WorldWideScience

Sample records for anonyms and pseudonyms

  1. HOP: Achieving Efficient Anonymity in MANETs by Combining HIP, OLSR, and Pseudonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Javier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offering secure and anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networking environments is essential to achieve confidence and privacy, thus promoting widespread adoption of this kind of networks. In addition, some minimum performance levels must be achieved for any solution to be practical and become widely adopted. In this paper, we propose and implement HOP, a novel solution based on cryptographic Host Identity Protocol (HIP that offers security and user-level anonymity in MANET environments while maintaining good performance levels. In particular, we introduce enhancements to the authentication process to achieve Host Identity Tag (HIT relationship anonymity, along with source/destination HIT anonymity when combined with multihoming. Afterward we detail how we integrate our improved version of HIP with the OLSR routing protocol to achieve efficient support for pseudonyms. We implemented our proposal in an experimental testbed, and the results obtained show that performance levels achieved are quite good, and that the integration with OLSR is achieved with a low overhead.

  2. Periodical Personae: Pseudonyms, Authorship and the Imagined Community of Joseph Priestley's Theological Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Calè

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Anonymous and pseudonymous publication suggest that the freedom of expression and circulation of ideas depends on the ‘negation of persons in public discourse' (William Warner. Like anonymity, pseudonymity suspends the referential anchoring which ties an utterance to a person or place. Yet rather than negating the personal identity of authors, pseudonyms shield them through fictional identities which project them into alternative imagined communities. In this paper I analyse the use of pseudonyms in a dissenting periodical publication, Joseph Priestley's 'Theological Repository '(1769-1771, 1784-1788, rpt 1795. By resisting biographical forms of identification and accountability, the journal explored, anticipated and projected its own reception.

  3. The Pseudonym on the Internet: Identity Creation and Space of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcienne Martin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New Technologies of Information and Communication (TIC are located out of time and out of space. Indeed, the permanent connectivity of people through digital interfaces (binary type is at the origin of the implementation of completely new paradigms. Anonymity and privacy are two phenomena that oppose one another with respect to both the social practices and their concepts involved; they have a huge impact on the organizational structure of the various civil societies in the world. In addition, if the digital society is rooted in civil society, it does not duplicate. Moreover, on Internet users identify themselves by creating their pseudonymous and by the use of pseudonyms in a relationship without any hierarchy, while in civil society nomination is subject to the law.

  4. Pseudonymity, authorship, selfhood : the names and lives of Charlotte Brontë and George Eliot

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    "Why did George Eliot live and Currer Bell die?" Victorian pseudonymity is seldom treated to any critical scrutiny - the only sustained interest has been in reading masculine pseudonyms as masks for "disreputable femininity," signs of the woman writer's "anxiety of authorship." This thesis proposes that pseudonymity is not a capitulation to gender ideology, but that a nom de plume is an exaggerated version of any authorial signature - the abstraction (or Othering) of a self int...

  5. An overview of anonymity and anonymous communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M.

    2008-01-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important aspect in distributed systems. In anonymous communication, privacy is provided to communicating parties by hiding their identities from each other and/or from others. This paper discusses the problem of anonymous communication and clarifies the notion of

  6. Alejandro Jodorowsky: Pseudonym as a Shield and Psychomagic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Acevedo, Sergio; Ruiz Castañeda, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Defining himself as a “psychologic barbarian”, Alejandro Jodorowsky was a film maker, poet, actor, mime, playwright, theater director, storyteller and sculptor, follower of Tarot and author of the psychomagic method, achieved through the “poetic, theatric, oneiric and magic acts”, a method seeking the affirmation of the human being. Consi-dered by Mexican authorities to be a harmful foreigner because of his pro-vocative ideas against social, political and religious institutions in the country...

  7. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401

    2011-01-01

    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  8. Deniable Anonymous Group Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM, 24:84–88, February 1981. [16] D. Chaum. Blind signatures for...ASIACRYPT, 2004. [59] P. P. Tsang and V. K. Wei. Short linkable ring signatures for e- voting , e-cash and attestation. In ’05 ISPEC, 2005. [60] D. I...which we term anonymity, proportionality, forward anonymity, and deniability. Like ring signatures [50], DAGA allows a user to au- thenticate as an

  9. Figureheads, ghost-writers and pseudonymous quant bloggers: the recent evolution of authorship in science publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, science has been published only under the proper names and postal addresses of the scientists who did the work. This is no longer the case, and over recent decades science authorship has fundamentally changed its character. At one extreme, prestigious scientists writing from high status institutions are used as mere figureheads to publish research that has been performed, analyzed and 'ghost-written' by commercial organizations. At the other extreme 'quant bloggers' are publishing real science with their personal identity shielded by pseudonyms and writing from internet addresses that give no indication of their location or professional affiliation. Yet the paradox is that while named high status scientists from famous institutions are operating with suspect integrity (e.g. covertly acting as figureheads) and minimal accountability (i.e. failing to respond to substantive criticism); pseudonymous bloggers - of mostly unknown identity, unknown education or training, and unknown address - are publishing interesting work and interacting with their critics on the internet. And at the same time as 'official' and professional science is increasingly timid careerist and dull; the self-organized, amateur realm of science blogs displays curiosity, scientific motivation, accountability, responsibility - and often considerable flair and skill. Quant bloggers and other internet scientists are, however, usually dependent on professional scientists to generate databases. But professional science has become highly constrained by non-scientific influences: increasingly sluggish, rigid, bureaucratic, managerial, and enmeshed with issues of pseudo-ethics, political correctness, public relations, politics and marketing. So it seems that professional science needs the quant bloggers. One possible scenario is that professional scientists may in future continue to be paid to do the plodding business of generating raw data (dull work that no one would do unless they were

  10. Service for the Pseudonymization of Electronic Healthcare Records Based on ISO/EN 13606 for the Secondary Use of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, Roberto; Muñoz, Adolfo; Hernando, M Elena; Pascual, Mario; Cáceres, Jesús; Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Fragua, Juan A; Serrano, Pablo; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-11-01

    The availability of electronic health data favors scientific advance through the creation of repositories for secondary use. Data anonymization is a mandatory step to comply with current legislation. A service for the pseudonymization of electronic healthcare record (EHR) extracts aimed at facilitating the exchange of clinical information for secondary use in compliance with legislation on data protection is presented. According to ISO/TS 25237, pseudonymization is a particular type of anonymization. This tool performs the anonymizations by maintaining three quasi-identifiers (gender, date of birth, and place of residence) with a degree of specification selected by the user. The developed system is based on the ISO/EN 13606 norm using its characteristics specifically favorable for anonymization. The service is made up of two independent modules: the demographic server and the pseudonymizing module. The demographic server supports the permanent storage of the demographic entities and the management of the identifiers. The pseudonymizing module anonymizes the ISO/EN 13606 extracts. The pseudonymizing process consists of four phases: the storage of the demographic information included in the extract, the substitution of the identifiers, the elimination of the demographic information of the extract, and the elimination of key data in free-text fields. The described pseudonymizing system was used in three telemedicine research projects with satisfactory results. A problem was detected with the type of data in a demographic data field and a proposal for modification was prepared for the group in charge of the drawing up and revision of the ISO/EN 13606 norm.

  11. Probabilistic Anonymity and Admissible Schedulers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Flavio D; Sokolova, Ana

    2007-01-01

    When studying safety properties of (formal) protocol models, it is customary to view the scheduler as an adversary: an entity trying to falsify the safety property. We show that in the context of security protocols, and in particular of anonymizing protocols, this gives the adversary too much power; for instance, the contents of encrypted messages and internal computations by the parties should be considered invisible to the adversary. We restrict the class of schedulers to a class of admissible schedulers which better model adversarial behaviour. These admissible schedulers base their decision solely on the past behaviour of the system that is visible to the adversary. Using this, we propose a definition of anonymity: for all admissible schedulers the identity of the users and the observations of the adversary are independent stochastic variables. We also develop a proof technique for typical cases that can be used to proof anonymity: a system is anonymous if it is possible to `exchange' the behaviour of two...

  12. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  13. Octopus: A Secure and Anonymous DHT Lookup

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiyan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Hash Table (DHT) lookup is a core technique in structured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Its decentralized nature introduces security and privacy vulnerabilities for applications built on top of them; we thus set out to design a lookup mechanism achieving both security and anonymity, heretofore an open problem. We present Octopus, a novel DHT lookup which provides strong guarantees for both security and anonymity. Octopus uses attacker identification mechanisms to discover and remove malicious nodes, severely limiting an adversary's ability to carry out active attacks, and splits lookup queries over separate anonymous paths and introduces dummy queries to achieve high levels of anonymity. We analyze the security of Octopus by developing an event-based simulator to show that the attacker discovery mechanisms can rapidly identify malicious nodes with low error rate. We calculate the anonymity of Octopus using probabilistic modeling and show that Octopus can achieve near-optimal anonymity. We evaluate ...

  14. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  15. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  16. Community engagement research and dual diagnosis anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Sean; Monica, Corbett; Pavlovich, Danny; Drake, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Community engagement research is widely discussed but rarely implemented. This article describes the implementation of a community engagement research project on Dual Diagnosis Anonymous, a rapidly spreading peer support program in Oregon for people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. After three years of discussions, overcoming barriers, and involving several institutions, this grassroots research project has been implemented and is expanding. Active participants in Dual Diagnosis Anonymous inspired and instructed policy makers, professionals, and students. Community engagement research requires frontline participants, community members, and professional collaborators to overcome multiple barriers with persistence and steadfastness. Building trust, collaboration, and structures for community engagement research takes time and a community effort.

  17. A new type of misconduct in the field of the Physical Sciences: the case of the pseudonyms used by I. Ciufolini to anonymously criticize other people's works on arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The above article, published online on 28 April 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been withdrawn with agreement from the journal Editor-in-Chief, Blaise Cronin, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The withdrawal has been agreed for legal reasons.

  18. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  19. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  20. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2013-01-01

    model in donor conception which offers women/couples a choice of anonymity or openness in donation.This paper is based on my talk on June 20, 2013 at London School of Economics at the conference “New Families and Genetic Identities: Developments in law, policy and research” organised by the Morgan...... bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  1. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  2. Decision Level Fusion of Fingerprint Minutiae Based Pseudonymous Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; Groot, de Koen; Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a biometric template protected authentication system, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected biometric template that can be compared directly against other pseudonymous identifiers. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a verification decision testing whether bot

  3. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  4. “We are Anonymous.” Anonymity in the Public Sphere – Challenges of Free and Open Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity, the stealth mode of public communication, challenges different actors who deal with freedom of communication issues in their day to day life – be it professional journalists, information and communication scientists, technicians or political activists. This article aims to deliver theoretical background on the concept of anonymity on the macro-level, as well as to shed light on how different communicators deal with anonymity on the micro-level. Based on the example of the Anonymous movement, communicative actions are put in relation to media technological artifacts and their surrounding media environment with a focus on journalistic practice and public response to the phenomenon. The analysis concludes with the need for a preservation of options for anonymous public communication as a dimension of freedom of communication after carefully considering both the advantages and the potential risks connected to that mode of private-public communication.

  5. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  6. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  7. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  8. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  9. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  10. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  11. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  12. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  13. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-08-21

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  14. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  15. Anonymity in voting revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter; Chaum, David; Jakobsson, Markus; Rivest, Ronald L.; Ryan, Peter Y.A.; Benaloh, Josh; Kutylowski, Miroslaw; Adida, Ben

    2010-01-01

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in

  16. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  17. 面向 VANET 的多层次匿名认证方案%A security communication mechanism based multiple levels of anonymity in VANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汝贤

    2015-01-01

    An authentication with multiple levels of anonymity (AMLA)is proposed.The signature mechanism and pseudonyms are applied in AMLA to implement anonymous authentication with source non-repudiation and integrity.By controlling the num-ber of pseudonyms issued to a vehicle and the lifetime of each pseudonym for a vehicle,the protocol is able to control the level of anonymity provided to a vehicle.The protocol cryptographically binds an expiry date with all pseudonyms to enforce an implicit revocation for the pseudonyms.Analytical and simulation results show that the delay of signature and verification is only 10.731 ms and 10.853 ms.%本文提出多层次匿名认证 AMLA(authentication with multiple levels of anonymity)方案。AMLA 方案利用基于身份签名机制及别名策略实现消息的不可否认性、完整性匿名认证。通过控制每个车辆的别名数量和每个别名的有效期,实现不同车辆的不同层次的匿名。同时为每个别名秘密地绑定该别名的有效截止日期,从而实现隐晦的别名撤销机制,减少系统开销。理论分析和仿真结果表明,AMLA 方案在高速处理器环境下消息签名时延仅为10.731 ms,验证时延为10.853 ms,并且具有较低的消息丢失率,证实了 AMLA 方案的有效性。

  18. Anonymous Gossiping

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  19. Time Lag and Anonymity as Variables in Student Evaluation of Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Walter D.; Getz, Howard G.

    1975-01-01

    The major concern of this study was the effect on evaluation data of anonymity and differing time spans between completion of specific programs by students and their responses to anonymous questionnaires. (Author)

  20. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  1. Privacy in Inter-Vehicular Networks: Why simple pseudonym change is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedersheim, B.; Ma, Zhendong; Kargl, F.; Papadimitratos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Inter-vehicle communication (IVC) systems disclose rich location information about vehicles. State-of-the-art security architectures are aware of the problem and provide privacy enhancing mechanisms, notably pseudonymous authentication. However, the granularity and the amount of location information

  2. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...... to the HCI community to take up this discussion not only as an ethical consideration but also as a socio-technical research and design opportunity....

  3. Reversible Anonymization of DICOM Images using Cryptography and Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussain ELFADIL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical images. The DICOM file contains the image data and a number of attributes such as identified patient data (name, age, insurance ID card,…, and non-identified patient data (doctor’s interpretation, image type,…. Medical images serve not only for examination, but can also be used for research and education purposes. For research they are used to prevent illegal use of information; before authorizing researchers to use these images, the medical staff deletes all the data which would reveal the patient identity to prevent patient privacy. This manipulation is called anonymization. In this paper, we propose a reversible anonymization of DICOM images. Identifying patient data with image digest, computed by the well-known SHA-256 hash function, are encrypted using the proposed probabilistic public key crypto-system. After compressing the Least Significant Bit (LSB bitplan of the image using Hofmann coding algorithm, the encrypted data is inserted into a liberated zone of the LSB bitplan of the image. The proposed method allows researchers to use anonymous DICOM images and keep to authorized staff -if necessary- the possibility to return to the original image with all related patient data.

  4. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  5. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  6. Anonymous Gossiping

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping me...

  7. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  8. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  9. Against anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  10. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  11. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  12. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  13. On the Potential of PUF for Pseudonym Generation in Vehicular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jonathan; Bösch, Christoph; Feiri, Michael; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Most proposals for security of vehicular networks foresee the generation of a comparatively large number of changing pseudonyms to prevent vehicles from being identified or tracked. Most proposals rely on communication with backend pseudonym providers to refill a vehicle’s pseudonym pool which creat

  14. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  15. AATCT: Anonymously Authenticated Transmission on the Cloud with Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged Hamada Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Cloud computing, anonymous authentication is an important service that must be available to users in the Cloud. Users have the right to remain anonymous as long as they behave honestly. However, in case a malicious behavior is detected, the system – under court order – must be able to trace the user to his clear identity. Most of the proposed authentication schemes for the Cloud are either password-based authentication schemes that are vulnerable to offline dictionary attacks, or biometric-based authentication schemes that take a long time of execution specially in case of high security requirements. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure scheme to non-interactively authenticate the users on the Cloud to the remote servers while preserving their anonymity. In case of accusations, the registration authority is able to trace any user to his clear identity. We avoid using low entropy passwords or biometric mechanisms, instead, we employ pseudonym systems in our design. The computation complexity and storage requirements are efficient and suitable to be implemented on smart cards/devices. Our proposed scheme withstands challenging adversarial attacks such as, stolen databases attacks, databases insertion attacks, impersonation attacks, replay attacks and malicious users/servers collaboration attacks.

  16. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Motwani, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  17. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  18. Anonymization of Court Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Claus; Jongejan, Bart; Hansen, Dorte Haltrup;

    We describe an anonymization tool that was commissioned by and specified together with Schultz, a publishing company specialized in Danish law related publications. Unavailability of training data and the need to guarantee compliance with pre-existing anonymization guidelines forced us to implement...

  19. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  20. PHENOMENAL EXPLORATION INTO IMPACT OF ANONYMITY ON LAW AND ORDER IN CYBERSPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingan

    2015-01-01

    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  1. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  2. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  3. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    ethical challenges that take into consideration the perspectives of employees, targeted organisations, online outlet administrators and audiences. The ethical challenge for employees is to disclose problems for organisational and societal changes in a safe context and supported by a large audience, while......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  4. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  5. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  6. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  7. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette

    1997-01-01

    a problem concerning its application when dealing with people having a serious mental, social or even physical disability. Within the field of artificial procreation there are even more problems. Informed written consent is often demanded from anonymous donors of gametes in order to ensure their consent...... to the legal and moral consequences of their anonymity. The child resulting from the artificial procreation, on the contrary, cannot consent to, nor be informed before being conceived, of the secrecy laid on the identity of its genetic parents. Some countries resolve this problem by allowing the children, when...... be regarded as invalid. The paper will argue that a law ensuring the complete anonymity of the parents is disregarding the informed consent and the interests of the children resulting from artificial procreation, and is thus doing more damage to society than good....

  8. Searchable Encryption Revisited: Consistency Properties, Relation to Anonymous IBE, and Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, Michel; Bellare, Mihir; Catalano, Dario

    2005-01-01

    ] is computationally consistent, and provide a new scheme that is statistically consistent. We also provide a transform of an anonymous IBE scheme to a secure PEKS scheme that, unlike the previous one, guarantees consistency. Finally we suggest three extensions of the basic notions considered here, namely anonymous......We identify and fill some gaps with regard to consistency (the extent to which false positives are produced) for public-key encryption with keyword search (PEKS). We define computational and statistical relaxations of the existing notion of perfect consistency, show that the scheme of [7...

  9. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  10. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  11. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  12. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  13. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  14. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  16. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  17. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  18. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaj Ali Jalila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  19. Anonymous Quantum Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  20. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  1. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  2. Lessons in Fluidity: Anonymous and the Communicative Formation of Organizational Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Dobusch, Leonhard

    2013-01-01

    Most research on organizational identity tends to take an essentialist perspective, differentiating between an identity construed internally by members of the organization and an image construed by external actors. However, the duality of identity and image struggles with capturing more fluid, open, or partial organizational arrangements, where it is difficult to uphold this distinction. Looking at the case of the hacker collective Anonymous as an extreme example of organization, this paper p...

  3. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging…

  5. Anonymous-key quantum cryptography and unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, H P

    2000-01-01

    A new cryptographic tool, anonymous quantum key technique, is introduced that leads to unconditionally secure key distribution and encryption schemes that can be readily implemented experimentally in a realistic environment. If quantum memory is available, the technique would have many features of public-key cryptography; an identification protocol that does not require a shared secret key is provided as an illustration. The possibility is also indicated for obtaining unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocols with this technique.

  6. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  7. Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization, and Sharing (iDASH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — iDASH, the newest Common Fund National Center for Biomedical Computing, addresses fundamental challenges to research progress and enables global collaborations...

  8. The Sniper Attack: Anonymously Deanonymizing and Disabling the Tor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    ping-o-death. html. [40] S. Savage, N. Cardwell, D. Wetherall, and T. Anderson, “TCP Con- gestion Control with a Misbehaving Receiver,” ACM SIGCOMM CCR...forcing them to choose guard nodes in control of the adversary. Finally, we discuss defenses against the Sniper Attack that provably render the attack...in control of the adversary. Our attack thus imposes real, significant threats to Tor’s users,1 and we believe it constitutes the most devastating

  9. Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in Anonymous Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, T.J.; Lambertz, C.; Stahl, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We study the effects of improvements in eBay’s rating mechanism on seller exit and continuing sellers’ behavior. Following a large sample of sellers over time, we exploit the fact that the rating mechanism was changed to reduce strategic bias in buyer rating. That improvement did not lead

  10. Representing Network Trust and Using It to Improve Anonymous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    attributes. Directed edges show expected relationships between types. For example, the edge from the “AS” type to the “ Router /switch” type indicates that...we expect that the compromise of an AS will likely contribute to the compromise of one or more routers and switches. Other ontologies may modularly...given in App. B.3. Virtual   Link  Tor  Relay   Physical   Connec6on   Router /Switch/ etc.   Relay  Operator   Relay  Family

  11. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  12. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted attribu

  13. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  14. Implementation of Fair-exchange and Anonymous Online E-cash Protocol for E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world of internet, e-commerce is one of the most prominent sectors where user wants to shop and pay online for online products. E-cash is one of these payment methods. In e-cash, every time a unique string is generated for user so that user uses that string to pay for any online product. At the time of online purchasing a trust should be maintain between customers and merchant such that the product price which is going to pay by customer is fair or not, the merchant is indeed genuine to deliver the product after getting online payment or not. Trust issues are resolved by using fair exchange concept at the time of online purchasing. Anonymity is also a major concern; it means that true identity of users must be hidden from merchant. By keeping these issues in mind we proposed a protocol which ensures users anonymity by using e-cash payment method and fair exchange by using off-line TTP which invokes by customer when any dispute occur from merchant side. In this paper, we implement our proposed protocol and also analyze its performance and compare it with other protocol.

  15. The Anonymous Plotter in the Routines of Renaissance Theatre and Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pugliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Renaissance theatre, both in England and Italy, was a commercial enterprise and, therefore, it utilized procedures of division of labour to meet the challenge of the market. One of these procedures was the compilation of preparatory texts of various kinds. But, while about one thousand scenari of the commedia dell’arte (some anonymous, some with the author’s name survive, of the ‘plots’ compiled by the English ‘plotters’ in preparation of plays to be written only one incomplete specimen and a few fragments have been preserved; their nature, therefore, remains dubious. Furthermore, anonymous documents of a different nature, also confusingly called ‘plots’, but compiled as reminders for the actors’ entrances during performance, have survived in six, mostly fragmentary, manuscripts. This article discusses these three kinds of preparatory texts in order to characterize their different nature and argues that, although suggestive, the idea of a derivation of the two kinds of English ‘plots’ from the scenari appears unconvincing; indeed, the compilation, in both contexts, of preparatory texts was simply an obvious and necessary measure in order to speed up procedures.

  16. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  17. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  18. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  19. CREATION A MATHEMATICAL MODEL, THAT PROVIDES A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF ANONYMITY IN E-VOTING SYSTEM WITH THE INTEGRITY AND PRIVACY OF TRANSMITTED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  20. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  1. An efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for mobile satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kee-Young

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a new efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for mobile satellite communication systems. Compared with the related schemes, the proposed scheme achieves the following three main advantages: (1 It is just based on a secure one-way hash function for avoiding complex computations for both mobile users and network control center (NCC, (2 it does not require sensitive verification table which may cause NCC to become an attractive target for numerous attacks (e.g., insertion attacks and stolen-verifier attacks, and (3 it provides higher security level (e.g., secure mutual authentication and key establishment, confidential communication, user's privacy, simple key management, and session key independence. As a result, the proposed scheme is very suitable for lightweight-device environments because of very low computation overload on the part of both mobile user and NCC.

  2. The Metadata Anonymization Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the experience of Julien Voisin during the 2011 edition of the well-known \\emph{Google Summer of Code}. This project is a first step in the domain of metadata anonymization in Free Software. This article is articulated in three parts. First, a state of the art and a categorization of usual metadata, then the privacy policy is exposed/discussed in order to find the right balance between information lost and privacy enhancement. Finally, the specification of the Metadat...

  3. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in

  4. DEVELOPING AND MODELING A NEW E-LOTTERY SYSTEM USING ANONYMOUS SIGNATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN MEDELEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional lottery systems, the players choose some numbers on a ticket, enroll it to the lottery organizer and pay an amount of money for it. But this perspective offers no guarantee to the players that the lottery organizer doesn’t manipulate the number selection in order to pay the least. This suspicion could be avoided if the lottery organizer didn’t know the numbers selected by the players before the draw. Such a system is possible to be realized by using anonymous signatures, but the design should also guarantee that forging lottery tickets after the moment of the draw or claim of a different ticket is not possible. This paper will propose and analyze a model in order to fulfill all requirement described before, using several cryptographic primitives

  5. A Parallelism-Based Approach to Network Anonymization

    CERN Document Server

    Margasinski, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Considering topologies of anonymous networks we used to organizing anonymous communication into hard to trace paths hiding its origin or destination. In anonymity the company is crucial, however the serial transportation imposes a costly tradeoff between a level of privacy and a speed of communication. This paper introduces a framework of a novel architecture for anonymous networks that hides initiators of communications by parallelization of anonymous links. The new approach, which is based on the grounds of the anonymous P2P network called P2Priv, does not require content forwarding via a chain of proxy nodes to assure high degree of anonymity. Contrary to P2Priv, the new architecture can be suited to anonymization of various network communications, including anonymous access to distributed as well as client-server services. In particular, it can be considered as an anonymization platform for these network applications where both privacy and low delays are required.

  6. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  7. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user...... to access anonymously services such as whistle blowing and net-counselling. Our approach: (1) allows a mobile user, remembering a short password, to anonymously and securely retrieve the credentials necessary for his anonymous communication without assuming a pre-established anonymous channel...

  8. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  9. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  10. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  11. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...

  12. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...

  13. Private Queries and Trajectory Anonymization: a Dual Perspective on Location Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ghinita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile devices with Internet connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi and global positioning capabilities (e.g., GPS have triggered the widespread development of location-based applications. For instance, users are able to ask queries about points of interest in their proximity. Furthermore, users can act as mobile sensors to monitor traffic flow, or levels of air pollution. However, such applications require users to disclose their locations, which raises serious privacy concerns. With knowledge of user locations, a malicious attacker can infer sensitive information, such as alternative lifestyles or political affiliations. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based services (LBS. Currently, two main LBS use scenarios exist: in the first one, users send location-based queries to an un-trusted server, and the privacy objective is to protect the location of the querying user. In the second setting, a trusted entity, such as a telephone company, gathers large amounts of location data (i.e., trajectory traces and wishes to publish them for data mining (e.g., alleviating traffic congestion. In this case, it is crucial to prevent an adversary from associating trajectories to user identities. In this survey paper, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in location privacy protection from the dual perspective of query privacy and trajectory anonymization. We review the most prominent design choices and technical solutions, and highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  14. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishonna Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.

  15. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations.

  16. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  17. Movement Data Anonymity through Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks and mobile devices, such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, sense and track the movements of people and vehicles, producing society-wide mobility databases. This is a challenging scenario for data analysis and mining. On the one hand, exciting opportunities arise out of discovering new knowledge about human mobile behavior, and thus fuel intelligent info-mobility applications. On other hand, new privacy concerns arise when mobility data are published. The risk is particularly high for GPS trajectories, which represent movement of a very high precision and spatio-temporal resolution: the de-identification of such trajectories (i.e., forgetting the ID of their associated owners is only a weak protection, as generally it is possible to re-identify a person by observing her routine movements. In this paper we propose a method for achieving true anonymity in a dataset of published trajectories, by defining a transformation of the original GPS trajectories based on spatial generalization and k-anonymity. The proposed method offers a formal data protection safeguard, quantified as a theoretical upper bound to the probability of re-identification. We conduct a thorough study on a real-life GPS trajectory dataset, and provide strong empirical evidence that the proposed anonymity techniques achieve the conflicting goals of data utility and data privacy. In practice, the achieved anonymity protection is much stronger than the theoretical worst case, while the quality of the cluster analysis on the trajectory data is preserved.

  18. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  19. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  20. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.

    2013-01-01

    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  1. Trusted Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Trusted Network Connection in Mobile Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jun Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Technologies make the mobile terminals such as smart phones, PDAs and handsets much more powerful to access mobile network in recent years. Especially with the widely use of mobile terminals, mobile network now becomes a primary tool for daily and business interactions. However, the proliferation of mobile terminals also draws mobile malware’s attention which will do damage to the mobile terminal and further affect the security of mobile network. But the traditional access control and authentication mechanism cannot resolve such security issues. On the basis of trusted computing technology, we proposed a mobile trusted network architecture by extending the trusted network connection in mobile environment. And an improvement EAP-EHash method is used in the proposed architecture to implement authentication. We defined two service scenarios in the authentication scheme, home network authentication and roaming network authentication. The process of each scenario is described in detail. By introducing the pseudonym mechanism, our scheme can protect user identity. And the connection status not only depends on the identification process, but also the trust status of the platform. The analysis shows that our scheme benefits the properties of user identity anonymity, mutual authentication, fake agent resistance, platform integrity verification, EAP and TNC Compatible. And the ciphersuite negotiation makes our scheme more suitable for resource limited mobile terminals.

  2. Towards a Theory of Anonymous Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderi, J

    2009-01-01

    The problem of anonymous networking when an eavesdropper observes packet timings in a communication network is considered. The goal is to hide the identities of source-destination nodes, and paths of information flow in the network. One way to achieve such an anonymity is to use mixers. Mixers are nodes that receive packets from multiple sources and change the timing of packets, by mixing packets at the output links, to prevent the eavesdropper from finding sources of outgoing packets. In this paper, we consider two simple but fundamental scenarios: double input-single output mixer and double input-double output mixer. For the first case, we use the information-theoretic definition of the anonymity, based on average entropy per packet, and find an optimal mixing strategy under a strict latency constraint. For the second case, perfect anonymity is considered, and a maximal throughput strategy with perfect anonymity is found that minimizes the average delay.

  3. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  4. Anonymous Broadcast Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lazic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dining Cryptographer network (or DC-net is a privacy preserving communication protocol devised by David Chaum for anonymous message publication. A very attractive feature of DC-nets is the strength of its security, which is inherent in the protocol and is not dependent on other schemes, like encryption. Unfortunately the DC-net protocol has a level of complexity that causes it to suffer from exceptional communication overhead and implementation difficulty that precludes its use in many real-world use-cases. We have designed and created a DC-net implementation that uses a pure client-server model, which successfully avoids much of the complexity inherent in the DC-net protocol. We describe the theory of DC-nets and our pure client-server implementation, as well as the compromises that were made to reduce the protocol’s level of complexity. Discussion centers around the details of our implementation of DC-net.

  5. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed.

  6. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  7. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  8. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  9. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  10. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-08-16

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  11. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  12. Factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results in a free and anonymous screening centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope

    2015-07-01

    Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.

  13. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琪; 胡斌; 陈克非; 刘文浩; 谭肖

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency.

  14. Comparative population genetic analysis of bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis using anonymous and gene-associated simple sequence repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, Vincent P; Kimbrell, Carol A; Lynn, Eric A; Hyde, John R

    2012-01-01

    Comparative population genetic analyses of traditional and emergent molecular markers aid in determining appropriate use of new technologies. The bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis is a high gene-flow marine species off the west coast of North America that experienced strong population decline over the past 3 decades. We used 18 anonymous and 13 gene-associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci (expressed sequence tag [EST]-SSRs) to characterize range-wide population structure with temporal replicates. No F(ST)-outliers were detected using the LOSITAN program, suggesting that neither balancing nor divergent selection affected the loci surveyed. Consistent hierarchical structuring of populations by geography or year class was not detected regardless of marker class. The EST-SSRs were less variable than the anonymous SSRs, but no correlation between F(ST) and variation or marker class was observed. General linear model analysis showed that low EST-SSR variation was attributable to low mean repeat number. Comparative genomic analysis with Gasterosteus aculeatus, Takifugu rubripes, and Oryzias latipes showed consistently lower repeat number in EST-SSRs than SSR loci that were not in ESTs. Purifying selection likely imposed functional constraints on EST-SSRs resulting in low repeat numbers that affected diversity estimates but did not affect the observed pattern of population structure.

  15. On the Anonymity of Identity-Based Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity of identity-based encryption (IBE means that given a ciphertext, one cannot distinguish the target identity from a random identity. In this paper, we thoroughly discuss the anonymity of IBE systems. We found that the current definition of anonymity is obscure to describe some IBE systems, such as Gentry IBE system. Furthermore, current definition cannot express the degree of anonymity. So we divide the degree of anonymity into weak anonymity and strong anonymity based on indistinguishability between different games. For weakly anonymous IBE systems, the target identity in a ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random identity. For strongly anonymous IBE systems, the whole ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random tuple. We also discuss the type of anonymity and divide it into two types. Type 1 means that a random tuple can be seen as a valid ciphertext, while type 2 cannot. Based on our new definitions, we show that three famous IBE systems, Gentry IBE system, Boyen-Waters IBE system, and Lewko IBE system, have strong but different types of anonymity.

  16. VANETs中通信有效的门限匿名认证方案%Communication-efficient Threshold Anonymous Authentication Scheme in VANETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁菁; 卢建朱; 江俊晖

    2015-01-01

    在保证可靠性、匿名性和可审核性的同时,提高执行效率和降低通信成本是车载自组织网络( VANETs)的研究热点。针对现有匿名认证方案计算量较大和通信成本较高的问题,提出一种通信有效的门限匿名认证方案。采用基于身份的签名算法提高执行效率,使原始信息可从签名中恢复,从而降低通信成本,利用门限转发机制实现信息的可靠性,使用假名保证发送者的匿名性,通过追踪和撤销机制实现可审核性。分析结果表明,与已有的门限匿名认证方案相比,该方案在保证安全性的同时,具有较低的通信成本和较高的执行效率。%How to improve the computational efficiency and how to reduce the communication cost while achieving the goals of reliability, anonymity and auditability are becoming important research issues of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Due to computational efficiency and communication cost of existing anonymous authentication schemes,a communication-efficient threshold anonymous authentication scheme is proposed in this paper. It signs the message by using an identity-based signature algorithm and the original message can be recovered from the signature, which can improve the computational efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The threshold-based forwarding mechanism ensures reliability of information. The anonymity of the message sender is achieved by using pseudonym. In order to achieve auditability,this system is able to track and revoke malicious nodes. Analysis result indicates that the proposed scheme not only satisfies reliability, anonymity and auditability, but also has lower communication cost and better computational efficiency compared with the existing threshold anonymous announcement in VANETs.

  17. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  18. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 7th EDBT/ICDT Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Marius Truta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The seventh Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT and International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT in Athens, Greece. The PAIS 2014 workshop provided an open yet focused platform for researchers and practitioners from fields such as computer science, statistics, healthcare informatics, and law to discuss and present current research challenges and advances in data privacy and anonymity research. The present special issue contains three extended papers that have been selected as the best three papers presented at PAIS 2014 workshop.

  19. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E; Lee, Matthew T; Johnson, Byron R

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research.

  20. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were......, sertraline, and loperamide could be detected. 9-carboxy-THC was detected in most samples by immunoassay and confirmed by GC-MS; six thereof with immunoassay concentrations >50 ng/mL. The average ethanol concentration was 0.60 g/L ± 0.12 (α=0.05, n=21). In the soil samples, the following drugs of abuse could...... side or chemical instability. Soil samples could be proved to be useful for investigating consumption of drugs of abuse as a supplement to urine samples...

  1. Duke Surgery Patient Safety: an open-source application for anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss surgical events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCready Mariana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that 4% of hospitalized patients suffer from an adverse event caused by the medical treatment administered. Some institutions have created systems to encourage medical workers to report these adverse events. However, these systems often prove to be inadequate and/or ineffective for reviewing the data collected and improving the outcomes in patient safety. Objective To describe the Web-application Duke Surgery Patient Safety, designed for the anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss events as well as scheduled reporting to surgeons and hospital administration. Software architecture DSPS was developed primarily using Java language running on a Tomcat server and with MySQL database as its backend. Results Formal and field usability tests were used to aid in development of DSPS. Extensive experience with DSPS at our institution indicate that DSPS is easy to learn and use, has good speed, provides needed functionality, and is well received by both adverse-event reporters and administrators. Discussion This is the first description of an open-source application for reporting patient safety, which allows the distribution of the application to other institutions in addition for its ability to adapt to the needs of different departments. DSPS provides a mechanism for anonymous reporting of adverse events and helps to administer Patient Safety initiatives. Conclusion The modifiable framework of DSPS allows adherence to evolving national data standards. The open-source design of DSPS permits surgical departments with existing reporting mechanisms to integrate them with DSPS. The DSPS application is distributed under the GNU General Public License.

  2. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  3. Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hirotada; Tani, Seiichiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolea...

  4. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  5. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  6. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  7. A Comparison of Anonymous versus Identifiable e-Peer Review on College Student Writing Performance and the Extent of Critical Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiling; Bol, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Peer review has become commonplace in composition courses and is increasingly employed in the context of telecommunication technology. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of anonymous and identifiable electronic peer (e-peer) review on college student writing performance and the extent of critical peer feedback. Participants…

  8. How To Break Anonymity of the Netflix Prize Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Arvind; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2006-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical de-anonymization attacks against high-dimensional micro-data, such as individual preferences, recommendations, transaction records and so on. Our techniques are robust to perturbation in the data and tolerate some mistakes in the adversary's background knowledge. We apply our de-anonymization methodology to the Netflix Prize dataset, which contains anonymous movie ratings of 500,000 subscribers of Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental service. ...

  9. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  10. Authentication Without Identification using Anonymous Credential System

    CERN Document Server

    Damodaram, A

    2009-01-01

    Privacy and security are often intertwined. For example, identity theft is rampant because we have become accustomed to authentication by identification. To obtain some service, we provide enough information about our identity for an unscrupulous person to steal it (for example, we give our credit card number to Amazon.com). One of the consequences is that many people avoid e-commerce entirely due to privacy and security concerns. The solution is to perform authentication without identification. In fact, all on-line actions should be as anonymous as possible, for this is the only way to guarantee security for the overall system. A credential system is a system in which users can obtain credentials from organizations and demonstrate possession of these credentials. Such a system is anonymous when transactions carried out by the same user cannot be linked. An anonymous credential system is of significant practical relevance because it is the best means of providing privacy for users.

  11. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serracino-Inglott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterious as popularly portrayed. Under a definition of vigilantism that includes reprobative punishment rather than violence as a key element, Anonymous are vigilantes. Many of its Ops can be justified in view of the mismatch between formal norm enforcement practice and Internet natives’ experience of it. Anons are more like eco-warriors than terrorists. While their actions are contentious, their force is framed in a vision of common good that is not unreasonable. Engaging with online deviants is shown to be a productive way of identifying the weaknesses in concepts underpinning moral evaluation of Internet-enabled phenomena.

  12. Deterministic Leader Election Among Disoriented Anonymous Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    dieudonné, Yoann; Petit, Franck; Villain, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We address the Leader Election (LE) problem in networks of anonymous sensors sharing no kind of common coordinate system. Leader Election is a fundamental symmetry breaking problem in distributed computing. Its goal is to assign value 1 (leader) to one of the entities and value 0 (non-leader) to all others. In this paper, assuming n > 1 disoriented anonymous sensors, we provide a complete charac- terization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader, provided that all the sensors' positions are known by every sensor. More precisely, our contribution is twofold: First, assuming n anonymous sensors agreeing on a common handedness (chirality) of their own coordinate system, we provide a complete characterization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader. Second, we also provide such a complete chararacterization for sensors devoided of a common handedness. Both characterizations rely on a particular object from combinatorics on words, namely the Lyndon Words.

  13. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  14. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  15. Dissent in Numbers: Making Strong Anonymity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    transmit anonymously in each bit-time with- out colliding and yielding garbled output, an arbitration or scheduling mechanism is needed. Second, any misbe...http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/ 14/technology/personaltech/14talk.html. [62] J. Wright, T. de Souza, and I. Brown. Fine-grained censorship mapping information sources, legality and ethics . In FOCI, Aug. 2011. 14

  16. Design and implementation of secure protocols for practical authentication and fair anonymity systems

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Vico, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería Informática. Fecha de lectura, mayo de 2015 With the huge growth of information and communication systems, as well as the computing power, privacy has become a main concern for Internet users. Certainly, nowadays users tend to prefer privacy respectful systems and, consequently, companies providing software solutions also need to worry about it. Nevertheless,...

  17. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  18. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  19. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  20. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  1. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  2. A Secure and Effective Anonymous Integrity Checking Protocol for Data Storage in Multicloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to verify the integrity of outsourced data is an important problem in cloud storage. Most of previous work focuses on three aspects, which are providing data dynamics, public verifiability, and privacy against verifiers with the help of a third party auditor. In this paper, we propose an identity-based data storage and integrity verification protocol on untrusted cloud. And the proposed protocol can guarantee fair results without any third verifying auditor. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that our protocols are secure and efficient.

  3. Astronomers Anonymous Getting Help with the Puzzles and Pitfalls of Practical Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwood, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In this entertaining parody of letters to a typical “lonely hearts” columnist, real-life expert and long-time astronomy columnist Steve Ringwood presents a sweeping overview of common questions and problems practical and amateur astronomers face, compiled from Ringwood's own experiences in the world of astronomy. His screamingly funny comments will keep you laughing out loud throughout, so be careful of reading this book in public! Written especially for troubled astronomers, but also accessible to anyone with an interest in space or astronomy, readers will easily recognize the difficulties they face and enjoy the humor being directed at them and their science.

  4. Privacy and anonymity in the information society - challenges for the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis A; Siozos, Panagiotis D

    2011-03-01

    Electronic information is challenging traditional views on property and privacy. The explosion of digital data, driven by novel web applications, social networking, and mobile devices makes data security and the protection of privacy increasingly difficult. Furthermore, biometric data and radiofrequency identification applications enable correlations that are able to trace our cultural, behavioral, and emotional states. The concept of privacy in the digital realm is transformed and emerges as one of the biggest risks facing today's Information Society. In this context, the European Union (EU) policy-making procedures strive to adapt to the pace of technological advancement. The EU needs to improve the existing legal frameworks for privacy and data protection. It needs to work towards a "privacy by education" approach for the empowerment of "privacy-literate" European digital citizens.

  5. Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance, Aftercare, and Outcome: A Secondary Analysis of Two Years Posthospitalization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    clinical experience has found that it was a very difficult task for clients with schizoid or avoident personality disorders to effect a successful...which affect the social, psychological, and biological functioning of persons dealing with alcohol problems (Mendelson and Mello, 1979; 1 Purposive...necessary to describe persons with alcohol-related problems" (p. 1055).5 While the heterogeneity of alcohol problems Is evident and Increasingly

  6. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-06-08

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas's currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs.

  7. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs. PMID:27338382

  8. 20,000 In League Under the Sea: Anonymous Communication, Trust, MLATs, and Undersea Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    are used to construct an AS- level Internet routing map. Data that can be used to create such a map includes the CAIDA internet topology [8], the... CAIDA AS relationships [7], and RouteViews [31]. This map is then used to create the following instances: – Virtual Link: An instance is created...routing map, we use CAIDA topol- ogy and link data from 12/13 and RouteViews data from 12/1/13. The resulting map includes 46,368 ASes, 279,841 links

  9. Reputation formation and the evolution of cooperation in anonymous online markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Jann, Ben; Przepiorka, Wojtek; Wehrli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical propositions stressing the importance of trust, reciprocity, and reputation for cooperation in social exchange relations are deeply rooted in classical sociological thought. Today's online markets provide a unique opportunity to test these theories using unobtrusive data. Our study inves

  10. A Theory of Distributed Anonymous Mobile Robots Formation and Agreement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-15

    unit distance, (5) agreement on direction, and (6) leader election . We develop algorithms for solving some of these problems under various conditions. Some impossibility results are also presented. (AN)

  11. 20,000 In League Under the Sea: Anonymous Communication, Trust, MLATs, and Undersea Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggard Aaron D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the effectiveness of correlation attacks against Tor, the censorship arms race, and observations of malicious relays in Tor, we propose that Tor users capture their trust in network elements using probability distributions over the sets of elements observed by network adversaries. We present a modular system that allows users to efficiently and conveniently create such distributions and use them to improve their security. To illustrate this system, we present two novel types of adversaries. First, we study a powerful, pervasive adversary that can compromise an unknown number of Autonomous System organizations, Internet Exchange Point organizations, and Tor relay families. Second, we initiate the study of how an adversary might use Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs to enact surveillance. As part of this, we identify submarine cables as a potential subject of trust and incorporate data about these into our MLAT analysis by using them as a proxy for adversary power. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results that show the potential for our trust framework to be used by Tor clients and services to improve security.

  12. Advanced Arithmetic from Twelfth-Century Al-Andalus, Surviving Only (and anonymously) in Latin Translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    . Next it goes on with complicated cases where the arithmetical series is not proportional to 1 – 2 – 3 ..., and the fraction is not an aliquot part. Fibonacci gives an algebraic solution to one variant and also general formulae for all variants – but these do not come from his algebra, and he thus...... cannot have derived them himself. A complete survey of occurrences once again points to al-Andalus. 3. Chapter 15 Section 1 of Fibonacci’s Liber abbaci mainly deals with the ancient theory of means though not telling so. If M is one such mean between A and B, it is shown systematically how each...... of these three numbers can be found if the other two are given – once more by means of algebra, Elements II.5–6, and proportion techniques. The lettering shows that Fibonacci uses an Arabic or Greek source, but no known Arabic or Greek work contains anything similar. However, the structural affinity suggests...

  13. A genetic similarity algorithm for searching the Gene Ontology terms and annotating anonymous protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Razib M; Deris, Safaai; Illias, Rosli M

    2008-02-01

    A genetic similarity algorithm is introduced in this study to find a group of semantically similar Gene Ontology terms. The genetic similarity algorithm combines semantic similarity measure algorithm with parallel genetic algorithm. The semantic similarity measure algorithm is used to compute the similitude strength between the Gene Ontology terms. Then, the parallel genetic algorithm is employed to perform batch retrieval and to accelerate the search in large search space of the Gene Ontology graph. The genetic similarity algorithm is implemented in the Gene Ontology browser named basic UTMGO to overcome the weaknesses of the existing Gene Ontology browsers which use a conventional approach based on keyword matching. To show the applicability of the basic UTMGO, we extend its structure to develop a Gene Ontology -based protein sequence annotation tool named extended UTMGO. The objective of developing the extended UTMGO is to provide a simple and practical tool that is capable of producing better results and requires a reasonable amount of running time with low computing cost specifically for offline usage. The computational results and comparison with other related tools are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and tools.

  14. Recovery and spiritual transformation among peer leaders of a modified methadone anonymous group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Linda; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Dingle, Shannon

    2006-12-01

    This analysis of five recovery narratives from leaders of a peer-led, 12-Step-based self- help group in a methadone treatment program highlights the importance of spiritually-mediated role transformation in the recovery process. For these men and women in their forties and fifties, their progression to a leadership role helping others with their recovery validated the spiritual transformation they regarded as underlying their own recovery process. Assumption of this new leadership/helper role marked a tangible sign that their deepened spirituality allowed them to assume a new, higher function in a struggle with the addiction that had plagued their lives. For these peer leaders, methadone was at the core of the group experience and an aid to spiritual transformation.

  15. The Anonymity Factor in Making Multicultural Teams Work: Virtual and Real Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Roberta Wiig

    2012-01-01

    A major purpose of courses in intercultural communication is often to improve students' ability to perform well in situations with the potential to be both highly enlightening and highly difficult--in multicultural teams. This article reports the results of exercises in which members of a dysfunctional multicultural class were assigned to teams…

  16. Breaking Down Anonymity: Digital surveillance on irregular migrants in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of irregular migrants causes a tough problem for policy makers. Political and popular aversion against the presence of irregular migrants has mounted in most West-European societies for years, yet their presence remains. Their exact numbers are obviously unknown - only estim

  17. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al’s method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration. PMID:28335572

  18. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  19. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  20. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  1. Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yi Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks often means extra cost in terms of transfer efficiency, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy consideration. By comparison and analysis of existing approaches,we investigate the properties of unstructured P2P anonymity, and summarize current attack models on these designs. Most of these approaches are path-based, which require peers to pre-construct anonymous paths before transmission, thus suffering significant overhead and poor reliability. We also discuss the open problems in this field and propose several future research directions.

  2. A NEW ANONYMITY CONTROLLED E-CASH SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fangguo; Wang Changjie; Wang Yumin

    2002-01-01

    E-cash is a type of very important electronic payment systems. The complete anonymity of E-cash can be used for criminal activities, so E-cash should be anonymity controlled.Moreover, Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) has been regard as the mainstream of current public cryptography . In this paper, a new anonymity controlled E-cash scheme based on ECC for the first time and using a new technology-one-time key pairs digital signature is designed, and its security and efficiency are analyzed. In our scheme, the coin tracing and owner tracing can be implemented.

  3. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  4. Constructions for Anonymous Secret Sharing Schemes Using Combinatorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-pu Deng; Li-feng Guo; Mu-lan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In an anonymous secret sharing scheme the secret can be reconstructed without knowledge of which participants hold which shares. In this paper some constructions of anonymous secret sharing schemes with 2 thresholds by using combinatorial designs are given. Let υ(t, ω, q) denote the minimum size of the set of shares of a perfect anonymous (t, ω) threshold secret sharing scheme with q secrets. In this paper we prove that υ(t, ω, q) = Θ(q) if t and ω are fixed and that the lower bound of the size of the set of shares in [4] is not optimal under certain condition.

  5. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on December 18, 2009 at 13:53 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. MALTZ et al.: STRUCTURE PRESERVING ANONYMIZATION OF ROUTER CONFIGURATION DATA 351 1 hostname cr1.lax.foo.com 2 ! 3... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 352 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 lines 14 and 30 (255.255.255.252

  6. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  7. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON

    2007-01-01

    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  8. The FELICIA bulletin board system and the IRBIS anonymous FTP server: Computer security information sources for the DOE community. CIAC-2302

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1993-11-03

    The Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) operates two information servers for the DOE community, FELICIA (formerly FELIX) and IRBIS. FELICIA is a computer Bulletin Board System (BBS) that can be accessed by telephone with a modem. IRBIS is an anonymous ftp server that can be accessed on the Internet. Both of these servers contain all of the publicly available CIAC, CERT, NIST, and DDN bulletins, virus descriptions, the VIRUS-L moderated virus bulletin board, copies of public domain and shareware virus- detection/protection software, and copies of useful public domain and shareware utility programs. This guide describes how to connect these systems and obtain files from them.

  9. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Paddicts who seek treatment. PMID:28050185

  10. Cryptanalysis and Enhancement of Anonymity Preserving Remote User Mutual Authentication and Session Key Agreement Scheme for E-Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Li, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    The E-health care systems employ IT infrastructure for maximizing health care resources utilization as well as providing flexible opportunities to the remote patient. Therefore, transmission of medical data over any public networks is necessary in health care system. Note that patient authentication including secure data transmission in e-health care system is critical issue. Although several user authentication schemes for accessing remote services are available, their security analysis show that none of them are free from relevant security attacks. We reviewed Das et al.'s scheme and demonstrated their scheme lacks proper protection against several security attacks such as user anonymity, off-line password guessing attack, smart card theft attack, user impersonation attack, server impersonation attack, session key discloser attack. In order to overcome the mentioned security pitfalls, this paper proposes an anonymity preserving remote patient authentication scheme usable in E-health care systems. We then validated the security of the proposed scheme using BAN logic that ensures secure mutual authentication and session key agreement. We also presented the experimental results of the proposed scheme using AVISPA software and the results ensure that our scheme is secure under OFMC and CL-AtSe models. Moreover, resilience of relevant security attacks has been proved through both formal and informal security analysis. The performance analysis and comparison with other schemes are also made, and it has been found that the proposed scheme overcomes the security drawbacks of the Das et al.'s scheme and additionally achieves extra security requirements.

  11. An Anonymous Referee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This is a combined experimental and theoretical study of the compound UO2, UO2(NO3)2(H20)6 and UO0.75Pu0.25O2, using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RXIS), high resolution x-ray absorption (XAS) and LDA and LDA-U calculations.

  12. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  13. The Identity of Anonymous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    Paper presented at the Conference Panel, "Challenges of Creating Inclusivity and Exclusivity: Insights Into the Communicative Constitution of Organizational Boundaries in Various Cultural Contexts"....

  14. Anonymous authenticated communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Cheryl L.; Schroeppel, Richard C.; Snyder, Lillian A.

    2007-06-19

    A method of performing electronic communications between members of a group wherein the communications are authenticated as being from a member of the group and have not been altered, comprising: generating a plurality of random numbers; distributing in a digital medium the plurality of random numbers to the members of the group; publishing a hash value of contents of the digital medium; distributing to the members of the group public-key-encrypted messages each containing a same token comprising a random number; and encrypting a message with a key generated from the token and the plurality of random numbers.

  15. Measuring Perceived Anonymity: The Development of a Context Independent Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight M. Hite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess relationships between perceptions of anonymity and behaviors, a context independent instrument is required for measuring the perceptions of anonymity held by individuals.  To date, no such measurement instrument exists that has been shown to be reliable and valid.  The authors employ a rigorous design methodology to develop, test, and substantiate a reliable and valid instrument for measuring perceptions of anonymity across different contexts. The PA measure presented is a five item Likert scale designed to measure perceptions of anonymity across multiple contexts. Results from two separate EFA pilot tests (n=61 and n=60, a test-retest, and a CFA final test (n=292 indicate that the PA measure has good internal consistency reliability (a=.82, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and a single factor structure. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18305

  16. Anonymous in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW; MACDONALD

    2008-01-01

    In my neighborhood,there are many restaurants.Some are big,but most are little mom & pop places that serve cheap food and take up nar- row storefronts going back much further than you might expect.Of these,there

  17. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    providing stronger anonymity, such as mix-networks (Chaum 1981; Adida 2006), onion rout - ing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson...every member knows when another should send a message, and thus gossip techniques such as those used in PeerReview (Haeberlen, Kouznetsov, and Druschel...onion routing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson 2004), a well-known and practical approach to general anonymous

  18. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Merener

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  19. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min

    2005-01-01

    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  20. Alcohol & drug abuse: Dual Diagnosis Anonymous of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Corbett; Nikkel, Robert E; Drake, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Many people with addictions report that support from peer groups fosters recovery. For people with co-occurring mental illnesses, dual-diagnosis peer support groups are considered helpful, but they are often unavailable. Recently, Dual Diagnosis Anonymous peer support groups have spread widely throughout Oregon as a complement to integrated dual diagnosis treatments. This column describes Dual Diagnosis Anonymous and its rapid implementation in Oregon.

  1. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM

    2015-01-01

    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  2. Social Indispensability in Spite of Temporal and Spatial Separation: Motivation Gains in a Sequential Task During Anonymous Cooperation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wittchen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated motivation gains during synchronous group work compared to individual work when group members’ contribution was indispensable for the group’s success (e.g., Hertel, Kerr, & Messé, 2000, Hertel, Deter, & Konradt, 2003. The current study extends this earlier research (a by examining indispensability effects during sequential cooperation (temporal separation, and (b by exploring these effects under conditions of high anonymity on the Internet (spatial separation. A 2 (Internet vs. laboratory context x 3 (high vs. low vs. no impact of personal contribution for a group x 2 (individual vs. group trial design was used with the last factor measured within subjects (N = 231. Motivation was measured with a vigilance task that simulated an Internet travel agency selling package holidays according to incoming customer requests. During all trials, participants received contemporaneous feedback about their own performance. During the group trials, participants additionally received information about their partner’s alleged previous performance at this point of the trial, which suggested that the partner had always performed slightly better than the participant. As expected, both in the laboratory and the Internet setting, the highest motivation gains occurred when participants’ contribution to the group’s outcome was indispensable for the group. This finding provides evidence that motivation gains among inferior group members are possible even during sequential group work under highly anonymous conditions.

  3. Anonymity, ethics and credibility in the blogosphere and on Twitter: gastronomic criticism in “Alhos, passas & maçãs” and in @carapuceiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria do Amaral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to understand the anonymous restaurant critic currently made on the Internet, based on the cases of the Alhos, passas & maçãs blog and the @carapuceiro Twitter. Before considered as personal diaries or means of communication among friends, today blogs and social networks have no limits – and, when used to criticize restaurants negatively, its impact reaches unpremeditated boundaries, including reactions of chefs and journalists themselves. At the same time that these tools extend the possibilities of subjective comments written by ordinary people, without a degree in journalism, the press loses credibility by choosing to criticize in a courteous way, submitting itself to the invitations sent by press offices and to the “cordial journalism”.

  4. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Azkhosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran.Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group. One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P<0.05 and that acceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  5. POEMS LACKING AT PRINTED DIVANS WITH BAKİ PSEUDONYM FROM POINT OF SOME POEM MAGAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan KESİK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Baki is one of the biggest and most famous poet of Divan Literature Being termed as poet laureate at his contemporary, poet’s most rotable work is his Divan while his works in verse and prose are also available. Baki contrived his Divan with Süleyman the Magnificient’s request during his lifetime. Being added the new poems, written later, new and different contrivances of the divan was put forth at different dates.The Baki Divan, whose manuscript copies reached over 100 at Turkish and European libraries, has been made third press, so far. Scientific press of the divan in comparison to various copies was made by Sabahattin Küçük. Existence of poems, registered in poem magazines rather than not present in poets’divans is a well-known matter. Poem magazines-notwithstanding needs to be approached cauticus( cautiously from point of including poems’ masters- are particularly important from the point of including poems that are not available in poets’ divans. In this study we will introduce poems with appellative detected in various magazines which dont exist in printed divans of Baki.

  6. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: a privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerina H; Ford, David V; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J; Heaven, Martin L; Thayer, Daniel S; McNerney, Cynthia L; Lyons, Ronan A

    2014-08-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community.

  7. The discussion of anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard%匿名的道德主体与网络行为规范探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟娟

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet era, the human being into a new"network society, the network has gradually exposed more and more problems, anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard has gradually been of concern to the people. Because of the social morality can not fully applied in the virtual world of the Internet, in order to adapt to this gradually step into people's lives, learning new social exchange way, must treat the network moral seriously, and actively promote the progress and development of network morality. The author will from the moral phenomena and conflicts of virtual space, to discuss how to standardize network behavior in the moral subject anonymous environment.%随着网络时代的到来,人类正在走进一个全新的“网络社会”,随之而来的网络中也逐渐暴露出越来越多的问题,匿名的道德主体与网络的行为规范也逐渐被人们所关注。由于当今的社会道德不能够完全的应用于虚拟的网络世界,为适应这一逐渐步进入人们生活的新型社会交流、学习的方式,就必须认真对待网络道德这一问题,积极促进网络道德的进步与发展。下面笔者将从虚拟的空间里发生的道德现象和冲突等问题进行讨论,就如何在道德主体匿名的环境下去规范网络行为加以讨论。

  8. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  9. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  10. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  11. Alcoholics anonymous and twelve steps%AA与戒酒的十二个步骤--访美国嗜酒者互诫协会札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崧; 李冰

    2003-01-01

    @@ AA(Alcoholics Anonymous)的戒酒方案见诸于几乎所有有关药物依赖的教科书.在世界范围内,采纳AA十二个步骤的治疗原则来实现戒除成瘾性障碍的组织(如NA:Narcotics Anonymous,CA:CocaineAnonymous等)已超过250个.

  12. Restricted common data in anonymous E-cash system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-jun; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Discuss the problem of infinite increasing coin list in anonymous E-cash systems, which reduce the efficiency of whole system greatly. Though some methods are suggested, no one can solve the problem with high efficiency and flexibility. Here, we use the technique of adding information in blind signatures to deal with this problem. Through adding timestamp in signatures, we can separate the valid period of all used coins into pieces. Only the coins in the last stage are recorded. So the scale of the coins list is controlled. We also analyze the anonymity of these data, and add some indispensable restrictions to them. These restrictions can ensure that the imported data don't break the anonymity of the customers. In order to fulfill these qualifications, we lead to the concept of restricted common data (RCD). Furthermore, we propose two schemes to add RCD in the blind signature. The simple one is easy to implement, while the complex one can note the value of the coin. The usage of RCD leads to little additional cost, as well as maintaining the anonymity of customers. This method fits for most kinds of anonymous E-cash systems.

  13. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receive...

  14. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  15. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  16. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaojun Pang

    Full Text Available Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  17. Suicidal ideation and sex differences in relation to 18 major psychiatric disorders in college and university students: anonymous web-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Hong, Jennifer Y; Gibori, Ron; Blitchington, Timothy F; Krishnan, K Ranga R

    2015-04-01

    College/university students are at high risk for psychiatric disorder and suicide secondary to age, campus stressors, and social pressures. We therefore report frequencies of 18 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision disorders and suicidal ideation (SI) acquired anonymously from a Web site receiving 113,181 visits from more than 1,500 predominantly US colleges/universities. Depression was foremost, followed by social phobia and eating disorders. Substance-related disorders were less frequent than expected. SI occurred in 47.1% of students, with women evidencing somewhat stronger findings than men. SI was more associated with substance, bipolar, and panic disorders than depression. Self-reported emotional volatility exceeded thoughts of self-harm for all disorders. The results support two subtypes of suicide risk: dysphoric premeditators and those primarily angry and/or impulsive. Clinicians and researchers should therefore consider suicide as an independent psychopathological phenomenon that includes emotional volatility as a risk factor and thoroughly evaluate psychiatric disorders potentially conferring greater suicidal propensity than depression.

  18. A secure chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication and key agreement scheme with user anonymity for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2014-09-01

    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) is widely used for providing a convenient and efficient communicating platform between patients at home and physicians at medical centers or home health care (HHC) organizations. To ensure patient privacy, in 2013, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map based authentication scheme with user anonymity for TMIS. Later, Lee showed that Hao et al.'s scheme is in no provision for providing fairness in session key establishment and gave an efficient user authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards, in which only few hashing and Chebyshev chaotic map operations are required. In addition, Jiang et al. discussed that Hao et al.'s scheme can not resist stolen smart card attack and they further presented an improved scheme which attempts to repair the security pitfalls found in Hao et al.'s scheme. In this paper, we found that both Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes have a serious security problem in that a registered user's secret parameters may be intentionally exposed to many non-registered users and this problem causing the service misuse attack. Therefore, we propose a slight modification on Lee's scheme to prevent the shortcomings. Compared with previous schemes, our improved scheme not only inherits the advantages of Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes for TMIS but also remedies the serious security weakness of not being able to withstand service misuse attack.

  19. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  20. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  1. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L

    1997-10-25

    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  2. 关于移动互联网匿名技术研究及应用%Research and application of anonymous technology for mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽辉

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,science and technology has been greatly developed,also computer mobile Internet technology in the continuous development and innovation,whether it is individuals,enterprises or organizations to be used and must use the computer network technology.But the development of computer network computing also brings a very potential safety hazard..For example:our personal information. Therefore,people must pay attention to computer network security and privacy communication.In various network applications(e-commerce,electronic election, e-mail, etc.)the user's identity and privacy security information are required to be protected, not leaked, which requires anonymity support. In view of this situation, this paper proposes a new privacy protection for the network user anonymous technology, effectively protect user privacy issues.%近些年来,科学技术得到了很大的发展,同时计算机移动互联网技术在不断地发展与创新,无论是个人、团体还是企业都要用到而且必须用到计算机网络技术.但是计算机网络计算的发展也带来了很对的安全隐患.譬如:我们的个人信息.因此,人们必须重视计算机网络安全和隐私通信.在各种网络应用中(电子商务、电子选举、电子邮件等等)用户的身份及隐私安全信息都需要被保护,不被泄露,这就需要匿名的支持.针对这种情况,本文提出新的保护网络用户隐私的匿名技术,有效的保护用户隐私问题.

  3. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex.

  4. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering

    2013-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  5. ANONYMOUS OFF-LINE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE BANKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  6. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.

    2014-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  7. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  8. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  9. Leader election in anonymous rings: Franklin goes probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, R.; Fokkink, W.J.; Pang, J.; Pol, J.C. van de; Ausiello, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  10. Leader Election in Anonymous Rings: Franklin Goes Probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun; Pol, van de Jaco; Ausiello, G.; Karhumäki, J.; Mauri, G.; Ong, L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  11. Electronic voting systems for defending free will and resisting bribery and coercion based on ring anonymous signcryption scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vote by ballot is the feature in a democratic society and the process of decision-making, tending to achieve the philosophy of democratic politics by having the public who are eligible to vote for competent candidates or leaders. With the rapid development of technologies and network applications, electronization has been actively promoted globally during the social transformation period that the concept of electronic voting is further derived. The major advantages of electronic voting, comparing with traditional voting, lie in the mobility strength of electronic voting, reducing a large amount of election costs and enhancing the convenience for the public. Electronic voting allows voters completing voting on the Internet that not only are climate and location restrictions overcome, but the voter turnout is also increased and the voting time is reduced for the public. With the development in the past three decades, electronic voting presents outstanding performance theoretically and practically. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that electronic voting schemes still cannot be completely open because of lures by money and threats. People to lure by money and threats would confirm the voters following their instructions through various methods that more factors would appear on election results, affecting the quality and fairness of the election. In this study, this project aims to design an electronic voting scheme which could actually defend voters’ free will so that lure of money and threats would fail. Furthermore, an electronic voting system based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography is proposed to ensure the efficiency and security, and Ring Signature and Signcryption are applied to reducing the computing costs. Moreover, this project also focuses on applying voting system to mobile devices. As the system efficiency and security are emphasized, voters do not need to participate in the election, but simply complete voting with smart phones, i

  12. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, R S; Cross, P; Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, G; Salmon, R L; Rigby, D; Chalmers, R M; Thomas, D Rh; Jones, D L

    2013-10-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks. Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.

  14. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bodó

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the analysis of Wikileaks, the anonymous whistleblowing website, it describes how strong PETs enable the development of hacktivism 2.0, where the source of threat is shifted from outsiders to insiders. Insiders have access to documents with which power can be exposed, and who, by using PETs, can anonymously engage in political action. We also describe the emergence of a third generation of hacktivists who use PETs to disengage and create their own autonomous spaces rather than to engage with power through anonymous whistleblowing.

  15. The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Nonstate Actors in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    not efforts at collective understanding); (3) accurately assess risks, costs, and gains of strategic games; and (4) control their emotions . It...1. Plato, Republic, 2nd ed. and trans. G. M. A. Grube and C. D. C. Reeve (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub Co, 1992), 34–38. 2. John J. Mearsheimer

  16. An Efficient and Practical Smart Card Based Anonymity Preserving User Authentication Scheme for TMIS using Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-11-01

    In the last few years, numerous remote user authentication and session key agreement schemes have been put forwarded for Telecare Medical Information System, where the patient and medical server exchange medical information using Internet. We have found that most of the schemes are not usable for practical applications due to known security weaknesses. It is also worth to note that unrestricted number of patients login to the single medical server across the globe. Therefore, the computation and maintenance overhead would be high and the server may fail to provide services. In this article, we have designed a medical system architecture and a standard mutual authentication scheme for single medical server, where the patient can securely exchange medical data with the doctor(s) via trusted central medical server over any insecure network. We then explored the security of the scheme with its resilience to attacks. Moreover, we formally validated the proposed scheme through the simulation using Automated Validation of Internet Security Schemes and Applications software whose outcomes confirm that the scheme is protected against active and passive attacks. The performance comparison demonstrated that the proposed scheme has lower communication cost than the existing schemes in literature. In addition, the computation cost of the proposed scheme is nearly equal to the exiting schemes. The proposed scheme not only efficient in terms of different security attacks, but it also provides an efficient login, mutual authentication, session key agreement and verification and password update phases along with password recovery.

  17. Security Analysis and Improvement of 'a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Hafizul Islam

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.'s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen's scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1 the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2 it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3 it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4 the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5 user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature.

  18. Security Analysis and Improvement of 'a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S K Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.'s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen's scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1) the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2) it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3) it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4) the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5) user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP) in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature.

  19. Security Analysis and Improvement of ‘a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, SK Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.’s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen’s scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1) the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2) it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3) it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4) the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5) user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP) in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature. PMID:26263401

  20. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  1. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  2. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  3. Rapid annotation of anonymous sequences from genome projects using semantic similarities and a weighting scheme in gene ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fontana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale sequencing projects have now become routine lab practice and this has led to the development of a new generation of tools involving function prediction methods, bringing the latter back to the fore. The advent of Gene Ontology, with its structured vocabulary and paradigm, has provided computational biologists with an appropriate means for this task. METHODOLOGY: We present here a novel method called ARGOT (Annotation Retrieval of Gene Ontology Terms that is able to process quickly thousands of sequences for functional inference. The tool exploits for the first time an integrated approach which combines clustering of GO terms, based on their semantic similarities, with a weighting scheme which assesses retrieved hits sharing a certain number of biological features with the sequence to be annotated. These hits may be obtained by different methods and in this work we have based ARGOT processing on BLAST results. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive benchmark involved 10,000 protein sequences, the complete S. cerevisiae genome and a small subset of proteins for purposes of comparison with other available tools. The algorithm was proven to outperform existing methods and to be suitable for function prediction of single proteins due to its high degree of sensitivity, specificity and coverage.

  4. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency. PMID:28046075

  5. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2010-09-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to "individualise" the Prize? The "HGP Nobel Prize problem" is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly.

  6. Management of Obstetric Perineal Tears: Do Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents Receive Adequate Training? Results of an Anonymous Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cornet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To evaluate the obstetrics and gynaecology residents' perspective of their training and experience in the management of perineal tears that occur during assisted vaginal delivery. We hypothesised that residents would perceive room for improvement in their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and the training received in tears repair. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population/Setting. Seventy-two major residents from all teaching hospitals in Catalonia. Methods. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate experience, perception of the training and supervision provided. Results. The questionnaire was sent to all residents (=72, receiving 46 responses (64%. The participants represented 15 out of the 16 teaching hospitals included in the study (94% of the hospitals represented. Approximately, 52% of residents were in their third year while 48% were in their fourth. The majority of them thought that their knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy was poor (62%, although 98% felt confident that they would know when an episiotomy was correctly indicated. The survey found that they lacked experience in the repair of major degree tears (70% had repaired fewer than ten, and most did not carry out followup procedures. Conclusion. The majority of them indicated that more training in this specific area is necessary (98%.

  7. Secure and Efficient Two-Factor User Authentication Scheme with User Anonymity for Network Based E-Health Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Niu, Jianwei; Karuppiah, Marimuthu; Kumari, Saru; Wu, Fan

    2016-12-01

    Benefited from the development of network and communication technologies, E-health care systems and telemedicine have got the fast development. By using the E-health care systems, patient can enjoy the remote medical service provided by the medical server. Medical data are important privacy information for patient, so it is an important issue to ensure the secure of transmitted medical data through public network. Authentication scheme can thwart unauthorized users from accessing services via insecure network environments, so user authentication with privacy protection is an important mechanism for the security of E-health care systems. Recently, based on three factors (password, biometric and smart card), an user authentication scheme for E-health care systems was been proposed by Amin et al., and they claimed that their scheme can withstand most of common attacks. Unfortunate, we find that their scheme cannot achieve the untraceability feature of the patient. Besides, their scheme lacks a password check mechanism such that it is inefficient to find the unauthorized login by the mistake of input a wrong password. Due to the same reason, their scheme is vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) attack if the patient updates the password mistakenly by using a wrong password. In order improve the security level of authentication scheme for E-health care application, a robust user authentication scheme with privacy protection is proposed for E-health care systems. Then, security prove of our scheme are analysed. Security and performance analyses show that our scheme is more powerful and secure for E-health care systems when compared with other related schemes.

  8. Study and Practice of the Anonymity Technology Model for Electronic Commerce Based on MPLS%基于MPLS的电子商务匿名技术模型研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解争龙; 吴振强; 弋改珍; 王芳

    2012-01-01

    电子商务作为贸易手段已经进入人们的日常生活,如何保护商业机密、个人隐私是电子商务贸易中急需解决的问题.根据MPLS工作原理,在Onion匿名技术的基础上,建立基于MPLS的电子商务匿名模型,使用Nettrace对纯Onion匿名模型与基于MPLS匿名模型从安全和效率进行了比较.结果表明,基于MPLS匿名技术在保护用户隐私的同时,提高Onion匿名模型的通信效率.%Electronic Commerce has stepped into the daily life of people.But how to protect the business confidentiality and personal privacy is one of the problems resolved quickly.According to the operating principle of MPLS,on the anonymity technology of Onion,their security and efficiency has been compared for the anonymity models of the pure Onion and the MPLS.The results show that the anonymity technology of MPLS-based protected the user's privacy,while developed the efficiency of the model of Onion.

  9. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbully- ing from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bul- lying, lower...

  10. Collaborative learning about e-health for mental health professionals and service users in a structured anonymous online short course: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashurst Emily J

    2012-05-01

    -esteem and general self-efficacy, all seemed reliable and seemed to show some increase. Conclusions Collaborative learning between MHSUs and MHPs in a structured online anonymous environment over a one-week course is feasible, may be more practical and less costly than face-face methods, and is worthy of further study.

  11. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F

    2013-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  12. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  13. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  14. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  15. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  16. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  17. An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity in Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic currency system, is a complicated issue. Within the system, users are identified by public-keys only. An attacker wishing to de-anonymize its users will attempt to construct the oneto- many mapping between users and public-keys and associate information external to the system with the users. Bitcoin frustrates this attack by storing the mapping of a user to his or her public-keys on that user's node only and by allowing each user to generate as many public-keys as required. In this paper we consider the topological structure of two networks derived from Bitcoin's public transaction history. We show that the two networks have a non-trivial topological structure, provide complementary views of the Bitcoin system and have implications for anonymity. We combine these structures with external information and techniques such as context discovery and flow analysis to investigate an alleged theft of Bitcoins, which, at the time of the theft, had a market value of approx...

  18. Utility-guided Clustering-based Transaction Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction data about individuals are increasingly collected to support a plethora of applications, spanning from marketing to biomedical studies. Publishing these data is required by many organizations, but may result in privacy breaches, if an attacker exploits potentially identifying information to link individuals to their records in the published data. Algorithms that prevent this threat by transforming transaction data prior to their release have been proposed recently, but they may incur significant utility loss due to their inability to: (i accommodate a range of different privacy requirements that data owners often have, and (ii guarantee that the produced data will satisfy data owners’ utility requirements. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering-based framework to anonymizing transaction data, which provides the basis for designing algorithms that better preserve data utility. Based on this framework, we develop two anonymization algorithms which explore a larger solution space than existing methods and can satisfy a wide range of privacy requirements. Additionally, the second algorithm allows the specification and enforcement of utility requirements, thereby ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended tasks. Experiments with both benchmark and real medical datasets verify that our algorithms significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of data utility, while being comparable in terms of efficiency.

  19. The Anonymity vs. Utility Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzi, Michele; Pazzaglia, Jean-Christophe

    The number, the type of users and their usage of the internet, computers and phones have evolved considerably, due to the emergence of the web 2.0, the decreasing cost of portable devices, the expansion of wired and wireless internet access and the digitalization of the main entertainment media. Protecting the assets of service and software providers has been the main driver for the development of security solutions in the past ten years. However, the users/customers/citizen rights have been too often neglected since the risk related to the wrong usage of personal related information was not considered by the other stakeholders. Today, the Right to Privacy is appearing on everyone’s radar and factors as regulations, increasing number of news stories on privacy breaches, brand damages, are forcing organizations to address user privacy as a priority. In this paper, we will briefly review the main business drivers behind the raising of privacy concerns, and outline some of the current technology solutions to address privacy requirements. Finally, we will describe some of the future challenges in the area of privacy.

  20. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  1. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...

  2. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...

  3. Revocation in Anonymous Authetication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An attribute-based signature with respect to a signing policy chosen by the signer, convinces the verifier that the signer sustains a subset of attributes satisfying that signing policy. The verifier must not obtain any other information about the identity of the signer or the attributes he holds. This type of signatures have a lot of applications in real life scenarios that demand both authentication and privacy properties. The ability of revoking users that have misbehaved or lost their att...

  4. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2014-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of onl

  5. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  6. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-10-07

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.'s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes.

  7. Singling Out People without Knowing Their Names - Behavioural targeting, pseudonymous data, and the new Data Protection Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Information about millions of people is collected for behavioural targeting, a type of marketing that involves tracking people's online behaviour for targeted advertising. It is hotly debated whether data protection law applies to behavioural targeting. Many behavioural targeting companies say that,

  8. Link Prediction by De-anonymization: How We Won the Kaggle Social Network Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Rubinstein, Benjamin I P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the winning entry to the IJCNN 2011 Social Network Challenge run by Kaggle.com. The goal of the contest was to promote research on real-world link prediction, and the dataset was a graph obtained by crawling the popular Flickr social photo sharing website, with user identities scrubbed. By de-anonymizing much of the competition test set using our own Flickr crawl, we were able to effectively game the competition. Our attack represents a new application of de-anonymization to gaming machine learning contests, suggesting changes in how future competitions should be run. We introduce a new simulated annealing-based weighted graph matching algorithm for the seeding step of de-anonymization. We also show how to combine de-anonymization with link prediction---the latter is required to achieve good performance on the portion of the test set not de-anonymized---for example by training the predictor on the de-anonymized portion of the test set, and combining probabilistic predictions from de-anony...

  9. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  10. Socio-technical aspects of the use of health related personal information for management and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, K R; Grøtan, T O

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses on the organisational, technical and ethical aspects related to the use of person identifiable health information for various health care management, administration, finance, research and educational purposes. It is based on the ethical standpoint that to the individuals in question, the identifiable health information represents the uttermost sensitive and critical information. In addition, nobody, possibly apart from the patients themselves, may claim ownership of such information. Thus identifiable health information should be (per individual) kept as collected and protected as possible, within the scope of the patient provider relationship. Identifiable health information should, whenever possible and reasonable, be restricted to the health care professionals providing the treatment and care to the patient, and only be made available to others, e.g. for management, research or educational purposes, either in anonymous or pseudonymous form. Secure information management (SIM) is presented as the socio-technical means to facilitate our ethical standpoint in a practical health care environment.

  11. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented,based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state.We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness,soundness,privacy,eligibility,unreusability,fairness,and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest.This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels.In addition,any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.

  12. A MULTIPLE BALLOTS ELECTION SCHEME USING ANONYMOUS DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Okamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting is an important application for security protocols. Most existing voting schemes aredesigned for elections in which each voter has only one ballot. However, some elections permit voters tocast multiple ballots. In this paper, we present a new voting scheme in which each voter can havemultiple ballots, and can vote for multiple candidates. The proposed scheme allows the voter to simplypick their candidates and post a single encrypted message. Anonymous distribution of secret informationis used so that no one knows which information is being passed to whom.

  13. Attacking Algorithms Against Continuous Queries in LBS and Anonymity Measurement%LBS中连续查询攻击算法及匿名性度量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林欣; 李善平; 杨朝晖

    2009-01-01

    k-匿名机制是LBS(location based service)中保证查询隐私性的重要手段.已有文献指出,现有的k-匿名机制不能有效保护连续性查询的隐私性.提出一种连续查询发送模型,该模型融合了查询发送时间的间隔模型和连续性模型,针对此模型下的两种k-匿名算法Clique Cloaking和Non-clique Cloaking,分别提出了一种连续查询攻击算法.在此攻击算法下,匿名集的势不再适合作为查询匿名性的度量,因此提出一种基于熵理论的度量方式AD(anonymity degree).实验结果表明,对连续性很强的查询,攻击算法重识别用户身份的成功率极高;AD比匿名集的势更能反映查询的匿名性.

  14. Re-identification of home addresses from spatial locations anonymized by Gaussian skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassa Christopher A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such versions are available, each can be used to incrementally refine estimates of the original geocoded location. Results We produce multiple anonymized data sets using a single set of addresses and then progressively average the anonymized results related to each address, characterizing the steep decline in distance from the re-identified point to the original location, (and the reduction in privacy. With ten anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a substantial decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.2 km between the estimated, re-identified address and the original address. With fifty anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.1 km. Conclusion We demonstrate that multiple versions of the same data, each anonymized by non-deterministic Gaussian skew, can be used to ascertain original geographic locations. We explore solutions to this problem that include infrastructure to support the safe disclosure of anonymized medical data to prevent inference or re-identification of original address data, and the use of a Markov-process based algorithm to mitigate this risk.

  15. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  16. IdentiDroid: Android can finally Wear its Anonymous Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Shebaro

    2014-04-01

    from applications when the smartphone is used under the anonymous modality. They are re-instated back when the smartphone returns to work in the normal modality. In addition, both solutions offer protection from applications that identify their users through traces left in the application's data storage or through exchanging identifying data messages. We developed IdentiDroid, a customized Android operating system, to deploy these solutions and built IdentiDroid Profile Manager, a profile-based configuration tool that allows one to set different configurations for each installed Android application. With this tool, applications running within the same device are configured to be given different identifications and privileges to limit the uniqueness of device and user information. We analyzed 250 Android applications to determine what information, services, and permissions can identify users and devices. Our experiments show that when IdentiDroid is deployed and properly configured on Android devices, users' anonymity is better guaranteed by either of the proposed solutions with no significant impact on most device applications.

  17. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  18. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user’s accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR, nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user’s accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  19. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  20. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  1. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  2. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  3. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  4. 可追踪的匿名证书%The Traceable Anonymous Certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the traceable anonymous certificate, and analyzes the proposed traceable anonymous certificate is⁃suing and tracing protocol in detail, the traceable anonymous certificate should possess two core characteristics: anonymity and non-repudiation, the two features ensure that users can prove the identity himself but without revealing his true identity, this certificate can be used to provide anonymous service in network application.%该文介绍了可追踪匿名证书,并对提出的可追踪匿名证书的发布和追踪协议进行了详细的分析,可追踪匿名证书应该具有匿名性和不可否认性两个核心特点,这两个特点保证了用户可以在不泄露自己的真实身份的情况下来证明用户的身份,这样的证书可以被用于需要提供匿名服务的网络应用中。

  5. A bilinear pairing based anonymous authentication scheme in wireless body area networks for mHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Lian, Xinxin; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jianfeng; Tian, Youliang; Yang, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become one of the key components of mobile health (mHealth) which provides 24/7 health monitoring service and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of healthcare. However, users' concern about the security and privacy of their health information has become one of the major obstacles that impede the wide adoption of WBANs. Anonymous and unlinkable authentication is critical to protect the security and privacy of sensitive physiological information in transit from the client to the application provider. We first show that the anonymous authentication scheme of Wang and Zhang based on bilinear pairing is prone to client impersonation attack. Then, we propose an enhanced anonymous authentication scheme to remedy the flaw in Wang and Zhang's scheme. We give the security analysis to demonstrate that the enhanced scheme achieves the desired security features and withstands various known attacks.

  6. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  7. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  8. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  9. 电子投票匿名性分析%Anonymity Analysis of Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福人; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    电子投票公布计票结果会影响投票者的匿名性.针对该问题,定义匿名性为投票选择的不确定度,利用熵衡量投票系统的投票者匿名性,比较计票结果公布前后投票者的匿名性变化.分析结果表明,投票规模越小,投票者匿名性在结果公布后受到的损失越大;在小规模电子投票情况下,计票结果应该选择只公布获胜者,不公布具体得票数,以减少投票者匿名的损失.%The disclosure of the number of votes can compromise the voters' anonymity of the electronic voting. Aiming at this problem, this paper defines anonymity by using the uncertainty of the voting choices and measures the anonymity of the whole voting system by entropy. It compares the anonymity after the release of the voting results with that before releasing the voting results. Analysis result shows that the smaller the voting scale is, the more the voters' anonymity loses. In the design of small-scale electronic-voting scheme, releasing the winner instead of the number of votes that candidates gained decreases the loss of anonymity.

  10. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  11. ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking Application

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Steven; Tsudik, Gene; Uzun, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Content-centric networking -- also known as information-centric networking (ICN) -- shifts emphasis from hosts and interfaces (as in today's Internet) to data. Named data becomes addressable and routable, while locations that currently store that data become irrelevant to applications. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a large collaborative research effort that exemplifies the content-centric approach to networking. NDN has some innate privacy-friendly features, such as lack of source and destination addresses on packets. However, as discussed in this paper, NDN architecture prompts some privacy concerns mainly stemming from the semantic richness of names. We examine privacy-relevant characteristics of NDN and present an initial attempt to achieve communication privacy. Specifically, we design an NDN add-on tool, called ANDaNA, that borrows a number of features from Tor. As we demonstrate via experiments, it provides comparable anonymity with lower relative overhead.

  12. Selfrando: Securing the Tor Browser against De-anonymization Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is a well-known anonymous communication system used by millions of users, including journalists and civil rights activists all over the world. The Tor Browser gives non-technical users an easy way to access the Tor Network. However, many government organizations are actively trying to compromise Tor not only in regions with repressive regimes but also in the free world, as the recent FBI incidents clearly demonstrate. Exploiting software vulnerabilities in general, and browser vulnerabilities in particular, constitutes a clear and present threat to the Tor software. The Tor Browser shares a large part of its attack surface with the Firefox browser. Therefore, Firefox vulnerabilities (even patched ones are highly valuable to attackers trying to monitor users of the Tor Browser.

  13. Anonymous and Traceable Copyright Protection Protocol Based on Mobile Devices%基于移动设备的匿名可追踪版权保护协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜堃; 王晓明

    2012-01-01

    Anonymous and traceable copyright protection protocol based on mobile devices was put forward in this paper. Firstly,others can not track the user by using the changing identity to replace user's true identity in the protocol. The anonymous nature exists in the protocol. Secondly, the protocol uses the method that one password only applies one fingerprint watermark so that the protocol resists the fake attack. Thirdly, while using one-way hash function to verify the identity of participators and the digital content, the protocol transfers the calculating works to the trusted center RA with enough computing ability from mobile users. The two behaviors reduce the mobile's calculating works, and improve efficiency. In addition, the copyright watermark and fingerprint watermark embedded in the digital product are used to trace the traitor when finding one or more illegal copies of the digital product So the protocol has the ability of traitor tracing. The analysis indicates that the protocol is secure and practical.%提出了基于移动设备的匿名可追踪的版权管理协议.首先,它使用不断变换的临时身份来代替用户的真实身份,使其他人不可能跟踪到用户,它关注用户动态,具有匿名性;其次,使用一次口令申请一个水印的方法来抵抗假冒攻击;再次,采用单向哈希函数的认证方法对用户身份、数字内容进行验证;协议中的一些计算由可信中心完成,以减少移动用户的计算量,提高效率.另外在数字产品中嵌入版权水印和指纹水印,当发现非法副本时,它可以对叛逆者进行追踪,具有可追踪性.分析表明,该协议是安全有效的.

  14. 基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法%Online trace anonymization based on anonymous flow table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春静; 葛敬国; 谢高岗; 李亮雄; 李佟; 刘韵洁

    2016-01-01

    A real-time network packet anonymous method named Fad-Pan (online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table) was proposed. The Fad-Pan algorithm was studied and an online trace anonymization prototype system based on DPDK library was developed. The experimental results prove that the Fad-Pan algorithm is faster more than 20 times than the existing method, and a single server can handle the real-time IPv4 and IPv6 traffic of the 10 Gbit/s link used by the Fad-Pan.%提出了基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法(Fad-Pan,online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table),主要研究Fad-Pan算法以及研发基于DPDK的Fad-Pan原型系统。实验结果表明,Fad-Pan算法比已有的方法在匿名化速度上提高了20倍以上,单个普通服务器可以实时处理万兆链路的IPv4和IPv6流量数据。

  15. Unraveling an Old Cloak: k-anonymity for Location Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Reza; Troncoso, Carmela; Diaz, Claudia; Freudiger, Julien; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    There is a rich collection of literature that aims at protecting the privacy of users querying location-based services. One of the most popular location privacy techniques consists in cloaking users' locations such that k users appear as potential senders of a query, thus achieving k-anonymity. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of k-anonymity approaches for protecting location privacy in the presence of various types of adversaries. The unraveling of the scheme unfolds the inconsistency b...

  16. Extended K-Anonymity Model for Privacy Preserving on Micro Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, information collectors, particularly statistical organizations, are faced with two conflicting issues. On one hand, according to their natural responsibilities and the increasing demand for the collected data, they are committed to propagate the information more extensively and with higher quality and on the other hand, due to the public concern about the privacy of personal information and the legal responsibility of these organizations in protecting the private information of their users, they should guarantee that while providing all the information to the population, the privacy is reasonably preserved. This issue becomes more crucial when the datasets published by data mining methods are at risk of attribute and identity disclosure attacks. In order to overcome this problem, several approaches, called p-sensitive k-anonymity, p+-sensitive k-anonymity, and (p, α-sensitive k-anonymity, were proposed. The drawbacks of these methods include the inability to protect micro datasets against attribute disclosure and the high value of the distortion ratio. In order to eliminate these drawbacks, this paper proposes an algorithm that fully protects the propagated micro data against identity and attribute disclosure and significantly reduces the distortion ratio during the anonymity process.

  17. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  18. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  19. Anonymous Multi-Receiver Identity-Based Authenticated Encryption with CCA Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-receiver encryption system, a sender chooses a set of authorized receivers and sends them a message securely and efficiently, as the message is well encrypted and only one ciphertext corresponding to the message is generated no matter how many receivers the sender has chosen. It can be applied to video conferencing systems, pay-per-view channels, remote education, and so forth. Due to privacy considerations, an authorized receiver may not expect that his identity is revealed. In 2010, anonymous multi-receiver identity-based (ID-based encryption was first discussed, and furthermore, many works on the topic have been presented so far. Unfortunately, we find that all of those schemes fail to prove the chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security in either confidentiality or anonymity. In this manuscript, we propose the first anonymous multi-receiver ID-based authenticated encryption scheme with CCA security in both confidentiality and anonymity. In the proposed scheme, the identity of the sender of a ciphertext can be authenticated by the receivers after a successful decryption. In addition, the proposed scheme also is the first CCA-secure one against insider attacks. Moreover, only one pairing computation is required in decryption.

  20. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  1. Unison as a Self-Stabilizing Wave Stream Algorithm in Asynchronous Anonymous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulinier, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to pass from local to global scales in anonymous networks? How to organize a selfstabilizing propagation of information with feedback. From the Angluin impossibility results, we cannot elect a leader in a general anonymous network. Thus, it is impossible to build a rooted spanning tree. Many problems can only be solved by probabilistic methods. In this paper we show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing barrier synchronization in an anonymous network. We show that the commuication structure of this barrier synchronization designs a self-stabilizing wave-stream, or pipelining wave, in anonymous networks. We introduce two variants of Wave: the strong waves and the wavelets. A strong wave can be used to solve the idempotent r-operator parametrized computation problem. A wavelet deals with k-distance computation. We show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing wave stream, a self-stabilizing strong wave stream and a self-stabilizing wavelet stream.

  2. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Burghardt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper studies this tradeoff systematically. To this end, we implement an algorithm for the anonymization of search histories which is flexible regarding the target function. It can retain frequent terms or terms where corresponding ads are clicked with a high probability, keep up the number of users it can derive interests for, etc. We quantify the usefulness of the anonymized log for ad placement in a broad way, e.g., by estimating the number of ad clicks or of ad impressions, based on marketing data from Yahoo! As a result, anonymized search logs are still useful for ad placement, but this very much depends on the target function.

  3. Deindividuation and Internet software piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer

    2008-08-01

    Computer crime has increased exponentially in recent years as hardware, software, and network resources become more affordable and available to individuals from all walks of life. Software piracy is one prevalent type of cybercrime and has detrimentally affected the economic health of the software industry. Moreover, piracy arguably represents a rend in the moral fabric associated with the respect of intellectual property and reduces the financial incentive of product creation and innovation. Deindividuation theory, originating from the field of social psychology, argues that individuals are extricated from responsibility for their actions simply because they no longer have an acute awareness of the identity of self and of others. That is, external and internal constraints that would typically regulate questionable behavior are rendered less effective via certain anonymizing and disinhibiting conditions of the social and environmental context. This exploratory piece seeks to establish the role of deindividuation in liberating individuals to commit software piracy by testing the hypothesis that persons who prefer the anonymity and pseudonymity associated with interaction on the Internet are more likely to pirate software. Through this research, it is hoped that the empirical identification of such a social psychological determinant will help further illuminate the phenomenon.

  4. Probability-based location anonymity algorithm%利用概率的位置匿名算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉双; 谭示崇; 赵大为

    2015-01-01

    k匿名模型是一种有效的位置隐私保护技术,通过构造包含需要保护的用户在内的 k 个正在发送请求的用户的匿名区域,达到保护用户位置的目的。但是现有的 k匿名模型仅能利用当前正在发送请求的用户,当同时发送请求用户较少时,就会导致匿名区域过大。为此,提出一种利用概率的位置匿名算法来保护路网中的移动用户的位置,利用当前时刻的不活跃用户的历史位置轨迹,计算出进入匿名路段的概率,可明显减小匿名路段长度。实验结果证明,基于概率的位置匿名算法与一般的 k 匿名模型相比较,提高了匿名效率。%As one of the most effective location privacy preservation technologies , the k‐anonymity model provides safeguards for location privacy of the mobile client against vulnerabilities for abuse by constructing an anonymous area of k users including the protected one . However , most existing k‐anonymity models only utilize the users who are sending requests at recent time . If there are not enough requesting users , the generated anonymous area of the k‐anonymity model will be larger than expected . In this paper , a Probability‐based Location Anonymity ( PLA ) algorithm is proposed for protecting location privacy of the mobile users in a road network . The PLA model takes advantage of the historical path track of the users who are not sending the request currently , and then computes the probability into the anonymous section so that it can greatly reduce the size of the anonymous area . Experimental results show that the PLA algorithm is superior to the k‐anonymity and it increases its anonymous efficiency enormously .

  5. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  6. Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    .3-37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias. PMID:21995837

  7. Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL: case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Glenys

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP, those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD; and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166; the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118; and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210. Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous

  8. 物联网自治安全适配层模型以及T2ToI中T2T匿名认证协议%Autonomous Security Adaptive Layer for IOT and T2T Anonymous Authentication Protocols in T2ToI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伟; 宋军; 叶敏; 刘宇靓

    2011-01-01

    System model and network model of IOT are presented. Security requirements for IOT are also analyzed. An autonomous security layer is proposed. A new security problem, anonymous T2T authentication in T2ToI, is pointed out. Several anonymous authentication protocols are proposed.%归纳分析了物联网的系统模型和网络模型、物联网的安全需求,提出了针对物联网的自治安全适配层模型,指出了物联网中一个新安全问题:在T2ToI中的物体间的匿名T2T认证问题,并给出相应匿名认证协议.

  9. Online anonymous discussion between service users and health professionals to ascertain stakeholder concerns in using e-health services in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Ashurst, Emily J

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of e-health in mental health services requires that we are aware of stakeholders' concerns. We ascertained the views of mental health professionals and mental health service users through the (1) development of 12 topics based on the research literature, (2) presentation to 31 participants (19 mental health professionals and 12 mental health service users) and discussion in three 1-week programmes, (3) thematic analysis of transcripts, and (4) comparison with the literature to identify areas requiring attention in e-health implementation. This method of engaging mental health service users and mental health professionals was effective. We identified areas that (1) should be the first to implement (e.g. discussion forums, email, and Skype), (2) where further education and engagement are necessary before e-health methods could be used (e.g. unsupported computerised cognitive behavioural therapy, computer-patient interviewing, and patient access to online medical records), and (3) for further research (e.g. the impact of bad online experiences).

  10. Impact of Knowledge on Election Time in Anonymous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dieudonné, Yoann; Pelc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Leader election is one of the basic problems in distributed computing. For anonymous networks, the task of leader election is formulated as follows: every node v of the network must output a simple path, which is coded as a sequence of port numbers, such that all these paths end at a common node, the leader. In this paper, we study deterministic leader election in arbitrary anonymous networks. It is well known that leader election is impossible in some networks, regardless of the allocated am...

  11. The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    30zhuo.html?nl=todaysheadlines&emc=a212. 24 P. G. Zimbardo , ―The Human Choice: Individuation, Reason, and Order Versus Deindividuation, Impulse, and...actions‖ According to the studies of Dr. Philip G. Zimbardo , one of the leading researchers in the psychological field of deindividuation, individuals...are more likely to carry out anti-social acts when they achieve a deindividuated state. In a 1969 study, Zimbardo used students to ―administer

  12. Access to fracture risk assessment by FRAX and linked National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) guidance in the UK-an analysis of anonymous website activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, E V; Johansson, H; Harvey, N C; Compston, J; Kanis, J A

    2017-01-01

    In the UK, fracture risk guidance is provided by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG). NOGG usage showed widespread access through direct web-based linkage to FRAX. The facilitated interaction between fracture risk assessment and clinical guidelines could usefully be adopted in other countries.

  13. [Incidence of HIV infection in consultants reviewed after a first negative test in an anonymous and free screening center at the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia, 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruy, S L; Glaziou, P; Flye Sainte Marie, F; Buisson, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the voluntary testing and counselling centre of the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia as well as factors associated with HIV seroconversion. From 1996 to 1999, 5541 repeat consultants were selected for the study. Exclusion criteria included being aged under 15 years, having initially tested positive or inconclusive and a time span of fewer than 30 days since the last test. In all, 276 persons had seroconverted to HIV, giving an incidence rate of 5.56 per 100 person-years. The seroconversion rate declined from 8.46% in 1996, to 3.06% in 1999 (chi 2 test for trend, p = 10(-5)). Among the risk factors analysed, 3 were significantly associated with lack of seroconversion: being a student (RR = 0.53, p = 0.032) or a civil servant (RR = 0.63, p = 0.012) and systematic condom use with causal partners (RR = 0.37, p = 10(-5)). The decline of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the VCT centre over the study period may reflect changes in risk behaviour and the beneficial impact of counselling.

  14. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection.

  15. Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...

  16. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  17. Deterministic gathering of anonymous agents in arbitrary networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dieudonné, Yoann

    2011-01-01

    A team consisting of an unknown number of mobile agents, starting from different nodes of an unknown network, possibly at different times, have to meet at the same node. Agents are anonymous (identical), execute the same deterministic algorithm and move in synchronous rounds along links of the network. Which configurations are gatherable and how to gather all of them deterministically by the same algorithm? We give a complete solution of this gathering problem in arbitrary networks. We characterize all gatherable configurations and give two universal deterministic gathering algorithms, i.e., algorithms that gather all gatherable configurations. The first algorithm works under the assumption that an upper bound n on the size of the network is known. In this case our algorithm guarantees gathering with detection, i.e., the existence of a round for any gatherable configuration, such that all agents are at the same node and all declare that gathering is accomplished. If no upper bound on the size of the network i...

  18. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  19. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu

    2006-01-01

    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  20. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.

  1. Distributed anonymous data perturbation method for privacy-preserving data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Jin MA; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a critical requirement in distributed data mining. Cryptography-based secure multiparty computation is a main approach for privacy preserving. However, it shows poor performance in large scale distributed systems. Meanwhile, data perturbation techniques are comparatively efficient but are mainly used in centralized privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM). In this paper, we propose a light-weight anonymous data perturbation method for efficient privacy preserving in distributed data mining. We first define the privacy constraints for data perturbation based PPDM in a semi-honest distributed environment. Two protocols are proposed to address these constraints and protect data statistics and the randomization process against collusion attacks: the adaptive privacy-preserving summary protocol and the anonymous exchange protocol. Finally, a distributed data perturbation framework based on these protocols is proposed to realize distributed PPDM. Experiment results show that our approach achieves a high security level and is very efficient in a large scale distributed environment.

  2. A Secure Anonymous Internet Electronic Voting Scheme Based on the Polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; CAO Zhenfu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use the polynomial function and Chaum's RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) blind signature scheme to construct a secure anonymous internet electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, each vote does not need to be revealed in the tallying phase. The ballot number of each candidate gets is counted by computing the degrees of two polynomials' greatest common divisor. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current internet.

  3. Apriori-based algorithms for k m-anonymizing trajectory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Poulis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of GPS-enabled devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets and locationbased social networks has resulted in the abundance of trajectory data. The publication of such data opens up new directions in analyzing, studying and understanding human behavior. However, it should be performed in a privacy-preserving way, because the identities of individuals, whose movement is recorded in trajectories, can be disclosed even after removing identifying information. Existing trajectory data anonymization approaches offer privacy but at a high data utility cost, since they either do not produce truthful data (an important requirement of several applications, or are limited in their privacy specification component. In this work, we propose a novel approach that overcomes these shortcomings by adapting km-anonymity to trajectory data. To realize our approach, we develop three efficient and effective anonymization algorithms that are based on the apriori principle. These algorithms aim at preserving different data characteristics, including location distance and semantic similarity, as well as user-specified utility requirements, which must be satisfied to ensure that the released data can be meaningfully analyzed. Our extensive experiments using synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed algorithms are efficient and effective at preserving data utility.

  4. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  5. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-03-10

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN.

  6. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Shakour Abuzneid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc. and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC protocol for WSN.

  7. There is no ``I'' in referee: Why referees should be anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucko, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    From the early days of modern science, it has been recognized that scientific claims must be verified by someone who is not the maker of those claims, and who furthermore has no stake in the matter. In other words, claims need to be evaluated objectively, by the community. The way in which this tends to be done is by peer review conducted by journals. Peer review as currently practiced touches on the themes of trust, where the trust is in institutions and procedures that emerge from expert communities. The practice of peer review is viewed as a citizenly duty of scientists in the scientific community, because all scientists take turns serving either as authors, referees, and editors in the peer review process We lack the resources to have a work evaluated by the entire community, so we substitute with a representative. Yet, in most examples of scientific review, the referee or referees are anonymous. This question is particularly important when the peer review process is brought to bear in order to evaluate matters beyond scientific validity, more ``subjective'' criteria such as relative importance, broadness of interest - criteria that do not appear to have an objective standard of comparison and validation. I will show that the anonymity of referees, far from endangering this trust, actually strengthens it. I will show that this anonymity is crucial in order to maintain any objectivity in scientific peer review, and why authors should not try to unmask the referee. Also at American Physical Society (APS).

  8. Over the light of darkness: memory and present meanings in anonymous visual heaps Sobre a luz da escuridão: memória e sentidos presentes em acervos visuais anônimos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz da Silva Viera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research presents some reflections about the actions developed by the project “Revelações da História” (History Revelation, an initiative constituted by photograph researchers in the city of Londrina (Paraná State, Brazil, between the years of 2005 and 2008, that resulted in the identification, formation, re-integration and diffusion of anonymous visual heaps, as well as the publishing of two books that inserted in Londrina´s community inedited visual collections: the Foto Estrela´s and the Armínio Kaiser´s heaps. Some reflections about fragments of these photographic collections were made in order to enlarge and to consolidate the importance of this preservation initiative starting from some contents not explored by the project “Revelações da História”. The theoretical discussions were made under the light of concepts from Vilém Flüsser philosophy, the linguistic theory of Mikhail Bakhtin and the French line of semiotics theory. The research also ratifies the importance of these heaps to the constitution of a visual memory about “sceneries and characters in Brazil” and about the building of social history as the researcher Boris Kossoy proposes. Moreover, the main lines of action from the project “Revelações da História” also were presented in relation to the theoretical bases, methods and instruments that have guided it, intending to be a reference to future projects of the same type. The results presented at this research ratify the importance and the value of the lightening up and democratization of anonymous pho tographic heaps to the universe of the knowledge. Esta pesquisa apresenta algumas reflexões em torno das ações realizadas pelo projeto “Revelações da História”, iniciativa constituída por pesquisadores da fotografia na cidade de Londrina, realizado entre 2005 e 2008, que resultou na identificação, formação, reintegração e difusão de acervos visuais anônimos, bem como na publica

  9. Pierre Curie: the anonymous neurosurgical contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Karen; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Carmel, Peter W; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    Pierre Curie, best known as a Nobel Laureate in Physics for his co-contributions to the field of radioactivity alongside research partner and wife Marie Curie, died suddenly in 1906 from a street accident in Paris. Tragically, his skull was crushed under the wheel of a horse-drawn carriage. This article attempts to honor the life and achievements of Pierre Curie, whose trailblazing work in radioactivity and piezoelectricity set into motion a wide range of technological developments that have culminated in the advent of numerous techniques used in neurological surgery today. These innovations include brachytherapy, Gamma Knife radiosurgery, focused ultrasound, and haptic feedback in robotic surgery.

  10. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical…

  11. Survey of Anonymous Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动自组网的匿名路由协议研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丰林; 葛连升; 刘琚; 段海新

    2009-01-01

    移动自组网中的恶意节点对路由协议的安全和隐匿具有严重威胁.现在针对安全路由协议的研究很多,但是很少有人涉及匿名性问题,匿名路由协议能够实现节点身份、位置和通信关系的隐匿,在军事和其它机密通信领域中具有重要意义.首先对匿名路由协议面临的攻击行为进行分析,介绍其定义、分类和匿名性评价方法,然后概括性的介绍已有的典型匿名路由协议,比较其匿名性和安全性,最后对以后研究的问题和方向作了总结和展望.%Malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) impose great threat on the security and anonymity of routing protocols. Although there is a huge amount of work in secure routing protocols, few focuses on anonymity problems recent years. Anonymous routing protocols are significantly important in military and other confidential areas because of their capability of hiding the node's identity, location and communication relations. In this paper, a detailed survey of existing literature on anonymous routing protocols is presented. Attack behaviois in anonymous routing protocols are first identified, and the strict definition, taxonomy and anonymity evaluation metrics are also introduced. Then several typical anonymous routing protocols are generally described and their performance on security and anonymity are analyzed and compared as well. At last, some main problems and possible directions for future research are summarized and discussed.

  12. Anonymous Dublin Core Profiles for Accessible User Relationships with Resources and Services%为残障用户利用网络资源和服务的匿名都柏林元数据应用纲要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liddy Nevile

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the case for a private (anonymous) personal profile of accessibility needs and preferences expressed in a Dublin Core format. It introduces the idea that this profile, identified only by a URI, is motivated by a desired relationship between a user and a resource or service. It assumes a new Dublin Core term DC: Adaptability and argues that, without any reference to disabilities, personal needs and preferences, including those symptomatic of common physical and cognitive disabilities, context or location, can be described in a common vocabulary to be matched by resource and service capabilities.%网络资源用户中具在残障的群体,他们或者在认知方面存在障碍(如失聪、听力障碍、失明、视力障碍等)或由于衰老而引起残障,而这些身体上或认知上的障碍意味着他们在浏览使用网络信息的时候需要有适合他们需要的特殊元数据和界面.尽管每个人的残障情况各有不同,但是每一种情况都会有一些共同点.通过建立元数据应用纲要来对这共同点进行描述,使信息系统能够根据元数据纲要描述的不同来调节网络信息的显示和功能,同时又保证残障用户的隐私权,是本文的主要内容.本文作者为都柏林元数据提出了一个新的元素:DC:Adaptability,用这个元素来描述具有残障的个人(匿名)元数据纲要,并且为该元素提出了一套规范词,包括显示、控制、内容三个大类共22个规范用词,这些规范词照顾到了用户的个人隐私权,不对残障种类和个人需要或偏好作任何暗示.作者还解释了该纲要不仅可以用来为残障用户提供个人化的信息显示和操作,而且也可以用来为一般用户提供个人化的系统显示.

  13. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  14. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  15. SAM: Secure Access of Media Independent Information Service with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangsong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seamless handover across different access technologies is very important in the future wireless networks. To optimize vertical handover in heterogeneous networks, IEEE 802.21 standard defines Media Independent Handover (MIH services. The MIH services can be a new target to attackers, which will be the main concern for equipment vendors and service providers. In this paper, we focus specifically on security of Media Independent Information Service (MIIS and present a new access authentication scheme with user anonymity for MIIS. The protocol can be used to establish a secure channel between the mobile node and the information server. Security and performance of the protocol are also analyzed in this paper.

  16. Anonymous One-Time Broadcast Using Non-interactive Dining Cryptographer Nets with Applications to Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Jeroen

    All voting protocols proposed so far, with the exception of a few, have the property that the privacy of the ballot is only computational. In this paper we outline a new and conceptually simple approach allowing us to construct a protocol in which the privacy of the ballot is unconditional. Our basic idea is to modify the protocol of Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta[1], which uses blind signatures so that the voter can obtain a valid ballot. However, instead of using a MIX net, we use a new broadcast protocol for anonymously publishing the vote, a Non-Interactive variation of the Dining Cryptographer Net.

  17. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  18. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  19. A Self-Encryption Remote User Anonymous Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang

    2006-01-01

    Remote user authentication is essential in distributed network environment to protect unauthorized access of a networked system. However, most of those existing remote user authentication schemes have not provided the user identity anonymity, while user anonymity is particularly important in some practical applications.Therefore, based on self-encryption mechanism, a new remote user authentication scheme was proposed. The scheme not only has no need of maintaining a password table at the remote server, but also can protect the user's anonymity.

  20. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Damodaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  1. Stealthy Traffic Analysis of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Using Throughput Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Juen, Joshua; Caesar, Matthew; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity systems such as Tor aim to enable users to communicate in a manner that is untraceable by adversaries that control a small number of machines. To provide efficient service to users, these anonymity systems make full use of forwarding capacity when sending traffic between intermediate relays. In this paper, we show that doing this leaks information about the set of Tor relays in a circuit (path). We present attacks that, with high confidence and based solely on throughput information, can (a) reduce the attacker's uncertainty about the bottleneck relay of any Tor circuit whose throughput can be observed, (b) exactly identify the guard relay(s) of a Tor user when circuit throughput can be observed over multiple connections, and (c) identify whether two concurrent TCP connections belong to the same Tor user, breaking unlinkability. Our attacks are stealthy, and cannot be readily detected by a user or by Tor relays. We validate our attacks using experiments over the live Tor network. We find that the at...

  2. Was ist das Hidden Web? Die Entstehung, Eigenschaften und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von anonymer Kommunikation im Hidden Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Papsdorf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    More than two-and-a-half million people currently use the Tor network to communicate anonymously via the Internet and gain access to online media that are not accessible using standard Internet technology. This sphere of communication can be described as the hidden web. In part because this phenomenon is very recent, the subject has scarcely been studied in the social sciences. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to answer four fundamental questions: What is the hidden web? What charact...

  3. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  4. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance.

  5. Anonymous HIV workplace surveys as an advocacy tool for affordable private health insurance in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 15%, Namibia is in need of innovative health financing strategies that can alleviate the burden on the public sector. Affordable and private health insurances were recently developed in Namibia, and they include coverage for HIV/AIDS. This article reports on the efficacy of HIV workplace surveys as a tool to increase uptake of these insurances by employees in the Namibian formal business sector. In addition, the burden of HIV among this population was examined by sector. Methods Cross-sectional anonymous HIV prevalence surveys were conducted in 24 private companies in Namibia between November 2006 and December 2007. Non-invasive oral fluid-based HIV antibody rapid tests were used. Anonymous test results were provided to the companies in a confidential report and through presentations to their management, during which the advantages of affordable private health insurance and the available insurance products were discussed. Impact assessment was conducted in October 2008, when new health insurance uptake by these companies was evaluated. Results Of 8500 targeted employees, 6521 were screened for HIV; mean participation rate was 78.6%. Overall 15.0% (95% CI 14.2-15.9% of employees tested HIV positive (range 3.0-23.9% across companies. The mining sector had the highest percentage of HIV-positive employees (21.0%; the information technology (IT sector had the lowest percentage (4.0%. Out of 6205 previously uninsured employees, 61% had enrolled in private health insurance by October 2008. The majority of these new insurances (78% covered HIV/AIDS only. Conclusion The proportion of HIV-positive formal sector employees in Namibia is in line with national prevalence estimates and varies widely by employment sector. Following the surveys, there was a considerable increase in private health insurance uptake. This suggests that anonymous HIV workplace surveys can serve as a tool to motivate

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of K-Anonymity on Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Wimmer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While research has been conducted in machine learning algorithms and in privacy preserving in data mining (PPDM, a gap in the literature exists which combines the aforementioned areas to determine how PPDM affects common machine learning algorithms. The aim of this research is to narrow this literature gap by investigating how a common PPDM algorithm, K-Anonymity, affects common machine learning and data mining algorithms, namely neural networks, logistic regression, decision trees, and Bayesian classifiers. This applied research reveals practical implications for applying PPDM to data mining and machine learning and serves as a critical first step learning how to apply PPDM to machine learning algorithms and the effects of PPDM on machine learning. Results indicate that certain machine learning algorithms are more suited for use with PPDM techniques.

  7. Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents' preference for immediate rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; Smith, Ashley; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Even in this limited social context, participants demonstrated a significantly increased preference for smaller, immediate rewards when they believed that they were being watched. This outcome challenges several intuitive accounts of the peer effect on adolescent risk-taking, and indicates that the peer influence on reward sensitivity during late adolescence is not dependent on familiarity with the observer. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of social influences on adolescents' risky behavior.

  8. Finding God through the Spirituality of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sandoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process which evokes a psychic change sufficient to recover from this disease. Although a relatively new spiritual discipline, the 12 Step program is built upon a foundation of much older and more traditional paths to God including devotion, understanding, service and meditation. Recent research provides insights into the 12 Step program. Specifically, the path of recovery is highlighted by the reduction of resentment and the promotion of forgiveness which are key factors of recovery.

  9. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  10. ANONYMIZATION BASED ON NESTED CLUSTERING FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION IN DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Rajalakshmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy Preservation in data mining protects the data from revealing unauthorized extraction of information. Data Anonymization techniques implement this by modifying the data, so that the original values cannot be acquired easily. Perturbation techniques are variedly used which will greatly affect the quality of data,since there is a trade-off between privacy preservation and information loss which will subsequently affect the result of data mining. The method that is proposed in this paper is based on nested clustering of data andperturbation on each cluster. The size of clusters is kept optimal to reduce the information loss. The paper explains the methodology, implementation and results of nested clustering. Various metrics are also provided to explicate that this method overcomes the disadvantages of other perturbation methods.

  11. ANONIMATO DEL PROGENITOR Y DERECHO A LA IDENTIDAD DEL HIJO: DECISIONES JUDICIALES ENCONTRADAS SOBRE RESERVA DE IDENTIDAD EN LOS CASOS DE MADRE SOLTERA Y DONANTE DE ESPERMA Anonymity of genetic parents and the children's right to know own biological identity: Opossed judicial decisions about the secrecy of identity in the cases of single mother and sperm donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Duran Rivacoba

    2010-01-01

    faculty to the anonymity of genetic parents and the children's right to know own biological identity, appear confronted. We will contrast a decision of the Supreme Tribunal who declared unconstitutional the norms which allow the unwed mother to refuse the child and protect the secrecy of her identity, with the Constitutional Tribunal's decision (issued a few months earlier which legitimates the anonymity of the sperm donor in the context of an assisted reproduction proceeding. We argue, against both solutions, that in the first one, maternal anonymity seeks not to protect the mother, but to protect the child before a possible abortion or infanticide so the right to the identity must be limited. To illustrate the convenience and viability of this argument we analyze the "Odiévre" case, in which the European Human Rights Court concluded that the Trench system (that reserves the identity of the mother was not contrary to the European Covenant. On the other hand, we criticize the Constitutional Tribunal's decision regarding the sperm donor because it overstate the right of privacy of the progenitor against the child's best interest. This contrast exercise shows that the mother, who used to have certain means that could jeopardize the child's life, loses them; however the father (that since 1981 reform that allowed free paternity investigation, benefits with the same dispense that the mother nowadays lack.

  12. Commons at the Intersection of Peer Production, Citizen Science, and Big Data: Galaxy Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Madison, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge commons research framework is applied to a case of commons governance grounded in research in modern astronomy. The case, Galaxy Zoo, is a leading example of at least three different contemporary phenomena. In the first place Galaxy Zoo is a global citizen science project, in which volunteer non-scientists have been recruited to participate in large-scale data analysis via the Internet. In the second place Galaxy Zoo is a highly successful example of peer production, sometimes known colloquially as crowdsourcing, by which data are gathered, supplied, and/or analyzed by very large numbers of anonymous and pseudonymous contributors to an enterprise that is centrally coordinated or managed. In the third place Galaxy Zoo is a highly visible example of data-intensive science, sometimes referred to as e-science or Big Data science, by which scientific researchers develop methods to grapple with the massive volumes of digital data now available to them via modern sensing and imaging technologies. This ...

  13. Location Anonymity Method for Continuous LBS Requests%一种连续LBS请求下的位置匿名方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 魏磊; 叶剑; 史红周

    2011-01-01

    为避免不同时刻来自同一用户的连续位置服务(LBS)请求之间的相关攻击,提出一种改进的k-匿名模型,设计一种连续LBS请求下的位置匿名方法.在满足用户隐私要求的前提下,利用位置采样寻找最优的匿名集,使用户平均匿名区域最小.分析结果表明,该方法能合理利用系统计算资源,提高在多用户请求下系统的响应速度.%Location cloaking in terms of continuous Location-Based Services(LBS) request need to consider how to avoid the attack by correlating anonymity areas of different requests from the same user. In term of this privacy problem, this paper proposes an improved k-anonymity model on basis of the traditional k-anonymity model, and designs a state-of-art location anonymity framework and algorithms for continuous LBS requests.This framework guarantees the best Quality of Service(QoS) and good response time of system as well as meeting the privacy requirement. Analysis results show that the method can make better use of the system resources and thus decrease the response time of user's requests.

  14. Tor匿名通信流量在线识别方法∗%Online Identification of Tor Anonymous Communication Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何高峰; 杨明; 罗军舟; 张璐

    2013-01-01

      匿名通信技术的滥用给网络监管带来了新的挑战。有效识别出匿名通信流量,是阻止该类技术滥用的前提,具有重要的研究意义和应用价值。现有研究工作侧重于匿名通信关系的确认,无法用于匿名通信流量的识别和阻塞。针对这个问题,围绕广泛使用的 Tor 匿名通信系统,深入分析运行机制,归纳总结其流量特征。在此基础上,分别提出基于 TLS指纹和基于报文长度分布的 Tor 匿名通信流量识别方法。对两种识别方法的优缺点和适用性进行了详细分析和讨论,并通过CAIDA数据集和在线部署对识别方法进行了验证。实验结果表明,基于TLS指纹和基于报文长度分布的识别方法均能有效识别出Tor匿名通信流量。%Abuse of anonymous communication systems has introduced new challenges into network administration. The effective identification of anonymous communication traffic is a prerequisite to prevent such abuse;thus, this is fundamentally important for both theoretical researches and practical applications. Existing researches mainly focus on the confirmation of anonymous communication relationship and cannot be used to identify and block anonymous communication traffic. To solve this problem, the operation mechanism is deeply analyzed and traffic characteristics are summarized for the widely used Tor anonymous communication system. On this basis, a TLS fingerprint-based and packet-size distributions based methods are proposed to identify Tor anonymous communication traffic, respectively. The advantages, disadvantages and applicability of these two methods are analyzed and discussed in detail, and are validated by CAIDA dataset and online deployment. Experimental results prove that both methods are effective in identifying Tor anonymous communication traffic.

  15. Anonymization of big data based on hybrid tree%基于混合式子树算法的大数据匿名化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炯宁

    2015-01-01

    The top-down specialization( TDS) and the bottom-up generalization( BUG) are two ways to fulfill the sub-tree anonymization. However,existing approaches for sub-tree anonymization fall short of parallelization capability,thereby lacking scalability in handling big data on cloud. Still,both the TDS and the BUG suffer from poor performances for certain value of the K anonymity parameter when they are utilized individually. In view of that,a hybrid approach combining the TDS and the BUG for efficient sub-tree anonymization over big data is proposed. Further,the MapReduce is designed based algorithms for two components ( TDS and BUG ) to gain the high scalability by exploiting powerful computation capability of cloud. Experiment evaluations demonstrate that the hybrid approach significantly improves the scalability and the efficiency of the sub-tree anonymization scheme over existing approaches.%自顶而下具体化( TDS)和自底向上泛化( BUG)是子树匿名化的主要方法,但其并行能力不足,易导致在云数据处理中缺乏可扩展性。当TDS和BUG分开使用时,很难准确确定K匿名参数。针对这一问题,该文提出一种在大数据中进行有效数据匿名化的基于TDS和BUG的混合方法,设计了基于该混合方法的MapReduce模型,以提高云计算能力的可扩展性。实验表明,与现有方法相比,该混合法可以显著提高扩展性和子树匿名化的效率。

  16. From anonymity to “open doors”: IRB responses to tensions with researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitzman Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. Findings I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding, and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55% and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions. IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of “PR work” and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using “charm”. IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. Conclusions This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways – both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions. IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more “open doors” rather

  17. A Mixed Anonymous System based on Tor%基于Tor的混合匿名转发系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光; 薛质

    2011-01-01

    随着互联网应用的不断增加,人们对网络通信的保密性也越来越重视。Tor匿名通信系统具有低时延、数据加密传输,安全信道等优点,能够有效保护通信者的信息安全,目前正成为一种流行的匿名通信系统。但随着Tor系统使用和研究的人增多,Tor系统本身的一些缺陷给其安全带来了隐患。为此,在现有Tor系统分析的基础上,文中提出了一种安全新型的混合匿名转发系统H—Tor。该系统由Hordes和Tor有效级联组合,充分发挥了两者的优势。分析表明,H—Tor可以抵御通信流攻击和端对端攻击,有效保护通信者的匿名安全。%With the continuous increase of lnternet applications, people pay much attention to the confidentiality of network communications. Tor anonymous communication system, with low latency, data eneryption transmission, secure channel, etc., could effectively protect the information security of the correspondents, and thus becomes a popular anonymous communication system. However, with in-depth study wide use of the Tor system, Tor presents some defects in security risks. Currently, a new system called H-Tor is proposed upon the analysis of Tor. The system combines Hordes with Tor and gives full play to their advantages. Analysis shows that the H-Tor integration can effectively protect the anonymity of the correspondents.

  18. Research into the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of brief, free of charge and anonymous sex counselling to improve (mental health in youth: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Evert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity to form romantic relationships and sexual health of adolescents in the Netherlands are compromised by several factors, including young age of first intercourse and adolescent depression. Several thresholds like own expenses, trust and embarrassment prevent adolescents to seek help for their sexual problems. To overcome these thresholds, brief sex counselling has been developed. It has been used since 2006 within the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Service, but there is lack of information about the (cost- effectiveness. In the current study we will evaluate the (cost- effectiveness of brief sex counselling for sexual problems in adolescents and young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. Methods In a randomised controlled trial we will compare (1 brief sex counselling with (2 intensive sexological treatment, and (3 delayed treatment (waiting list. Embedded in this RCT will be a trial-based economic evaluation, looking at the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of brief sex counselling versus the two other interventions. Four hundred fifty adolescents (aged 18-25 with sexual problems will be recruited among the persons who visit the Public Health Service (PHS and through various websites. After a screening procedure, eligible participants will be randomly allocated to one of the three intervention groups. Primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is the severity of sexual problems. Other outcomes include psychological distress, especially depression. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective. Costs will be assessed continuously by a retrospective questionnaire covering the last 3 month. All outcome assessments (including those for the economic evaluation will take place via the internet at baseline, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after baseline. Discussion The proposed research project will be the first study to provide preliminary data about the effect and cost

  19. Assessment Role of Participation in Narcotic Anonymous in Opiate Dependents during Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.

  20. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  1. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  2. Parents' perception of self-advocacy of children with myositis: an anonymous online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Adam M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence.

  3. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  4. Genetic structure of wild emmer wheat populations as reflected by transcribed versus anonymous SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Abbo, Shahal; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2008-03-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have become a major tool in population genetic analyses. The anonymous genomic SSRs (gSSRs) have been recently supplemented with expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSRs (eSSRs), which represent the transcribed regions of the genome. In the present study, we used 8 populations of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides) to compare the usefulness of the two types of SSR markers in assessing allelic diversity and population structure. gSSRs revealed significantly higher diversity than eSSRs in terms of average number of alleles (14.92 vs. 7.4, respectively), polymorphic information content (0.87 vs. 0.68, respectively), and gene diversity (He; 0.55 vs. 0.38, respectively). Despite the overall differences in the level of diversity, Mantel tests for correlations between eSSR and gSSR pairwise genetic distances were found to be significant for each population as well as for all accessions jointly (RM=0.54, p=0.01). Various genetic structure analyses (AMOVA, PCoA, STRUCTURE, unrooted UPGMA tree) revealed a better capacity of eSSRs to distinguish between populations, while gSSRs showed a higher proportion of intrapopulation (among accessions) diversity. We conclude that eSSR and gSSR markers should be employed in conjunction to obtain a high inter- and intra-specific (or inter- and intra-varietal) distinctness.

  5. LPPS: A Distributed Cache Pushing Based K-Anonymity Location Privacy Preserving Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of location-based services (LBSs for mobile social network applications. To enable location-based services, mobile users are required to report their location information to the LBS servers and receive answers of location-based queries. Location privacy leak happens when such servers are compromised, which has been a primary concern for information security. To address this issue, we propose the Location Privacy Preservation Scheme (LPPS based on distributed cache pushing. Unlike existing solutions, LPPS deploys distributed cache proxies to cover users mostly visited locations and proactively push cache content to mobile users, which can reduce the risk of leaking users’ location information. The proposed LPPS includes three major process. First, we propose an algorithm to find the optimal deployment of proxies to cover popular locations. Second, we present cache strategies for location-based queries based on the Markov chain model and propose update and replacement strategies for cache content maintenance. Third, we introduce a privacy protection scheme which is proved to achieve k-anonymity guarantee for location-based services. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed LPPS achieves decent service coverage ratio and cache hit ratio with lower communication overhead compared to existing solutions.

  6. A quality improvement project to tackle under-reporting of hazards by doctors by using an anonymous telephone hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous hazard reporting hotline was established for doctors to use on two general medical wards at Weston General Hospital (WGH) in North Somerset in England during an eight day period in July/August 2014. Doctors were encouraged to report hazards and near misses or just start a conversation about a concern. The existing computer based significant event system remained alongside the hotline and was to be used where actual harm had come to a patient. A team of consultants and quality improvement administrators monitored the hotline on a daily basis, categorized the level of risk being reported and ensured, where possible, that action was taken to address the doctors' concerns. The hotline increased reporting rates from two per month to 25 in eight days. The system identified 13 amber (medium risk) and five red (high risk) hazards which would otherwise not have been known about. This author believes these five high risk reports alone make the case for a new, quicker, easier, and anonymous reporting system for doctors at WGH urgent and irrefutable.

  7. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful.

  8. Anonyme, "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" (BdT 461.146

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Billy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" is one of a small group of texts written in a mixed linguistic variety that has both French and Occitan features and which includes the lais "Markiol" and "Nompar," that are moreover transmitted by the same French manuscript, the so-called Chansonnier du Roi, among a collection of troubadour poems, most of which are also copied in a mixed variety. The accommodation of this kind of text in trouvère songbooks would seem to point to a specific tradition in which troubadour songs would circulate not in their original language, but in a gallicized version, which allowed for the prestige of the source language to be retained as well as maintaining the most important formal features of the poem: versification and sophisticated rhyme schemes. This tradition seems to have encouraged some trouvères – who remain anonymous – to compose poetry directly in this mixed variety, in forms that tend to be characteristic of trouvère poetry. The present text is a lyric adaptation of a parody of Ovid’s "Amores", known as "De Vetula", the interpretation of which has given rise to different opinions, which will be discussed here along with a closer study of the language.

  9. Anonymization of Court Decisions: Are Restrictions on the Right to Information in “Accordance with the Law”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruodytė Edita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Lithuania rules for the anonymization of court decisions were introduced in 2005. These rules require automatic anonymization of all court decisions, which in the opinion of the authors violates the public interest to know and freedom of expression is unjustifiably restricted on behalf of the right to privacy. This issue covers two diametrically opposed human rights: the right to privacy and the right to information. The first question is how the balance between two equivalent rights could be reached. The second question is whether this regulation is in accordance with the law as it is established in the national Constitution and revealed by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania and developed by the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. The authors conclude that the legislator is not empowered to delegate to the Judicial Council issues which are a matter of legal regulation and suggest possible solutions evaluating practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, and selected EU countries.

  10. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart--"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous--"Romanza," Bach--"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Psarrou, Anna; Apostolidou, Sofia; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Batzina, Alkisti; Leondaritis, Georgios; Sakellaridis, N

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 μPa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 μPa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 ± 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 ± 10 l× 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence--due to its brain neurotransmitters action--of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.

  11. An anonymous access control and authenticated key exchange protocol for Mobile RFID systems in the internet of things%物联网移动RFID系统匿名访问控制认证密钥交换协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜玲; 喻建平

    2012-01-01

    针对物联网移动RFID系统标签隐私信息的访问控制以及用户身份隐私保护问题,本文采用身份加密和属性加密相结合的方法,建立了IB-AB-eCK安全模型,设计了基于身份及属性的认证密钥交换协议IB-AB-AKE.基于IB-AB-AKE协议,提出了移动RFID手机与信息服务器之间认证密钥交换协议,实现了在保护移动RFID手机用户身份隐私的同时,根据标签所有者定制的访问控制策略进行标签信息的访问控制认证和会话密钥交换,防止了隐私信息被非法访问.分析表明,IB-AB-AKE协议在IB-AB-eCK模型下是安全的,且在通信次数、通信量及计算量方面具有优势.%For the access control of a tag’s privacy information and the privacy protection of a user' s identity in Mobile RFID systems in the internet of things, a security model called IB-AB-eCK is introduced, and an identity-based and attribute-based authenticated key exchange (IB-AB-AKE) protocol is proposed in this paper. Based on IB-AB-AKE protocol, an authenticated key exchange scheme is then established between mobile RFID phones and information servers of mobile RFID systems in the internet of things. The scheme not only preserves the identity privacy of the user of mobile RFID phone, but also completes the authentication and agrees upon a session key for the access to the tag' s information according to the owner' s access control policy. The analyses show that IB-AB-AKE protocol is secure in IB-AB-eCK model and it has advantages for communication round, communication traffic and computing complexity.

  12. Taxonomy for and Analysis of Anonymous Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    P2p2) IV. Up-to |IA| n = 4, k = 3, r ≤ 2, 1 ≤ d ≤ 3 CG(p1 ∨ p2∨ p3) CG(pi → ¬Kjpi) i≠j CG(¬pi→ Pjpi) i≠j CG(¬Kipi ∧ Pipi ...i≠j CG(¬pi→ Pjpi) i≠j CG(¬Kipi ∧ Pipi ) i≠j OR CG(p1 ∨ p2∨…∨ p5) CG(pi → ¬Kjpi) i≠j CG(¬pi→ Pjpi) i≠j CG(¬Kipi ∧ Pipi ) i≠j...j CG(¬Kipi ∧ Pipi ) i≠j k possible worlds 2k-1 possible worlds ¬p1 ¬p1 p1 p2 p1 p2 p1, p2 p1 p2 p3 p1 p2 p3 p2, p3

  13. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  14. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  15. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  16. 一种低运算量Ad-hoc网络匿名路由协议%Low Computational Load Anonymous Routing Protocol for Ad-hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方斌; 张琨; 张宏

    2011-01-01

    Nodes in Ad-hoc networks are limited in energy, have poor computational ability and move fast, and public key encryptions have heavy computational load,consume a lot of energy and have long computational cycle time,so pub lic key encryptions are adapted for the Ad-hoc networks. The proposed anonymous routing protocols have a lot of public key encryptions. To reduces public key encryptions, we applied bilinear pairing and Zero Knowledge Proofs into anony mous routing protocol,and proposed a new anonymous routing protocol----an low computational load anonymous rou ting protocol for Ad-hoc networks(LCAR), which reduces public key encryptions heavily. Our analysis and simulation study verify that our protocol is much better than existing anonymous routing protocols on the aspects of energy effi ciency and end-end delay.%Ad-hoc网络节点运算能力差,能量有限且移动速度高,而公钥运算量大,能耗高,运算周期长,所以公钥运算不适合于Ad-hoc网络.已提出的匿名路由协议却含有大量的公钥运算.为了降低公钥运算量,将双线性对和零知识证明应用于匿名路由协议中,提出一种新的匿名路由协议—低运算量的Ad-hoc网络匿名路由协议,该协议大幅降低了公钥运算量.实验结果表明,该协议建立匿名路由所消耗的能量少,时延低.

  17. RESEARCH ON ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AD HOC NETWORKS%无线 Ad hoc 网络匿名通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芝; 石志东; 房卫东; 张小珑; 单联海

    2016-01-01

    无线 Ad hoc 网络(MANET)的多跳、自组织、无固定设施以及运算资源有限等特性,使得传统网络中复杂度高的安全算法难以应用于其中。而采用与匿名技术相结合的安全机制,可较好地解决节点隐私和通信关系保密的安全问题。针对现有的匿名技术,采用对比分析的方法,对传统网络的匿名技术进行分析,总结技术上的优缺点,研究 Ad hoc 网络的匿名技术,并对比分析各种匿名通信协议的安全性能,为后续的研究与应用提供帮助。%Due to the features of Ad hoc networks such as multi-hop,self-organisation,non-infrastructure and limited resource,the security algorithms with high complexity in traditional networks are hard to be used in it.However to use the security mechanism combining with anonymous technology can well solve the security problem in regard to nodes’privacy and communication relationship secret.In this paper,targeted at existing anonymous technologies,we analyse their use in traditional networks with the method of comparative analysis, summarise the advantages and disadvantages in terms of technology,and meanwhile study the anonymous technologies used in Ad hoc networks,as well as compare and analyse the security performances of various anonymous communication protocol,these provide the help for subsequent researches and applications.

  18. 基于隐私决策度的改进k-匿名算法%Improved Algorithm of k-anonymity Based on Degree of Privacy Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申艳光; 闫晶星; 刘永红; 郭高尚

    2015-01-01

    现有的匿名化隐私保护技术在进行数据发布和数据共享前对于敏感属性的个性化隐私保护的支持存在不足,为了实现更为合理的个性化隐私保护,结合粒计算粗糙集理论和k-匿名理论的最新研究成果,针对电子商务中隐私保护个性化决策选择度的不同,从粒化角度出发,提出一种基于隐私决策度的改进k-匿名算法。经实验验证,该算法更好的实现了隐私保护的个性化,同时其隐私保护精度方面优于已有的p-Sensitive k-匿名算法。%In the existing anonymous privacy protection technology, there is a shortage of personalized privacy protection support for sensitive attributes before data release and sharing. In order to achieve more reasonable personalized privacy preservation and improve the precision of privacy preservation, this paper reviewed the latest researches in granular computing theory, rough set theory and k-anonymity theory, and presented an improved algorithm of k-anonymity based on the personalized decision degree of privacy preservation, in view of different personalized granularity decision selectivity of privacy preservation in E-business.The experimental results show that the novel algorithm can achieve privacy preservation with more reasonable personalization, and its accuracy of privacy preservation is superior to p-sensitive k-anonymity algorithm.

  19. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  20. Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Regin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.

  1. Anonymous Authentication Scheme Based on Role Model of PMI%基于PMI角色模型的匿名认证方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺靖靖; 刘景森; 史强; 傅慧明

    2012-01-01

    隐私保护是当前网络应用中最受关注的问题之一,越来越多的用户希望加强隐私保护,在不泄露个人敏感信息的情况下实现资源访问.针对匿名访问控制提出了一种基于PKI/PMI证书的认证方案,即在用户和服务提供者之间引入可信第三方,利用角色说明属性证书RS-AC和角色分配属性证书RA-AC,实现匿名认证.理论分析证明,该方案具有安全性、匿名性和不关联性.%Nowadays,the privacy protection is one of the most concerned problems. More and more users want to strengthen their own privacy preservation and hope that they can access the resources without providing personal sensitive informations. An anonymous access control scheme is proposed which is based on PKI/PMI certificates. The trusted third party is introduced between users and the service provider. The role stated-attribute certificate(RS-AC) and role assigned attribute certificate(RA-AC) are used to implement the anonymous authentication. Theoretical analysis shows that this solution provides the security,anonymity and no relevance.

  2. Anonymous Proxy Signcryption Scheme Based on Quadratic Residue%基于二次剩余的匿名代理者签密方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祯; 杨启良; 杨波

    2015-01-01

    由于现有签密方案大多基于双线性对,配对运算计算量较大,且实现效率不高,不能满足对代理签密者的匿名要求,因此无需配对的签密方案是密码学的研究方向。而基于二次剩余的签名方案不仅具有描述简单,能够抵抗选择密文攻击的优点,且相较于基于配对的签名方案具有更高的实现效率。为此,将二次剩余的方法应用到签密方案中,并结合匿名性,提出一种基于二次剩余的匿名代理者签密方案。分析结果表明,该方案具有匿名性与公开验证性。%Most of the existing signcryptions are based on bilinear pairing,but the signcryption without bilinear pairing is a research of cryptography,because the pairing operation requires a lot of computations,and it can not anonymous the proxy signcrypter. The signature scheme based on quadratic residue is widely used with its advantages such as simple description,resistance of chosen ciphertext attack and high efficiency. Its efficient is higher compared with signcryption schemes based on bilinear pairing. This paper adds anonymity to the scheme based on quadratic residue to realize anonymous proxy signcryption. Analysis results show that the scheme not only provides anonymity, but also provides public verifiability.

  3. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed.

  4. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations.

  5. A secure user anonymity-preserving three-factor remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Recent advanced technology enables the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) for the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and also to access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Several remote user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for TMIS. However, most of them are either insecure against various known attacks or they are inefficient. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Tan's scheme is efficient, it has several security drawbacks such as (1) it fails to provide proper authentication during the login phase, (2) it fails to provide correct updation of password and biometric of a user during the password and biometric update phase, and (3) it fails to protect against replay attack. In addition, Tan's scheme lacks the formal security analysis and verification. Later, Arshad and Nikooghadam also pointed out some security flaws in Tan's scheme and then presented an improvement on Tan's s scheme. However, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme is still insecure against the privileged-insider attack through the stolen smart-card attack, and it also lacks the formal security analysis and verification. In order to withstand those security loopholes found in both Tan's scheme, and Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme, we aim to propose an effective and more secure three-factor remote user authentication scheme for TMIS. Our scheme provides the user anonymity property. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis using random oracle models and the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool, we show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is also efficient as compared to other related schemes.

  6. Behavior online : Does anonymous computer communication reduce gender inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined dominance and self-stereotyping in mixed-sex groups who had online discussions. Gender differences in dominance varied as a function of several contextual variables: individuation, the accessibility of gender stereotypes, and the fit between group task and stereotype. Results of

  7. An Anonymous Voting Scheme based on Confirmation Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Md. Rokibul; Tamura, Shinsuke; Taniguchi, Shuji; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a new electronic voting (e-voting) scheme that fulfills all the security requirements of e-voting i.e. privacy, accuracy, universal verifiability, fairness, receipt-freeness, incoercibility, dispute-freeness, robustness, practicality and scalability; usually some of which are found to be traded. When compared with other existing schemes, this scheme requires much more simple computations and weaker assumptions about trustworthiness of individual election authorities. The key mechanism is the one that uses confirmation numbers involved in individual votes to make votes verifiable while disabling all entities including voters themselves to know the linkages between voters and their votes. Many existing e-voting schemes extensively deploy zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) to achieve verifiability. However, ZKP is expensive and complicated. The confirmation numbers attain the verifiability requirement in a much more simple and intuitive way, then the scheme becomes scalable and practical.

  8. Anonymity for key-trees with adaptive adversaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, M.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Hash-lock authentication protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags incur heavy search on the server. Key-trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags. Buttyán [4] and Beye and Veugen [3

  9. Leader Election for Anonymous Asynchronous Agents in Arbitrary Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dereniowski, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of leader election among mobile agents operating in an arbitrary network modeled as an undirected graph. Nodes of the network are unlabeled and all agents are identical. Hence the only way to elect a leader among agents is by exploiting asymmetries in their initial positions in the graph. Agents do not know the graph or their positions in it, hence they must gain this knowledge by navigating in the graph and share it with other agents to accomplish leader election. This can be done using meetings of agents, which is difficult because of their asynchronous nature: an adversary has total control over the speed of agents. When can a leader be elected in this adversarial scenario and how to do it? We give a complete answer to this question by characterizing all initial configurations for which leader election is possible and by constructing an algorithm that accomplishes leader election for all configurations for which this can be done.

  10. An Architecture for Anonymous Mobile Coupons in a Large Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bartoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile coupon (m-coupon can be presented with a smartphone for obtaining a financial discount when purchasing a product or a service. M-coupons are a powerful marketing tool that has enjoyed a huge growth and diffusion, involving tens of millions of people each year. We propose an architecture which may enable significant improvements over current m-coupon technology, in terms of acceptance of potential customers and of marketing actions that become feasible: the customer does not need to install any dedicated app; an m-coupon is not bound to any specific device or customer; an m-coupon may be redeemed at any store in a set of potentially many thousands of stores, without any prior arrangement between customer and store. We are not aware of any proposal with these properties.

  11. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    pp. 27{36, November 1998. [19] NetZero . www.netzero.com [20] nym.alias.net www.publius.net/n.a.n.html. Homepage of a well known nym server de...Verlag, LNCS vol. 1708, pp. 814{833, 1999. [28] Thomas Wu, Michael Malkin, and Dan Boneh. \\ Building Intrusion Tolerant Applica- tions", in Proceedings

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Strategic Voting in Anonymous Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiance

    2016-01-01

    Democratically choosing a single preference from three or more candidate options is not a straightforward matter. There are many competing ideas on how to aggregate rankings of candidates. However, the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem implies that no fair voting system (equality among voters and equality among candidates) is immune to strategic…

  13. Evolutionary model of an anonymous consumer durable market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    An analytic model is presented that considers the evolution of a market of durable goods. The model suggests that after introduction goods spread always according to a Bass diffusion. However, this phase will be followed by a diffusion process for durable consumer goods governed by a variation-selection-reproduction mechanism and the growth dynamics can be described by a replicator equation. The theory suggests that products play the role of species in biological evolutionary models. It implies that the evolution of man-made products can be arranged into an evolutionary tree. The model suggests that each product can be characterized by its product fitness. The fitness space contains elements of both sites of the market, supply and demand. The unit sales of products with a higher product fitness compared to the mean fitness increase. Durables with a constant fitness advantage replace other goods according to a logistic law. The model predicts in particular that the mean price exhibits an exponential decrease over a long time period for durable goods. The evolutionary diffusion process is directly related to this price decline and is governed by Gompertz equation. Therefore it is denoted as Gompertz diffusion. Describing the aggregate sales as the sum of first, multiple and replacement purchase the product life cycle can be derived. Replacement purchase causes periodic variations of the sales determined by the finite lifetime of the good (Juglar cycles). The model suggests that both, Bass- and Gompertz diffusion may contribute to the product life cycle of a consumer durable. The theory contains the standard equilibrium view of a market as a special case. It depends on the time scale, whether an equilibrium or evolutionary description is more appropriate. The evolutionary framework is used to derive also the size, growth rate and price distribution of manufacturing business units. It predicts that the size distribution of the business units (products) is lognormal

  14. Anonymous indexing of health conditions for a similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Insu; Marsh, Nigel V

    2012-07-01

    A health social network is an online information service which facilitates information sharing between closely related members of a community with the same or a similar health condition. Over the years, many automated recommender systems have been developed for social networking in order to help users find their communities of interest. For health social networking, the ideal source of information for measuring similarities of patients is the medical information of the patients. However, it is not desirable that such sensitive and private information be shared over the Internet. This is also true for many other security sensitive domains. A new information-sharing scheme is developed where each patient is represented as a small number of (possibly disjoint) d-words (discriminant words) and the d-words are used to measure similarities between patients without revealing sensitive personal information. The d-words are simple words like "food,'' and thus do not contain identifiable personal information. This makes our method an effective one-way hashing of patient assessments for a similarity measure. The d-words can be easily shared on the Internet to find peers who might have similar health conditions.

  15. A Policy Based Approach for the Management of Web Browser Resources to Prevent Anonymity Attacks in Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    Web browsers are becoming the universal interface to reach applications and services related with these systems. Different browsing contexts may be required in order to reach them, e.g., use of VPN tunnels, corporate proxies, anonymisers, etc. By browsing context we mean how the user browsers the Web, including mainly the concrete configuration of its browser. When the context of the browser changes, its security requirements also change. In this work, we present the use of authorisation policies to automatise the process of controlling the resources of a Web browser when its context changes. The objective of our proposal is oriented towards easing the adaptation to the security requirements of the new context and enforce them in the browser without the need for user intervention. We present a concrete application of our work as a plug-in for the adaption of security requirements in Mozilla/Firefox browser when a context of anonymous navigation through the Tor network is enabled.

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

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  17. Isomorphism, Homogeneity, and Rationalism in University Retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Gordon S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the process of retrenchment at a medium-sized state university (pseudonyms used) for the purpose of analyzing the isomorphic pressures (mimetic, coercive, normative) surfacing during the process and the role played by rationalism in decision-making. Draws on the literature of organizational theory and change, and makes comparisons with…

  18. Pearl and Ronda: Revaluing Mothers' Literate Lives to Imagine New Relationships between Homes and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Norton-Meier, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Stories about Pearl Bright and Ronda Thompson (pseudonyms), two mothers whose literacy lives offered possibilities for new relationships with their children's elementary school, are recounted in this article. Negative personal schooling histories and lack of academic successes kept Pearl from trusting the educational system and motivated Ronda to…

  19. Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the Promise of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In…

  20. Molecular characterization of a new Babesia bovis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaa Terkawi

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a Babesia bovis protein that shares significant degree of similarity to other apicomplexan thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins (TRAPs was found in the genomic database and designated as BbTRAP2. Recombinant protein containing a conserved region of BbTRAP2 was produced in E. coli. A high antigenicity of recombinant BbTRAP2 (rBbTRAP2 was observed with field B. bovis-infected bovine sera collected from geographically different regions of the world. Moreover, antiserum against rBbTRAP2 specifically reacted with the authentic protein by Western blot analysis and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Three bands corresponding to 104-, 76-, and 44-kDa proteins were identified in the parasite lysates and two bands of 76- and 44-kDa proteins were detected in the supernatant of cultivated parasites, indicating that BbTRAP2 was proteolytically processed and shed into the culture. Apical and surface localizations of BbTRAP2 were observed in the intracellular and extracellular parasites, respectively, by confocal laser microscopic examination. Moreover, native BbTRAP2 was precipitated by bovine erythrocytes, suggesting its role in the attachment to erythrocytes. Furthermore, the specific antibody to rBbTRAP2 inhibited the growth of B. bovis in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, pre-incubation of the free merozoites with the antibody to rBbTRAP2 resulted in an inhibition of the parasite invasion into host erythrocytes. Interestingly, the antibody to rBbTRAP2 was the most inhibitive for the parasite's growth as compared to those of a set of antisera produced against different recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c, rhoptry-associated protein 1 C-terminal (BbRAP-1CT, and spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1. These results suggest that BbTRAP2 might be a potential candidate for development of a subunit vaccine against B. bovis infection.

  1. Latent Feature Models for Uncovering Human Mobility Patterns from Anonymized User Location Traces with Metadata

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2017-04-10

    In the mobile era, data capturing individuals’ locations have become unprecedentedly available. Data from Location-Based Social Networks is one example of large-scale user-location data. Such data provide a valuable source for understanding patterns governing human mobility, and thus enable a wide range of research. However, mining and utilizing raw user-location data is a challenging task. This is mainly due to the sparsity of data (at the user level), the imbalance of data with power-law users and locations check-ins degree (at the global level), and more importantly the lack of a uniform low-dimensional feature space describing users. Three latent feature models are proposed in this dissertation. Each proposed model takes as an input a collection of user-location check-ins, and outputs a new representation space for users and locations respectively. To avoid invading users privacy, the proposed models are designed to learn from anonymized location data where only IDs - not geophysical positioning or category - of locations are utilized. To enrich the inferred mobility patterns, the proposed models incorporate metadata, often associated with user-location data, into the inference process. In this dissertation, two types of metadata are utilized to enrich the inferred patterns, timestamps and social ties. Time adds context to the inferred patterns, while social ties amplifies incomplete user-location check-ins. The first proposed model incorporates timestamps by learning from collections of users’ locations sharing the same discretized time. The second proposed model also incorporates time into the learning model, yet takes a further step by considering time at different scales (hour of a day, day of a week, month, and so on). This change in modeling time allows for capturing meaningful patterns over different times scales. The last proposed model incorporates social ties into the learning process to compensate for inactive users who contribute a large volume

  2. A Reputation-Based Identity Management Model for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifa Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of cloud computing, most research on identity management has concentrated on protecting user data. However, users typically leave a trail when they access cloud services, and the resulting user traceability can potentially lead to the leakage of sensitive user information. Meanwhile, malicious users can do harm to cloud providers through the use of pseudonyms. To solve these problems, we introduce a reputation mechanism and design a reputation-based identity management model for cloud computing. In the model, pseudonyms are generated based on a reputation signature so as to guarantee the untraceability of pseudonyms, and a mechanism that calculates user reputation is proposed, which helps cloud service providers to identify malicious users. Analysis verifies that the model can ensure that users access cloud services anonymously and that cloud providers assess the credibility of users effectively without violating user privacy.

  3. Differences in Perceptions of the Importance of Subject Matter Knowledge and How These Shaped Supervision and Assessment of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudavanhu, Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish lecturers and student teachers' perceptions of the importance of subject matter knowledge and how these views affected supervision and assessment of pre-service and in-service science teachers at University of Mashonaland (pseudonym) in Zimbabwe. The study was largely qualitative and used group…

  4. Effectiveness of psychoanalysis and alcoholics anonymous on reducing re - drinking rate among patients with alcohol dependence%精神分析治疗与嗜酒者互诫协会对降低酒依赖患者复饮率的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭兰; 鲍建军; 张丽梅; 杨爽艺; 刘红艳

    2016-01-01

    anonymous (AA) on reducing re - drinking rate among patients with alcohol dependence .Methods Totals of 108 pa-tients with alcohol dependence were randomly divided into psychoanalytic treatment group (n = 54) and AA treatment group (n = 54) .Treatment time was 16 weeks .On the basis of given routine therapy to patients in both groups ,patients with psychoanalytic treatment were given psychoanalytic therapy twice a week , and holding alcoholics anonymous activity for patients with AA treatment group on every Wednesday afternoon ,assessing each group of patients by Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) before treatment ,after 4 ,8 ,12 ,16 weeks of treatment ,evaluating each group of patients by Symptom Self -assessment Scale(SCL - 90) before treatment and after 16 weeks of treatment ,keeping 1 or 2 times a month of telephone follow - up or outpatient care within 6 months after the patients discharged ,in order to understand the patients're - drinking situation .Results The scores of HAMD and SCL - 90 showed no significant difference before treatment (P > 0 .05) .HAMD scores were significantly decreased in two groups after treatment ,and the score in psychoanalytic treatment group were lower than AA treatment group after 8 ,12 ,16 weeks of treatment ,the difference were statistically significant (P < 0.01) .After treatment ,SCL - 90 score except the psychiatric disorder factor ,the score in two groups were improved obviously before treatment ,the difference were statistically significant (P < 0 .05) ,and the score of so-matization ,anxiety ,depression ,hostility ,interpersonal sensitivity and poor sleep and diet in psychoana-lytic treatment group were better than those in AA treatment group ,the difference were also statistically significant (P < 0 .05) .Compared re - drinking rate 6 months after hospital discharge ,the psychoanalytic treatment group was 30 .4% (14/54) was lower than the AA treatment group 39 .1% (18/54) ,but there was no statistically significant difference (χ2

  5. Riots and a Blank Canvas: Young People Creating Texts, Creating Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on research into the work of Greenshoots. All young participants referred to in this article have been anonymised and pseudonyms provided. In discussions with Greenshoots and the mentors, they took the decision that they wanted to be named, and for Nottingham to be identified as the context of the place and its history is an…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  7. Thinking like a Forensic Scientist: Learning with Academic and Everyday Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how one high school chemistry teacher, Sharon (pseudonym), implemented a literacy-based unit that appealed to her students by capitalizing on their out-of-school interests in forensics and how her students responded to that unit. The author also describes how two colleagues at her school joined her in teaching…

  8. Collegiality and Culture: General Education Curriculum Reform at Western Protestant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrow, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of general education curriculum reform at Western Protestant University (WPU), a pseudonym for a religiously affiliated liberal arts college in the western United States. The theoretical framework for describing the process comes from two areas: institutional culture and a typology of academic change developed by…

  9. In-Service Teacher Training and Coaching on Marzano's Instructional Strategies: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shenequa C.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this action research study was the implementation of a professional development initiative comprised of two phases: a training program for teachers on Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies, and the implementation, supported by follow-up coaching, during "Pear Mountain" High School's (a pseudonym) six-week…

  10. Brian O’Nolan’s comic and critical reconception of narratives of the embellished Past in independent Ireland, 1938-1966

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, A.M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the work of Irish novelist and journalist Flann O’Brien/Myles na Gopaleen (pseudonym of Brian O’Nolan, 1911-1966). Recurrent themes in his popular Irish Times column, “Cruiskeen Lawn,” and his novels are discussed in relation to relevant historical developments of the

  11. Attribute-based key-insulated signcryption with bidirectional anonymity%双向匿名的基于属性的密钥隔离签密

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴兰; 张振

    2013-01-01

    为解决发送者和接收者都具有匿名性的基于属性签密方案中密钥泄露的问题,将密钥隔离机制引入到基于属性签密方案中,给出了基于属性密钥隔离签密的形式化定义和安全模型,构建了随机预言模型下安全的基于属性的密钥隔离签密方案。改进后的方案不仅没有失去原有的双向匿名性,而且满足前向安全性和后向安全性的要求,减轻了密钥泄露带来的危害。最后在安全模型的基础上,给出了双向匿名的基于属性的密钥隔离签密的机密性、认证性和匿名性的安全性证明。%To solve exposure of secret key in attribute-based signcryption with anonymity for both sender and receiver, key-insulation mechanism to attribute-based signcryption was untroduced. Given the formal definition and security no-tions, the scheme of attribute-based key-insulated signcryption was proposed, which is provably secure under the random oracle model. The improved scheme not only satisfies the requirement of bidirectional anonymity, but also achieves for-ward security and afterward security, consequently reduced the hazard of key exposure. Finally, confidentiality, authenti-cation and anonymity in attribute-based key-insulated signcryption scheme were proved based on given security notions.

  12. A Case Study of a "Collaborative Organizational Innovation" Intervention, Combining Action Research and Design-Thinking Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Jeffrey Richard

    2013-01-01

    For decades, debates have raged about performance management in education. While it is essential to understand the degree of student learning and the nature of teacher impact in education systems, when attempts at managing outcomes go wrong, the consequences can be problematic. National Education Organization (a pseudonym for the organization…

  13. Multi-Dimensional Trajectory Anonymity in Collecting Personal Mobility Data%个人移动数据收集中的多维轨迹匿名方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 彭瑞卿; 赵雨辰; 陈栋

    2013-01-01

    在情景感知位置服务中,移动互联网络的开放性使得个人移动数据面临巨大的安全风险,移动数据的时空关联特性对个人数据的隐私保护提出重大挑战。针对基于时空关联的背景知识攻击,本文提出了一种多维的轨迹匿名隐私保护方法。该方法在匿名轨迹数据收集系统的基础上,基于多用户协作的隐私保护模式,通过时间匿名和空间匿名算法,实现用户的隐私保护。实验结果表明,该方法可以有效的对抗基于位置和移动方式的背景知识攻击,满足了 k-匿名的隐私保护要求。%In the Context-Aware location services ,the opening characteristic of the mobile network brings some security risks for personal mobility data .The spatial-temporal correlation of the mobility data is a great challenge for protecting privacy of the users .To solve the background knowledge attack based on the spatial-temporal correlation ,we proposed a privacy protection method based on multi-dimensional trajectory anonymity in this paper .This method is built on the anonymous trajectory data collection sys-tem and achieves the protection of user privacy through spatial-temporal anonymity algorithm based on the multi-user collaboration privacy protection mode .The experimental results demonstrated that this method can prevent the background knowledge attack based on the position and moving mode effectively and meets the demands of the privacy protect of k-Anonymity .

  14. An Anonymous Node State Transition Model Based on Semi-Markov Process%一种基于半马尔可夫过程的匿名节点状态转移模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建国; 刘卫东; 戴一奇

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the effect of node misbehaviors and defense mechanisms against them on the node cooperation in anonymous routing protocol for MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) ,an anonymous node state transition model based on semi-Markov process is proposed on the features of anonymous node state transition. Under this model, according to the characteristics of large energy consumption and high de mand for privacy protection of anonymous node,we give a theoretical estimation of the limiting probability of node states,and present a model of the node state transition probability matrix and transition time expectation matrix. An experimental analysis to the effect of different model paranetres on the limiting probability of node states verifies the model' s validity at last.%为揭示MANET(Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks)匿名路由协议中节点不端行为及其抵御机制对节点协作性的影响,本文根据匿名节点状态转移的特点,提出了一种基于半马尔可夫过程的匿名节点状态转移模型.在该模型下,针对MANET匿名路由协议中节点能量消耗大和隐私保护要求高的特点,对节点状态极限概率进行了理论估计,给出了节点状态转移概率矩阵和转移期望时间矩阵的理论模型.最后,用实验分析了不同模型参数对节点状态极限概率的影响,验证了本文模型的有效性.

  15. 移动P2P网络双向匿名通信机制设计%Design of Mutual Anonymous Communication Mechanism for Mobile P2P Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志兴; 汤红波; 王晓雷; 杨森

    2012-01-01

    无线链路不稳定和恶意节点不合作等因素会影响移动P2P网络匿名机制的实现.为解决该问题,通过改进移动P2P网络结构,提出一种可以随网络状况自适应变化的NCS-Crowds匿名算法,综台运用假名映射和掩饰流等匿名技术,设计系统架构演进架构下的双向匿名通信机制.理论分析和仿真结果证明,该机制能够根据网络状况在转发成功率和开销代价之间取得较好的折中,实现双向匿名通信.%Unstability of wireless link and the noncooperation of malicious nodes disturb the implementation of anonymous communication in mobile P2P networks. To solve this problem, by improving the structure of mobile P2P network, a self-adaptive anonymous algorithm named Network Condition Sensing-based Crowds(NCS-Crowds) is proposed. On this basis, by synthetically using Kna mapping and palliative flows, a mutual anonymous communication scheme based on System Architecture Evolution( SAE) is proposed to protect user's privacy. Theory analysis and simulation results show that the scheme can achieve expectant anonymity with reasonable overhead.

  16. The management of reduced fetal movements in an uncomplicated pregnancy at term: results from an anonymous national online survey in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, J

    2010-01-01

    There is currently inconsistent evidence and clinical guidance on how to best manage a pregnancy complicated by reduced fetal movements. This novel, web-based, anonymous questionnaire evaluated 96 assessment and management approaches from doctors working in obstetrics in the Republic of Ireland who were presented with a clinical scenario of a primigravida concerned about reduced fetal movements at 39+3 weeks\\' gestation. This study identified a lack of clinical practice guidelines available in maternity hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. We demonstrated that almost all clinicians applied more than one assessment method and that most incorporated a cardiotocograph into their assessment. There was a low uptake of simple symphysio-fundal height measurement and high usage of kickcharts. The minority of clinicians admitted or induced their patients. This survey identified the need for national and international guidelines to ensure safe antepartum care and delivery.

  17. The management of reduced fetal movements in an uncomplicated pregnancy at term: results from an anonymous national online survey in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, J

    2012-01-31

    There is currently inconsistent evidence and clinical guidance on how to best manage a pregnancy complicated by reduced fetal movements. This novel, web-based, anonymous questionnaire evaluated 96 assessment and management approaches from doctors working in obstetrics in the Republic of Ireland who were presented with a clinical scenario of a primigravida concerned about reduced fetal movements at 39+3 weeks\\' gestation. This study identified a lack of clinical practice guidelines available in maternity hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. We demonstrated that almost all clinicians applied more than one assessment method and that most incorporated a cardiotocograph into their assessment. There was a low uptake of simple symphysio-fundal height measurement and high usage of kickcharts. The minority of clinicians admitted or induced their patients. This survey identified the need for national and international guidelines to ensure safe antepartum care and delivery.

  18. Ambivalências éticas do Anonymous Brasil: discursos políticos sobre liberdade e o Marco Civil da Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, André de Nardi Senna

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho busca uma reflexão sobre a identidade moral do net-ativismo e do hacktivismo Anonymous no Brasil. Questiona-se como tal reflexão ilustra as disputas discursivas no âmbito de políticas na rede. A investigação propõe ilustrar as relações entre a ética hacker do Anonymous Brasil e suas posições políticas sobre liberdade na internet. Os Anonymous tratam-se de uma ideia, um coletivo, que se inspiram nos arquétipos da comunidade hacker para reivindicar certos ideais de direitos ...

  19. A k-anonymous algorithm in location privacy protection based on circular zoning%圆形区域划分的k-匿名位置隐私保护方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泽茂; 胡慧东; 张帆; 张品; 周建钦

    2013-01-01

    用户位置信息的准确度反比于用户的隐私保护安全系数k(privacy protection level),正比于查询服务质量;为了平衡由位置信息的准确性引起的隐私保护安全与查询服务质量之间的矛盾,借助位置k-匿名模型,提出了圆形区域划分匿名方法.将整个区域划分为相切圆及相邻的4个相切圆的顶点组成的曲边菱形形成的组合区域,当用户位置区域含有的用户数量不满足隐私保护安全系数要求时,利用区域扩充公式得到合适的匿名区域.实验结果表明该方法减小了匿名区域的面积,提高了相对匿名度,从而平衡了k与QoS的矛盾;并从匿名成功率、服务质量和信息处理时间3个角度确定了基于位置k-匿名隐私保护方法的评估模型.%To some extent,the more accuracy of user's location information is,the user's privacy protection level k is lower,but the higher of quality of service (QoS) is.In order to resolve the contradiction between k and QoS,we propose circular zoning method,which divides the whole area into tangent to circle and the curved edge of diamond-shaped area which composed by the adjacent tangent circle's vertices.When the number of users in an anonymous area is less than k,anonymous area is get by using the regional expansion formula.The experimental results show the algorithm can obtain better QoS under high privacy level,reduce the anonymous area and increase the relative anonymous,so the QoS is improved.We also analysis the impact factors of the assessment model based on k-anonymous location privacy protection from different aspects.

  20. Location anonymity method of mobile objects continuous query%移动对象连续查询位置匿名策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪斌; 马志强; 印桂生; 韩启龙

    2015-01-01

    Location-based services applications are increasingly entering people’s daily lives. Although a location-based service is quite convenient, privacy protection has received considerable attention in location-based services. Currently, there have been numerous studies on protecting location privacy and many methods have been proposed. However, most existing location anonymous method is for a snapshot query, without considering the location privacy leak in continuous LBS queries. This paper proposes a dummy-based anonymizing method based on user history location to protect location privacy in continuous LBS queries.%用户位置隐私保护已经成为基于位置服务领域研究的热点问题之一,现有的方法多是只针对用户单独一次查询的隐私保护,没有考虑移动过程中由于连续查询而造成的位置隐私泄露问题。主要针对连续查询下的移动对象位置隐私保护提出一种基于历史用户的虚假用户生成的位置匿名方法,该方法结合用户历史数据,通过确定合理的假用户生成区域及假用户生成时刻其空间位置,使虚假用户能够实时对真实用户位置进行保护,通过实验验证其可行性和有效性。

  1. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  2. Entre o controle e o ativismo hacker: a ação política dos Anonymous Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Bansi Machado

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho trata da ação política dos Anonymous, principal expressão do ativismo hacker atual, argumentando que o hacktivismo se configura como uma forma de resistência política nas sociedades de controle. Para isso, centra-se no estudo da faceta brasileira e hacktivista do coletivo. A fim de ressaltar seu caráter político, recorre às principais expressões dohacking na literatura. Descreve motivações, métodos e a ética de sua ação política, tendo como base uma análise comparativa de duas operações deflagradas por Anonymous brasileiros em 2012: #OpWeeksPayment e #OpGlobo. Por fim, identifica quatro de suas principais formas de engajamento político: promoção do anonimato; “evangelização”; formação de redes distribuídas; e o fato de o coletivo exibir e possibilitar várias formas de ações políticas.

  3. A method of personalized privacy preservation based on K-anonymization%基于K-匿名的个性化隐私保护方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕; 杨孔雨; 陈建明

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of the global and local algorithms of the privacy preserving in data publishing,a method of top-down personalized generalization backtracking algorithm and its expansion algorithm based on the K-a-nonymous were proposed.The method combines the L-diversity and (s,d)-anonymization and dynamically build gen-eralization tree structure,by which users can customize the privacy security levels and separate the similar level of safety as far as possible,so as to guarantee the availability and security of the information,which can effectively prevent hom-ogeneity attack and background knowledge attack.Based on the above thinking.A system of personalized privacy pres-ervation based on K-anonymization was developed on J2SE platform.The comprehensive experimental data shows that the algorithm can improves security and guarantee the availability of information effectively.%针对数据发布隐私保护问题的全域与局域算法的不足,基于K-匿名的思想,提出了自顶向下个性化泛化回溯算法及其拓展算法,实现了数据匿名化,即结合L-多样性(s,d)个性化的规则,动态构建泛化树结构,使用户能够自定义隐私的安全等级,尽量分离相似的安全等级,从而保证信息的可用性和安全性,有效防止同质攻击和背景知识攻击。在J2 S E平台上开发了基于K-匿名的个性化隐私保护系统,并对系统进行了全面测试。实验数据表明该算法在提高安全性的同时,能有效地保证信息的可用性。

  4. Random anonymity method for location privacy protection%随机匿名的位置隐私保护方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松涛; 马春光

    2015-01-01

    The methods that are based on the anonymous spatial region are vulnerable to multiple queries attacks and inference attacks, which result in the privacy exposure issues. In order to ensure the location⁃based privacy se⁃curity, this paper constructed the random k⁃cloak set to meet requirement of location k⁃anonymity and location l⁃di⁃versity. Random k⁃cloak set is composed of discrete dots of location, and the grid distance between dots is greater than the threshold value s. Private information retrieval employed in the study guaranteed privacy in retrieval pro⁃cessing, and achieved the goal that the server provides the location⁃based service for users on the premise of not knowing user's query results. Simulation experiments verify the security and validity of this method.%基于空间匿名区域的研究方法容易受到多查询攻击和推理攻击,从而带来隐私暴露问题。为了保证基于位置服务中的隐私安全,基于k⁃匿名思想,构建了随机k⁃隐藏集以满足位置k⁃匿名性和位置l⁃多样性。随机k⁃隐藏集是由离散的位置点组成,并且彼此之间的网格距离大于阈值s。利用私有信息检索协议保证了查询结果在检索过程中的隐私性,实现了服务提供者在无法知道用户精确查询结果的前提下为用户提供基于位置的服务。仿真实验验证了算法的安全性和有效性。

  5. Machado De Assis' Balas De Estalo: Humour And Politic In Imperial Brazil ["balas De Estalo" De Machado De Assis: Humor E Política No Segundo Reinado

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos A.F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines Machado de Assis' participation, under the pseudonym Lélio, in the collective series Balas de Estalo, published between 1883 and 1886 in the periodical Gazeta de Notícias. In the middle of urban change context, of immigration, abolitionism, "Balas de Estalo" helped the creation of a political project based on the decline of the country's main institutions, such as monarchy, Catholic Church and slavery. The subject of this research is to understand how Machado de Assis to...

  6. Arquitectura de un Billete Electrónico Anónimo: Medios Electrónicos de Pagos Architecture of an Anonymous Electronic Bill: Electronic Payments Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone la estructura de una secuencia organizada de bits que representa un billete electrónico. Los procedimientos considerados en el trabajo fueron: la comparación y análisis de los sistemas de pago electrónico actuales (First Virtual, Cybercash, Cybercoin, Millicent, eCash, Mondex y Tarjetas Inteligentes, y el análisis de las propiedades de un billete bancario en México. El billete electrónico generado se construye con Funciones Hash, Firmas Digitales y Códigos MAC, y se demuestra que posee buenos atributos de anonimato, integridad y autenticidad, condiciones necesarias en un sistema de pago electrónico.In this paper the structure of an organized sequence of bits that represents an electronic bill is proposed. Two procedures were considered in this work: the comparison and analysis of the current systems of electronic payment (First Virtual, Cybercash, Cybercoin, Millicent, eCash, Mondex and Smart Cards, and the analysis of the properties of a bank bill in Mexico. The generated electronic bill is built with Hash Functions, Digital Signatures and MAC Codes, and it is demonstrated that it has good attributes of anonymity, integrity and authenticity, necessary conditions of an electronic payment system.

  7. Entre o controle e o ativismo hacker: a ação política dos Anonymous Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Bansi Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo Este trabalho trata da ação política dos Anonymous, principal expressão do ativismo hacker atual, argumentando que o hacktivismo se configura como uma forma de resistência política nas sociedades de controle. Para isso, centra-se no estudo da faceta brasileira e hacktivista do coletivo. A fim de ressaltar seu caráter político, recorre às principais expressões dohacking na literatura. Descreve motivações, métodos e a ética de sua ação política, tendo como base uma análise comparativa de...

  8. Location privacy through anonymous chain in dynamic P2P network%动态P2P网络中基于匿名链的位置隐私保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建; 黄孝喜; 郭鸣; 金正平; 郑宁

    2012-01-01

    为了解决动态P2P环境中的位置隐私保护问题,提出基于匿名链的位置隐私保护算法.不同于一般的Kanonymity方法,通过在用户查询信息转发的过程中构造一条匿名链来混淆身份信息与位置信息的一一对应关系,在完成查询的同时保护用户位置的隐私.针对一般P2P匿名存在的匿名组稳定性问题,该算法根据路网环境中移动对象的动态性,通过计算相邻移动用户之间的连通性对匿名链中间节点的选择进行优化.讨论匿名链构造的方法和中间节点优化选择的标准,对算法的安全性展开理论分析.通过实验验证了算法的可行性.实验结果表明,该算法在不同用户密度下都能够较好地完成匿名链的构造,保护用户位置隐私;同时,中间节点的优化方法可以在一定时间内显著提高匿名链的有效性.%An anonymous chain based privacy protection algorithm was presented to solve the problem of location privacy protecting in dynamic peer-to-peer (P2P) network. Different from the general K-anonymity method, anonymous chain was constructed to break the one-to-one correspondence between the user identity and location information during the forwarding process of query message, and the location privacy was protected with the completion of the query. The algorithm optimizes the selection of intermediate nodes according to the stability of linkage between two nodes in order to deal with the dynamic issues in P2P environment. A connectivity matrix was introduced for the chain constructing algorithm and the security of anonymous chain was proved. A simulation on a real city map for the algorithm showed the effectiveness. The results prove that anonymous chain can be constructed in different density of moving nodes and the optimal intermediate nodes selecting method obviously improves the stability of the chain.

  9. 一种WSN位置隐私保护方案分析和改进%ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT OF A LOCATION PRIVACY PROTECTION SCHEME IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武朋辉; 杨百龙; 毛晶; 林百露

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the security limitation of D. Singel6e location privacy protection in wireless sensor network (WSN) , an improved scheme is proposed, which forges the location privacy based on temporary location information. Pseudonyms calculation is performed on node ID and session key with dual random variables, and the communication pseudonyms are updated with the pseudonym-created function and temporary location information, the security of the communication process is then protected. Analyses show that the new scheme has stronger performance against eavesdropping and is energy efficiency.%针对无线传感网络D.Singelée位置隐私保护方案存在安全缺陷的问题,提出一种基于临时位置信息伪造位置隐私的改进方案.对节点编号信息和会话密钥采用双随机变量进行假名计算,采用假名生成函数和临时位置信息更新通信假名,保证通信的安全性.分析表明该方案的抗监听攻击能力增强,并有较低的能量消耗.

  10. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los factores de riesgo de inicio al consumo de alcohol se encuentra el déficit en habilidades sociales, que aunqueno es determinante, sí es un factor que de alguna manera influye en la conducta de beber en exceso. En la presenteinvestigación se realizó un análisis de habilidades sociales en tres muestras distintas: universitarios, adolescentes y alcohólicosen recuperación (AA. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – ParteMotora (EMES-M: Caballo, 1987, 2006 y la Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – Parte Cognitiva (EMES-C:Caballo, 1987, 2006. Estas escalas se aplicaron a una muestra de 157 participantes (74 hombres y 83 mujeres. Se distribuyeronde la siguiente forma: 58 adolescentes (estudiantes de secundaria, 55 integrantes de AA y 44 estudiantes universitarios. Seencontraron diferencias significativas entre algunas subescalas y los diferentes grupos de referencia. La mayoría de estasdiferencias se encontraron en cuanto a habilidades sociales de corte cognitivo. El grupo de alcohólicos AA marcó ladiferencia, mostrando éstos una mayor puntuación en las subescalas que indican «temor» o «preocupación» en ciertassituaciones sociales. Se discuten estos resultados y las implicaciones de éstos para el tratamiento y prevención del alcoholismo.ABSTRACTAmong the risk factors for alcohol use initiation is the deficit in social skills, which while not conclusive, if it is a factorthat somehow influences the behavior of excessive drinking. In the present study it conducted an analysis of social skills inthree different samples: college, young people and alcoholics in recovery (AA. The following instruments were used:Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression-Motor Part (EMES-M: Horse, 1987 and Multidimensional Scale of SocialExpression-Cognitive Part (EMES-C: Caballo, 1987. These scales were applied to a sample of 157 participants (74 menand 83 women and they

  11. Application of anonymous pipe and DOS command re-direction in the visual system integration%Windows匿名管道技术及DOS命令重定向技术在可视化系统集成中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀辉

    2012-01-01

    Windows管道技术可以实现不同进程间的数据传递,而DOS命令重定向技术可以实现输入、输出的转向,结合这两项技术,实现了DOS命令行程序的可视化。文中介绍了在VB编程环境下,利用WindowsAPI函数创建管道并使用管道的方法。通过这种方法实现了对原有DOS重磁处理程序的可视化集成工作。%Data transformation among different processes can be realized with Windows pipe technology, while the input and output exchange by the DOS program re-direction. DOS program visualization can be realized by combining the two technologies. We introduce a method to create the pipe with Windows API function under VB programming environment to fulfill the visualization integration of the original gravity and magnetic DOS program.

  12. Anonimato de vida e de morte: figuras contemporâneas de uma trama social violenta El anonimato de la vida y de la muerte: figuras contemporáneas de una trama social violenta Anonymity of live and death: contemporary images of a violent sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Sousa Catroli

    2009-09-01

    subjetivación de lo contemporáneo y las prácticas del ejercicio del poder, discutiremos los dilemas a la singularización en un contexto desértico de la más completa desubjetivación de lo socius.The proposal of this paper is to consider some questions regarding the new boundaries of the phenomenon of contemporary violence. More specifically, how this context, allied to the logic of global control, imprints its marks on Brazilian society. From this conjunction between a global functioning and its effects on the Brazilian historical process, we will pass on to the bottlenecks and the challenges for the subjective process and for the inscription into the social tie on the contemporary. It is this context, we will shall pursue the discussion with the hypothesis that there occurs a disfiguration of the social other, possibly stemming from a zone of anomia, where legality and illegality are interwoven and at times confused. In this way, from the intersection of the subjectivization forms of the contemporary and the practices of the exercise of power, we will discuss the impediments to singularization in a context entirely barren at the limits of the extreme de-subjectivation of the socius.

  13. Knowledge-Sharing in Virtual Communities: Familiarity, Anonymity and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Cheolho; Rolland, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of motivation has been emphasised in knowledge-sharing literature, traditional motivation theories, such as self-determination theory (SDT), have not been actively used as a research framework in knowledge-sharing research. The purposes of this study are twofold. The first objective is to propose a model, based on SDT, to test…

  14. Adaptation et réélaboration des sources dans la Crónica Troyana anonyme de 1490

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric ALCHALABI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article revient sur l’écriture et les conditions de réception de la Crónica troyana anonyme de 1490. Le chroniqueur ne se contente pas de commenter ou de traduire ses sources, les Sumas de historia troyana de Leomarte et la Historia destructionis troiae de Guido delle Colonne. Au contraire, il les enrichit de références à la littérature chevaleresque. Comment interpréter ses modifications ?El artículo vuelve sobre la escritura y las condiciones de recepción de la Crónica troyana anónima de 1490. El cronista no se contenta con comentar o traducir pasajes enteros de sus fuentes, las Sumas de historia troyana de Leomarte y la Historia destructionis troiae de Guido delle Colonne. Muy al contrario, el autor enriquece sus fuentes gracias a referencias a la literatura caballeresca. ¿ Cómo tenemos que interpretar sus modificaciones ?

  15. 基于密钥隔离的直接匿名证明方案%Key-insulated direct anonymous attestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁琰; 乐康; 徐小岩; 张毓森

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the damage to direct anonymous attestation (DAA) from the key-exposure of platform, a key-insulated DAA (KIDAA) is proposed. First, the lifetime of the system is divided into discrete periods. Then, the secret key of the trusted platform is processed through evolution, a temporary secret key is used to sign a message during the corresponding time period, thus the exposure of the temporary secret key at a given period will not enable an adversary to derive temporary secret keys for the remaining time periods. The secret key is divided into two parts: a helper key and temporary secret key. The former is stored in the trusted platform model (TPM), and the latter is kept by the platform. At the beginning of each time period, the platform can derive the temporary secret key for the current time period under the TPM server. The signature length of scheme is shortened through elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)-based sign algorithm, meanwhile the computational cost of the TPM is reduced. At last, the security in standard model under decision linear (DLIN) assumption and q-strong Diffie-Hellman (q-SDH) assumption is proved, which show that the scheme meets the security requirements of key insulation, variable-anonymity and unlink ability.%为了降低可信平台的密钥泄漏对直接匿名证明方案造成的破坏,提出一种基于密钥隔离的直接匿名证明方案KIDAA.首先将系统时间划分成若干时间段,然后对可信平台的私钥采取进化的处理办法,在不同的时间片段内使用不同的私钥,使得个别时间段内的私钥泄漏不会危害其他时间片段内的安全性.把可信平台的私钥分成2个部分,交给可信平台模块TPM和可信平台保存,在每个时间片段内,可信平台只有在TPM的帮助下,才能够获得完整的私钥信息.在签名过程中使用了双线性映射,缩短了签名长度,降低了TPM的计算量.最后,在DLIN假设和q-SDH假设的基础上,对KIDAA的安全

  16. Achieving Sink Node Anonymity Under Energy Constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    initial intervals and detection and transmission of real event data to adjusted transmission of dummy traffic to regain the mean of the PDF, from [6...sensor network (WSN) is typically composed of a set of sensors that probe their physical environment for information and report their measurements to a...information transmitted can be sensed information or a dummy packet if the sensor has no information to relay at that time. An adversary observing the network

  17. Analysis of methods of providing anonymity in facial photographs; a randomised controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clover, A J P

    2010-09-01

    Clinical images are invaluable in medical teaching and research publications. In the past efforts to conceal patient identity, if any, were limited to a black bar concealing the eyes. However, there is no consensus on this among major journals and publishing houses. This research analyses the effectiveness of blacking out the eyes in facial photographs and evaluates alternative techniques. 126 questionnaires were completed. The average numbers of correct responses out of 30 was 24.64 (82.13%) in the control group, 20.59 (68.63%) in the eyes, 20.42 (68.07%) in the eyes and nose group, and 17.53 (58.43%) in the T-shaped group (eyes, nose and mouth). The traditional method of covering the eyes does significantly decrease recognition, however it is only as effective as covering the nose and mouth. The more of the face that is covered the less likely it is that the person is recognised. However, there are people who remain identifiable no matter how much of the face is covered. This work highlights the importance of obtaining consent prior to publication as well as attempting to hide identity.

  18. Towards Understanding Cyberbullying Behavior in a Semi-Anonymous Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinmardi, Homa; Ghasemianlangroodi, Amir; Han, Richard; Lv, Qin; Mishra, Shivakant

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has emerged as an important and growing social problem, wherein people use online social networks and mobile phones to bully victims with offensive text, images, audio and video on a 247 basis. This paper studies negative user behavior in the Ask.fm social network, a popular new site that has led to many cases of cyberbullying, some leading to suicidal behavior.We examine the occurrence of negative words in Ask.fms question+answer profiles along with the social network of likes ...

  19. Electronic document distribution: Design of the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental electronic dissemination project, the Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), has been undertaken to determine the feasibility of delivering Langley technical reports directly to the desktops of researchers worldwide. During the first six months, over 4700 accesses occurred and over 2400 technical reports were distributed. This usage indicates the high level of interest that researchers have in performing literature searches and retrieving technical reports at their desktops. The initial system was developed with existing resources and technology. The reports are stored as files on an inexpensive UNIX workstation and are accessible over the Internet. This project will serve as a foundation for ongoing projects at other NASA centers that will allow for greater access to NASA technical reports.

  20. FROM ANONYMITY TO SELF-DISCLOSURE; RECONTEXTUALISATION OF COMMUNICATION IN NEW MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Praprotnik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Social Web applications are becoming an important communication tool for managing diverse personal and other information among users. The so-called participative culture is a brand new setting calling for intense interactivity. Well-informed citizens with ideas for collaboration is welcomed. The collaboration and sharing of ideas, information and opinions are well documented even in more personal Social Web applications, such as Facebook. Here we are confronting with the problem of privacy and potential harmful or risky behavior. Multimedia production with multimedia convergence of different online communication tools (Social web, forums, online chat, digital photography has unified communication channels and converged different communication setting. Once strongly separate divisions among different communication setting (private-public has disappeared. The so-called »privacy paradox« states that while internet users are concerned about privacy, their behavior do not reflect these concerns. Additionally, the divisions between different social groups (friends, parents, employers are blurring, primary because of interconnectivity of different Social Web applications. Facebook users hardly guess who are their exact audience. The transmission of information intended for one group can be transferred into other context. It has to be mentioned that Facebook users are highly diverse and so are diverse their attitudes toward privacy concerns and willingness to self-disclose. Research indicate that users are to some extent aware of privacy problems, but researches also indicate that general social relevance of particular Social Web applications and personal aspects of general willingness to self-disclose are the major contextual factors influencing users how to communicate in social networking sites such as Facebook.

  1. Poor immunity status against poliomyelitis in medical students: a semi-anonymous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Manuel; Winke, Ute; Frank, Monika; Skali-Lami, Ursula; Steudel, Henrike; Schilling, Gert; Drexler, Jan Felix; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria; Matz, Bertfried

    2013-02-01

    In spite of almost complete eradication, poliomyelitis continues to be a global threat even in non-endemic countries due to the ever-increasing international travel activities. Health care workers are at a special risk in acquiring pathogens from travelers returning from endemic countries. Polio vaccines are fairly well accepted throughout the German population. Yet, laboratory controls for successful immunization are carried out only sporadically in the general population, and not even the medical staff are routinely tested for polio immunity. The present study was initiated in order to assess the immunity status of young people at the very beginning of their career in clinical medicine. Within their first clinical semester, all students are supposed to undergo an obligatory health check in our Occupational Medicine Unit. A blood sample is taken and sent under a personal code to our diagnostic laboratories for virus serology, and for cryoconservation of residual serum, if available. Within the periods 2004-2006 and 2008-2010, we analyzed sera from 424 and 427 individuals, respectively, for anti-polio types 1, 2, 3 antibodies by a microneutralization assay. In the latest study period, there was a slight increase in the rate of fully protected persons: 63.9 % triple-seropositivity versus 57.1 % in the period 2004-2006. By the end of the second clinical semester, students with low or negative antibody levels (1:<10) were informed, and a (booster) vaccination was recommended.

  2. Who clicks there!: Anonymizing the photographer in a camera saturated society

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffer, Peter; Nagaraja, Shishir

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, social media has played an increasingly important role in reporting world events. The publication of crowd-sourced photographs and videos in near real-time is one of the reasons behind the high impact. However, the use of a camera can draw the photographer into a situation of conflict. Examples include the use of cameras by regulators collecting evidence of Mafia operations; citizens collecting evidence of corruption at a public service outlet; and political dissidents protesting at public rallies. In all these cases, the published images contain fairly unambiguous clues about the location of the photographer (scene viewpoint information). In the presence of adversary operated cameras, it can be easy to identify the photographer by also combining leaked information from the photographs themselves. We call this the camera location detection attack. We propose and review defense techniques against such attacks. Defenses such as image obfuscation techniques do not protect camera-location informa...

  3. Treatment of an Anonymous Recipient: Solid-Waste Management Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Chiu; Huang, Po-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a game simulation based on problem solving in the management of urban waste. We then investigated the factors affecting the decisions made by players. During gameplay, the players sought to guide the development of a city via management strategies involving a balance of economic growth and environmental protection. Nature…

  4. What Is Anonymous?: A Case Study of an Information Systems Hacker Activist Collective Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, William Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Interconnected computer information systems have become indispensable aspects of modern life. All forms of communication, education, finance, commerce and identity utilize these systems creating a permanent personal presence for all of us within this digital world. Individuals who reveal or threaten to reveal these personal identities for various…

  5. Anonymous Sojourners: Mapping the Territory of Caribbean Experiences of Immersion for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a pilot qualitative study of Caribbean students undertaking overseas immersion primarily for the purpose of perfecting their knowledge of a language and understanding of a culture other than their own. The participants were a group of eleven University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill (Barbados) graduates, five…

  6. Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    mechanism smoothes out potential issues due to delayed feedback. The reason why we limit ourselves to 29 days is that timestamps on feedback older than 30...arxiv.org/abs/1107.4524. [33] P. Resnick and R. Zeckhauser. Trust among strangers in internet transactions: Empirical analysis of eBay’s reputation system

  7. Prevalence of maternal HIV-1 infection in Thames regions: results from anonymous unlinked neonatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, A E; Parker, S; Berry, T; Holland, F J; Davison, C F; Cubitt, D; Hjelm, M; Wilcox, A H; Hudson, C N; Briggs, M

    1991-06-29

    To monitor the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual population, residues of blood samples collected routinely on absorbent paper for neonatal screening (Guthrie cards) in NE, NW, and SW Thames Regions in England have been tested for antibodies to HIV-1 since June, 1988. 323,369 dried blood spots were analysed to end March, 1991. Prevalence of anti-HIV-1 in newborn babies has remained stable in outer London and non-metropolitan districts whereas prevalence in inner London has increased from 1 in 2000 in the 12 months beginning June, 1988, to 1 in 500 in the first 3 months of 1991. Either exponential or linear growth in the numbers of new seropositives could account for the results. That obstetricians were aware of maternal HIV infection in only 20% of infected pregnancies, indicates the extent to which HIV infection goes unrecognised in the heterosexual community.

  8. Reflections on the Ritual process in Mexican Communities of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ramírez, José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conveys his reflections on the symbolic aspects and ritual character of the therapeutic communities of rehabilitation of alcoholics, known as “Alcoholic Anonymous” (AA. He did ethnographic fieldwork among AA communities of Ciudad Victoria, in Tamaulipas, northern Mexico. These communities, facing a problem often neglected by both government and society in Mexico, yet holding a position of subalternity and marginality in the country, offer a spiritual way out to those alcoholics who approach them. Their activities are of interest for a discussion of ritual in current contexts. In addition, the communities are illuminating for many of the key aspects of the comparative ethnographic analysis of ritual.

    El objeto de este trabajo es apuntar algunas líneas de reflexión sobre los aspectos simbólicos y de carácter ritual que presentan las comunidades terapéuticas de rehabilitación de alcohólicos, Alcohólicos Anónimos (AA. Para ello parto del trabajo de campo etnográfico realizado en agrupaciones de AA en Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, al norte de México. Estas comunidades de apoyo a alcohólicos, desde una posición de subalternidad y marginalidad, ante una problemática casi siempre obviada por la sociedad y el gobierno mexicano, ofrecen una “salida” de corte espiritual a quienes se acercan a ellas, por lo que resultan interesantes para la reflexión sobre el ritual en contextos actuales. Por otro lado, estas comunidades presentan muchos de los aspectos clave en el análisis etnográfico comparativo de los ritos.

  9. C-safety: a framework for the anonymization of semantic trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing abundance of data about the trajectories of personal movement is opening new opportunities for analyzing and mining human mobility. However, new risks emerge since it opens new ways of intruding into personal privacy. Representing the personal movements as sequences of places visited by a person during her/his movements - semantic trajectory - poses great privacy threats. In this paper we propose a privacy model defining the attack model of semantic trajectory linking and a privacy notion, called c-safety based on a generalization of visited places based on a taxonomy. This method provides an upper bound to the probability of inferring that a given person, observed in a sequence of non-sensitive places, has also visited any sensitive location. Coherently with the privacy model, we propose an algorithm for transforming any dataset of semantic trajectories into a c-safe one. We report a study on two real-life GPS trajectory datasets to show how our algorithm preserves interesting quality/utility measures of the original trajectories, when mining semantic trajectories sequential pattern mining results. We also empirically measure how the probability that the attacker's inference succeeds is much lower than the theoretical upper bound established.

  10. 基于 SpaceTwist 的 k-匿名增量近邻查询位置隐私保护算法%SpaceTwist-based k-anonymity incremental nearest neighbor query algorithm for location privacy protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德敏; 郑霞

    2016-01-01

    随着移动网络的持续进步,基于位置的服务在日常生活中被广泛应用,同时位置隐私保护也成为广大用户所关注的焦点。基于 SpaceTwist 和 k-匿名算法,结合路网环境提出一种新的位置隐私保护方法。该方法摆脱第三方可信匿名器,采用客户—服务器体系结构,根据用户的位置隐私需求结合用户所在路网环境设计出用户端匿名区生成算法,并且保证 k-匿名。用户端以该匿名区请求基于位置的服务,服务器根据用户请求返回检索点并满足用户期望的 K 近邻结果。根据不同的路网环境和用户隐私需求进行大量实验,证明该算法在满足用户基于位置服务需求的同时提高了对用户位置隐私的保护。%With continued advances in mobile Internet,the location-based services are widely used in daily life,more and more users focus on the location privacy protection.This paper proposed a new location privacy protection scheme which com-bined with the network environment and based on the SpaceTwist algorithm and k-anonymity algorithm.The approach prefered to client-server structure rather than trusted third party server and designed the anonymity algorithm in user end according to user’s request of location privacy and the network environment,which ensured the k-anonymity.The mobile end users could request the location-based services in its anonymous area,and the server would return the access points to meet user’s expect K-value.Finally,it evaluated the proposed approach by a large number of experiments according to different network environ-ment together with different users privacy needs.The results demonstrate this algorithm meets the user’s requests of location-based services and at the same time it improves the protection of user’s location privacy.

  11. 一种基于匿名区域变换的位置隐私保护方法%A Location Privacy Protection Method Based on Anonymous Region Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕芳; 徐红云

    2013-01-01

    针对基于位置服务的应用中存在的用户位置隐私泄露问题,提出一种基于匿名区域变换的位置隐私保护方法.在离用户一定距离处选择一个锚点生成匿名区域后,利用邻近节点处理法计算用户邻近节点查询结果与用户真实位置之间的距离,从而实现在保护用户位置隐私的同时得到精确的查询结果.理论分析和实验结果表明,与Cloaking Region和SpaceTwist算法相比,该方法在保证较低通信开销的前提下,具有较好的位置隐私保护性能.%Aiming at the problem of location privacy leakage in location-based service systems, this paper proposes a method to protect user's location privacy based on Anonymous Region Transformation(ART). An anonymous region is generated around a location different from the user's location which the user's location is not included in, then the neighbor-object-process method is employed to compute the distance between the neighbor objects and the user's location, so that the accurate inquire results can get while protecting the user's location privacy. Theory and experimental results show that compared with Cloaking Region(CR) algorithm and SpaceTwist algorithm, the method proposed can guarantee the lower communication overhead, and provide effective location privacy protection.

  12. Tracing anonymity with coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasuo, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to obtain better understanding of the nature of computer systems, that is, to develop a mathematical theory of computer systems. By computer systems we mean information-processing systems consisting of computers. We cannot overemphasize their important roles in the modern w

  13. 基于Hash链的移动自组织网匿名路由激励协议%Anonymous incentive protocol for MANET routing based on Hash chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟远; 郝建国; 戴一奇

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a Hash-chain based anonymous incentive protocol to stimulate forwarding cooperation between nodes in position-based routing for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET). The protocol uses a Hash chain based micro-payment mechanism with location aided routing for MANET to stimulate the real time forwarding cooperation and to improve the routing performance of the privacy protection routing in untrusted MANET scenarios. Security analyses indicate that this protocol can defend against impersonation attacks and relay attacks in position-based routing while providing privacy to the forwarders. Efficiency analyses show that it stimulates anonymous selfish forwarders in real time.%为激励移动自组织网络中的自私节点参与数据转发,以改善路由机制性能,在基于地理位置的路由机制中,提出了一种基于Hash链的匿名路由激励协议。该协议将基于Hash链的微支付机制,引入位置辅助隐私保护路由;通过对匿名数据转发节点进行实时激励,改善了不可信环境下隐私保护路由机制的性能。安全性分析表明:该协议能保证参与路由节点的匿名性,同时有效抵御针对基于地理位置路由的伪装攻击和重放攻击。效率分析表明:该协议能实时激励匿名节点参与数据转发。

  14. Location Privacy Protection Based on Improved K-Value Method in Augmented Reality on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Augmented Reality technology, the application of location based service (LBS is more and more popular, which provides enormous convenience to people’s life. User location information could be obtained at anytime and anywhere. So user location privacy security suffers huge threats. Therefore, it is crucial to pay attention to location privacy protection in LBS. Based on the architecture of the trusted third party (TTP, we analyzed the advantages and shortages of existing location privacy protection methods in LBS on mobile terminal. Then we proposed the improved K-value location privacy protection method according to privacy level, which combines k-anonymity method with pseudonym method. Through the simulation experiment, the results show that this improved method can anonymize all service requests effectively. In addition to the experiment of execution time, it demonstrated that our proposed method can realize the location privacy protection more efficiently.

  15. Perspectives on the Use of “Anonymous” Discussion Forums in Undergraduate Education Courses / Perspectives sur l’usage des forums de discussion « partiellement anonymes » dans le cadre de cours universitaires de premier cycle en éducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Michael Bowen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper theorizes issues involved with conflicts between participation in on-line settings and real-world social commitments, such as has recently happened in schools with students using public discussion forums. We problematize how real-world social commitments negatively affect participation in online learning environments frequently used in classrooms. Drawing on interviews with, observations by, and written submissions from our students who participated in “hybrid” courses using an approach where identity was concealed in online discussions from other class participants, we discuss implications of this issue for evaluating forum submissions by students. Our analysis uses a cultural-historical activity theory framework to conceptualize implications from this anonymous forum approach and the resultant changes in participation in the learning environment. Cet article élabore une théorie des enjeux associés aux conflits entre la participation dans un environnement en ligne et les engagements sociaux réels, comme ce qui se produit actuellement dans les écoles, les étudiants se servant de forums publics de discussion pour leurs cours. Nous schématisons la façon dont les engagements sociaux réels ont des effets négatifs sur la participation aux environnements d’apprentissage en ligne fréquemment utilisés dans les salles de classe. À partir d’entrevues, d’observations et de communications écrites par les étudiants qui ont participé à nos cours « hybrides » en adoptant une approche par laquelle l’identité était gardée cachée des autres étudiants (mais non des instructeurs dans les discussions en ligne, nous discutons des implications de cet enjeu dans l’évaluation des soumissions des étudiants dans les forums. Notre analyse se sert d’un cadre théorique de l’activité historico-culturelle pour conceptualiser les implications de cette approche de forum « partiellement anonyme » et les changements de

  16. Authorship Attribution in the E-mail Domain: A Study of the Effect of Size of Author Corpus and Topic on Accuracy of Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    cyber bullying via e-mail, SMS, and social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter. Cyber bullies can create an anonymous bully account and proceed...the senders of anonymous derogatory e-mails and reducing cyber bullying . Machine Learning, Supervised Learning Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified...identifying the senders of anonymous derogatory e-mails and reducing cyber bullying . v THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vi Table of Contents 1 Introduction

  17. 78 FR 69310 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Protective Regulations for the Gulf of Maine Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel... injury or killing, whether incidental or intentional, will help preserve and recover the DPS....

  18. 位置匿名在农业移动电子商务中的应用研究%Application of Location Anonymity in Agricultural Mobile E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 申艳光; 王敏; 刘永红

    2011-01-01

    无线网络的日益完善和3G手机的广泛普及,农业移动电子商务作为先进的生产力,其潜在优势是不可估量的.然而,隐私信息泄漏情况也日益显现.位置匿名技术可有效地保护用户的位置隐私信息,促进移动电子商务的发展,是隐私保护领域中新兴的研究热点.%With the improvement of the wireless network and the wide spread of 3G mobile phones, Agricultural mobile E-commerce, as an advanced producing force,has immeasurable potential advantages. However, the problem of privacy information leak becomes increasingly prominent. The location anonymity,which can effectively protect the location privacy information of the users and promote the development of mobile E-commerce, is the newly-emerged hot research topic in the scope of privacy protection.

  19. 基于PCA的匿名数字证书发布方案的研究%Research on the Issuing Scheme of Anonymous Digital Certificates Based on PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2013-01-01

    The digital certificate through providing the services such as encryption and digital signature for all network applications to ensure information security in network communication,but the certificate with real name in the subject name field,This leads to reveal the true identity of user information. In order to meet the demand for security and priva-cy,this paper provide a scheme for issuing anonymous digital certificate in currently PKI ststem.%数字证书为所有网络应用提供加密和数字签名来确保网络通信中的信息安全,但数字证书的主体名域中会标有证书持有者的真实名称,这就造成用户的真实身份信息的泄露。为了满足现代通信中的安全性与隐私性的要求,本文提出一个在现行的PKI体系中发布匿名数字证书的方案。

  20. Celan and his 'escape' Celan e sua "fuga"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Konder

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the poem "Todesfuge" by Celan, pseudonym of Paul Pessach Antschel, Romenian Jew, written in German and published in Mohn und Gedächtnis, 1952. Keywords: Fascism. Judaism. Literature. Apresentação do poema "Fuga da Morte" de Celan, pseudônimo de Paul Pessach Antschel, judeu romeno de língua alemã, publicado no livro de poesia Ópio e Memória, de 1952. Palavras-chave: Fascismo. Judaísmo. Literatura.

  1. Blog Fingerprinting: Identifying Anonymous Posts Written by an Author of Interest Using Word and Character Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    past decade has seen an explosion in the availability of electronic documents where the author is known (e-mail, blogs, electronic books , etc...the number of 500-word chunks reported in [22]). They used a collection of 21 electronic books written by ten authors, resulting in 20 same-author

  2. 基于时隙质心流水印的匿名通信追踪技术%Interval Centroid Based Flow Watermarking Technique for Anonymous Communication Traceback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 罗军舟; 杨明; 何高峰

    2011-01-01

    基于扩频的流水印通过扩频技术对水印信号进行编码,将其嵌入特定通信流中以确认网络主体间的通信关系,可以有效地对匿名滥用进行追踪.流水印的实施分为编码、调制、解调、解码等步骤.其中,水印载体的选择尤为重要,关系到水印的健壮性和隐秘性.已有扩频流水印方案选用流速率作为水印载体,由于大部分匿名通信应用,如Web浏览、即时通信、远程登录等均产生交互式流量,其速率是非稳定的,因而以流速率作为水印载体具有很大的局限性.此外,目前已存在多种针对此类水印隐秘性的攻击技术,降低了追踪的效果.在扩频流水印模型的基础上,引入与特定流无关的基于时隙质心的水印载体,提出一种新型流水印技术.理论分析与实验结果表明,这种新型流水印能够适用于对交互式与非交互式流量的追踪,有着更为广泛的适用性.此外,新型流水印能够有效抵抗现有攻击,保证追踪的隐秘性.%The spread spectrum based flow watermarking, which can be used to trace anonymity abuses effectively, applies spread spectrum technique to encode watermark signals and embeds them into suspect flows. This serves to confirm the communication relationship among network users. The implementation of watermarking can be divided into four phases: Signal encoding, flow modulation, flow demodulation and signal decoding. It is important to choose the right watermark carrier that determines the robustness and invisibility of watermarking techniques. Since most applications using anonymous communication, such as Web browsing, instant message and remote login generate interactive traffic with unstable traffic rate, existing spread spectrum based flow watermarking adopting traffic rate as its carrier has big limitations. Furthermore, there exist some attacks against the invisibility of this watermarking technique, destroying the traceback effect. Based on the

  3. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  4. Avsändare Anonym : en kvalitativ undersökning om fenomenet nätmobbning ur skolpersonalens perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Likeric, Hanka; Therese, Andersson

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to explore how schools’ handles and prevents cyber-bullying among pupils. The purpose in this study was to investigate how the school staffs work in secondary schools with grades sixth to ninth. How do the schools discover, prevent and stop cyber-bullying? Do the schools’ have any experiences of cyber-bullying? How do the schools work with anti-bullying concepts – have the new phenomenon cyber-bullying affected and changed the schools´ anti-bullying work in connection with...

  5. Anonymous marker loci within 400 kb of HLA-A generate haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with the hemochromatosis gene (HFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaouanq, J.; Perichon, M.; Treut, A.L.; Kahloun, A.E.; Mauvieux, V.; Blayau, M.; Jouanolle, A.M.; Chauvel, B.; Le Gall, J.Y.; David, V. (Faculte de Medicine, Rennes (France)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    The hemochromatosis gene (HFE) maps to 6p21.3 and is less than 1 cM from the HLA class I gene; however, the precise physical location of the gene has remained elusive and controversial. The unambiguous identification of a crossover event within hemochromatosis families is very difficult; it is particularly hampered by the variability of the phenotypic expression as well as by the sex- and age-related penetrance of the disease. For these considerations, traditional linkage analysis could prove of limited value in further refining the extrapolated physical position of HFE. The authors therefore embarked upon a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of HFE and normal chromosomes for the Brittany population. In this report, 66 hemochromatosis families yielding 151 hemochromatosis chromosomes and 182 normal chromosomes were RFLP-typed with a battery of probes, including two newly derived polymorphic markers from the 6.7 and HLA-F loci located 150 and 250 kb telomeric to HLA-A, respectively. The results suggest a strong peak of existing linkage disequilibrium focused within the i82-to-6.7 interval (approximately 250 kb). The zone of linkage disequilibrium is flanked by the i97 locus, positioned 30 kb proximal to i82, and the HLA-F gene, found 250 kb distal to HLA-A, markers of which display no significant association with HFE. These data support the possibility that HFE resides within the 400-kb expanse of DNA between i97 and HLA-F. Alternatively, the very tight association of HLA-A3 and allele 1 of the 6.7 locus, both of which are comprised by the major ancestral or founder HFE haplotype in Brittany, supports the possibility that the disease gene may reside immediately telomeric to the 6.7 locus within the linkage-disequilibrium zone. Additionally, hemochromatosis haplotypes possessing HLA-A11 and the low-frequency HLA-F polymorphism (allele 2) are supportive of a separate founder chromosome containing a second, independently arising mutant allele. 69 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Síndrome X: Una identidad paradójicamente anónima Syndrome X. A paradoxically anonymous identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vicario

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descripción original, la lista de entidades, asociadas estadísticamente, que integran el síndrome metabólico, parece en continuo crecimiento. Este hecho justifica las posturas que diferentes agrupaciones médicas encuentran en el momento de individualizar criterios para su definición y denominación. Si bien el síndrome está relacionado con riesgo elevado para desarrollar diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular, los ensayos clínicos han fallado en demostrar una fuerte relación de la hiperinsulinemia con enfermedad cardiovascular, no pudiendo concluir si la misma es un integrante más del síndrome o su resultante, hechos que conducen a pensar en forma falsa que el síndrome es sinónimo de riesgo cardiovascular. Tales interrogantes sean tal vez el motivo por el cual su identidad se encubre bajo una incógnita X.Since the original description, the list of sta- tistically related components, which make up the metabolic syndrome, is in continuous increase. Therefore, different medical groups and their consensus and reports still do not agree on the criteria for its definition and denomination. Although the syndrome is related with high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the trials have not demonstrated the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular diseases; in consequence it is difficult to conclude whether cardiovascular disease is a part of the syndrome or its consequence. Therefore, it is impossible to accept that the syndrome is synonymous of high risk for cardiovascular disease. These facts may be the reason why its identity hides behind an “X”.

  7. The enzymatic nature of an anonymous protein sequence cannot reliably be inferred from superfamily level structural information alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel Barry; Brüls, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    As the largest fraction of any proteome does not carry out enzymatic functions, and in order to leverage 3D structural data for the annotation of increasingly higher volumes of sequence data, we wanted to assess the strength of the link between coarse grained structural data (i.e., homologous superfamily level) and the enzymatic versus non-enzymatic nature of protein sequences. To probe this relationship, we took advantage of 41 phylogenetically diverse (encompassing 11 distinct phyla) genomes recently sequenced within the GEBA initiative, for which we integrated structural information, as defined by CATH, with enzyme level information, as defined by Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers. This analysis revealed that only a very small fraction (about 1%) of domain sequences occurring in the analyzed genomes was found to be associated with homologous superfamilies strongly indicative of enzymatic function. Resorting to less stringent criteria to define enzyme versus non-enzyme biased structural classes or excluding highly prevalent folds from the analysis had only modest effect on this proportion. Thus, the low genomic coverage by structurally anchored protein domains strongly associated to catalytic activities indicates that, on its own, the power of coarse grained structural information to infer the general property of being an enzyme is rather limited.

  8. The "Prince of Medicine": Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh and the foundations of the western pharmaceutical tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines three medieval pharmaceutical treatises purportedly authored by Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh (anglicized to John Mesue) and traces their immense influence on the development of pharmacy in early modem Europe and the Hispanic world. Despite the importance of these works throughout the early modern period, Mesue is relatively unknown in the history of pharmacy and medicine, and his exact identity remains unclear. This essay argues that "Mesue" was most likely a pseudonym used by an unknown author of the Latin West and that the three works were crafted to meet the demands of the developing "medical marketplace" of late thirteenth-century Europe, where the manuscripts first appeared. At the same time, however, as the Arabic reference of the pseudonym suggests, these treatises were clearly products of the medieval Islamic world, including many innovations that would provide the basis for the theory and practice of pharmacy for centuries and arguably formed part of the artisanal epistemological influence on the Scientific Revolution.

  9. Sentidos da violência conjugal: análise do banco de dados de um serviço telefônico anônimo Senses of intimate violence: analysis of an anonymous telephone service database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Gandara Pazo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a identificar e analisar, no banco de dados resultante dos registros de um serviço telefônico anônimo de apoio e orientação nas áreas de direitos e violência contra a mulher, a atribuição de significados de suas usuárias em relação às experiências de violência conjugal, à luz, principalmente, da literatura feminista brasileira contemporânea. Este artigo alinha-se a um grupo de pesquisadoras que focaram a atenção em descrever e refletir sobre as representações femininas acerca da violência, salientando a não-universalidade da experiência feminina diante das agressões, valorizando aspectos singulares dessas agredidas. Destacam-se, na análise, os sentidos dados pelas mulheres às prolongadas hesitações frente ao expresso desejo de se separarem de cônjuges violentos. Os resultados corroboram pesquisas precedentes relativas à complexidade e morbidade do fenômeno, como também apontam para a necessidade da interseção de campos de pesquisa visando à ampliação de seu entendimento e de intervenções mais eficazes.This paper aims to identify and interprete, in the resultant database of the registers of an Anonymous Telephone Service of support and advisement in the areas of rights and violence against women, the perception and the attribution of meanings of their experiences of intimate violence mainly in the light of contemporary Brazilian feminist literature. This text is aligned to a group of investigators who focused the attention in describing and thinking about the feminine representations about the violence, pointing out the non-universality of the feminine experience in relation to aggressions, valuing singular aspects of the attacked women. In the data analysis the meanings women give to their prolonged hesitations against the expressed desire to separate themselves from their abusive spouses are highlighted. The results support previous researchs on the complexity and morbidity of the

  10. Un sistema de discusión seguro con participación anónima a través de servicios Web A secure discussion system with anonymous participation through Web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    a scheme of anonymous participation by signing messages using credentials obtained from a blind signature process. Also security attributes are applied to ensure to ensure the integrity, confidentiality and non-repudiation of these. The discussion system was built embedded in a Web services platform designed to provide functionality to support digital democracy.

  11. Solutions to the new threats to academic freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In my commentary on Francesca Minerva's article 'New Threats to Academic Freedom', I agree with her contention that the existence of the Internet has given rise to new and very serious threats to academic freedom. I think that it is crucial that we confront those threats, and find ways to eliminate them, which I believe can be done. The threats in question involve both authors and editors. In the case of authors, I argue that the best solution is not anonymous publication, but publication using pseudonyms, and I describe how that would work. In the case of editors, my proposal is a website that a number of journals would have access to, where papers that editors judge to be clearly worthy of publication, but whose publication seems likely to set off a firestorm of public and media protest, could be published without any indication of the journal that had accepted the paper for publication.

  12. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.

  13. Bacterioplankton abundance and production in Indian Ocean Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Rodrigues, V.V.; Paul, J.T.; Gauns, M.

    of Earth Sciences, New Delhi under JGOFS (India), BOBPS, and surveys for cobalt crust programs. We also thank the late M. Madhupratap for his leadership and guidance. We gratefully thank Raleigh Hood and the anonymous reviewers for their numerous...

  14. Dialogic education for and from authorial agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2016-09-01

                Finally, we describe and analyze the first author’s partially successful and partially failing attempt to enact a dialogic authorial approach. It will allow the reader to both visualize and problematize a dialogic authorial approach. We will consider a case with a rich “e-paper trail” written by 11 undergraduate, pre-service teacher education students (mostly sophomores, and the instructor (Peter, the first author, pseudonym in a course on cultural diversity.  The case focuses on the university students (future teachers and their professor discussing several occasions that involved interactions between Peter and one minority child in an afterschool center. Our research questions in this empirical study were aimed at determining the successes, challenges, and failures of the dialogic authorial pedagogical approach and conditions for them

  15. Timing and preservation mechanism of deglacial pteropod spike from the Andaman Sea, northeastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sijinkumar, A.V.; Nath, B.N.; Gupta, M.V.S.; Rao, B.R.

    the anonymous reviewers and Professor Jan A. Piotrowski, Editor-in-Chief for their painstaking and positive comments. This is a contribution to CSIR XII Plan funded Project GEOSINKS and the National Institute of Oceanography contribution number for this paper...

  16. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....... illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...

  17. 76 FR 16358 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... http://www.regulations.gov website is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... references the SIP and CGS which requires the SIP to be a dynamic and not static document that is to...

  18. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound Cd and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Chennuri, K.; Bardhan, P.

    Prof. Charles Sheppard, (Editor in Chief, MPB) and anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged. This work is a part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) supported GEOSINKS (PSC0106) project. This article bears NIO...

  19. Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound Cd and its bioaccumulation in edible oyster.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Chennuri, K.; Bardhan, P.

    Prof. Charles Sheppard, (Editor in Chief, MPB) and anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged. This work is a part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) supported GEOSINKS (PSC0106) project. This article bears NIO...

  20. 76 FR 42658 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Authorizing Release of a Nonessential Experimental Population...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... (enter N/A in the required fields, if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to..., and volcanic activity. If we authorize an experimental population under ESA section 10(j), and if...

  1. Privacy-preserving location-based query using location indexes and parallel searching in distributed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    An efficient location-based query algorithm of protecting the privacy of the user in the distributed networks is given. This algorithm utilizes the location indexes of the users and multiple parallel threads to search and select quickly all the candidate anonymous sets with more users and their location information with more uniform distribution to accelerate the execution of the temporal-spatial anonymous operations, and it allows the users to configure their custom-made privacy-preserving location query requests. The simulated experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can offer simultaneously the location query services for more users and improve the performance of the anonymous server and satisfy the anonymous location requests of the users.

  2. Beyond Subjectivity. Levinas, Kierkegaard and the Absolute Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Ferro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between Levinas and Kierkegaard is controversial. In his writings, especially Difficult Freedom and Proper Names, the former strongly criticizes the latter: he goes against the submission of ethics to religion of Fear and Trembling and the view of subjectivity coming out from the Concluding Unscientific Postscript. Singularity and relation to God are then the principal points of collision between the two philosophers. Since Kierkegaard, for chronological reasons, has never replied to Levinas, one only knows the opinion of the latter. One will never know what the former would have said on his own behalf. Maybe he would have exacerbated the debate or maybe he would have tried to solve it. Perhaps he would have done both with two different pseudonyms, ironically making a fool of Levinas.

  3. International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    incompatible with effective law enforcement, anonymity, the protection of children and secure infrastructure In reality, good cybersecurity can...international partners We will expand these capabilities through international collaboration to enhance overall resil - ience The United States will

  4. 78 FR 74079 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2014 and 2015...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel... formulas, or tiers, to be used to compute OFLs and ABCs. The formulas applicable to a particular stock...

  5. Notification: Hotline Complaint – Region 7 Compliance with Bid, Payment, and Performance Bond Requirements Outlined in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    June 1, 2012. In response to an anonymous hotline complaint, the OIG plans to conduct a review of Region 7’s compliance with bid, payment, and performance bond requirements outlined in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 28.

  6. Application and Countermeasure of Anonymous Communication Network in Psychological & Public Opinion Warfare%匿名通信网络应用与对抗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇翔; 孙振; 田甜

    2013-01-01

    心理战、舆论战已成为和平时期网络信息对抗的重要组成部分,而匿名通信网络可为其提供有力的技术支持.文章介绍了心理战、舆论战的概念和基本方法,提出了基于网络媒体平台实施隐蔽心理战、舆论战的若干战术策略,设计了匿名通信网络在心理战、舆论战中的几种典型应用场景,探讨了多种类型的匿名通信网络的设计和对抗方法,并对未来的匿名通信对抗形势进行了展望.

  7. Is Cyberbullying Worse than Traditional Bullying? Examining the Differential Roles of Medium, Publicity, and Anonymity for the Perceived Severity of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional…

  8. Medication errors with the use of allopurinol and colchicine : A retrospective study of a national, anonymous Internet-accessible error reporting system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikuls, TR; Curtis, [No Value; Allison, JJ; Hicks, RW; Saag, KG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To more closely assess medication errors in gout care, we examined data from a national, Internet-accessible error reporting program over a 5-year reporting period. Methods. We examined data from the MEDMARX (TM) database, covering the period from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 200

  9. Social comparison processes, narrative mapping and their shaping of the cancer experience: a case study of an elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Andrew C; Pérez-Samaniego, Víctor; Smith, Brett

    2012-09-01

    Drawing on data generated by life history interviews and fieldwork observations we illuminate the ways in which a young elite athlete named David (a pseudonym) gave meaning to his experiences of cancer that eventually led to his death. Central to this process were the ways in which David utilized both social comparisons and a narrative map provided by the published autobiography of Lance Armstrong (2000). Our analysis reveals the selective manner in which social comparison processes operated around the following key dimensions: mental attitude to treatment; the sporting body; the ageing body; and physical appearance. The manner in which different comparison targets were chosen, the ways in which these were framed by Armstrong's autobiography, and the work that the restitution narrative as an actor did in this process are also examined. Some reflections are offered regarding the experiential consequences of the social comparison processes utilized by David when these are shaped by specific forms of embodiment and selective narrative maps of cancer survival.

  10. [Analysis of type 2 diabetes-induced late effects based on administrative data of social insurance in Austria and implications for the evaluation of the DMP diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J; Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Rásky, Éva

    2014-08-01

    The present study analyses administrative data of medical services related to the distribution of diabetes mellitus type 2-induced late effects. Pseudonymous statutory health insurance data of all Austrian social security institutions for the years 2006/2007 in outpatient and inpatient (performance and diagnostic data) setting were used. Type 2 diabetics have been identified by prescribed medication. The specific late effects were defined as endpoints and the respective diagnoses and health performances were extracted. The study population included 7,945,774 insured. The percentage of the defined late effects was significantly higher in diabetics than in persons from the general population, with exception for kidney transplantation. The risk of a late effect was greatest among diabetics for an amputation. The results of this study can be used as a baseline for the evaluation of DMP diabetes. The administrative data used are limited for answering the defined research questions. Anyway, the data quality must be improved and unified in Austria.

  11. THE POET M ÂLÎ FROM DIYARBAKIR, HIS LIFE, LITERARY PERSONALITY AND THE DIVAN ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan AKGÜL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish Literature, although it is generally known as a growing literature around the palace, it has also been observed as a result of studies that there are several poe ts who have grown out of Istanbul in this area. The subject of this study is about ''Mâlî's Life, Literary Personality and the Divan'' ,who was one of those poets that grew up outside Istanbul. Limited information is available in resources about the poet M âlî whose real name is Mehmed Çelebi. Mâlî, who was one of the17th - century poets, was born in Diyarbakir. The poet, whose date of birth is unknown, died in Diyarbakir, AH 1085 (1674. The poet has a Turkish Divan that has been managed to be detected up to now. There is only one known copy of Divan. The Divan is registered in the number 630 in Istanbul University Manuscripts Library. The Divan consists of 20 mesnevis , 9 odes, 109 ghazals, 1 composition of bend, 1 Muhammes, 15 Rubaies, 6 verses and 1 poem of history. In this study, we have tried to give information about his life with the information obtained from sources located in the poet's divan poetry. The most significant side of our study is its information by the collection of biographies (tezkires in a pseudonym such as Me’ali instead of Mali. Upon the result of our study an his Divan, me came to the conclusion that the pseudonym of the poet is Mali. Furthermore, we have tried to demonstrate the content of the work and Mâlî's literary personality a nd the verse forms, content, features of language and style of the poem by basing on the factors relevant with the field of human, society and nature in poems.

  12. Collection of Medical Original Data with Search Engine for Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthuber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Medicine is becoming more and more complex and humans can capture total medical knowledge only partially. For specific access a high resolution search engine is demonstrated, which allows besides conventional text search also search of precise quantitative data of medical findings, therapies and results. Users can define metric spaces ("Domain Spaces", DSs) with all searchable quantitative data ("Domain Vectors", DSs). An implementation of the search engine is online in http://numericsearch.com. In future medicine the doctor could make first a rough diagnosis and check which fine diagnostics (quantitative data) colleagues had collected in such a case. Then the doctor decides about fine diagnostics and results are sent (half automatically) to the search engine which filters a group of patients which best fits to these data. In this specific group variable therapies can be checked with associated therapeutic results, like in an individual scientific study for the current patient. The statistical (anonymous) results could be used for specific decision support. Reversely the therapeutic decision (in the best case with later results) could be used to enhance the collection of precise pseudonymous medical original data which is used for better and better statistical (anonymous) search results.

  13. Making the Case for Anonymity in E-Participation - An Evaluation of Real Name Policy in Gütersloh’s Second Participatory Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Anna Ruesch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper relates the debate about real name policy on social networking platforms and online forums to online moderated consultation processes in the area of e-participation. It analyses the case of the second participatory budget of the German city of Gütersloh. Three major rationales for real name policy in e-participatory projects are identified: the possibility to restrict access, prevention of offensive communication, and the strengthening of a transparent democracy. The five major objections identified are: distraction from issue-related dialogue, violation of privacy rights, administrative problems causing high expenditure of time and costs, negative media and public attention, and usability problems that may result in a low rate of participation. The evidence found indicates that the negative consequences of real name policy outweigh the positive ones. Important directions of further research are pointed out. The paper is an extended version of a paper presented at the Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government in 2012.

  14. No cuerpos, lugares del anonimato: El cuerpo en el net.art Non-bodies, locations of anonymity: the body in the net.art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa AGUILAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se ocupa del papel que la representación del cuerpo humano adquiere en el net.art. Por un lado, considera que el cuerpo humano ha sido descorporeizado y proyectado en el no lugar del espacio telemático, enfrentado así a las tendencias de rematerialización del cuerpo, como el arte carnal y el body art, y, por otra, parte considera que incluso en esta esfera ciberespacial el cuerpo de Internet se ve como una prolongación del arte carnal, según los trabajos de Orlan y Tomic. La construcción del género y el trabajo artístico de las mujeres en la red es otro de los objetivos que este texto pone de manifiesto como vinculación de mujeres y nuevas tecnologías en el contexto artístico del net.art.This text deals with the role that the representation of the human body acquired in net.art. On the one hand, considers that the human body has been disembodied and projected in the nowhere of telematic space, thus faced to the rematerialization trends of the body, as the carnal art and body art, and by the other hand considers that even in this cyberspace area the Internet´s body is seen as an extension of carnal art, depending on the work of Orlan and Tomic. The construction of gender and women's artwork in the network is another objective that this text shows as linking between women and new technologies in the artistic context of net.art.

  15. L’efficacité du conseil d’administration dans les sociétés anonymes au Cameroun: Une lecture par l’hétérogénéité des administrateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kriyoss Mfouapon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est d’analyser l’effet de l’homogénéité ou de l’hétérogénéité du profil des administrateurs sur l’efficacité de leur conseil d’administration (CA. Les données analysées sont collectées auprès de 386 administrateurs répartis sur un échantillon de 64 CA des sociétés anonymes (SA installées au Cameroun. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que l’homogénéité socioprofessionnelle, de l’indépendance et clanique du CA sont d’une influence notable sur leur efficacité. Ces résultats montrent, en fait que, l’hétérogénéité du CA est source d’efficacité supérieure dans les choix stratégiques, et d’inefficacité dans les opérations de contrôle et de surveillance de l’équipe dirigeante. Ces résultats s’inscrivent dans la même perspective que les travaux d’Hambrick & Mason (1984 sur la Upper Echelons Research, la théorie de la régulation clanique d’Ouchi (1980 et constituent en même temps une confirmation des résultats de Jensen (1993.

  16. On anonymous data publishing based on sensitive tuple cluster%基于敏感元组的聚类匿名数据发布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海

    2013-01-01

    During the process of data publishing, in order to protect personal privacy, data owner often has to generalize all the quasi-identifier, but in fact the tuple involving personal privacy is very few. So our method starts from the tuples, then divides the remainder into groups according to different sensitive attribute value. Finally, our method selects one tuple per group which is shortest to the tuple involving personal privacy for generalization. The rest tuples need not to be generalized. In this way, our method has improved the utilization rate of the data and reduced the loss of information effectively.%在数据发布的过程中,为了保护个人隐私常需对所有准标识符进行泛化操作,而实际涉及到个人隐私相关敏感属性元组是非常少的。据此,从这些涉及个人隐私的敏感属性的元组出发,将剩余大量仅涉及非敏感属性元组依据敏感属性值不同进行分组,最后对分组中元组以计算与个人隐私属性相关敏感属性距离的方式,选取距离最短的元组进行泛化,其余元组并不进行泛化,通过这种方式,提高了数据的利用率,并有效减少信息的损失。

  17. A Scalable Privacy Preserving Scheme In Vehicular Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Gong-jun; SHI Hui; Awny Alnusair; Matthew Todd Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles enlisted with computing, sensing and communicating devices can create vehicular networks, a subset of cooperative systems in heterogeneous environments, aiming at improving safety and entertainment in traffic. In vehicular networks, a vehicle’s identity is associated to its owner’s identity as a unique linkage. Therefore, it is of importance to protect privacy of vehicles from being possibly tracked. Obviously, the privacy protection must be scalable because of the high mobility and large population of vehicles. In this work, we take a non-trivial step towards protecting privacy of vehicles. As privacy draws public concerns, we firstly present privacy implications of operational challenges from the public policy perspective. Additionally, we envision vehicular networks as geographically partitioned subnetworks (cells). Each subnetwork maintains a list of pseudonyms. Each pseudonym includes the cell’s geographic id and a random number as host id. Before starting communication, vehicles need to request a pseudonym on demand from pseudonym server. In order to improve utilization of pseudonyms, we address a stochastic model with time-varying arrival and departure rates. Our main contribution includes:1) proposing a scalable and effective algorithm to protect privacy; 2) providing analytical results of probability, variance and expected number of requests on pseudonym servers. The empirical results confirm the accuracy of our analytical predictions.

  18. AnonySense: Opportunistic and Privacy-Preserving Context Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Kapadia, Apu; Cornelius, Cory

    2008-01-01

    in their neighborhood. In most proposed applications, context reports include the time and location of the event, putting the privacy of users at increased risk-even if a report has been anonymized, the accompanying time and location can reveal sufficient information to deanonymize the user whose device sent the report....... We propose AnonySense, a general-purpose architecture for leveraging users' mobile devices for measuring context, while maintaining the privacy of the users.AnonySense features multiple layers of privacy protection-a framework for nodes to receive tasks anonymously, a novel blurring mechanism based...... on tessellation and clustering to protect users' privacy against the system while reporting context, and k-anonymous report aggregation to improve the users' privacy against applications receiving the context. We outline the architecture and security properties of AnonySense, and focus on evaluating our...

  19. BangA: An Efficient and Flexible Generalization-Based Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP has become a critical issue for companies and organizations that would release their data. k-Anonymization was proposed as a first generalization model to guarantee against identity disclosure of individual records in a data set. Point access methods (PAMs are not well studied for the problem of data anonymization. In this article, we propose yet another approximation algorithm for anonymization, coined BangA, that combines useful features from Point Access Methods (PAMs and clustering. Hence, it achieves fast computation and scalability as a PAM, and very high quality thanks to its density-based clustering step. Extensive experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for extending BangA to achieve a relaxed form of differential privacy which provides stronger privacy guarantees as compared to traditional privacy definitions.

  20. A Glance through the VPN Looking Glass: IPv6 Leakage and DNS Hijacking in Commercial VPN clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perta Vasile C.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Virtual Private Network (VPN services have become a popular and convenient technology for users seeking privacy and anonymity. They have been applied to a wide range of use cases, with commercial providers often making bold claims regarding their ability to fulfil each of these needs, e.g., censorship circumvention, anonymity and protection from monitoring and tracking. However, as of yet, the claims made by these providers have not received a sufficiently detailed scrutiny. This paper thus investigates the claims of privacy and anonymity in commercial VPN services. We analyse 14 of the most popular ones, inspecting their internals and their infrastructures. Despite being a known issue, our experimental study reveals that the majority of VPN services suffer from IPv6 traffic leakage. The work is extended by developing more sophisticated DNS hijacking attacks that allow all traffic to be transparently captured.We conclude discussing a range of best practices and countermeasures that can address these vulnerabilities