally have

  13. High level of pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population of the Chokwe District in Mozambique.

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    Nelson Cuamba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Anopheles funestus is difficult to rear, it is crucial to analyse field populations of this malaria vector in order to successfully characterise mechanisms of insecticide resistance observed in this species in Africa. In this study we carried out a large-scale field collection and rearing of An. funestus from Mozambique in order to analyse its susceptibility status to insecticides and to broadly characterise the main resistance mechanisms involved in natural populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 3,000 F(1 adults were obtained through larval rearing. WHO susceptibility assays indicated a very high resistance to pyrethroids with no mortality recorded after 1 h 30 min exposure and less than 50% mortality at 3 h 30 min. Resistance to the carbamate, bendiocarb was also noted, with 70% mortality after 1h exposure. In contrast, no DDT resistance was observed, indicating that no kdr-type resistance was involved. The sequencing of the acetylcholinesterase gene indicated the absence of the G119S and F455W mutations associated with carbamate and organophosphate resistance. This could explain the absence of malathion resistance in this population. Both biochemical assays and quantitative PCR implicated up-regulated P450 genes in pyrethroid resistance, with GSTs playing a secondary role. The carbamate resistance observed in this population is probably conferred by the observed altered AChE with esterases also involved. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The high level of pyrethroid resistance in this population despite the cessation of pyrethroid use for IRS in 1999 is a serious concern for resistance management strategies such as rotational use of insecticides. As DDT has now been re-introduced for IRS, susceptibility to DDT needs to be closely monitored to prevent the appearance and spread of resistance to this insecticide.

  14. A grid-based infrastructure for ecological forecasting of rice land Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats

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    Kakoma Ibulaimu I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For remote identification of mosquito habitats the first step is often to construct a discrete tessellation of the region. In applications where complex geometries do not need to be represented such as urban habitats, regular orthogonal grids are constructed in GIS and overlaid on satellite images. However, rice land vector mosquito aquatic habitats are rarely uniform in space or character. An orthogonal grid overlaid on satellite data of rice-land areas may fail to capture physical or man-made structures, i.e paddies, canals, berms at these habitats. Unlike an orthogonal grid, digitizing each habitat converts a polygon into a grid cell, which may conform to rice-land habitat boundaries. This research illustrates the application of a random sampling methodology, comparing an orthogonal and a digitized grid for assessment of rice land habitats. Methods A land cover map was generated in Erdas Imagine V8.7® using QuickBird data acquired July 2005, for three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. An orthogonal grid was overlaid on the images. In the digitized dataset, each habitat was traced in Arc Info 9.1®. All habitats in each study site were stratified based on levels of rice stage Results The orthogonal grid did not identify any habitat while the digitized grid identified every habitat by strata and study site. An analysis of variance test indicated the relative abundance of An. arabiensis at the three study sites to be significantly higher during the post-transplanting stage of the rice cycle. Conclusion Regions of higher Anopheles abundance, based on digitized grid cell information probably reflect underlying differences in abundance of mosquito habitats in a rice land environment, which is where limited control resources could be concentrated to reduce vector abundance.

  15. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

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    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  16. Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (χ2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An

  17. Identification of the temperature- induced larvicidal efficacy of Agave angustifolia against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae

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    Mithilesh eKajla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticides are generally employed to control the mosquito population. However, their injudicious over usage and non-biodegradability are associated with many adverse effects on the environment and mosquitoes. The application of environment-friendly mosquitocidals might be an alternate to overcome these issues. In this study, we found that organic or aqueous extracts of Agave angustifolia leaves exhibited a strong larvicidal activity (LD50 28.27 µg/ml against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae within a short exposure of 12h. The larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia is inherited and independent of the plants vegetative growth. Interestingly, the plant larvicidal activity was observed exclusively during the summer season (April-August, when outside temperature is between 30oC to 50oC and it was significantly reduced during winter season (December-February, when the outside temperature falls to ~4oC or lower. Thus, we hypothesized that the larvicidal components of Agave angustifolia might be induced by the manipulation of environmental temperature and should be resistant to the hot conditions. We found that the larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia was induced when plants were maintained at 37oC in a semi-natural environment against the controls that were growing outside in cold weather. Pre-incubation of Agave angustifolia extract at 100oC for 1h killed 60% larvae in 12h, which gradually increased to 100% mortality after 24h. In addition, the dry powder formulation of Agave angustifolia, also displayed a strong larvicidal activity after a long shelf life. Together, these findings revealed that Agave angustifolia is an excellent source of temperature induced bioactive metabolites that may assist the preparedness for vector control programs competently.

  18. Metabolic and target-site mechanisms combine to confer strong DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae.

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    Sara N Mitchell

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides has become a classic exemplar of evolution occurring within human time scales. In this study we demonstrate how resistance to DDT in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a result of both target-site resistance mechanisms that have introgressed between incipient species (the M- and S-molecular forms and allelic variants in a DDT-detoxifying enzyme. Sequencing of the detoxification enzyme, Gste2, from DDT resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae, revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism (I114T, proximal to the DDT binding domain, which segregated with strain phenotype. Recombinant protein expression and DDT metabolism analysis revealed that the proteins from the susceptible strain lost activity at higher DDT concentrations, characteristic of substrate inhibition. The effect of I114T on GSTE2 protein structure was explored through X-ray crystallography. The amino acid exchange in the DDT-resistant strain introduced a hydroxyl group nearby the hydrophobic DDT-binding region. The exchange does not result in structural alterations but is predicted to facilitate local dynamics and enzyme activity. Expression of both wild-type and 114T alleles the allele in Drosophila conferred an increase in DDT tolerance. The 114T mutation was significantly associated with DDT resistance in wild caught M-form populations and acts in concert with target-site mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1575Y and Vgsc-1014F to confer extreme levels of DDT resistance in wild caught An. gambiae.

  19. Molecular evolution of immune genes in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

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    Tovi Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As pathogens that circumvent the host immune response are favoured by selection, so are host alleles that reduce parasite load. Such evolutionary processes leave their signature on the genes involved. Deciphering modes of selection operating on immune genes might reveal the nature of host-pathogen interactions and factors that govern susceptibility in host populations. Such understanding would have important public health implications. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We analyzed polymorphisms in four mosquito immune genes (SP14D1, GNBP, defensin, and gambicin to decipher selection effects, presumably mediated by pathogens. Using samples of Anopheles arabiensis, An. quadriannulatus and four An. gambiae populations, as well as published sequences from other Culicidae, we contrasted patterns of polymorphisms between different functional units of the same gene within and between populations. Our results revealed selection signatures operating on different time scales. At the most recent time scale, within-population diversity revealed purifying selection. Between populations and between species variation revealed reduced differentiation (GNBP and gambicin at coding vs. noncoding- regions, consistent with balancing selection. McDonald-Kreitman tests between An. quadriannulatus and both sibling species revealed higher fixation rate of synonymous than nonsynonymous substitutions (GNBP in accordance with frequency dependent balancing selection. At the longest time scale (>100 my, PAML analysis using distant Culicid taxa revealed positive selection at one codon in gambicin. Patterns of genetic variation were independent of exposure to human pathogens. SIGNIFICANCE AND CONCLUSIONS: Purifying selection is the most common form of selection operating on immune genes as it was detected on a contemporary time scale on all genes. Selection for "hypervariability" was not detected, but negative balancing selection, detected at a recent evolutionary time scale

  20. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  1. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  2. Biochemical characterization of Anopheles gambiae SRPN6, a malaria parasite invasion marker in mosquitoes.

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    Chunju An

    Full Text Available Serine proteinase inhibitors of the serpin family are well known as negative regulators of hemostasis, thrombolysis and innate immune responses. Additionally, non-inhibitory serpins serve functions as chaperones, hormone transporters, or anti-angiogenic factors. In the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s., at least three serpins (SRPNs are implicated in the innate immune response against malaria parasites. Based on reverse genetic and cell biological analyses, AgSRPN6 limits parasite numbers and transmission and has been postulated to control melanization and complement function in mosquitoes. This study aimed to characterize AgSRPN6 biophysically and determine its biochemical mode of action. The structure model of AgSRPN6, as predicted by I-Tasser showed the protein in the native serpin fold, with three central β-sheets, nine surrounding α-helices, and a protruding reactive center loop. This structure is in agreement with biophysical and functional data obtained from recombinant (r AgSRPN6, produced in Escherichia coli. The physical properties of purified rAgSRPN6 were investigated by means of analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry tools. The recombinant protein exists predominantly as a monomer in solution, is composed of a mixture of α-helices and β-sheets, and has a mid-point unfolding temperature of 56°C. Recombinant AgSRPN6 strongly inhibited porcine pancreatic kallikrein and to a lesser extent bovine pancreatic trypsin in vitro. Furthermore, rAgSRPN6 formed inhibitory, SDS-stable, higher molecular weight complexes with prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase (PAP1, PAP3, and Hemolymph protein (HP6, which are required for melanization in the lepidopteran model organism, Manduca sexta. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that AgSRPN6 takes on a native serpin fold and is an inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteinases.

  3. Genetic dissection of Anopheles gambiae gut epithelial responses to Serratia marcescens.

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    Stavros Stathopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae profoundly influences its ability to transmit malaria. Mosquito gut bacteria are shown to influence the outcome of infections with Plasmodium parasites and are also thought to exert a strong drive on genetic variation through natural selection; however, a link between antibacterial effects and genetic variation is yet to emerge. Here, we combined SNP genotyping and expression profiling with phenotypic analyses of candidate genes by RNAi-mediated silencing and 454 pyrosequencing to investigate this intricate biological system. We identified 138 An. gambiae genes to be genetically associated with the outcome of Serratia marcescens infection, including the peptidoglycan recognition receptor PGRPLC that triggers activation of the antibacterial IMD/REL2 pathway and the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR. Silencing of three genes encoding type III fibronectin domain proteins (FN3Ds increased the Serratia load and altered the gut microbiota composition in favor of Enterobacteriaceae. These data suggest that natural genetic variation in immune-related genes can shape the bacterial population structure of the mosquito gut with high specificity. Importantly, FN3D2 encodes a homolog of the hypervariable pattern recognition receptor Dscam, suggesting that pathogen-specific recognition may involve a broader family of immune factors. Additionally, we showed that silencing the gene encoding the gustatory receptor Gr9 that is also associated with the Serratia infection phenotype drastically increased Serratia levels. The Gr9 antibacterial activity appears to be related to mosquito feeding behavior and to mostly rely on changes of neuropeptide F expression, together suggesting a behavioral immune response following Serratia infection. Our findings reveal that the mosquito response to oral Serratia infection comprises both an epithelial and a behavioral immune component.

  4. Adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activities of medicinal plant extracts againstAnopheles stephensiListon

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    AbdulAbduzZahir; AbdulAbdulRahuman; AsokanBa=gavan; GandhiElango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and acetone leaves extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (A. malabarica), Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta), Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum), Ricinus communis (R. communis), Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum), Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens)and seeds ofGloriosa superba (G. superba) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods: The EI and adulticidal trials were carried out according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures with slight modifications. The extracts were diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide in order to prepare a serial dilution of test dosages (15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and1 000μg/mL). Five duplicate trials were carried out for every sample concentration, and for each trial a negative control was included and the mortality was determined after24 h of exposure.Results: The highestEI activity was found in ethyl acetate extracts ofA. malabarica, chloroform extracts ofO. basilicum, S.trilobatum, acetone of extract ofR. communis, T. procumbens, and seed extract ofG. superba withEI50 values143.12, 119.82, 157.87, 139.39, 111.19, and134.85 μg/mL, and the effective adulticidal activity was observed in chloroform, acetone extracts ofG. superba, T. procumbens, R. communis, S.trilobatum and ethyl acetate extract ofO. basilicum with LD50 values120.17, 108.77, 127.22, 163.11, 118.27, and93.02μg/mL, respectively. Chi-square value was significant atP<0.05 level.Conclusions: These results should encourage further efforts to investigate the compounds that might possess good EI and adulticidal properties when isolated in pure form.

  5. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

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    McArthur, Clare C; Meredith, Janet M; Eggleston, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to controls, there was

  6. Transgenic Anopheles gambiae expressing an antimalarial peptide suffer no significant fitness cost.

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    Clare C McArthur

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases present some of the greatest health challenges faced by the world today. In many cases, existing control measures are compromised by insecticide resistance, pathogen tolerance to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines. In light of these difficulties, new genetic tools for disease control programmes, based on the deployment of genetically modified mosquitoes, are seen as having great promise. Transgenic strains may be used to control disease transmission either by suppressing vector populations or by replacing susceptible with refractory genotypes. In practice, the fitness of the transgenic strain relative to natural mosquitoes will be a critical determinant of success. We previously described a transgenic strain of Anopheles gambiae expressing the Vida3 peptide into the female midgut following a blood-meal, which exhibited significant protection against malaria parasites. Here, we investigated the fitness of this strain relative to non-transgenic controls through comparisons of various life history traits. Experiments were designed, as far as possible, to equalize genetic backgrounds and heterogeneity such that fitness comparisons focussed on the presence and expression of the transgene cassette. We also employed reciprocal crosses to identify any fitness disturbance associated with inheritance of the transgene from either the male or female parent. We found no evidence that the presence or expression of the effector transgene or associated fluorescence markers caused any significant fitness cost in relation to larval mortality, pupal sex ratio, fecundity, hatch rate or longevity of blood-fed females. In fact, fecundity was increased in transgenic strains. We did, however, observe some fitness disturbances associated with the route of inheritance of the transgene. Maternal inheritance delayed male pupation whilst paternal inheritance increased adult longevity for both males and unfed females. Overall, in comparison to

  7. Detoxification enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis of different geographic origin

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    Nardini Luisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of insecticides to control malaria vectors is essential to reduce the prevalence of malaria and as a result, the development of insecticide resistance in vector populations is of major concern. Anopheles arabiensis is one of the main African malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in this species has been reported in a number of countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the detoxification enzymes that are involved in An. arabiensis resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Methods The detoxification enzyme profiles were compared between two DDT selected, insecticide resistant strains of An. arabiensis, one from South Africa and one from Sudan, using the An. gambiae detoxification chip, a boutique microarray based on the major classes of enzymes associated with metabolism and detoxification of insecticides. Synergist assays were performed in order to clarify the roles of over-transcribed detoxification genes in the observed resistance phenotypes. In addition, the presence of kdr mutations in the colonies under investigation was determined. Results The microarray data identifies several genes over-transcribed in the insecticide selected South African strain, while in the Sudanese population, only one gene, CYP9L1, was found to be over-transcribed. The outcome of the synergist experiments indicate that the over-transcription of detoxification enzymes is linked to deltamethrin resistance, while DDT and permethrin resistance are mainly associated with the presence of the L1014F kdr mutation. Conclusions These data emphasise the complexity associated with resistance phenotypes and suggest that specific insecticide resistance mechanisms cannot be extrapolated to different vector populations of the same species.

  8. The Anopheles gambiae glutathione transferase supergene family: annotation, phylogeny and expression profiles

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    Rossiter Louise C

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty-eight genes putatively encoding cytosolic glutathione transferases have been identified in the Anopheles gambiae genome. We manually annotated these genes and then confirmed the annotation by sequencing of A. gambiae cDNAs. Phylogenetic analysis with the 37 putative GST genes from Drosophila and representative GSTs from other taxa was undertaken to develop a nomenclature for insect GSTs. The epsilon class of insect GSTs has previously been implicated in conferring insecticide resistance in several insect species. We compared the expression level of all members of this GST class in two strains of A. gambiae to determine whether epsilon GST expression is correlated with insecticide resistance status. Results Two A. gambiae GSTs are alternatively spliced resulting in a maximum number of 32 transcripts encoding cytosolic GSTs. We detected cDNAs for 31 of these in adult mosquitoes. There are at least six different classes of GSTs in insects but 20 of the A. gambiae GSTs belong to the two insect specific classes, delta and epsilon. Members of these two GST classes are clustered on chromosome arms 2L and 3R respectively. Two members of the GST supergene family are intronless. Amongst the remainder, there are 13 unique introns positions but within the epsilon and delta class, there is considerable conservation of intron positions. Five of the eight epsilon GSTs are overexpressed in a DDT resistant strain of A. gambiae. Conclusions The GST supergene family in A. gambiae is extensive and regulation of transcription of these genes is complex. Expression profiling of the epsilon class supports earlier predictions that this class is important in conferring insecticide resistance.

  9. Molecular population genetics of the NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) gene in Anopheles minimus.

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    Srivastava, Hemlata; Huong, Ngo Thi; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Das, Aparup

    2014-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance (IR) in mosquito vectors is a primary huddle to malaria control program. Since IR has genetic basis, and genes constantly evolve with response to environment for adaptation to organisms, it is important to know evolutionary pattern of genes conferring IR in malaria vectors. The mosquito Anopheles minimus is a major malaria vector of the Southeast (SE) Asia and India and is susceptible to all insecticides, and thus of interest to know if natural selection has shaped variations in the gene conferring IR. If not, the DNA fragment of such a gene could be used to infer population structure and demography of this species of malaria vector. We have therefore sequenced a ~569 bp DNA segment of the NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) gene (widely known to confer IR) in 123 individuals of An. minimus collected in 10 different locations (eight Indian, one Thai and one Vietnamese). Two Indian population samples were completely mono-morphic in the CPR gene. In general, low genetic diversity was found with no evidence of natural selection in this gene. The data were therefore analyzed to infer population structure and demography of this species. The 10 populations could be genetically differentiated into four different groups; the samples from Thailand and Vietnam contained high nucleotide diversity. All the 10 populations conform to demographic equilibrium model with signature of past population expansion in four populations. The results in general indicate that the An. minimus mosquitoes sampled in the two SE Asian localities contain several genetic characteristics of being parts of the ancestral population.

  10. Molecular Evolution of Immune Genes in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Lehmann, Tovi; Hume, Jen C. C.; Licht, Monica; Burns, Christopher S.; Wollenberg, Kurt; Simard, Fred; Ribeiro, Jose' M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background As pathogens that circumvent the host immune response are favoured by selection, so are host alleles that reduce parasite load. Such evolutionary processes leave their signature on the genes involved. Deciphering modes of selection operating on immune genes might reveal the nature of host-pathogen interactions and factors that govern susceptibility in host populations. Such understanding would have important public health implications. Methodology/Findings We analyzed polymorphisms in four mosquito immune genes (SP14D1, GNBP, defensin, and gambicin) to decipher selection effects, presumably mediated by pathogens. Using samples of Anopheles arabiensis, An. quadriannulatus and four An. gambiae populations, as well as published sequences from other Culicidae, we contrasted patterns of polymorphisms between different functional units of the same gene within and between populations. Our results revealed selection signatures operating on different time scales. At the most recent time scale, within-population diversity revealed purifying selection. Between populations and between species variation revealed reduced differentiation (GNBP and gambicin) at coding vs. noncoding- regions, consistent with balancing selection. McDonald-Kreitman tests between An. quadriannulatus and both sibling species revealed higher fixation rate of synonymous than nonsynonymous substitutions (GNBP) in accordance with frequency dependent balancing selection. At the longest time scale (>100 my), PAML analysis using distant Culicid taxa revealed positive selection at one codon in gambicin. Patterns of genetic variation were independent of exposure to human pathogens. Significance and Conclusions Purifying selection is the most common form of selection operating on immune genes as it was detected on a contemporary time scale on all genes. Selection for “hypervariability” was not detected, but negative balancing selection, detected at a recent evolutionary time scale between sibling

  11. Genetic variation of male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae

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    Voordouw Maarten J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For Anopheline mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria, genetic variation in male reproductive success can have important consequences for any control strategy based on the release of transgenic or sterile males. Methods A quantitative genetics approach was used to test whether there was a genetic component to variation in male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae. Swarms of full sibling brothers were mated with a fixed number of females and their reproductive success was measured as (1 proportion of ovipositing females, (2 proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae, (3 proportion of females that produced larvae, (4 number of eggs laid per female, (5 number of larvae per ovipositing female and (6 number of larvae per female. Results The proportion of ovipositing females (trait 1 and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae (trait 2 differed among full sib families, suggesting a genetic basis of mating success. In contrast, the other measures of male reproductive success showed little variation due to the full sib families, as their variation are probably mostly due to differences among females. While age at emergence and wing length of the males were also heritable, they were not associated with reproductive success. Larger females produced more eggs, but males did not prefer such partners. Conclusion The first study to quantify genetic variation for male reproductive success in A. gambiae found that while the initial stages of male reproduction (i.e. the proportion of ovipositing females and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae had a genetic basis, the overall reproductive success (i.e. the mean number of larvae per female did not.

  12. Pyrethroid susceptibility and behavioral avoidance in Anopheles epiroticus, a malaria vector in Thailand.

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    Ritthison, Wanapa; Titgratog, Rungarun; Tainchum, Krajana; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    The physiological susceptibility to insecticides and the behavioral responses of four wild-caught populations of female Anopheles epiroticus to synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin) were assessed. Test populations were collected from different localities along the eastern coast, Trat (TR), Songkhla (SK), and Surat Thani (ST) and one population from the western coast, Phang Nga (PN). Results showed that all four populations of An. epiroticus were susceptible to all three synthetic pyrethroids tested. Behavioral responses to test compounds were characterized for all four populations using an excito-repellency test system. TR displayed the strongest contact excitation ('irritancy') escape response (76.8% exposed to deltamethrin, 74.1% permethrin, and 78.4% alpha-cypermethrin), followed by the PN population (24.4% deltamethrin, 35% permethrin, and 34.4% for alpha-cypermethrin) by rapidly escaping test chambers after direct contact with surfaces treated with each active ingredient compared with match-paired untreated controls. Moderate non-contact repellency responses to all three compounds were observed in the TR population but were comparatively weaker than paired contact tests. Few mosquitoes from the SK and ST populations escaped from test chambers, regardless of insecticide tested or type of trial. We conclude that contact excitation was a major behavioral response in two populations of An. epiroticus, whereas two other populations showed virtually no escape response following exposure to the three pyrethroids. The explanation for these large unexpected differences in avoidance responses between pyrethroid-susceptible populations of the same species is unclear and warrants further investigation.

  13. The interplay between tubulins and P450 cytochromes during Plasmodium berghei invasion of Anopheles gambiae midgut.

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    Rute C Félix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium infection increases the oxidative stress inside the mosquito, leading to a significant alteration on transcription of Anopheles gambiae detoxification genes. Among these detoxification genes several P450 cytochromes and tubulins were differently expressed, suggesting their involvement in the mosquito's response to parasite invasion. P450 cytochromes are usually involved in the metabolism and detoxification of several compounds, but are also regulated by several pathogens, including malaria parasite. Tubulins are extremely important as components of the cytoskeleton, which rearrangement functions as a response to malaria parasite invasion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene silencing methods were used to uncover the effects of cytochrome P450 reductase, tubulinA and tubulinB silencing on the A. gambiae response to Plasmodium berghei invasion. The role of tubulins in counter infection processes was also investigated by inhibiting their effect. Colchicine, vinblastine and paclitaxel, three different tubulin inhibitors were injected into A. gambiae mosquitoes. Twenty-four hours post injection these mosquitoes were infected with P. berghei through a blood meal from infected CD1 mice. Cytochrome P450 gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR to detect differences in cytochrome expression between silenced, inhibited and control mosquitoes. Results showed that cytochrome P450 reductase silencing, as well as tubulin (A and B silencing and inhibition affected the efficiency of Plasmodium infection. Silencing and inhibition also affected the expression levels of cytochromes P450. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the existence of a relationship between tubulins and P450 cytochromes during A. gambiae immune response to P. berghei invasion. One of the P450 cytochromes in this study, CYP6Z2, stands out as the potential link in this association. Further work is needed to fully understand the role of tubulin genes in the response to

  14. Larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts on the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies Giles. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    K. Kovendan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector control is one of the most important components in combating vector-borne diseases throughout the world. Application of insecticides is a widely known and popular vector control strategy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Abutilon indicum, Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas aspera against third-stage larvae of Anopheles culicifiacies. The results clearly suggest that all three selected plant extracts exhibited moderate larvicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm; the lethal concentrations (LC at 50% and 90% of A. indicum, H. suaveolens against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone were as follows: A. indicum, LC50=1031.65, 949.18, 833.58 and 673.68 ppm; LC90=2215.87, 2234.39, 2152.97 and 2455.10 ppm; H. suaveolens, LC50=423.00, 347.50, 236.58 and 217.24 ppm; LC90=1431.91, 1292.15, 1138.49 and 1049.27 ppm and L. aspera, LC50=559.77, 401.56, 299.71 and 263.01 ppm; LC90=1400.80, 1549.31, 1157.96 and 1108.72 ppm at 24 h, respectively. Overall, the highest larvicidal activity was observed with H. suaveolens extract followed by L. aspera and A. indicum at various concentrations at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The objective of this investigation was an attempt to search for a user- and eco-friendly vector control agent. The study proved that the selected plant leaf extracts could serve as potent larvicidal agents against A. culicifacies in vector control programs.

  15. Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

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    Vogels, Chantal B F; Bukhari, Tullu; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible.

  16. Kinetic properties of alternatively spliced isoforms of laccase-2 from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae.

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    Gorman, Maureen J; Sullivan, Lucinda I; Nguyen, Thi D T; Dai, Huaien; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dittmer, Neal T; Syed, Lateef U; Li, Jun; Hua, Duy H; Kanost, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 to 550 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 to 30 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions.

  17. Biochemical characterization of chitin synthase activity and inhibition in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Kun Yan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme catalyzing the formation of chitin polymers in all chitin containing organisms and a potential target site for insect pest control.However,our understanding of biochemical properties of insect CHSs has been very limited.We here report enzymatic and inhibitory properties of CHS prepared from the African malaria mosquito,Anopheles gambiae.Our study,which represents the first time to use a nonradioactive method to assay CHS activity in an insect species,determined the optimal conditions for measuring the enzyme activity,including pH,temperature,and concentrations of the substrate uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDPGlcNAc) and Mg++.The optimal pH was about 6.5-7.0,and the highest activity was detected at temperatures between 37℃ and 44℃.Dithithreitol is required to prevent melanization of the enzyme extract.CHS activity was enhanced at low concentration of GlcNAc,but inhibited at high concentrations.Proteolytic activation of the activity is significant both in the 500×g supernatant and the 40 000×g pellet.Our study revealed only slight in vitro inhibition ofA.gambiae CHS activity by diflubenzuron and nikkomycin Z at the highest concentration (2.5μmol/L) examined.There was no in vitro inhibition by polyoxin D at any concentration examined.Furthermore,we did not observe any in vivo inhibition of CHS activity by any of these chemicals at any concentration examined.Our results suggest that the inhibition of chitin synthesis by these chemicals is not due to direct inhibition of CHS in A.gambiae.

  18. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2016-03-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources.

  19. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Logue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG. While human (52.9%, dog (15.8% and pig (29.2% were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9% of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources.

  20. Structure of host-odour plumes influences catch of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Aedes aegypti in a dual-choice olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.; Takken, W.; Cardé, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of structure, concentration and composition of host-odour plumes on catch of female Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. We demonstrate that the fine-scale structure of host-odour plumes modulat

  1. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or syne

  2. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  3. Combined effect of seaweed (Sargassum wightii) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on the coastal mosquito,Anopheles sundaicus, in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were made of the extract of Sargassum wightii combined with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) for control of the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus. Treatment of mosquito larvae with 0.001% S. wightii extract indicated median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 88, 73, 134, 156, and...

  4. Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanolic extracts of Sida acuta and Vetiveria zizanioides leaves and root were studied for toxicity to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and to the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in mice. The extracts reduced parasitemia levels in mice by 17-69%, depending on extract concentration. Median le...

  5. The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of aliphatic carboxylic acids in host-seeking response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was examined both in a dual-choice olfactometer and with indoor traps. A basic attractive blend of ammonia + lactic acid served as internal standard odor. Single carboxylic acids w

  6. Collapse of Anopheles darlingi populations in Suriname after introduction of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs); malaria down to near elimination level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Mitro, S.; Samjhawan, A.; Sardjoe, P.; Soekhoe, T.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of malaria vectors was carried out in three villages in Suriname between 2006 and 2010. During 13,392 man hours of collections, 3,180 mosquitoes were collected, of which 33.7% were anophelines. Of these, Anopheles darlingi accounted for 88.1%, and An. nuneztovari accounted for 1

  7. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center

  8. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  9. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J.; Hassan, M.M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C.A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on

  11. Effects of blood-feeding on olfactory sensitivity of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: application of mixed linear models to account for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Gort, G.; Torricelli, A.; Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction plays an important role in the host-seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. After a complete blood meal, female mosquitoes will not engage in host-seeking behavior until oviposition has occurred. We investigated if peripheral olfactory sensitivity changed after a blood

  12. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Semen M.; Artemov, Gleb N.; Stegniy, Vladimir N.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO—a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells. PMID:28158219

  13. The Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein 1 (AgamOBP1 mediates indole recognition in the antennae of female mosquitoes.

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    Harald Biessmann

    Full Text Available Haematophagous insects are frequently carriers of parasitic diseases, including malaria. The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is thus responsible for thousands of deaths daily. Although the role of olfaction in A. gambiae host detection has been demonstrated, little is known about the combinations of ligands and odorant binding proteins (OBPs that can produce specific odor-related responses in vivo. We identified a ligand, indole, for an A. gambiae odorant binding protein, AgamOBP1, modeled the interaction in silico and confirmed the interaction using biochemical assays. RNAi-mediated gene silencing coupled with electrophysiological analyses confirmed that AgamOBP1 binds indole in A. gambiae and that the antennal receptor cells do not respond to indole in the absence of AgamOBP1. This case represents the first documented instance of a specific A. gambiae OBP-ligand pairing combination, demonstrates the significance of OBPs in odor recognition, and can be expanded to the identification of other ligands for OBPs of Anopheles and other medically important insects.

  14. Plasmodium-specific molecular assays produce uninterpretable results and non-Plasmodium spp. sequences in field-collected Anopheles vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Genelle F; Foley, Desmond H; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Wilkerson, Richard C; Long, Lewis S; Richardson, Jason H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Won-Ja

    2013-12-01

    The Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource-recommended PLF/UNR/VIR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles spp. mosquitoes collected in South Korea. Samples that were amplified were sequenced and compared with known Plasmodium spp. by using the PlasmoDB.org Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool/n tools. Results show that the primers PLF/UNR/VIR used in this PCR can produce uninterpretable results and non-specific sequences in field-collected mosquitoes. Three additional PCRs (PLU/VIV, specific for 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA; Pvr47, specific for a nuclear repeat; and GDCW/PLAS, specific for the mitochondrial marker, cytB) were then used to find a more accurate and interpretable assay. Samples that were amplified were again sequenced. The PLU/VIV and Pvr47 assays showed cross-reactivity with non-Plasmodium spp. and an arthropod fungus (Zoophthora lanceolata). The GDCW/PLAS assay amplified only Plasmodium spp. but also amplified the non-human specific parasite P. berghei from an Anopheles belenrae mosquito. Detection of P. berghei in South Korea is a new finding.

  15. Effectiveness and Public Acceptance Rate of Powder Pepper (Piper nigrum L. to Decrease Density of Anopheles spp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Ruliansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L. is one of several pesticides from plant that can be used as insecticide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness and public acceptance of pepper fruit powder (Piper nigrum L. on reducing Anopheles spp. larvae density. The experiment was a quasi-experimental study which includes a pre-post test design with both treatment group and a control group. Pepper powder with a dose of 0.75 g in one litre of water kills 59.91% larvae in average through 24 hours treatment. Wilcoxon test results obtained from the pepper powder treatment was proved effective in decreasing the density of Anopheles spp. larvae since there was significant difference between before and after treatment. The result of public acceptance for pepper powder out of 20 respondents are 75% respondents accepted it well, 15% respondents accepted it fairly well, and 10% respondents accepted it poorly. These results showed pepper fruit powder potency as a good and accepted larvacide.

  16. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  17. Mating activates the heme peroxidase HPX15 in the sperm storage organ to ensure fertility in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W. Robert; Teodori, Eleonora; Mitchell, Sara N.; Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are major African vectors of malaria, a disease that kills more than 600,000 people every year. Given the spread of insecticide resistance in natural mosquito populations, alternative vector control strategies aimed at reducing the reproductive success of mosquitoes are being promoted. Unlike many other insects, An. gambiae females mate a single time in their lives and must use sperm stored in the sperm storage organ, the spermatheca, to fertilize a lifetime's supply of eggs. Maintenance of sperm viability during storage is therefore crucial to the reproductive capacity of these mosquitoes. However, to date, no information is available on the factors and mechanisms ensuring sperm functionality in the spermatheca. Here we identify cellular components and molecular mechanisms used by An. gambiae females to maximize their fertility. Pathways of energy metabolism, cellular transport, and oxidative stress are strongly regulated by mating in the spermatheca. We identify the mating-induced heme peroxidase (HPX) 15 as an important factor in long-term fertility, and demonstrate that its function is required during multiple gonotrophic cycles. We find that HPX15 induction is regulated by sexually transferred 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E), a steroid hormone that is produced by the male accessory glands and transferred during copulation, and that expression of this peroxidase is mediated via the 20E nuclear receptor. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence of the mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles, and identify HPX15 as a target for vector control. PMID:24711401

  18. Behavioral heterogeneity of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria transmission dynamics along the Maroni River, Suriname, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, H; Issaly, J; Gaborit, P; Somai, A; Samjhawan, A; Sardjoe, P; Soekhoe, T; Girod, R

    2010-03-01

    The border area between Suriname and French Guiana is considered the most affected malaria area in South America. A one-year cooperative malaria vector study was performed by the two countries, between March 2004 and February 2005, in four villages. Anopheles darlingi proved to be the most abundant anopheline species. Human biting rates differed between villages. The differential effect of high rainfall on mosquito densities in the villages suggests variation in breeding sites. Overall parity rates were low, with means varying from 0.31 to 0.56 per study site. Of the 2045 A. darlingi mosquitoes collected, 13 were found to be infected with Plasmodium: ten P. falciparum, two P. malariae and one mixed P. malariae/P. vivax. The overall annual entomological inoculation rates in the villages ranged from 8.7 to 66.4. There was an apparent lack of relationship between number of malaria cases and periods of high mosquito density. The tendency of Anopheles darlingi to bite during sleeping hours provides opportunity for malaria control using impregnated bed nets, a strategy just introduced in Suriname that may also find its way into French Guiana.

  19. Adulticidal Activity of Olea Vera, Linum Usitatissimum and Piper Nigera Against Anopheles Stephensi and Aedes Aegypti Under Laboratory Conditions

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    SA Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several plant extractions which are being used for mosquito control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Olea vera, Linum usitatissimum and Piper nigera against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Methods: These tests were carried out using WHO recommended bioassay method for adult mosquitoes. Results: The extracts from black pepper was more effective as adulticide with lowest LC50 values (2.26% and 8.4% against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi after 24 h of exposure while after 48h (1.56% and 5.11% respec­tively. In terms of LC90 value black pepper was best with (8.66% and 30.1% against Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi after 24 h of exposure while after 48h (4.59% and 17.3% respectively. In terms of LT50 black pepper took 15 h to kill 50% tested population of Ae. aegypti while against An. stephensi it took more than 2 days. In terms of percentage mortality black pepper kill 84% of the population of Ae. aegypti and 44.75% of the An. stephensi population. Conclusion: Black pepper showed best results in term of LC50, LC90, LT50 and percentage mortality against Ae. ae­gypti and An. stephensi. Our study suggested that the plant extracts have potential to kill adult mosquitoes, are environment friendly and can be used for the control of mosquitoes.

  20. Identificación de especies de anopheles de importancia médica en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia

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    Gladis Pérez Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia los mosquitos Anopheles, subgénero Nyssorhynchus tiene una gran importancia en medicina tropical ya que este subgénero contiene la mayoría de las especies vectoras de la malaria encontradas en el país. El departamento de Sucre, localizado al norte de Colombia, presenta condiciones bioclimáticas que favorecen el desarrollo de insectos pertenecientes al subgénero Nyssorhynchus; sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre este es escaso. Con el objetivo de verificar la presencia de especies del subgénero en dos subregiones del departamento de Sucre (La Sabana y Golfo de Morrosquillo, se realizó un inventario de mosquitos Anopheles, utilizando para su captura cebo humano. Para la identificación de las especies se utilizaron claves taxonómicas. Se coleccionaron un total de 221 especimenes pertenecientes a cinco especies del subgénero Nyssorhynchus: A. albimanus, A. triannulatus, A. marajoara, A. pseudopunctipennis y A. nunestovari de las cuales dos son consideradas como vectores principales de la malaria (A. albimanus y A. nunestovari y una como vector secundario (A. pseudopunctipennis. (Duazary 2006; 2:104-109

  1. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  2. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors.

  3. Identification, characterization and analysis of expression of gene encoding carboxypeptidase A in Anopheles culicifacies A (Diptera: culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Richa; Gakhar, S K

    2014-11-01

    Carboxypeptidases are the digestive enzymes which cleave single amino acid residue from c-terminus of the protein. Digestive carboxypeptidase A gene regulatory elements in insects have shown their efficiency to drive midgut specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. However no endogenous promoter has been reported for Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies which is major vector in Indian subcontinent. Here we report cloning of carboxypeptidase A gene in the An. culicifacies A including its 5' upstream regions and named AcCP. In the upstream region of the gene an arthropod initiator sequence and two repeat sequences of the particular importance TTATC and GTTTT were also identified. The 1290 base pairs open reading frame encodes a protein of 48.5kDa. The coding region of the gene shares 82% and 72% similarity at nucleotide level with Anopheles gambiae and Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase A gene, respectively. The peak expression of the gene was found to be at 3h after blood feeding and this is limited to midgut only. Based on the protein sequence, 3D structure of the AcCP was predicted and the active centre of the enzyme was predicted to consist of GLN 183, GLU 186, HIS 308 and Ser 309 amino acid residues. Comparison of the protein sequence among different genera revealed the conservation of zinc binding residues. Phylogenetically, AcCP was found most closely related to An. gambiae.

  4. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

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    Jesús Eduardo Escovar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy.

  5. Genotyping of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum in wild caught Anopheles minimus mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, D K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

    2014-09-01

    We validated the feasibility of using Plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, DNA present in wild caught vector mosquitoes for the characterization of chloroquine resistance status. House frequenting mosquitoes belonging to Anopheles minimus complex were collected from human dwellings in a malaria endemic area of Assam, Northeast India and DNA was extracted from the head-thorax region of individual mosquitoes. Anopheles minimus complex mosquitoes were identified to species level and screened for the presence of Plasmodium sp. using molecular tools. Nested PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping of P. falciparum based on K76T mutation in the chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene. Three of the 27 wild caught An. minimus mosquitoes were harbouring P. falciparum sporozoites (positivity 11.1%) and all 3 were had 76T mutation in the pfcrt gene, indicating chloroquine resistance. The approach of characterizing antimalarial resistance of malaria parasite in vector mosquitoes can potentially be used as a surveillance tool for monitoring transmission of antimalarial drug resistant parasite strains in the community.

  6. Analysis on the monitoring results of Anopheles in Donggang city in 2011%2011年东港市按蚊监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 陈哲

    2013-01-01

    目的 准确掌握东港市媒介按蚊种群构成、分布和种群密度及季节消长,为科学实施《中国消除疟疾行动计划(2010-2020年)》项目提供全面准确的基础数据.方法 诱蚊灯法、栖息蚊虫捕捉法、人诱帐法.结果 诱蚊灯法捕获的按蚊占捕蚊总数的19.83%,按蚊活动时间为6月上旬-10月下旬,高峰季节为7-9月,夜间20:00-24:00时及清晨4:00-5:00时是按蚊吸血活动高峰.结论 东港地区按蚊密度较高是蚊种构成比的第3位,是该地区蚊虫防治工作的重点.%Objective To grasp accurately the population composition, distribution, population density and seasonal fluctuation of Anopheles in Donggang city, and provide basic data comprehensively and accurately for the implementation of "eliminate malaria action plan (2010 -2020) in China" project. Methods Using mosquito lamp method, inhabiting mosquito catching method and net luring method. Results A mosquito trapping lamp method to capture Anopheles accounted for 19. 83% ,Anopheles activity time from early June to October, the peak was from July to November,Anopheles vampire peak activity was in 20:00 24:00 and 4:00 5:00. Conclusion Density of A-nopheles is high in Donggang city,and is the third of the mosquito composition. It is the control focus in Donggang city.

  7. Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. elegans and vector implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, M A M; Peyton, E L; Wilkerson, R C

    2005-06-01

    Among Oriental anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), several major vectors of forest malaria belong to the group of Anopheles (Cellia) leucosphyrus Dönitz. We have morphologically examined representative material (> 8000 specimens from seven countries) for taxonomic revision of the Leucosphyrus Group. Six new species are here described from adult, pupal and larval stages (with illustrations of immature stages) and formally named as follows: An. latens n. sp. (= An. leucosphyrus species A of Baimai et al., 1988b), An. cracens n. sp., An. scanloni n. sp., An. baimaii n. sp. (formerly An. dirus species B, C, D, respectively), An. mirans n. sp. and An. recens n. sp. Additionally, An. elegans (James) is redescribed and placed in the complex of An. dirus Peyton & Harrison (comprising An. baimaii, An. cracens, An. dirus, An. elegans, An. nemophilous Peyton and Ramalingam, An. scanloni and An. takasagoensis Morishita) of the Leucosphyrus Subgroup, together with An. baisasi Colless and the An. leucosphyrus complex (comprising An. balabacensis Baisas, An. introlatus Baisas, An. latens and An. leucosphyrus). Hence, the former Elegans Subgroup is renamed the Hackeri Subgroup (comprising An. hackeri Edwards, An. pujutensis Colless, An. recens and An. sulawesi Waktoedi). Distribution data and bionomics of the newly defined species are given, based on new material and published records, with discussion of morphological characters for species distinction and implications for ecology and vector roles of such species. Now these and other members of the Leucosphyrus Group are identifiable, it should be possible to clarify the medical importance and distribution of each species. Those already regarded as vectors of human malaria are: An. baimaii[Bangladesh, China (Yunnan), India (Andamans, Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Myanmar, Thailand]; An. latens[Borneo (where it also transmits Bancroftian filariasis), peninsular Malaysia, Thailand]; probably An. cracens (Sumatra

  8. Modeling of Anopheles minimus Mosquito NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR and Mutagenesis Analysis

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    Pornpimol Rongnoparut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most dangerous mosquito-borne diseases in many tropical countries, including Thailand. Studies in a deltamethrin resistant strain of Anopheles minimus mosquito, suggest cytochrome P450 enzymes contribute to the detoxification of pyrethroid insecticides. Purified A. minimus CYPOR enzyme (AnCYPOR, which is the redox partner of cytochrome P450s, loses flavin-adenosine di-nucleotide (FAD and FLAVIN mono-nucleotide (FMN cofactors that affect its enzyme activity. Replacement of leucine residues at positions 86 and 219 with phenylalanines in FMN binding domain increases FMN binding, enzyme stability, and cytochrome c reduction activity. Membrane-Bound L86F/L219F-AnCYPOR increases A. minimus P450-mediated pyrethroid metabolism in vitro. In this study, we constructed a comparative model structure of AnCYPOR using a rat CYPOR structure as a template. Overall model structure is similar to rat CYPOR, with some prominent differences. Based on primary sequence and structural analysis of rat and A. minimus CYPOR, C427R, W678A, and W678H mutations were generated together with L86F/L219F resulting in three soluble Δ55 triple mutants. The C427R triple AnCYPOR mutant retained a higher amount of FAD binding and increased cytochrome c reduction activity compared to wild-type and L86F/L219F-Δ55AnCYPOR double mutant. However W678A and W678H mutations did not increase FAD and NAD(PH bindings. The L86F/L219F double and C427R triple membrane-bound AnCYPOR mutants supported benzyloxyresorufin O-deakylation (BROD mediated by mosquito CYP6AA3 with a two- to three-fold increase in efficiency over wild-type AnCYPOR. The use of rat CYPOR in place of AnCYPOR most efficiently supported CYP6AA3-mediated BROD compared to all AnCYPORs.

  9. Water management for controlling the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in rice irrigation schemes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutero, C M; Blank, H; Konradsen, F; van der Hoek, W

    2000-10-02

    An experiment to assess the impact of intermittent irrigation on Anopheles larval populations, rice yields and water use was conducted in the Mwea rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. Four water regimes including intermittent irrigation were tested in a complete randomized block experimental design. Intermittent irrigation was carried out on a weekly schedule, with flooded conditions from Saturday through Tuesday morning. Larval sampling at each plot was conducted every Monday and prior to draining of intermittently irrigated subplots on Tuesday. All the adult anopheline mosquitoes emerging from larvae collected in the experimental plots were identified as being An. arabiensis. By far the highest numbers of An. arabiensis 1st instar larvae were found in the intermittently irrigated subplots, indicating that the water regime provided the most attractive environment for egg laying. However, the ratio between the 4th and 1st instar larvae in the subplots was only 0.08, indicating very low survival rates. In contrast, the 4th/1st instar ratio for subplots with other water management regimes ranged between 0.27 and 0.68, suggesting a correspondingly higher survival than observed with intermittent irrigation. The total number of 4th instars was almost the same in the intermittently irrigated subplots and the irrigation system normally practised by the farmers. The failure to eliminate larval development up to the 4th instar in the former method was attributed to residual pools of water. Larval abundance fluctuated throughout the 12-week sampling period. The highest larval densities were recorded in the 3 weeks after transplanting the rice seedlings. Afterwards, larval numbers dropped dramatically as the height of rice plants increased. Rice yields at harvest did not show statistically significant differences among subplots with different water regimes. The average yield per hectare ranged from 4.8-5.3 metric tonnes. The average daily water percolation/seepage rate was 3.6 mm

  10. Larvicidal property of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti

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    Rajamani Bhuvaneswari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito vectors spread severe human diseases which lead to millions of deaths every year. Vector management is ultimately aimed to develop the health of every individual’s life by reducing the mosquito diversity. Control of vectors in growing counties is an important issue with various aspects. The advancement of green nanotechnology will attribute the solution for vector controlling policy. To identify the larvicidal property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Belosynapsis kewensis (B. kewensis leaf extract against the Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi and Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti in vitro study (LC50 and LC90 was analyzed. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis. (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy, and XRD (X-ray Diffraction. Green AgNPs have a maximum absorption at 411 nm. The FTIR spectrum showed prominent peaks in (3863.55, 3759.02, 3361.01, 2926.81, 1575.12, 1388.16, 1034.79, 821.96, 717.07, 590.92, 534.32 and 472.42 cm−1 in the region of 4000–400 cm−1. The XRD peaks shown at 27.4°, 35.90°, 37.20°, 51.23° and 71.10° correspond to (311, (100, (101, (104 and (006 planes for face centered cubic (FCC. The TEM image showed the NPs with an average size of 24 ± 1.6 nm. In vitro larvicidal activity of AgNPs was used against the fourth instar of A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of AgNPs showed to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50 = 78.4; LC90 = 144.7 ppm followed by A. aegypti (LC50 = 84.2; LC90 = 117.3 ppm. These results recommend that the green synthesized AgNPs have a potential to be used as a candidate for the control of A. stephensi and A. aegypti through eco-friendly and cost effective approach.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Murraya koenigii leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Ayyappan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-04-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Murraya koenigii plant leaf extract against first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm) and ethanol leaf extract (50, 200, 350, 500, and 650 ppm) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from M. koenigii leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf ethanol extract in both mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed in synthesized AgNPs, and ethanol leaf extract of M. koenigii against A. stephensi had LC50 values of 10.82, 14.67, 19.13, 24.35, and 32.09 ppm and 279.33, 334.61, 406.95, 536.11, and 700.16 ppm and LC90 values of 32.38, 42.52, 53.65, 63.51, and 75.26 ppm and 737.37, 843.84, 907.67, 1,187.62, and 1,421.13 ppm. A. aegypti had LC50 values of 13.34, 17.19, 22.03, 27.57, and 34.84 ppm and 314.29, 374.95, 461.01, 606.50, and 774.01 ppm and LC90 values of 36.98, 47.67, 55.95, 67.36, and 77.72 ppm and 777.32, 891.16, 1,021.90, 1,273.06, and 1,509.18 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the use of M. koenigii synthesized silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer biopesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target

  12. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

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    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  13. Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota

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    van Loon Joop JA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is considered to be highly anthropophilic and volatiles of human origin provide essential cues during its host-seeking behaviour. A synthetic blend of three human-derived volatiles, ammonia, lactic acid and tetradecanoic acid, attracts A. gambiae. In addition, volatiles produced by human skin bacteria are attractive to this mosquito species. The purpose of the current study was to test the effect of ten compounds present in the headspace of human bacteria on the host-seeking process of A. gambiae. The effect of each of the ten compounds on the attractiveness of a basic blend of ammonia, lactic and tetradecanoic acid to A. gambiae was examined. Methods The host-seeking response of A. gambiae was evaluated in a laboratory set-up using a dual-port olfactometer and in a semi-field facility in Kenya using MM-X traps. Odorants were released from LDPE sachets and placed inside the olfactometer as well as in the MM-X traps. Carbon dioxide was added in the semi-field experiments, provided from pressurized cylinders or fermenting yeast. Results The olfactometer and semi-field set-up allowed for high-throughput testing of the compounds in blends and in multiple concentrations. Compounds with an attractive or inhibitory effect were identified in both bioassays. 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the best attractant in both set-ups and increased the attractiveness of the basic blend up to three times. 2-Phenylethanol reduced the attractiveness of the basic blend in both bioassays by more than 50%. Conclusions Identification of volatiles released by human skin bacteria led to the discovery of compounds that have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of A. gambiae. 3-Methyl-1-butanol may be used to increase mosquito trap catches, whereas 2-phenylethanol has potential as a spatial repellent. These two compounds could be applied in push-pull strategies to reduce mosquito numbers in malaria endemic areas.

  14. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

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    S. Kibret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, pF=6.03, pA. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, pF=10.56, pAnopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, pr=0.604, pr=0.605, pAnopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and

  15. Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three

  16. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  17. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  18. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Ferguson, Heather M.; Kreppel, Katharina S.; Kihonda, Anicet; Govella, Nicodem J.; Collier, Travis C.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Eskin, Eleazar; Kang, Eun Yong; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Weakley, Allison M.; Lanzaro, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria transmission is dependent on the propensity of Anopheles mosquitoes to bite humans (anthropophily) instead of other dead end hosts. Recent increases in the usage of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) in Africa have been associated with reductions in highly anthropophilic and endophilic vectors such as Anopheles gambiae s.s., leaving species with a broader host range, such as Anopheles arabiensis, as the most prominent remaining source of transmission in many settings. An. arabiensis appears to be more of a generalist in terms of its host choice and resting behavior, which may be due to phenotypic plasticity and/or segregating allelic variation. To investigate the genetic basis of host choice and resting behavior in An. arabiensis we sequenced the genomes of 23 human-fed and 25 cattle-fed mosquitoes collected both in-doors and out-doors in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We identified a total of 4,820,851 SNPs, which were used to conduct the first genome-wide estimates of “SNP heritability” for host choice and resting behavior in this species. A genetic component was detected for host choice (human vs cow fed; permuted P = 0.002), but there was no evidence of a genetic component for resting behavior (indoors versus outside; permuted P = 0.465). A principal component analysis (PCA) segregated individuals based on genomic variation into three groups which were characterized by differences at the 2Rb and/or 3Ra paracentromeric chromosome inversions. There was a non-random distribution of cattle-fed mosquitoes between the PCA clusters, suggesting that alleles linked to the 2Rb and/or 3Ra inversions may influence host choice. Using a novel inversion genotyping assay, we detected a significant enrichment of the standard arrangement (non-inverted) of 3Ra among cattle-fed mosquitoes (N = 129) versus all non-cattle-fed individuals (N = 234; χ2, p = 0.007). Thus, tracking the frequency of the 3Ra in An. arabiensis populations may be of use to infer

  19. Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

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    Spitzen Jeroen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon dioxide (CO2 plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools. The African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is attracted to human volatiles augmented by CO2. This study investigated whether CO2, usually supplied from gas cylinders acquired from commercial industry, could be replaced by CO2 derived from fermenting yeast (yeast-produced CO2. Methods Trapping experiments were conducted in the laboratory, semi-field and field, with An. gambiae s.s. as the target species. MM-X traps were baited with volatiles produced by mixtures of yeast, sugar and water, prepared in 1.5, 5 or 25 L bottles. Catches were compared with traps baited with industrial CO2. The additional effect of human odours was also examined. In the laboratory and semi-field facility dual-choice experiments were conducted. The effect of traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 on the number of mosquitoes entering an African house was studied in the MalariaSphere. Carbon dioxide baited traps, placed outside human dwellings, were also tested in an African village setting. The laboratory and semi-field data were analysed by a χ2-test, the field data by GLM. In addition, CO2 concentrations produced by yeast-sugar solutions were measured over time. Results Traps baited with yeast-produced CO2 caught significantly more mosquitoes than unbaited traps (up to 34 h post mixing the ingredients and also significantly more than traps baited with industrial CO2, both in the laboratory and semi-field. Adding yeast-produced CO2 to traps baited with human odour significantly increased trap catches. In the MalariaSphere, outdoor traps baited with yeast-produced or industrial CO2 + human odour reduced house entry of mosquitoes with a human host sleeping under a bed net indoors. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was not caught during the field trials

  20. Comportamento exófilo de Anopheles darlingi Root, em região meridional do Brasil Exophilic behavior of Anopheles darlingi Root in a Southern Region of Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se o comportamento da população "Araraquara" de Anopheles darlingi, em seu ambiente original e em relação à sua atividade exófila com isca humana. As coletas foram realizadas às margens do rio Jacaré-Pepira, no Município de Dourado, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O ciclo nictemeral caracteriza-se pelo aspecto bimodal, com os dois picos correspondentes a cada crepúsculo, ou seja, vespertino e matutino. O seu detalhamento permitiu detectar bimodalidade secundária, subdividindo cada pico em um eocrepuscular precedendo ao intracrepuscular propriamente dito. A variação sazonal revelou aumento do número de mosquitos na estação chuvosa e quente e nítido declínio na seca e fria. Embora com dados insuficientes, houve indícios de que o An. albitarsis local, apresente também ritmo bimodal em seu ciclo diário de atividade.Fortnightly 25-hour catches, with human bait, were carried out in a modified environment of the "Jacaré-Pepira" River, Dourado County, S. Paulo, Brazil which is the original region of the "Araraquara" strain of Anopheles darlingi. The exophylic biting activity was mostly nocturnal with bimodal rhythm, showing two clear peaks corresponding, respectively, to dusk and dawn. Going into crepuscular details two secondary peaks were observed, an eocrepuscular preceding the intracrepuscular one As, by means of chromosome arrangement studies, this population was found to have low polymorphism, it is supposed that those rhythms are, in a good measure, of endogenous command. The number of mosquitoes biting increased during the hot, wet season and decreased remarkably during the dry, cold one. There was some evidence that An albitarsis may also show a bimodality in its nocturnal biting activity rhythm.