Sample records for anonymous hiv workplace

  1. Anonymous HIV workplace surveys as an advocacy tool for affordable private health insurance in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 15%, Namibia is in need of innovative health financing strategies that can alleviate the burden on the public sector. Affordable and private health insurances were recently developed in Namibia, and they include coverage for HIV/AIDS. This article reports on the efficacy of HIV workplace surveys as a tool to increase uptake of these insurances by employees in the Namibian formal business sector. In addition, the burden of HIV among this population was examined by sector. Methods Cross-sectional anonymous HIV prevalence surveys were conducted in 24 private companies in Namibia between November 2006 and December 2007. Non-invasive oral fluid-based HIV antibody rapid tests were used. Anonymous test results were provided to the companies in a confidential report and through presentations to their management, during which the advantages of affordable private health insurance and the available insurance products were discussed. Impact assessment was conducted in October 2008, when new health insurance uptake by these companies was evaluated. Results Of 8500 targeted employees, 6521 were screened for HIV; mean participation rate was 78.6%. Overall 15.0% (95% CI 14.2-15.9% of employees tested HIV positive (range 3.0-23.9% across companies. The mining sector had the highest percentage of HIV-positive employees (21.0%; the information technology (IT sector had the lowest percentage (4.0%. Out of 6205 previously uninsured employees, 61% had enrolled in private health insurance by October 2008. The majority of these new insurances (78% covered HIV/AIDS only. Conclusion The proportion of HIV-positive formal sector employees in Namibia is in line with national prevalence estimates and varies widely by employment sector. Following the surveys, there was a considerable increase in private health insurance uptake. This suggests that anonymous HIV workplace surveys can serve as a tool to motivate

  2. Factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results in a free and anonymous screening centre. (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope


    Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.

  3. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

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    Martin Weihs


    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour.Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize.Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation.Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff.Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279.Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the right

  4. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

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    Liana Steenkamp


    Full Text Available Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation for the study: Given the abundance of HIV and AIDS information, the question is whether these workplace programmes’ efforts are still relevant.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative descriptive study design was used using a self-administered questionnaire covering questions about KAPB with regard to HIV and AIDS. The data collection took place in seven automotive supplier companies in South Africa (n = 733 who were going to implement HIV and AIDS workplace programmes with the support of the Automotive Industry Development Centre in the Eastern Cape.Main findings: High-risk behaviour, as indicated by sexual relations with more than one partner in the last 12 months, occurred in between 12% (management and 42% (cleaners of employees. All risk behaviour indicators showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between management and administrative staff on the one hand and technicians, operators and cleaners on the other. Despite being aware of an HIV policy, more than 50% of employees indicated that they would not be willing to disclose their status.Practical/managerial implications: As HIV and AIDS risk behaviour and stigma remain a problem, HIV infection with associated health problems may threaten productivity in the automotive industry if no measures are taken to address the impact on employees and the company.Contribution: This study strongly supports the conclusion that KAPB studies can still provide important information to tailor HIV workplace

  5. Mortality and morbidity among HIV type-1-infected patients during the first 5 years of a multicountry HIV workplace programme in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van der Borght; P. Clevenbergh; H. Rijckborst; P. Nsalou; N. Onyia; J.M. Lange; T.F. Rinke de Wit; M.F.S. van der Loeff


    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV workplace programme in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The international brewing company, Heineken, introduced an HIV workplace programme in its African subsidiaries in 2001. Beneficiaries from 16 sites in 5 countries were eligible. H

  6. Prevalence of maternal HIV-1 infection in Thames regions: results from anonymous unlinked neonatal testing. (United States)

    Ades, A E; Parker, S; Berry, T; Holland, F J; Davison, C F; Cubitt, D; Hjelm, M; Wilcox, A H; Hudson, C N; Briggs, M


    To monitor the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual population, residues of blood samples collected routinely on absorbent paper for neonatal screening (Guthrie cards) in NE, NW, and SW Thames Regions in England have been tested for antibodies to HIV-1 since June, 1988. 323,369 dried blood spots were analysed to end March, 1991. Prevalence of anti-HIV-1 in newborn babies has remained stable in outer London and non-metropolitan districts whereas prevalence in inner London has increased from 1 in 2000 in the 12 months beginning June, 1988, to 1 in 500 in the first 3 months of 1991. Either exponential or linear growth in the numbers of new seropositives could account for the results. That obstetricians were aware of maternal HIV infection in only 20% of infected pregnancies, indicates the extent to which HIV infection goes unrecognised in the heterosexual community.

  7. Mathematical Analysis of the Effects of HIV-Malaria Co-infection on Workplace Productivity. (United States)

    Seidu, Baba; Makinde, Oluwole D; Seini, Ibrahim Y


    In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical system is proposed and qualitatively analyzed to study the dynamics and effects of HIV-malaria co-infection in the workplace. Basic reproduction numbers of sub-models are derived and are shown to have LAS disease-free equilibria when their respective basic reproduction numbers are less than unity. Conditions for existence of endemic equilibria of sub-models are also derived. Unlike the HIV-only model, the malaria-only model is shown to exhibit a backward bifurcation under certain conditions. Conditions for optimal control of the co-infection are derived using the Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical experimentation on the resulting optimality system is performed. Using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, it is observed that combining preventative measures for both diseases is the best strategy for optimal control of HIV-malaria co-infection at the workplace.

  8. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). (United States)

    Vaas, Jocelyn R


    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  9. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola. (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  10. Handbook for Peer Educators and Community Mobilisers Conducting HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Informal Sector Workplace (United States)

    Kagimu, Majid; Karama, Said; Mbabazi, Jackson; Mularira, Grace N.; Nakawuka, Minah; Kityo, Tom; Ssengonzi, Robert; Ssentongo, Chris; Walakira, Yusuf


    This handbook has been developed as a resource to be used by peer/community educators and mobilisers conducting HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the informal sector workplaces and surrounding communities in Uganda. The handbook provides basic information on a range of topics on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections that can be used by…

  11. Circuit courts clash over HIV in the workplace. (United States)


    Some of the major differences of opinions between the circuit courts on issues affecting HIV and employment are examined. In the seven years since the passing of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), there has been disagreement among the circuits relative to the interpretation of the law. At the heart of the debate is whether or not HIV infection, without symptoms of AIDS, actually qualifies for a disability under the meaning and intent of the ADA. Another fundamental issue is whether or not reproduction is considered a major life activity under the ADA. Federal circuit courts have also considered what happens to patients in the latter stages of HIV diseases, when symptoms are so pronounced that he or she qualifies for disability benefits including Social Security or private disability plans. There is disagreement among the circuits as to whether insurance products, including those provided through an employee benefit program, are covered under the ADA. As of this date, the U.S. Supreme Court has not intervened on any of the HIV/ADA-related cases.

  12. Anonymous Gossiping

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    Datta, Anwitaman


    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  13. Anonymous Gossiping


    Datta, Anwitaman


    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping me...

  14. Against anonymity. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  15. Group Anonymity

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    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61


    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  16. Contrasting reasons for discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in workplace and public-sector HIV programs in South Africa. (United States)

    Dahab, Maysoon; Kielmann, Karina; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan S; Hamilton, Robin; La Grange, Lettie; Fielding, Katherine L; Churchyard, Gavin J; Grant, Alison D


    Abstract We investigated reasons for clinical follow-up and treatment discontinuation among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a public-sector clinic and in a workplace clinic in South Africa. Participants in a larger cohort study who had discontinued clinical care by the seventh month of treatment were traced using previously provided locator information. Those located were administered a semistructured questionnaire regarding reasons for discontinuing clinical follow-up. Participants who had discontinued antiretroviral therapy were invited to participate in further in-depth qualitative interviews. Fifty-one of 144 (35.4%) in the workplace cohort had discontinued clinical follow-up by the seventh month of treatment. The median age of those who discontinued follow-up was 46 years and median educational level was five years. By contrast, only 16.5% (44/267) of the public-sector cohort had discontinued follow-up. Among them the median age was 37.5 years and median education was 11 years. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 workplace participants and 10 public-sector participants. The main reasons for attrition in the workplace were uncertainty about own HIV status and above the value of ART, poor patient-provider relationships and workplace discrimination. In the public sector, these were moving away and having no money for clinic transport. In the workplace, efforts to minimize the time between testing and treatment initiation should be balanced with the need to provide adequate baseline counseling taking into account existing concepts about HIV and ART. In the public sector, earlier diagnosis and ART initiation may help to reduce early mortality, while links to government grants may reduce attrition.

  17. Ethical standards for the occupational health-nursing practitioner regarding the HIV positive person in the workplace

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    A C Botes


    Full Text Available The occupational health-nursing practitioner often becomes involved in ethical dilemmas with regard to the handling of HIV-positive people in the workplace in that the interests of the HIV-positive people conflict with the interests of the employer.

    Die beroepsgesondheidsverpleegkundige raak dikwels in etiese dilemmas betrokke ten opsigte van die hantering van die MIV-positiewe persoon by die werkplek deurdat die belange van die MIV-positiewe persoon botsend is met die belange van die werkgewer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  18. Keeping health staff healthy: evaluation of a workplace initiative to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS in Malawi

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    Bemelmans Marielle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Malawi, the dramatic shortage of human resources for health is negatively impacted by HIV-related morbidity and mortality among health workers and their relatives. Many staff find it difficult to access HIV care through regular channels due to fear of stigma and discrimination. In 2006, two workplace initiatives were implemented in Thyolo District: a clinic at the district hospital dedicated to all district health staff and their first-degree relatives, providing medical services, including HIV care; and a support group for HIV-positive staff. Methods Using routine programme data, we evaluated the following outcomes up to the end of 2009: uptake and outcome of HIV testing and counselling among health staff and their dependents; uptake and outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART among health staff; and membership and activities of the support group. In addition, we included information from staff interviews and a job satisfaction survey to describe health workers' opinions of the initiatives. Results Almost two-thirds (91 of 144, 63% of health workers and their dependents undergoing HIV testing and counselling at the staff clinic tested HIV positive. Sixty-four health workers had accessed ART through the staff clinic, approximately the number of health workers estimated to be in need of ART. Of these, 60 had joined the support group. Cumulative ART outcomes were satisfactory, with more than 90% alive on treatment as of June 2009 (the end of the study observation period. The availability, confidentiality and quality of care in the staff clinic were considered adequate by beneficiaries. Conclusions Staff clinic and support group services successfully provided care and support to HIV-positive health workers. Similar initiatives should be considered in other settings with a high HIV prevalence.

  19. Anonymity in voting revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter; Chaum, David; Jakobsson, Markus; Rivest, Ronald L.; Ryan, Peter Y.A.; Benaloh, Josh; Kutylowski, Miroslaw; Adida, Ben


    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in

  20. Cross-sectional study assessing HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in the Namibian truck transport sector: Readjusting HIV prevention programs in the workplace. (United States)

    Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan


    The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness.

  1. An overview of anonymity and anonymous communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M.


    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important aspect in distributed systems. In anonymous communication, privacy is provided to communicating parties by hiding their identities from each other and/or from others. This paper discusses the problem of anonymous communication and clarifies the notion of

  2. Anonymity in Voting Revisited (United States)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  3. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross. (United States)

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya


    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs.

  4. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Motwani, Rajeev


    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  5. Workplace discrimination and HIV/AIDS: the national EEOC ADA research project. (United States)

    Conyers, Liza; Boomer, K B; McMahon, Brian T


    This article utilizes data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Integrated Mission System database to document the levels of employment discrimination involving individuals with HIV/AIDS. The researchers explore the theory that the nature of HIV/AIDS related employment discrimination is rooted in deeper stigmatization than discrimination against other disability groups. Researchers compare and contrast key demographic characteristics of Charging Parties and Respondents involved in HIV/AIDS related allegations of discrimination and their proportion of EEOC merit resolutions to those of persons with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Findings indicate that, in contrast to the general disability group, HIV/AIDS was more likely to be male, ethnic minorities, between the ages of 25-44, in white collar jobs, in the South and West and to work for businesses with 15 to 100 employees. Additionally, the allegations in HIV/AIDS were more likely to receive merit resolution from the EEOC by a large difference of ten percent.

  6. Anonymization of Court Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Claus; Jongejan, Bart; Hansen, Dorte Haltrup;

    We describe an anonymization tool that was commissioned by and specified together with Schultz, a publishing company specialized in Danish law related publications. Unavailability of training data and the need to guarantee compliance with pre-existing anonymization guidelines forced us to implement...

  7. Deniable Anonymous Group Authentication (United States)


    electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM, 24:84–88, February 1981. [16] D. Chaum. Blind signatures for...ASIACRYPT, 2004. [59] P. P. Tsang and V. K. Wei. Short linkable ring signatures for e- voting , e-cash and attestation. In ’05 ISPEC, 2005. [60] D. I...which we term anonymity, proportionality, forward anonymity, and deniability. Like ring signatures [50], DAGA allows a user to au- thenticate as an

  8. HIV Disease and Work: Effect on the Individual, Workplace, and Interpersonal Contexts. (United States)

    Hoffman, Mary Ann


    A review of literature 1992-1996 examined effects of HIV on career development and employment; impact on employers, employees, and formal caregivers; and effects on employment of informal caregivers. Most studies defined work narrowly, used cross-sectional designs, and almost exclusively used gay men as respondents. (91 references) (SK)

  9. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

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    Alhaj Ali Jalila


    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  10. Anonymous Quantum Communication (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  11. [Incidence of HIV infection in consultants reviewed after a first negative test in an anonymous and free screening center at the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia, 1996-1999]. (United States)

    Kruy, S L; Glaziou, P; Flye Sainte Marie, F; Buisson, Y


    A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the voluntary testing and counselling centre of the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia as well as factors associated with HIV seroconversion. From 1996 to 1999, 5541 repeat consultants were selected for the study. Exclusion criteria included being aged under 15 years, having initially tested positive or inconclusive and a time span of fewer than 30 days since the last test. In all, 276 persons had seroconverted to HIV, giving an incidence rate of 5.56 per 100 person-years. The seroconversion rate declined from 8.46% in 1996, to 3.06% in 1999 (chi 2 test for trend, p = 10(-5)). Among the risk factors analysed, 3 were significantly associated with lack of seroconversion: being a student (RR = 0.53, p = 0.032) or a civil servant (RR = 0.63, p = 0.012) and systematic condom use with causal partners (RR = 0.37, p = 10(-5)). The decline of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the VCT centre over the study period may reflect changes in risk behaviour and the beneficial impact of counselling.

  12. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

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    J. Hajny


    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  13. The Metadata Anonymization Toolkit



    This document summarizes the experience of Julien Voisin during the 2011 edition of the well-known \\emph{Google Summer of Code}. This project is a first step in the domain of metadata anonymization in Free Software. This article is articulated in three parts. First, a state of the art and a categorization of usual metadata, then the privacy policy is exposed/discussed in order to find the right balance between information lost and privacy enhancement. Finally, the specification of the Metadat...

  14. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  15. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practice among health care workers in Montenegro. (United States)

    Gledović, Zorana; Rakočević, Božidarka; Mugoša, Boban; Grgurević, Anita


    The objective of the present study was to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice of health care workers (HCWs) in Montenegro. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the University Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for data collecting. Out of 526 HCWs, 422 were included in the survey and response rate was 80%. An insufficient level of knowledge on HIV transmission and the risk after exposure was observed generally, although the knowledge was better in physicians compared to other HCWs categories. A rather high proportion of HCWs showed inappropriate attitude regarding the need of HIV testing of all hospitalized patients (64.7%) and obligation of HIV+ patient to report his/her HIV status (88.9%) in order to practice universal precaution. Additionally, 6.2% HCWs would refuse to treat an HIV+ patient. More than a half (55.7%) of study participants were educated in HIV/AIDS and 15.9% of them were HIV tested. Majority of HCWs (67.5%) always applied universal precautions during their daily work with patients. In spite of applying protective devices, number of accidents was great. A continuous education is necessary to increase the level of knowledge of HCWs about the risk of infection at the workplace. This would potentially influence the modification of their attitudes regarding HIV patients and improve prevention at the workplace. Continuous research regarding the professional risk would provide better health and safety among medical staff.

  16. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Karina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  17. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  18. Anonymous Broadcast Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lazic


    Full Text Available The Dining Cryptographer network (or DC-net is a privacy preserving communication protocol devised by David Chaum for anonymous message publication. A very attractive feature of DC-nets is the strength of its security, which is inherent in the protocol and is not dependent on other schemes, like encryption. Unfortunately the DC-net protocol has a level of complexity that causes it to suffer from exceptional communication overhead and implementation difficulty that precludes its use in many real-world use-cases. We have designed and created a DC-net implementation that uses a pure client-server model, which successfully avoids much of the complexity inherent in the DC-net protocol. We describe the theory of DC-nets and our pure client-server implementation, as well as the compromises that were made to reduce the protocol’s level of complexity. Discussion centers around the details of our implementation of DC-net.

  19. Workplace design


    Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, George


    PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...

  20. Probabilistic Anonymity and Admissible Schedulers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Flavio D; Sokolova, Ana


    When studying safety properties of (formal) protocol models, it is customary to view the scheduler as an adversary: an entity trying to falsify the safety property. We show that in the context of security protocols, and in particular of anonymizing protocols, this gives the adversary too much power; for instance, the contents of encrypted messages and internal computations by the parties should be considered invisible to the adversary. We restrict the class of schedulers to a class of admissible schedulers which better model adversarial behaviour. These admissible schedulers base their decision solely on the past behaviour of the system that is visible to the adversary. Using this, we propose a definition of anonymity: for all admissible schedulers the identity of the users and the observations of the adversary are independent stochastic variables. We also develop a proof technique for typical cases that can be used to proof anonymity: a system is anonymous if it is possible to `exchange' the behaviour of two...

  1. Association of knowledge of HIV and other factors with individuals' attitudes toward HIV infection: a national cross-sectional survey among the Japanese non-medical working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. METHODS: An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals' attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9 ± 3.3 from 15 points, only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31-0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge, whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness. CONCLUSION: Knowledge neutralizes peoples' negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  2. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den


    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  3. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio


    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...

  4. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio


    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...

  5. Movement Data Anonymity through Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale


    Full Text Available Wireless networks and mobile devices, such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, sense and track the movements of people and vehicles, producing society-wide mobility databases. This is a challenging scenario for data analysis and mining. On the one hand, exciting opportunities arise out of discovering new knowledge about human mobile behavior, and thus fuel intelligent info-mobility applications. On other hand, new privacy concerns arise when mobility data are published. The risk is particularly high for GPS trajectories, which represent movement of a very high precision and spatio-temporal resolution: the de-identification of such trajectories (i.e., forgetting the ID of their associated owners is only a weak protection, as generally it is possible to re-identify a person by observing her routine movements. In this paper we propose a method for achieving true anonymity in a dataset of published trajectories, by defining a transformation of the original GPS trajectories based on spatial generalization and k-anonymity. The proposed method offers a formal data protection safeguard, quantified as a theoretical upper bound to the probability of re-identification. We conduct a thorough study on a real-life GPS trajectory dataset, and provide strong empirical evidence that the proposed anonymity techniques achieve the conflicting goals of data utility and data privacy. In practice, the achieved anonymity protection is much stronger than the theoretical worst case, while the quality of the cluster analysis on the trajectory data is preserved.

  6. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels


    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  7. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella


    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  8. Workplace Violence (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... program in place to offer: counseling, support groups, stress debriefing, ... for Preventing Workplace Violence for Health Care and Social Service Workers [ ...

  9. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-


    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  10. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.


    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted attribu

  11. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma (United States)

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah


    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  12. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Elizondo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014. They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%; the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%; and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%.CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  13. Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hirotada; Tani, Seiichiro


    This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolea...

  14. Octopus: A Secure and Anonymous DHT Lookup

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiyan


    Distributed Hash Table (DHT) lookup is a core technique in structured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Its decentralized nature introduces security and privacy vulnerabilities for applications built on top of them; we thus set out to design a lookup mechanism achieving both security and anonymity, heretofore an open problem. We present Octopus, a novel DHT lookup which provides strong guarantees for both security and anonymity. Octopus uses attacker identification mechanisms to discover and remove malicious nodes, severely limiting an adversary's ability to carry out active attacks, and splits lookup queries over separate anonymous paths and introduces dummy queries to achieve high levels of anonymity. We analyze the security of Octopus by developing an event-based simulator to show that the attacker discovery mechanisms can rapidly identify malicious nodes with low error rate. We calculate the anonymity of Octopus using probabilistic modeling and show that Octopus can achieve near-optimal anonymity. We evaluate ...

  15. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter


    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  16. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  17. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos


    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  18. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.


    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  19. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina


    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receive...

  20. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie


    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  1. Towards a Theory of Anonymous Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderi, J


    The problem of anonymous networking when an eavesdropper observes packet timings in a communication network is considered. The goal is to hide the identities of source-destination nodes, and paths of information flow in the network. One way to achieve such an anonymity is to use mixers. Mixers are nodes that receive packets from multiple sources and change the timing of packets, by mixing packets at the output links, to prevent the eavesdropper from finding sources of outgoing packets. In this paper, we consider two simple but fundamental scenarios: double input-single output mixer and double input-double output mixer. For the first case, we use the information-theoretic definition of the anonymity, based on average entropy per packet, and find an optimal mixing strategy under a strict latency constraint. For the second case, perfect anonymity is considered, and a maximal throughput strategy with perfect anonymity is found that minimizes the average delay.

  2. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni


    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user...... to access anonymously services such as whistle blowing and net-counselling. Our approach: (1) allows a mobile user, remembering a short password, to anonymously and securely retrieve the credentials necessary for his anonymous communication without assuming a pre-established anonymous channel...

  3. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI


    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  4. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan


    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  5. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis


    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  6. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH


    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  7. A Parallelism-Based Approach to Network Anonymization

    CERN Document Server

    Margasinski, Igor


    Considering topologies of anonymous networks we used to organizing anonymous communication into hard to trace paths hiding its origin or destination. In anonymity the company is crucial, however the serial transportation imposes a costly tradeoff between a level of privacy and a speed of communication. This paper introduces a framework of a novel architecture for anonymous networks that hides initiators of communications by parallelization of anonymous links. The new approach, which is based on the grounds of the anonymous P2P network called P2Priv, does not require content forwarding via a chain of proxy nodes to assure high degree of anonymity. Contrary to P2Priv, the new architecture can be suited to anonymization of various network communications, including anonymous access to distributed as well as client-server services. In particular, it can be considered as an anonymization platform for these network applications where both privacy and low delays are required.

  8. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang


    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  9. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques (United States)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand


    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  10. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun


    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  11. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serracino-Inglott


    Full Text Available Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterious as popularly portrayed. Under a definition of vigilantism that includes reprobative punishment rather than violence as a key element, Anonymous are vigilantes. Many of its Ops can be justified in view of the mismatch between formal norm enforcement practice and Internet natives’ experience of it. Anons are more like eco-warriors than terrorists. While their actions are contentious, their force is framed in a vision of common good that is not unreasonable. Engaging with online deviants is shown to be a productive way of identifying the weaknesses in concepts underpinning moral evaluation of Internet-enabled phenomena.

  12. Authentication Without Identification using Anonymous Credential System

    CERN Document Server

    Damodaram, A


    Privacy and security are often intertwined. For example, identity theft is rampant because we have become accustomed to authentication by identification. To obtain some service, we provide enough information about our identity for an unscrupulous person to steal it (for example, we give our credit card number to One of the consequences is that many people avoid e-commerce entirely due to privacy and security concerns. The solution is to perform authentication without identification. In fact, all on-line actions should be as anonymous as possible, for this is the only way to guarantee security for the overall system. A credential system is a system in which users can obtain credentials from organizations and demonstrate possession of these credentials. Such a system is anonymous when transactions carried out by the same user cannot be linked. An anonymous credential system is of significant practical relevance because it is the best means of providing privacy for users.

  13. Deterministic Leader Election Among Disoriented Anonymous Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    dieudonné, Yoann; Petit, Franck; Villain, Vincent


    We address the Leader Election (LE) problem in networks of anonymous sensors sharing no kind of common coordinate system. Leader Election is a fundamental symmetry breaking problem in distributed computing. Its goal is to assign value 1 (leader) to one of the entities and value 0 (non-leader) to all others. In this paper, assuming n > 1 disoriented anonymous sensors, we provide a complete charac- terization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader, provided that all the sensors' positions are known by every sensor. More precisely, our contribution is twofold: First, assuming n anonymous sensors agreeing on a common handedness (chirality) of their own coordinate system, we provide a complete characterization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader. Second, we also provide such a complete chararacterization for sensors devoided of a common handedness. Both characterizations rely on a particular object from combinatorics on words, namely the Lyndon Words.

  14. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin


    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  15. Community engagement research and dual diagnosis anonymous. (United States)

    Roush, Sean; Monica, Corbett; Pavlovich, Danny; Drake, Robert E


    Community engagement research is widely discussed but rarely implemented. This article describes the implementation of a community engagement research project on Dual Diagnosis Anonymous, a rapidly spreading peer support program in Oregon for people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. After three years of discussions, overcoming barriers, and involving several institutions, this grassroots research project has been implemented and is expanding. Active participants in Dual Diagnosis Anonymous inspired and instructed policy makers, professionals, and students. Community engagement research requires frontline participants, community members, and professional collaborators to overcome multiple barriers with persistence and steadfastness. Building trust, collaboration, and structures for community engagement research takes time and a community effort.

  16. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang


    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  17. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel


    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  18. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis (United States)

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard


    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  19. Dissent in Numbers: Making Strong Anonymity Scale (United States)


    transmit anonymously in each bit-time with- out colliding and yielding garbled output, an arbitration or scheduling mechanism is needed. Second, any misbe... 14/technology/personaltech/14talk.html. [62] J. Wright, T. de Souza, and I. Brown. Fine-grained censorship mapping information sources, legality and ethics . In FOCI, Aug. 2011. 14

  20. [Workplace mobbing]. (United States)

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita


    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped.

  1. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity. (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian


    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  2. Depression in the Workplace (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  3. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H


    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  4. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan


    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  5. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  6. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data (United States)


    2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on December 18, 2009 at 13:53 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. MALTZ et al.: STRUCTURE PRESERVING ANONYMIZATION OF ROUTER CONFIGURATION DATA 351 1 hostname 2 ! 3... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 352 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 lines 14 and 30 (

  7. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity (United States)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  8. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading


    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter


    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  9. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON


    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  10. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Methods Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. Results 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%, but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5% or the Family Planning Institute (3%. At baseline, 90% (N = 539 stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79 but condom use was low (44%, 35/79. Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Conclusion Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and

  11. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang


    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  12. On the Anonymity of Identity-Based Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Luo


    Full Text Available Anonymity of identity-based encryption (IBE means that given a ciphertext, one cannot distinguish the target identity from a random identity. In this paper, we thoroughly discuss the anonymity of IBE systems. We found that the current definition of anonymity is obscure to describe some IBE systems, such as Gentry IBE system. Furthermore, current definition cannot express the degree of anonymity. So we divide the degree of anonymity into weak anonymity and strong anonymity based on indistinguishability between different games. For weakly anonymous IBE systems, the target identity in a ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random identity. For strongly anonymous IBE systems, the whole ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random tuple. We also discuss the type of anonymity and divide it into two types. Type 1 means that a random tuple can be seen as a valid ciphertext, while type 2 cannot. Based on our new definitions, we show that three famous IBE systems, Gentry IBE system, Boyen-Waters IBE system, and Lewko IBE system, have strong but different types of anonymity.

  13. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  14. Global Trends in Workplace Learning (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin


    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  15. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建


    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  16. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  17. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team


    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  18. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels


    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  19. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide (United States)

    Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide 2 nd Edition A Publication of the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program Real Solutions for Real ... Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. ... Checklist ........................................................................................................................... 3 Ergonomic ...

  20. How To Break Anonymity of the Netflix Prize Dataset


    Narayanan, Arvind; Shmatikov, Vitaly


    We present a new class of statistical de-anonymization attacks against high-dimensional micro-data, such as individual preferences, recommendations, transaction records and so on. Our techniques are robust to perturbation in the data and tolerate some mistakes in the adversary's background knowledge. We apply our de-anonymization methodology to the Netflix Prize dataset, which contains anonymous movie ratings of 500,000 subscribers of Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental service. ...

  1. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar


    model in donor conception which offers women/couples a choice of anonymity or openness in donation.This paper is based on my talk on June 20, 2013 at London School of Economics at the conference “New Families and Genetic Identities: Developments in law, policy and research” organised by the Morgan...... bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  2. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism. (United States)

    Brundage, V


    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  3. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati


    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  4. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism (United States)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  5. Workplace Discrimination, A Picture of Hope and Concern. Global Report. (United States)

    World of Work, 2003


    An International Labour Organisation report finds that workplace discrimination is a persistent global problem. Although sex discrimination is most prevalent, discrimination in racial, HIV/AIDS, disability, religious, and age categories is rising. Progress is uneven, and inequalities within groups are widening. (SK)

  6. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning (United States)

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.


    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  7. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System. (United States)

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael


    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  8. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin


    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  9. “We are Anonymous.” Anonymity in the Public Sphere – Challenges of Free and Open Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sell


    Full Text Available Anonymity, the stealth mode of public communication, challenges different actors who deal with freedom of communication issues in their day to day life – be it professional journalists, information and communication scientists, technicians or political activists. This article aims to deliver theoretical background on the concept of anonymity on the macro-level, as well as to shed light on how different communicators deal with anonymity on the micro-level. Based on the example of the Anonymous movement, communicative actions are put in relation to media technological artifacts and their surrounding media environment with a focus on journalistic practice and public response to the phenomenon. The analysis concludes with the need for a preservation of options for anonymous public communication as a dimension of freedom of communication after carefully considering both the advantages and the potential risks connected to that mode of private-public communication.

  10. Sexual harassment in the workplace


    Hersch, Joni


    Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...

  11. Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yi Xiao


    Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks often means extra cost in terms of transfer efficiency, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy consideration. By comparison and analysis of existing approaches,we investigate the properties of unstructured P2P anonymity, and summarize current attack models on these designs. Most of these approaches are path-based, which require peers to pre-construct anonymous paths before transmission, thus suffering significant overhead and poor reliability. We also discuss the open problems in this field and propose several future research directions.

  12. Constructions for Anonymous Secret Sharing Schemes Using Combinatorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-pu Deng; Li-feng Guo; Mu-lan Liu


    In an anonymous secret sharing scheme the secret can be reconstructed without knowledge of which participants hold which shares. In this paper some constructions of anonymous secret sharing schemes with 2 thresholds by using combinatorial designs are given. Let υ(t, ω, q) denote the minimum size of the set of shares of a perfect anonymous (t, ω) threshold secret sharing scheme with q secrets. In this paper we prove that υ(t, ω, q) = Θ(q) if t and ω are fixed and that the lower bound of the size of the set of shares in [4] is not optimal under certain condition.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fangguo; Wang Changjie; Wang Yumin


    E-cash is a type of very important electronic payment systems. The complete anonymity of E-cash can be used for criminal activities, so E-cash should be anonymity controlled.Moreover, Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) has been regard as the mainstream of current public cryptography . In this paper, a new anonymity controlled E-cash scheme based on ECC for the first time and using a new technology-one-time key pairs digital signature is designed, and its security and efficiency are analyzed. In our scheme, the coin tracing and owner tracing can be implemented.

  14. Financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, W; Dreezen, C; Borleffs, J; Dijkgraaf, M; Borchert, M; De Graeve, D; Hemmer, R; Fleerackers, Y; Colebunders, R


    The objective was to investigate the financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe. Two surveys using an anonymous questionnaire were organized in Europe among people living with HIV, the first in 1996-97 and the second in 1998-99. One thousand one hundred and sixty-one people from the 199

  15. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin


    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  16. Measuring Perceived Anonymity: The Development of a Context Independent Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight M. Hite


    Full Text Available In order to assess relationships between perceptions of anonymity and behaviors, a context independent instrument is required for measuring the perceptions of anonymity held by individuals.  To date, no such measurement instrument exists that has been shown to be reliable and valid.  The authors employ a rigorous design methodology to develop, test, and substantiate a reliable and valid instrument for measuring perceptions of anonymity across different contexts. The PA measure presented is a five item Likert scale designed to measure perceptions of anonymity across multiple contexts. Results from two separate EFA pilot tests (n=61 and n=60, a test-retest, and a CFA final test (n=292 indicate that the PA measure has good internal consistency reliability (a=.82, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and a single factor structure. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18305

  17. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401


    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  18. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Merener


    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  19. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent (United States)


    providing stronger anonymity, such as mix-networks (Chaum 1981; Adida 2006), onion rout - ing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson...every member knows when another should send a message, and thus gossip techniques such as those used in PeerReview (Haeberlen, Kouznetsov, and Druschel...onion routing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson 2004), a well-known and practical approach to general anonymous

  20. Unraveling an Old Cloak: k-anonymity for Location Privacy


    Shokri, Reza; Troncoso, Carmela; Diaz, Claudia; Freudiger, Julien; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre


    There is a rich collection of literature that aims at protecting the privacy of users querying location-based services. One of the most popular location privacy techniques consists in cloaking users' locations such that k users appear as potential senders of a query, thus achieving k-anonymity. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of k-anonymity approaches for protecting location privacy in the presence of various types of adversaries. The unraveling of the scheme unfolds the inconsistency b...

  1. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min


    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  2. Alcohol & drug abuse: Dual Diagnosis Anonymous of Oregon. (United States)

    Monica, Corbett; Nikkel, Robert E; Drake, Robert E


    Many people with addictions report that support from peer groups fosters recovery. For people with co-occurring mental illnesses, dual-diagnosis peer support groups are considered helpful, but they are often unavailable. Recently, Dual Diagnosis Anonymous peer support groups have spread widely throughout Oregon as a complement to integrated dual diagnosis treatments. This column describes Dual Diagnosis Anonymous and its rapid implementation in Oregon.

  3. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM


    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  4. Restricted common data in anonymous E-cash system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-jun; CHEN Ke-fei


    Discuss the problem of infinite increasing coin list in anonymous E-cash systems, which reduce the efficiency of whole system greatly. Though some methods are suggested, no one can solve the problem with high efficiency and flexibility. Here, we use the technique of adding information in blind signatures to deal with this problem. Through adding timestamp in signatures, we can separate the valid period of all used coins into pieces. Only the coins in the last stage are recorded. So the scale of the coins list is controlled. We also analyze the anonymity of these data, and add some indispensable restrictions to them. These restrictions can ensure that the imported data don't break the anonymity of the customers. In order to fulfill these qualifications, we lead to the concept of restricted common data (RCD). Furthermore, we propose two schemes to add RCD in the blind signature. The simple one is easy to implement, while the complex one can note the value of the coin. The usage of RCD leads to little additional cost, as well as maintaining the anonymity of customers. This method fits for most kinds of anonymous E-cash systems.

  5. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  6. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore


    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  7. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy


    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  8. Making the Workplace Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast demonstrates the importance of workplace support in managing diabetes in a corporate diabetes program.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/8/2007.

  9. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik


    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and neighbourh...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  10. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  11. Workplace Diversity Issues. (United States)


    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  12. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.


    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  13. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher


    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  14. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe


    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  15. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification. (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin


    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  16. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaojun Pang

    Full Text Available Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  17. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey. (United States)

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L


    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  18. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram


    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  19. Impact of Knowledge on Election Time in Anonymous Networks


    Dieudonné, Yoann; Pelc, Andrzej


    Leader election is one of the basic problems in distributed computing. For anonymous networks, the task of leader election is formulated as follows: every node v of the network must output a simple path, which is coded as a sequence of port numbers, such that all these paths end at a common node, the leader. In this paper, we study deterministic leader election in arbitrary anonymous networks. It is well known that leader election is impossible in some networks, regardless of the allocated am...

  20. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick


    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  1. [Depression in the workplace]. (United States)

    Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul


    Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.

  2. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping


    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  3. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations. (United States)

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  4. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.


    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  5. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.


    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  6. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts (United States)

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen


    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  7. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers. (United States)

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  8. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering


    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying


    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  10. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel


    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work (United States)

    Magni, Luca


    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  12. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.


    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  13. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius


    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  14. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study. (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping


    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  15. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu


    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  16. Leader election in anonymous rings: Franklin goes probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, R.; Fokkink, W.J.; Pang, J.; Pol, J.C. van de; Ausiello, G.


    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  17. Leader Election in Anonymous Rings: Franklin Goes Probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun; Pol, van de Jaco; Ausiello, G.; Karhumäki, J.; Mauri, G.; Ong, L.


    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  18. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland


    Lorek, Angelika


    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  19. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi


    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  20. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content. (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F


    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  1. HIV Transmission (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  2. Symptomatic primary HIV infection in a 49-year-old man who has sex with men: Beware of the window phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, H.E.; Damen, M.; de Vries, H.J.C.


    A 49-year-old man with a history of receptive unprotected anal intercourse with multiple anonymous men presented with a symptomatic primary HIV infection. Upon his initial visit the rapid HIV antibody screening test was negative but a p24 antigen test suggested a highly infectious phase in the HIV i

  3. Time Lag and Anonymity as Variables in Student Evaluation of Curricula (United States)

    Pierce, Walter D.; Getz, Howard G.


    The major concern of this study was the effect on evaluation data of anonymity and differing time spans between completion of specific programs by students and their responses to anonymous questionnaires. (Author)

  4. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth


    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  5. HIV Risk and Protection among Gay Male Couples: The Role of Gay Community Integration (United States)

    Fergus, Stevenson; Lewis, Megan A.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Butterfield, Rita M.


    This study examined the association between different types of integration in the gay community and HIV risk among gay male couples. Previous research linking gay community integration and involvement among couples to HIV risk has been equivocal. Each partner in 59 gay couples completed a separate anonymous questionnaire that assessed two types of…

  6. The Toll of Workplace Bullying (United States)

    Killoren, Robert


    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  7. Conflict Management Strategies in Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As we all know, it is inevitable to be confronted with verbal aggressiveness by employees, peers, and supervisors in the workplace. In order to avoid these conflict with others in the future workplace, this paper is to discuss about the management strategies dealing with these conflicts.

  8. Workplace Learning: A Literature Review (United States)

    Vaughan, Karen


    As we move into being a knowledge society, the way an organisation learns can be key to its innovation and profitability. This literature review examines the nature of workplace learning, with a focus on nonprofessional occupations, including those closely associated with workplace training. It identifies the conditions that facilitate workplace…

  9. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks (United States)

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon


    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  10. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid


    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  11. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T


    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  12. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)


    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  13. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya


    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  14. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  15. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet


    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...... to the HCI community to take up this discussion not only as an ethical consideration but also as a socio-technical research and design opportunity....

  16. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  17. Mobbing on the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Drenka


    Full Text Available A phenomenon of mobbing has become very popular in mass-media, everyday speech, and scientific literature. In recent decades of the previous century, the systematic researches of the problem of mobbing on the workplace have been intensified. Most often, they refer to the research conducted by Henz Leymann, who precisely defined the term, determined the basic features, phases and consequences of mobbing, and also founded a clinic for giving support to the victims of mobbing. Further research of the problem resulted in a significant number of studies regarding the prevalence of the phenomenon, risk groups, motives and final aims of mobbing. Multidisciplinary approach to the problem encouraged the development of programs of aid and support to the victims, and also a number of regulations sanctioning the mobbing on the work-place were enacted. The paper is structured within the thematic parts, in order to define the term, and determine the procedures, characteristics of mobbing, prevalence of the phenomenon and its consequences. The used results of the empirical research confirm the national specifics and general characteristics of this problem in the European countries, while the data for Serbia are missing. .

  18. Workplace discrimination and cancer. (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L


    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  19. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks. (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian


    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  20. An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Fergal


    Anonymity in Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic currency system, is a complicated issue. Within the system, users are identified by public-keys only. An attacker wishing to de-anonymize its users will attempt to construct the oneto- many mapping between users and public-keys and associate information external to the system with the users. Bitcoin frustrates this attack by storing the mapping of a user to his or her public-keys on that user's node only and by allowing each user to generate as many public-keys as required. In this paper we consider the topological structure of two networks derived from Bitcoin's public transaction history. We show that the two networks have a non-trivial topological structure, provide complementary views of the Bitcoin system and have implications for anonymity. We combine these structures with external information and techniques such as context discovery and flow analysis to investigate an alleged theft of Bitcoins, which, at the time of the theft, had a market value of approx...

  1. AATCT: Anonymously Authenticated Transmission on the Cloud with Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged Hamada Ibrahim


    Full Text Available In Cloud computing, anonymous authentication is an important service that must be available to users in the Cloud. Users have the right to remain anonymous as long as they behave honestly. However, in case a malicious behavior is detected, the system – under court order – must be able to trace the user to his clear identity. Most of the proposed authentication schemes for the Cloud are either password-based authentication schemes that are vulnerable to offline dictionary attacks, or biometric-based authentication schemes that take a long time of execution specially in case of high security requirements. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure scheme to non-interactively authenticate the users on the Cloud to the remote servers while preserving their anonymity. In case of accusations, the registration authority is able to trace any user to his clear identity. We avoid using low entropy passwords or biometric mechanisms, instead, we employ pseudonym systems in our design. The computation complexity and storage requirements are efficient and suitable to be implemented on smart cards/devices. Our proposed scheme withstands challenging adversarial attacks such as, stolen databases attacks, databases insertion attacks, impersonation attacks, replay attacks and malicious users/servers collaboration attacks.

  2. Reversible Anonymization of DICOM Images using Cryptography and Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussain ELFADIL


    Full Text Available Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical images. The DICOM file contains the image data and a number of attributes such as identified patient data (name, age, insurance ID card,…, and non-identified patient data (doctor’s interpretation, image type,…. Medical images serve not only for examination, but can also be used for research and education purposes. For research they are used to prevent illegal use of information; before authorizing researchers to use these images, the medical staff deletes all the data which would reveal the patient identity to prevent patient privacy. This manipulation is called anonymization. In this paper, we propose a reversible anonymization of DICOM images. Identifying patient data with image digest, computed by the well-known SHA-256 hash function, are encrypted using the proposed probabilistic public key crypto-system. After compressing the Least Significant Bit (LSB bitplan of the image using Hofmann coding algorithm, the encrypted data is inserted into a liberated zone of the LSB bitplan of the image. The proposed method allows researchers to use anonymous DICOM images and keep to authorized staff -if necessary- the possibility to return to the original image with all related patient data.

  3. Utility-guided Clustering-based Transaction Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis


    Full Text Available Transaction data about individuals are increasingly collected to support a plethora of applications, spanning from marketing to biomedical studies. Publishing these data is required by many organizations, but may result in privacy breaches, if an attacker exploits potentially identifying information to link individuals to their records in the published data. Algorithms that prevent this threat by transforming transaction data prior to their release have been proposed recently, but they may incur significant utility loss due to their inability to: (i accommodate a range of different privacy requirements that data owners often have, and (ii guarantee that the produced data will satisfy data owners’ utility requirements. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering-based framework to anonymizing transaction data, which provides the basis for designing algorithms that better preserve data utility. Based on this framework, we develop two anonymization algorithms which explore a larger solution space than existing methods and can satisfy a wide range of privacy requirements. Additionally, the second algorithm allows the specification and enforcement of utility requirements, thereby ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended tasks. Experiments with both benchmark and real medical datasets verify that our algorithms significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of data utility, while being comparable in terms of efficiency.

  4. People With HIV Now Live a Better Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Daily


    As a UN Volunteer,working with UNAIDS China,I have the opportunity to get involved in a wide range of areas.From working with community-based organizations,set up by people living with HIV to interacting with the media on topics related to HIV/AIDS to supporting campaigns to fight HIV/AIDS-related discrimination in the workplace,I get to do it all.

  5. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs. (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A


    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  6. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo


    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  7. Workplace bullying: the effectiveness of a workplace program. (United States)

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel


    Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying.

  8. Challenges of educational and cultural diversity in the workplace. (United States)

    Hyde, S; White, S


    In South Africa, the estimate of HIV-infected population was 300,000 in September 1993, with 500 new infections occurring daily, mostly in poor neighborhoods with illiteracy rates of 25-50%. The AIDS Education and Training (AET) targeted low-literate groups by developing an educational package for the workplace. The methodology included repetition of key messages, stories from their own culture with pictures, interaction in groups, and visual aids to retain information. The content involved biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS, testing and counseling, safe sex, traditional healers, the needs of the infected, and workplace/community issues. The pictures depicted men and women of all racial varieties to drive home the message that the infection can infect everybody. 31 colorful laminated posters were developed for the AIDS flip chart kit, and over 100 flip chart sessions were conducted at workplaces. An evaluation of the flip chart sessions queried 143 English- and 897 Tswana-speaking people at one company. 58% of respondents considered condom use and reducing the number of partners the most important message. 28% deemed biomedical facts and latency of the infection important, 25% the deadly nature of the disease, and 15% the modes of transmission. 44% desired to learn about prevention and 30% appreciated the interactive method of learning. All participants sought more information on STDs, where to get an HIV test, and how to have safer sex. AET provides assistance to clients to become educators themselves by means of policy development, refresher courses for educators, and action planning (condom distribution, STD control, referral for testing, and follow-up). The flip chart is also used for other health and lifestyle education regarding family planning, tuberculosis, sexuality, and communication skills aimed at company managers, union officials, and supervisors.

  9. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina


    some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part......Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, Key...... words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find...

  10. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li


    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented,based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state.We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness,soundness,privacy,eligibility,unreusability,fairness,and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest.This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels.In addition,any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Okamoto


    Full Text Available Electronic voting is an important application for security protocols. Most existing voting schemes aredesigned for elections in which each voter has only one ballot. However, some elections permit voters tocast multiple ballots. In this paper, we present a new voting scheme in which each voter can havemultiple ballots, and can vote for multiple candidates. The proposed scheme allows the voter to simplypick their candidates and post a single encrypted message. Anonymous distribution of secret informationis used so that no one knows which information is being passed to whom.

  12. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen


    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  13. Stress within the academic workplace. (United States)

    Kenner, Carole A; Pressler, Jana L


    Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant deanships, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them to deal with workplace stress. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, the authors of this department offer survival tips based on their personal experiences and insights. They address common issues such as time management, handling workplace bullying, and negotiating deadlines and assignments. The authors welcome counterpoint discussions with readers.

  14. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte


    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  15. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.


    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  16. Workplace violence in nursing today. (United States)

    Araujo, Susan; Sofield, Laura


    Workplace violence is not a new phenomenon and is often sensationalized by the media when an incident occurs. Verbal abuse is a form of workplace violence that leaves no scars. However, for nurses, the emotional damage to the individual can affect productivity, increase medication errors, incur absenteeism, and decrease morale and overall satisfaction within the nursing profession. This results in staffing turnover and creates a hostile work environment that affects the culture within the organization.

  17. Changing families, changing workplaces. (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M


    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  18. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states. (United States)

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann


    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  19. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua


    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  20. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity. (United States)

    Rees, Anne


    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  1. IdentiDroid: Android can finally Wear its Anonymous Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Shebaro


    from applications when the smartphone is used under the anonymous modality. They are re-instated back when the smartphone returns to work in the normal modality. In addition, both solutions offer protection from applications that identify their users through traces left in the application's data storage or through exchanging identifying data messages. We developed IdentiDroid, a customized Android operating system, to deploy these solutions and built IdentiDroid Profile Manager, a profile-based configuration tool that allows one to set different configurations for each installed Android application. With this tool, applications running within the same device are configured to be given different identifications and privileges to limit the uniqueness of device and user information. We analyzed 250 Android applications to determine what information, services, and permissions can identify users and devices. Our experiments show that when IdentiDroid is deployed and properly configured on Android devices, users' anonymity is better guaranteed by either of the proposed solutions with no significant impact on most device applications.

  2. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Jia


    Full Text Available This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user’s accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR, nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user’s accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  3. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS. (United States)

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli


    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  4. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun


    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  5. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.


    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  6. Ombuds’ corner: Workplace incivility

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin


    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   In 2011, the Canadian HR Reporter published several articles by Sharone Bar-David on workplace incivility (I would encourage you to read them here). These articles can shed some light on an internal issue here at CERN: what happens when there are violations of the Code of Conduct that we may face every day? Such incivilities can fly under the organizational radar and are not up to the level of any administrative or disciplinary action foreseen in the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations. However, if such breaches in respectful behaviour are tolerated continuously and nothing is done about them, they can create a toxic work climate. Furthermore, such a distortion of human relations...

  7. HIV Testing (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... you get tested. Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  8. HIV Prevention (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... your partners. Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  9. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia – A pilot study (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa


    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. Results The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%. There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t(134)=-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t(134)=2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. Conclusions This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students’ exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies. PMID:27941182

  10. A Self-Encryption Remote User Anonymous Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang


    Remote user authentication is essential in distributed network environment to protect unauthorized access of a networked system. However, most of those existing remote user authentication schemes have not provided the user identity anonymity, while user anonymity is particularly important in some practical applications.Therefore, based on self-encryption mechanism, a new remote user authentication scheme was proposed. The scheme not only has no need of maintaining a password table at the remote server, but also can protect the user's anonymity.

  11. Sex in the Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    读西方出版物上写Sex的文章,我们的心难免会“咯噔”一下。而Sex in the Workplace(工作场合的性)一文却别开生面,值得一读。近年来,工作场合的“性骚扰”(Sexual Harassment)问题的议论也时占我报刊一隅,然比较而言,Sex in the Workplace一文剖精析微、辨证全面,更具警策性。诸如,文章谈及——As a woman, you’re responsible for the signals you send. And when you wear revealing miniskirts, the message men get is ’Look at me.’女性在工作场合着超短裙被认定不宜,本文对男性提出独到的劝言——Just as men often respond intensely to what women wear, women often react strongly to what men say. 在body language(身势语)一节,文章提及女性有25种以上的姿势在男性心目中是provocative(具有挑逗性)的;本文还认为:work intimacy(工作亲密)≠sexual intimacy(性亲密);末尾,本文提出:Before you tell a risque(有伤风化的)joke, ask yourself how your mother or wife might react. If you are wondering whether you should buy an off-color(黄色下流的)card for a male colleague, think about how your father or husband might feel. 这两句议论倒让读者联想到汉语“苦口婆心”之说。 全

  12. Mobile technology use and desired technology-based intervention characteristics among HIV+ Black men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A; Carey, Michael P


    HIV positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are retained in HIV medical care at suboptimal rates. Interventions targeted to Black MSM are needed to help to improve their retention in care. The purposes of this study were to investigate the use of mobile technology among HIV+ Black MSM and to explore participants' thoughts about the use of mobile technology for HIV retention in care interventions. Twenty-two HIV+ Black MSM completed a technology use survey and participated in a qualitative interview regarding technology-based interventions. The majority of participants (95%) had access to a cell phone, and used their phones frequently (median 3 hours/day). Men preferred interventions that would allow for anonymous participation and that would provide individually tailored support. Mobile technology is a promising approach to intervention delivery for both younger and older HIV+ Black MSM. These interventions should incorporate features that are desirable to men (i.e., anonymous participation and individual tailoring).

  13. Selfrando: Securing the Tor Browser against De-anonymization Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Mauro


    Full Text Available Tor is a well-known anonymous communication system used by millions of users, including journalists and civil rights activists all over the world. The Tor Browser gives non-technical users an easy way to access the Tor Network. However, many government organizations are actively trying to compromise Tor not only in regions with repressive regimes but also in the free world, as the recent FBI incidents clearly demonstrate. Exploiting software vulnerabilities in general, and browser vulnerabilities in particular, constitutes a clear and present threat to the Tor software. The Tor Browser shares a large part of its attack surface with the Firefox browser. Therefore, Firefox vulnerabilities (even patched ones are highly valuable to attackers trying to monitor users of the Tor Browser.

  14. ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking Application

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Steven; Tsudik, Gene; Uzun, Ersin


    Content-centric networking -- also known as information-centric networking (ICN) -- shifts emphasis from hosts and interfaces (as in today's Internet) to data. Named data becomes addressable and routable, while locations that currently store that data become irrelevant to applications. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a large collaborative research effort that exemplifies the content-centric approach to networking. NDN has some innate privacy-friendly features, such as lack of source and destination addresses on packets. However, as discussed in this paper, NDN architecture prompts some privacy concerns mainly stemming from the semantic richness of names. We examine privacy-relevant characteristics of NDN and present an initial attempt to achieve communication privacy. Specifically, we design an NDN add-on tool, called ANDaNA, that borrows a number of features from Tor. As we demonstrate via experiments, it provides comparable anonymity with lower relative overhead.

  15. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris


    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  16. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research. (United States)

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L


    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  17. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  18. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo


    This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...... studies from socio and applied linguistics research. Special attention is paid to the notions of symbolic capital and power as well as to language attitudes particularly in relation to linguistic evaluation and ‘common sense’ perceptions of language practice. We explore the relationship between language...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc


    Full Text Available Supervision in the workplace is essential as in this way we discover errors, theft and observe workers. However, supervision makes employees feel they do not have enough privacy. With the development of information technology, employers are getting new possibilities with which to control employees in the workplace. Slovenian legislation lays down conditions for the use of modern technology as well as the limits of permissible use. Abuse occurs mainly in the case of unauthorized use of technology in the areas of video, mobile, Internet and e-mail surveillance as well as the use of biometrics. The survey results show that 63% of Slovenian companies do not use information technology for surveillance in the workplace, and that 90% of executives / managers take into account moral and ethical principles when carrying out the controls.

  20. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  1. Diversity management: the treatment of HIV-positive employees. (United States)

    Yap, Matthew H T; Ineson, Elizabeth M


    Socio-demographic dimensions such as age, gender, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity are commonly included in diversity studies. With a view to helping Asian hospitality managers to manage HIV-positive employees in their workplaces through diversity management (DM) theory, this research extends the boundaries of previous diversity studies by considering Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection as a diverse characteristic. Both quantitative and qualitative primary data were collected from purposively selected Asian hospitality managers through postal questionnaire and follow-up telephone interviews. Transformed raw data were analysed using summary statistics and template analysis. Asian hospitality managers agreed that DM would be appropriate in the management of HIV-positive employees and that it could generate substantial benefits for employees and employers. However, they believe that the successful adoption and implementation of DM is not easy; it requires training and, ideally, the recruitment of experienced directors. Nevertheless, Asian hospitality managers are confident that implementing DM to manage HIV-positive employees can enhance tolerance, improve understanding and promote equality. The purposive sampling technique and the small number of respondents have impacted the external validity of the study. However, this exploratory study initiates an equality discussion to include HIV-positive employees in DM discourse beyond antidiscrimination legislation. It also supplements the sparse literature addressing HIV-positive employees in the Asian hospitality workplace. Asian hospitality managers are advised to understand and employ DM to treat HIV-positive employees fairly to overcome hospitality workplace marginalisation, discrimination and stigmatisation.

  2. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia


    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  3. Research on Inequalities Exists in the Workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布乃鹏; 樊晶晶; 刘淑华


    The is ue of inequalities exists in the workplace has been widely debated in our community recently. And then this essay wil argue inequalities exist in the workplace, in terms of ethnic, gender, and disability. This es ay would of er four perspectives about the view inequalities exist in the workplace and discuss the response from the state, employers and unions.

  4. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback. (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline


    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  5. Internet Gambling in the Workplace (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark


    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  6. Epistemological Agency in the Workplace (United States)

    Smith, Raymond


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss research that sought to explore how the individually purposeful nature of new employee workplace learning might be understood through its conception as epistemological agency, that is, the personally mediated construction of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sociocultural…

  7. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium. (United States)


    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  8. Facilitating learning in the workplace. (United States)

    Morris, Clare


    Workplace-based learning has been at the heart of medical education and training for centuries. However, radical reform of the NHS means we have to re-think traditional approaches to apprenticeship and find new ways to ensure that students and trainees can learn 'on-the-job' while doing the job.

  9. Flipped Learning in the Workplace (United States)

    Nederveld, Allison; Berge, Zane L.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to serve as a summary of resources on flipped learning for workplace learning professionals. A recent buzzword in the training world is "flipped". Flipped learning and the flipped classroom are hot topics that have emerged in K-12 education, made their way to the university and are now being noticed…

  10. Enochs of the modern workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark


    Users often resist information system implementations and it has been established that this can cause an implementation to fail. In this paper, the behaviours through which end users commonly obstruct information system implementations in their workplace are exposed. Interviews with information...

  11. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape. (United States)

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  12. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bodó


    Full Text Available This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the analysis of Wikileaks, the anonymous whistleblowing website, it describes how strong PETs enable the development of hacktivism 2.0, where the source of threat is shifted from outsiders to insiders. Insiders have access to documents with which power can be exposed, and who, by using PETs, can anonymously engage in political action. We also describe the emergence of a third generation of hacktivists who use PETs to disengage and create their own autonomous spaces rather than to engage with power through anonymous whistleblowing.

  13. Nurses' views on workplace wellbeing programmes. (United States)

    Wright, Nicola; Zakarin, Melissa; Blake, Holly


    Workplace stress is prevalent among nurses. Healthcare employers have implemented complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for relaxation and stress management within workplace wellbeing programmes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 registered nurses to explore the perceptions and experiences of nurses towards accessing CATs in and outside the workplace. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using conventional, qualitative thematic techniques. Themes identified were 'perceptions of complementary and alternative therapies for stress management' and 'engagement with workplace wellness schemes'. CATs have a role within workplace wellbeing programmes and nurses are not averse to accessing them, although there are barriers to access that need to be addressed.

  14. Workshop III: Improving the Workplace Environment (United States)

    Gledhill, Igle; Butcher, Gillian


    Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, participants heard about initiatives taking place in Canada, the UK, Japan, and India to improve the workplace environment and shared good practices from around the world. Some of the less tangible aspects of the workplace environment, such as unconscious bias and accumulation of advantage and disadvantage, were explored.

  15. Health challenges in South African automotive companies: Wellness in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meyer-Weitz


    Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa, workplace programmes in the automotive industry focus predominantly on occupational health and safety and HIV and AIDS. The implementation of focused workplace interventions might be hampered when companies are not convinced that the condition (i.e. HIV and AIDS is the main negative health influencing factor responsible for increased production costs.Research purpose: The study investigated the health influencing conditions perceived to negatively impact company production costs and related interventions.Motivation for the study: Apart from HIV and AIDS, little information is available about the health challenges in the South African workplace and focused HIV and AIDS programmes might only partly respond to the key health challenges of workplaces. The inter-relatedness of various risky lifestyle factors linked to health conditions necessitates a comprehensive health promotion approach.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 74 companies selected through stratified random sampling. Non-parametric tests were conducted to investigate the health influencing factors perceived to impact production costs, the monitoring thereof, extent of containment and the implementation of interventions in terms of company size and ownership.Main findings: The health factors perceived to have a moderate to large impact were HIV and AIDS, smoking, alcohol use, stress, back and neck ache and tuberculosis, also reported to be better monitored and managed by medium and large organisations. Small organisations reported a smaller impact, fewer efforts and less success. HIV and AIDS programmes were more evident in large companies and those with wellness programmes (52%. Workplace programmes enabled better monitoring and managing of impacting health conditions. Smaller organisations were not convinced of the benefits of interventions in addressing health challenges.Practical/managerial implications

  16. Knowledge Level about HIV/AIDS among Reproductive Men in Five Counties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qing WU; Bin-yi LIU; Wen-ying LI; Yu-yan LI; Zong-min JIANG


    Objective To understand the HIV/IDS knowledge level and its influential factors among reproductive men in China so as to provide scientific evidence for preventive measures.Methods Cross-sectional survey, system random sample and constructed questionnaire were used in this study. There were 1 285 male subjects who had filled in anonymous questionnaires.Results There were significant differences on the HIV/IDS knowledge level in different counties and different demographic characteristic people. Major influential factors included area, urban/rural, marriage, educational level, age, consultation about HIV/AIDS.Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the training of HIV/AIDS knowledge among reproductive men.

  17. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures. (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert


    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection.

  18. Deterministic gathering of anonymous agents in arbitrary networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dieudonné, Yoann


    A team consisting of an unknown number of mobile agents, starting from different nodes of an unknown network, possibly at different times, have to meet at the same node. Agents are anonymous (identical), execute the same deterministic algorithm and move in synchronous rounds along links of the network. Which configurations are gatherable and how to gather all of them deterministically by the same algorithm? We give a complete solution of this gathering problem in arbitrary networks. We characterize all gatherable configurations and give two universal deterministic gathering algorithms, i.e., algorithms that gather all gatherable configurations. The first algorithm works under the assumption that an upper bound n on the size of the network is known. In this case our algorithm guarantees gathering with detection, i.e., the existence of a round for any gatherable configuration, such that all agents are at the same node and all declare that gathering is accomplished. If no upper bound on the size of the network i...

  19. Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri


    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...

  20. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang


    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  1. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey. (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J


    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  2. Treatment for HIV (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  3. Women and HIV (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  4. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness. (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M


    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  5. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter


    . We develop new theory on the nature, antecedents, and motivational implications of separation awareness - a psychological state in which people are aware of their physical separation from others—and proffer a model of the mechanisms that link separation and motivation. We distinguish between control......Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes...... and autonomy affirmation as psychological states that are triggered by physical separation in the workplace, and discuss individual and context specific moderators, as well as motivational implications of separation awareness. In doing so, we reconcile the seemingly contradicting findings that have been...

  6. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue. (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R


    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  7. Health correlates of workplace bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. METHODS: In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past......-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...

  8. Workplace violence in emergency medicine


    Chatterjee, A.


    Workplace violence (WPV) has increasingly become commonplace in the India, and particularly in the health care setting. Assaults are one of the leading causes of occupational injury-related deaths in health care setups. Among all health care settings, Emergency Departments (EDs) have been identified specifically as high-risk settings for WPV. Objective: This article reviews recent epidemiology and research on ED WPV and prevention; discusses practical actions and resources that ED provider...

  9. Developing a healthy OR workplace. (United States)

    Parsons, Mickey L; Newcomb, Marie


    Innovation is required to develop a positive work environment in the OR. Components of a healthy or workplace identified by staff members of three surgical departments are quality practice standards, excellence in patient care systems, a functional physical environment, effective staff systems, meaningful role definition and clarity, and identified guidelines for teamwork. In one or, staff members working on a communication team developed and implemented an action plan to enhance respect in the OR setting.

  10. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene


    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whe......PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  11. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme (United States)


    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  12. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert


    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  13. Motivation in a multigenerational radiologic science workplace. (United States)

    Kalar, Traci


    For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace.

  14. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context...... of the super‐diversity that arises in transnational workplaces where employees often live and workin separate countries, daily have face‐to‐face interactions with stakeholders from other countries, and/or where there are high levels of staff exchange. In short, workplaces with little possibility...... for establishing stable linguistic practices.This study is based on data from two ethnographic studies of blue‐collar workplaces in Denmark and Norway, and it includes observational data, ethnographic interviews as well as interactional data. The latter has been analysed using conversation analysis.Our data...

  15. Happiness in the workplace: an appreciative inquiry


    McGonagle, Catherine


    Maximising employee wellbeing is a challenge for managers at any time. The current economic climate of austerity and the resulting financial constraints within the public sector increase this challenge. Promoting happiness in the workplace is potentially relevant to improving productivity, creativity and retention of staff. Previous research on happiness in the workplace has focused on job satisfaction and employee engagement however happiness in the workplace is an understudied area and offe...

  16. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.


    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of onl

  17. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva


    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  18. Workplace Bullying Prevention: A Critical Discourse Analysis (United States)

    JOHNSON, Susan L.


    Aim To analyze the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Background Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behavior may be more effective than efforts to stop the behavior. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. Design This was a qualitative study. Method Critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyze data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n=15) and organizational documents (n=22). Data were collected in 2012. Findings The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centered around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviors and controlling behaviors. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Conclusion Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviors of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations’ discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. PMID:26010268



    Li, Xingan


    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  20. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski


    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  1. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunrong; Yang Liu; Kong Jinwang


    Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively.The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China.The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing.Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services.Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively.Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated,which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively.This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM).Results The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%.Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariateadjusted odds ratio (ORm)=2.02,95% confidence interval (CI):1.40-5.06),more knowledge for HIV (ORm=1.92,95% CI:1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm=0.80,95% CI:0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.Conclusion To prevent HIV mother to children transmission,it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV,change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  2. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner


    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  3. Link Prediction by De-anonymization: How We Won the Kaggle Social Network Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Rubinstein, Benjamin I P


    This paper describes the winning entry to the IJCNN 2011 Social Network Challenge run by The goal of the contest was to promote research on real-world link prediction, and the dataset was a graph obtained by crawling the popular Flickr social photo sharing website, with user identities scrubbed. By de-anonymizing much of the competition test set using our own Flickr crawl, we were able to effectively game the competition. Our attack represents a new application of de-anonymization to gaming machine learning contests, suggesting changes in how future competitions should be run. We introduce a new simulated annealing-based weighted graph matching algorithm for the seeding step of de-anonymization. We also show how to combine de-anonymization with link prediction---the latter is required to achieve good performance on the portion of the test set not de-anonymized---for example by training the predictor on the de-anonymized portion of the test set, and combining probabilistic predictions from de-anony...

  4. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho


    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.'s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes.

  5. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men



    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues an...

  6. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada


    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  7. Workplace prevention and promotion strategies. (United States)

    Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal; Trudel, Louis


    Psychosocial factors refer to all organizational factors and interpersonal relationships in the workplace that may affect the health of the workers. Currently, two psychosocial risk models are universally recognized for producing solid scientific knowledge regarding the vital link between social or psychological phenomena at work and the development of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or depression. The first is the "job demand-contro-support" model, which was defined by Karasek and to which the concept of social support has been added; the second is the "effort/reward imbalance" model defined by Siegrist. The public health perspective calls for theoretical models based on certain psychosocial attributes of the work environment for which there is empirical evidence of their pathogenic potential for exposed workers. Not only do these models reduce the complexity of the psychosocial reality of the work to components that are significant in terms of health risks, but they also facilitate the development and implementation of workplace interventions. Psychosocial risk intervention strategies currently implemented by companies are predominantly individual-oriented and aim chiefly at reducing the effects of stressful work situations by improving individual ability to adapt to the situation and manage stress. Like personal protection equipment for exposure to physical or chemical risks, these secondary prevention measures are commendable but insufficient, because they aim to reduce only the symptoms and not the cause of problems. Any intervention program for these risks should necessarily include a primary prevention component with a view to eliminating, or at least reducing, the psychosocial pathogenic agents in the workplace. Several authors have suggested that well-structured organizational approaches are most effective and should generate more important, longer-lasting effects than individual approaches. However, the evidence should be strengthened by

  8. Stress reduction in the workplace. (United States)

    DiPaola, Daniel


    The modern radiology department operates within an environment of competition, increased regulation, and decreasing budgets. Functioning in this setting may lead the radiology manager to experience job related stress. Stress in the workplace has been linked to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders. While there are a number of triggers for job related stress, it is important to identify the early warning signs and knee-jerk reactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) is one of several techniques that can be used to reduce job related stress. The key components of EI are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

  9. Family Systems Theory in the Workplace. (United States)

    Rogers, Vivian

    This paper presents a summary of Murray Brown's family systems theory as it applies to the workplace, lists some indicators of when a system is working well, and cites some other guidelines for gauging and improving one's own functioning in the work system. Major concepts of Bowen's theory include: (1) the family and the workplace are systems; (2)…

  10. Educating Managers to Create Healthy Workplaces (United States)

    Gilbreath, Brad


    This article provides management educators with a comprehensive, research-based set of concepts they can use to enrich students' understanding of how to create healthy workplaces. To assist with that endeavor, learning objectives related to creating healthy workplaces are provided. Work environment stressors are discussed along with human and…

  11. Workplace Engagement and Generational Differences in Values (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.


    This article summarizes literature on workplace engagement, an issue that affects organizations' financial results and individuals' personal lives. The newest of the four generations in the workplace, Millennials, were recently shown to have different values than the other two prevalent generations. Surveys taken by 16,000 high school seniors of…

  12. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.


    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  13. The Advising Workplace: Generational Differences and Challenges (United States)

    Gordon, Virginia; Steele, Peg


    The American workplace today is unlike any other in history because for the first time it is made up of four distinct generations. The advising workplaces on today's college campuses mirror this generational diversity. Four generations and their different perceptions of work attitudes and values, management expectations, communication patterns,…

  14. Federal Workplace Literacy Project. Internal Evaluation Report. (United States)

    Matuszak, David J.

    This report describes the following components of the Nestle Workplace Literacy Project: six job task analyses, curricula for six workplace basic skills training programs, delivery of courses using these curricula, and evaluation of the process. These six job categories were targeted for training: forklift loader/checker, BB's processing systems…

  15. Workplace innovation: European policy and theoretical foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.D.; Totterdill, P.; Dhondt, S.


    Workplace innovation is gaining profile as an emerging European policy, creating organisational performance and quality jobs. DG GROW and DG EMPL are leading. Policies regarding work organisation and workplace innovation in the EU over the last 20 years used to be rather fragmented, but more coheren

  16. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education (United States)

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.


    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In this study we explore workplace learning in dual…

  17. Routine-Generating and Regenerative Workplace Learning (United States)

    Kira, Mari


    The research discussed in this article focuses on workplace learning in industrial manufacturing work. Everyday work episodes contributing to workplace learning are investigated in four companies operating in the Finnish and Swedish package-supplier sectors. The research adopts a qualitative, interpretive approach. Interviews with employees and…

  18. Workplace Friendship in the Electronically Connected Organization (United States)

    Sias, Patricia M.; Pedersen, Hannah; Gallagher, Erin B.; Kopaneva, Irina


    This study examined information communication technologies and workplace friendship dynamics. Employees reported factors that influenced their initiation of friendship with a coworker and reported patterns and perceptions of communication with their workplace friend via different communication methods. Results indicated that personality, shared…

  19. Understanding Patients’ Perspectives on Opt-Out, Incentivized, and Mandatory HIV Testing (United States)

    Noland, Carey M; Vaughn, Nicole A; Sun, Sirena; Schlecht, Hans P


    Background Currently, widespread HIV testing is the best preventive action against further spread of the HIV epidemic. However, over 40% of the U.S. population has never been tested for HIV and 25% of those with HIV have never been tested. To increase testing rates, in 2006 the CDC advised healthcare settings to conduct testing on an opt-out basis. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with ten seropositive patients and ten seronegative were conducted to address the lack of studies investigating patients’ acceptance of and attitude towards this and more novel testing models, e.g. incentivized or anonymous mandatory testing. Participants were asked about their HIV testing history and attitudes towards opt-out, incentivized, and mandatory anonymous HIV testing. Results Major themes were identified using grounded theory data analysis. All participants were receptive to opt-out testing, and saw the removal of separate written consent as beneficial as long as patients were given the opportunity to consent in some form. Conclusion Ultimately, both mandatory and opt-out testing were equally indicated by participants as being the most effective testing model at increasing testing rates. A firm understanding of patients’ perspectives allows for development of effective HIV testing initiatives that are patient-sensitive and can substantially reduce HIV infection rates. PMID:26609294

  20. Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: the utility of Attribution Theory. (United States)

    Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T; Cheing, Gladys; Rosenthal, David A; Bezyak, Jill


    The purpose of this paper was to determine what drives workplace discrimination against people with disabilities. These findings are then compared to available literature on attribution theory, which concerns itself with public perceptions of the controllability and stability of various impairments. The sample included 35,763 allegations of discriminations filed by people with disabilities under the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Group A included impairments deemed by Corrigan et al. [1988] to be uncontrollable but stable: visual impairment (representing 13% of the total allegations in this study), cancer (12%), cardiovascular disease (19%), and spinal cord injuries (5%). The controllable but unstable impairments in group B included depression (38%), schizophrenia (2%), alcohol and other drug abuse (4%), and HIV/AIDS (7%). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission had resolved all allegations in terms of merit Resolutions (a positive finding of discrimination) and Resolutions without merit. Allegations of workplace discrimination were found to center mainly on hiring, discharge, harassment, and reasonable accommodation issues. Perceived workplace discrimination (as measured by allegations filed with EEOC) does occur at higher levels in Group B, especially when serious issues involving discharge and disability harassment are involved. With the glaring exception of HIV/AIDS, however, actual discrimination (as measured by EEOC merit Resolutions) occurs at higher levels for Group A.

  1. HIV Treatment: The Basics (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  2. The multiple reals of workplace learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Harman


    Full Text Available The multiple reals of workplace learning are explored in this paper. Drawing on a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power as distributed, relational and productive, networks that work to produce particular objects and subjects as seemingly natural and real are examined. This approach enables different reals of workplace learning to be traced. Data from a collaborative industry-university research project is used to illustrate the approach, with a focus on the intersecting practices of a group of professional developers and a group of workplace learning researchers. The notion of multiple reals holds promise for research on workplace learning as it moves beyond a view of reality as fixed and singular to a notion of reality as performed in and through a diversity of practices, including the practices of workplace learning researchers.

  3. Re-identification of home addresses from spatial locations anonymized by Gaussian skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassa Christopher A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such versions are available, each can be used to incrementally refine estimates of the original geocoded location. Results We produce multiple anonymized data sets using a single set of addresses and then progressively average the anonymized results related to each address, characterizing the steep decline in distance from the re-identified point to the original location, (and the reduction in privacy. With ten anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a substantial decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.2 km between the estimated, re-identified address and the original address. With fifty anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.1 km. Conclusion We demonstrate that multiple versions of the same data, each anonymized by non-deterministic Gaussian skew, can be used to ascertain original geographic locations. We explore solutions to this problem that include infrastructure to support the safe disclosure of anonymized medical data to prevent inference or re-identification of original address data, and the use of a Markov-process based algorithm to mitigate this risk.

  4. Fatigue management in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi


    Full Text Available Workers′ fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management.

  5. HIV/AIDS-related Discrimination in Shanxi Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to explore the features of discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, a community-based intervention was carried out in two pilot communities of X County of Shanxi Province from September 2002 to October 2003. Methods Data were collected using qualitative methods (in-depth interview and focus group discussion) and anonymously structured questionnaires. Results (1) Severe discrimination against people infected with HIV/AIDS was revealed in the target communities. However, the response to HIV/AIDS was different in each community. (2) People were reluctant to disclose their HIV status or get tested for HIV, which endangered their sexual partners to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourses. (3) Attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS varied. (4) Public education promoted a better understanding of HIV/AIDS which in turn improved community attitudes and behaviors towards people with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related discrimination undermines both individuals' and communities' responses to HIV/AIDS and may be a serious obstacle towards effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

  6. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  7. 可追踪的匿名证书%The Traceable Anonymous Certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper introduces the traceable anonymous certificate, and analyzes the proposed traceable anonymous certificate is⁃suing and tracing protocol in detail, the traceable anonymous certificate should possess two core characteristics: anonymity and non-repudiation, the two features ensure that users can prove the identity himself but without revealing his true identity, this certificate can be used to provide anonymous service in network application.%该文介绍了可追踪匿名证书,并对提出的可追踪匿名证书的发布和追踪协议进行了详细的分析,可追踪匿名证书应该具有匿名性和不可否认性两个核心特点,这两个特点保证了用户可以在不泄露自己的真实身份的情况下来证明用户的身份,这样的证书可以被用于需要提供匿名服务的网络应用中。

  8. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan


    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  9. Predictors of return rate for an HIV-positive result in a French Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre. (United States)

    Pahlavan, Golriz; Burdet, Charles; Laouénan, Cédric; Guiroy, Frédérique; Bouscarat, Fabrice; Tosini, William; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Bouvet, Elisabeth


    Bichat Hospital's free and anonymous Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre in Paris is widely visited, with a high rate of HIV-positive diagnosis. This study proposed, in this centre, to describe the HIV newly-diagnosed patients over an 8-year period and to determinate risk factors for failure to return for a positive result. Higher risk for failure to return was found among the heterosexual subjects regardless of their socio-economic background.

  10. High uptake of HIV testing in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Remis

    Full Text Available In 1999, Ontario implemented a policy to offer HIV counseling and testing to all pregnant women and undertook measures to increase HIV testing. We evaluated the effectiveness of the new policy by examining HIV test uptake, the number of HIV-infected women identified and, in 2002, the HIV rate in women not tested during prenatal care. We analyzed test uptake among women receiving prenatal care from 1999 to 2010. We examined HIV test uptake and HIV rate by year, age and health region. In an anonymous, unlinked study, we determined the HIV rate in pregnant women not tested. Prenatal HIV test uptake in Ontario increased dramatically, from 33% in the first quarter of 1999 to 96% in 2010. Test uptake was highest in younger women but increased in all age groups. All health regions improved and experienced similar test uptake in recent years. The HIV rate among pregnant women tested in 2010 was 0.13/1,000; in Toronto, the rate was 0.28 per 1,000. In the 2002 unlinked study, the HIV rate was 0.62/1,000 among women not tested in pregnancy compared to 0.31/1,000 among tested women. HIV incidence among women who tested more than once was 0.05/1,000 person-years. In response to the new policy in Ontario, prenatal HIV testing uptake improved dramatically among women in all age groups and health regions. A reminder to physicians who had not ordered a prenatal HIV test appeared to be very effective. In 2002, the HIV rate in women who were not tested was twice that of tested women: though 77% of pregnant women had been tested, only 63% of HIV-infected women were tested. HIV testing uptake was estimated at 98% in 2010.

  11. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. Workplace Health Promotion in Small Enterprises in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Peter, Wissing

    An analysis of the Danish experience with workplace health promotion including preventive activities aiming at a safe and healthy workplace.......An analysis of the Danish experience with workplace health promotion including preventive activities aiming at a safe and healthy workplace....

  13. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. PURPOSE: To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. METHOD: Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  14. Equal opportunity in the workplace. (United States)

    Allen, A


    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  15. A bilinear pairing based anonymous authentication scheme in wireless body area networks for mHealth. (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Lian, Xinxin; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jianfeng; Tian, Youliang; Yang, Yuanyuan


    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become one of the key components of mobile health (mHealth) which provides 24/7 health monitoring service and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of healthcare. However, users' concern about the security and privacy of their health information has become one of the major obstacles that impede the wide adoption of WBANs. Anonymous and unlinkable authentication is critical to protect the security and privacy of sensitive physiological information in transit from the client to the application provider. We first show that the anonymous authentication scheme of Wang and Zhang based on bilinear pairing is prone to client impersonation attack. Then, we propose an enhanced anonymous authentication scheme to remedy the flaw in Wang and Zhang's scheme. We give the security analysis to demonstrate that the enhanced scheme achieves the desired security features and withstands various known attacks.

  16. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  17. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra


    ethical challenges that take into consideration the perspectives of employees, targeted organisations, online outlet administrators and audiences. The ethical challenge for employees is to disclose problems for organisational and societal changes in a safe context and supported by a large audience, while......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  18. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette


    a problem concerning its application when dealing with people having a serious mental, social or even physical disability. Within the field of artificial procreation there are even more problems. Informed written consent is often demanded from anonymous donors of gametes in order to ensure their consent...... to the legal and moral consequences of their anonymity. The child resulting from the artificial procreation, on the contrary, cannot consent to, nor be informed before being conceived, of the secrecy laid on the identity of its genetic parents. Some countries resolve this problem by allowing the children, when...... be regarded as invalid. The paper will argue that a law ensuring the complete anonymity of the parents is disregarding the informed consent and the interests of the children resulting from artificial procreation, and is thus doing more damage to society than good....

  19. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil. (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi


    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  20. Global corporate workplaces implementing new global workplace standards in a local context

    CERN Document Server

    Hodulak, Martin


    In recent years, multinational corporations were increasingly engaged in the development of standardized global workplace models. For their implementation and feasibility, it is decisive as how these standards fit the diverse regional workplace cultures. This topic was pursued in the course of a research project, comparing established workplaces in Germany, USA and Japan against global workplace standards of multinational corporations. The analysis confirmed the expected differences among local workplaces and on the other hand a predominant mainstream among global corporate workplace standards. Conspicuous however, are the fundamental differences between local models and corporate standards. For the implementation of global standards in local context, this implies multiple challenges on cultural, organizational and spatial level. The analysis findings provide information for assessing current projects and pinpointing optimization measures. The analysis framework further provides a tool to uncover and assess n...

  1. Relationship between HIV stigma and self-isolation among people living with HIV in Tennessee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Audet

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV stigma is a contributing factor to poor patient outcomes. Although HIV stigma has been documented, its impact on patient well-being in the southern US is not well understood. METHODS: Thirty-two adults participated in cognitive interviews after completing the Berger HIV or the Van Rie stigma scale. Participant responses were probed to ensure the scales accurately measured stigma and to assess the impact stigma had on behavior. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged regarding HIV stigma: (1 negative attitudes, fear of contagion, and misperceptions about transmission; (2 acts of discrimination by families, friends, health care providers, and within the workplace; and (3 participants' use of self-isolation as a coping mechanism. Overwhelming reluctance to disclose a person's HIV status made identifying enacted stigma with a quantitative scale difficult. DISCUSSION: Fear of discrimination resulted in participants isolating themselves from friends or experiences to avoid disclosure. Participant unwillingness to disclose their HIV status to friends and family could lead to an underestimation of enacted HIV stigma in quantitative scales.

  2. 电子投票匿名性分析%Anonymity Analysis of Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福人; 屈玉贵


    电子投票公布计票结果会影响投票者的匿名性.针对该问题,定义匿名性为投票选择的不确定度,利用熵衡量投票系统的投票者匿名性,比较计票结果公布前后投票者的匿名性变化.分析结果表明,投票规模越小,投票者匿名性在结果公布后受到的损失越大;在小规模电子投票情况下,计票结果应该选择只公布获胜者,不公布具体得票数,以减少投票者匿名的损失.%The disclosure of the number of votes can compromise the voters' anonymity of the electronic voting. Aiming at this problem, this paper defines anonymity by using the uncertainty of the voting choices and measures the anonymity of the whole voting system by entropy. It compares the anonymity after the release of the voting results with that before releasing the voting results. Analysis result shows that the smaller the voting scale is, the more the voters' anonymity loses. In the design of small-scale electronic-voting scheme, releasing the winner instead of the number of votes that candidates gained decreases the loss of anonymity.

  3. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints. (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif


    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  4. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  5. Development and Challenge of HIV/AIDS Testing Laboratory Network and Quality Assurance System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper describes the development and challenge of HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network and quality assurance system in China. At present, the HIV/AIDS testing laboratories includes three classes, the National AIDS Reference Laboratory, HIV/AIDS confirmatory laboratories and HIV/AIDS screening laboratories. All of them are accredited by the health authorities, and each class of laboratories take charge of their function strictly according to the "National Management of HIV/AIDS Detection (2006)". A complete quality assurance and quality control system for HIV/AIDS testing has been developed, which includes technical training, strict laboratory monitoring and approval,examination or proficiency testing on HIV/AIDS detection, and quality evaluation and supervision of HIV/AIDS diagnostic kits. Besides conduct the routine anti-HIV antibody test, more and more laboratories began to conduct other tests, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counting, HIV viral load, HIV DNA PCR, genotyping, drug resistance, and HIV-1 recent infection test. The primary challenges faced by the HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network are in the areas of laboratory management and quality control. For example, the provincial PT program is inefficient, the internal quality control is conducted perfunctorily, personnel training can not met the needs of the workplace, which need to be improved.

  6. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare. (United States)

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco


    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  7. Searchable Encryption Revisited: Consistency Properties, Relation to Anonymous IBE, and Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, Michel; Bellare, Mihir; Catalano, Dario


    ] is computationally consistent, and provide a new scheme that is statistically consistent. We also provide a transform of an anonymous IBE scheme to a secure PEKS scheme that, unlike the previous one, guarantees consistency. Finally we suggest three extensions of the basic notions considered here, namely anonymous......We identify and fill some gaps with regard to consistency (the extent to which false positives are produced) for public-key encryption with keyword search (PEKS). We define computational and statistical relaxations of the existing notion of perfect consistency, show that the scheme of [7...

  8. [Ergonomics of the workplace in radiology]. (United States)

    García-Lallana, A; Viteri-Ramírez, G; Saiz-Mendiguren, R; Broncano, J; Dámaso Aquerreta, J


    The replacement of conventional films and view boxes with digital images and computer monitors managed by PACS has clearly improved the diagnostic imaging workplace. The new setup has many advantages, including increased productivity brought about by decreased overall time required for image interpretation. On the other hand, the implementation of the digital workplace has increased the importance of factors like background lighting and the position of the chair, work table, mouse, keyboard, and monitor to prevent lesions that can disable the radiologist. The influence of these factors is often undervalued in the design and implementation of the radiological workplace. This article provides recommendations for the design of the radiological workplace based on ergonomics, which is the science that studies interactions among humans and other elements of a system.

  9. Early Learner Engagement in the Clinical Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.


    Introduction Recent calls for medical education reform advocate for the integration of knowledge with clinical experience through early clinical immersion. Yet, early learners rarely are invited to participate in workplace activities and early clinical experiences remain largely observational. We

  10. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  11. Religious Expression In The Growing Multicultural Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rollins


    Full Text Available The twentieth century saw incredible growth in the diversity of the American workplace as barriers, especially for women and minorities, were reduced.  In this twenty-first century the effects of globalization are adding to the company’s diversity.  Today, some companies reflect a microcosm of our world as the world’s workers come to America and technology connects organizations worldwide.  With this diverse workplace come not only the obvious differences of gender, race, and national origin, but also differences in religion and religious practices.  This research examines some trends in American workplace diversity, the historical and legal framework into which diverse religions can function in America, and corporate practices necessary to enable religious expression without significantly diminishing the organization’s efficiency.   The research concludes by reporting results of a survey on religious expression difficulties and solutions in the workplace.

  12. Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte

    Following the seminal work on talk at work (Drew and Heritage, 1992) and later studies on interaction in institutional interaction (Arminen, 2005; Asmuß & Svennevig, 2009; Svennevig 2012a), the panel seeks to pursue the role of interactional micro-practices for the emergence of workplace symmetries...... and asymmetries. Workplaces are settings where different kinds of (a)symmetries are constructed through interaction ((Svennevig, 2012b, Asmuß, 2008). In comparison to interactions between professionals and laypeople, identities in workplace interactions where colleagues interact with each other may be more...... complex due to multiple roles and team alliances (Pomerantz & Denvir, 2007; Djordjilovic, 2012). Thus, participants of workplace interaction have to negotiate their position in a dynamically fluctuating network of symmetries and asymmetries. The emergence of symmetries and asymmetries in talk has been...

  13. Healthy eating strategies in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiliani, Lisa; Poulsen, Signe; Sorensen, Glorian


    interventions, underscoring the need for further research in this area. This paper also reports evidence that changes in the work environment, including through health and safety programs, may contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of workplace health promotion, including dietary interventions...

  14. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization


    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance


    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels...

  15. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?


    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole


    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  16. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance? (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E.


    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults’ workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance. PMID:24882937

  17. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers. (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina


    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  18. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D


    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  19. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D


    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  20. Anonymous Multi-Receiver Identity-Based Authenticated Encryption with CCA Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan


    Full Text Available In a multi-receiver encryption system, a sender chooses a set of authorized receivers and sends them a message securely and efficiently, as the message is well encrypted and only one ciphertext corresponding to the message is generated no matter how many receivers the sender has chosen. It can be applied to video conferencing systems, pay-per-view channels, remote education, and so forth. Due to privacy considerations, an authorized receiver may not expect that his identity is revealed. In 2010, anonymous multi-receiver identity-based (ID-based encryption was first discussed, and furthermore, many works on the topic have been presented so far. Unfortunately, we find that all of those schemes fail to prove the chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security in either confidentiality or anonymity. In this manuscript, we propose the first anonymous multi-receiver ID-based authenticated encryption scheme with CCA security in both confidentiality and anonymity. In the proposed scheme, the identity of the sender of a ciphertext can be authenticated by the receivers after a successful decryption. In addition, the proposed scheme also is the first CCA-secure one against insider attacks. Moreover, only one pairing computation is required in decryption.

  1. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain


    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  2. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Velten, Emmett


    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  3. Extended K-Anonymity Model for Privacy Preserving on Micro Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahimi


    Full Text Available Today, information collectors, particularly statistical organizations, are faced with two conflicting issues. On one hand, according to their natural responsibilities and the increasing demand for the collected data, they are committed to propagate the information more extensively and with higher quality and on the other hand, due to the public concern about the privacy of personal information and the legal responsibility of these organizations in protecting the private information of their users, they should guarantee that while providing all the information to the population, the privacy is reasonably preserved. This issue becomes more crucial when the datasets published by data mining methods are at risk of attribute and identity disclosure attacks. In order to overcome this problem, several approaches, called p-sensitive k-anonymity, p+-sensitive k-anonymity, and (p, α-sensitive k-anonymity, were proposed. The drawbacks of these methods include the inability to protect micro datasets against attribute disclosure and the high value of the distortion ratio. In order to eliminate these drawbacks, this paper proposes an algorithm that fully protects the propagated micro data against identity and attribute disclosure and significantly reduces the distortion ratio during the anonymity process.

  4. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.


    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  5. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.


    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  6. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg


    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  7. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.


    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  8. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter


    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  9. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context (United States)

    Razi, Salim


    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  10. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics. (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho


    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  11. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  12. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Burghardt


    Full Text Available Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper studies this tradeoff systematically. To this end, we implement an algorithm for the anonymization of search histories which is flexible regarding the target function. It can retain frequent terms or terms where corresponding ads are clicked with a high probability, keep up the number of users it can derive interests for, etc. We quantify the usefulness of the anonymized log for ad placement in a broad way, e.g., by estimating the number of ad clicks or of ad impressions, based on marketing data from Yahoo! As a result, anonymized search logs are still useful for ad placement, but this very much depends on the target function.

  13. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous (United States)

    Young, Lance Brendan


    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  14. HOP: Achieving Efficient Anonymity in MANETs by Combining HIP, OLSR, and Pseudonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Javier


    Full Text Available Offering secure and anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networking environments is essential to achieve confidence and privacy, thus promoting widespread adoption of this kind of networks. In addition, some minimum performance levels must be achieved for any solution to be practical and become widely adopted. In this paper, we propose and implement HOP, a novel solution based on cryptographic Host Identity Protocol (HIP that offers security and user-level anonymity in MANET environments while maintaining good performance levels. In particular, we introduce enhancements to the authentication process to achieve Host Identity Tag (HIT relationship anonymity, along with source/destination HIT anonymity when combined with multihoming. Afterward we detail how we integrate our improved version of HIP with the OLSR routing protocol to achieve efficient support for pseudonyms. We implemented our proposal in an experimental testbed, and the results obtained show that performance levels achieved are quite good, and that the integration with OLSR is achieved with a low overhead.

  15. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno


    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  16. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones (United States)

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer


    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  17. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity? (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R


    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Unison as a Self-Stabilizing Wave Stream Algorithm in Asynchronous Anonymous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulinier, Christian


    How to pass from local to global scales in anonymous networks? How to organize a selfstabilizing propagation of information with feedback. From the Angluin impossibility results, we cannot elect a leader in a general anonymous network. Thus, it is impossible to build a rooted spanning tree. Many problems can only be solved by probabilistic methods. In this paper we show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing barrier synchronization in an anonymous network. We show that the commuication structure of this barrier synchronization designs a self-stabilizing wave-stream, or pipelining wave, in anonymous networks. We introduce two variants of Wave: the strong waves and the wavelets. A strong wave can be used to solve the idempotent r-operator parametrized computation problem. A wavelet deals with k-distance computation. We show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing wave stream, a self-stabilizing strong wave stream and a self-stabilizing wavelet stream.

  19. [HIV and related infections in Italian penal institutions: epidemiological and health organization note]. (United States)

    Babudieri, Sergio; Starnini, Giulio; Brunetti, Bruna; Carbonara, Sergio; D'Offizi, Gian Piero; Monarca, Roberto; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Novati, Stefano; Casti, Aldo; Florenzano, Grazia; Quercia, Giulio; Iovinella, Enzo; Sardu, Celestino; Romano, Anacleto; Dierna, Marinella; Vullo, Serafino; Pintus, Antonio; Maida, Ivana; Dori, Luca; Ardita, Sebastiano; Mura, Maria Stella; Andreoni, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni


    HIV and other infections represent an important health problem in Italian jails. In particular, HIV prevalence is high, due to the characteristics of the prison population, which is constituted by a large proportion of injecting drug users and foreigners. In addition, data from other countries suggest that risky behaviour are not uncommon during imprisonment, and transmission of HIV and other infection in this setting may also occur. Data from surveys conducted by the Penitentiary Authority in Italian jails show a decline of HIV seroprevalence from 9.7% in 1990 to 2.6% in 2001. However, these data are largely incomplete and do not account for possible biases due to self-selection of inmates toward HIV serological testing or to variations in the access to screening activities. More accurate data, possibly obtained through anonymous unlinked surveys, are needed in order to better plan health services and preventive measures.

  20. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop


    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  1. HIV and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  2. HIV and Rheumatic Disease (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  3. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  4. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  5. Facilitating Learning in the Workplace. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A. (United States)

    Watkins, Karen

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the roles, skills, and methods used by facilitators of workplace learning in light of a social action view of learning. The following…

  6. The Workplace of the Future: Insights from Futures Scenarios and Today's High Performance Workplaces. (United States)

    Curtain, Richard


    Studies of the workplace of the future that used scenario-planning methodology and survey data suggest that nonmarket organizations will provide stability for temporary workers and result in the emergence of networks. Survey data suggest that future workplaces will foster intellectual capital through research and development. (JOW)

  7. MBA Students' Workplace Writing: Implications for Business Writing Pedagogy and Workplace Practice (United States)

    Lentz, Paula


    Employers frequently complain about the state of their employees' writing skills. Much of the current research on this subject explores workplace writing skills from the employer's perspective. However, this article examines workplace writing from the employees' perspective. Specifically, it analyzes MBA students' responses to…

  8. How Professional Writing Pedagogy and University-Workplace Partnerships Can Shape the Mentoring of Workplace Writing (United States)

    Kohn, Liberty


    This article analyzes literature on university-workplace partnerships and professional writing pedagogy to suggest best practices for workplace mentors to mentor new employees and their writing. The article suggests that new employees often experience cultural confusion due to (a) the transfer of education-based writing strategies and (b) the…

  9. Bring Workplace Assessment into Business Communication Classrooms: A Proposal to Better Prepare Students for Professional Workplaces (United States)

    Yu, Han


    To help students better understand and be better prepared for professional workplaces, the author suggests that business communication teachers examine and learn from workplace assessment methods. Throughout the article, the author discusses the rationale behind this proposal, reviews relevant literature, reports interview findings on workplace…

  10. MBA Students' Workplace Writing: Implications for Business Writing Pedagogy and Workplace Practice (United States)

    Lentz, Paula


    Employers frequently complain about the state of their employees' writing skills. Much of the current research on this subject explores workplace writing skills from the employer's perspective. However, this article examines workplace writing from the employees' perspective. Specifically, it analyzes MBA students' responses to a course assignment…

  11. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó


    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( ). ...

  13. Living with HIV (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  14. HIV among Women (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  15. HIV among Transgender People (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One File [82K] ...

  16. HIV Among Asians (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  17. Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya. (United States)

    Roberts, M; Wangombe, J


    A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.

  18. Workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress symptoms among family physicians in Lithuania: An occupation and region specific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Malinauskiene


    Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigated associations between workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress symptoms as compared to and controlled for associations between the latter and other psychosocial stress factors at work and in everyday life. The study employed a representative sample of Lithuanian family physicians, hence investigated a particularly resourceful occupational group in a geographical region earlier found to have a high risk context for exposure to bullying at work. Material and Methods: With a response rate of 89.2%, a total of 323 family physicians filled in an anonymous questionnaire on workplace bullying, post-traumatic symptomatology (IES-R, other psychosocial stressors at work and in everyday life, personal health resources (sense of coherence, behavioral characteristics and demographic variables. The statistical software SPSS 14.0, Windows was used in the analysis. Associations were tested using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A high prevalence of bullying was found among family physicians in Lithuania, with 13% of them experiencing severe workplace bullying and 17.3% experiencing more occasional incidents of bullying. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms was also high with 15.8% scoring above the standardized cut-off thresholds for post-traumatic stress disorder. The odds ratio (OR of severe bullying for post-traumatic stress after adjustment for age and gender was 8.05 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 3.80–17.04. In the fully adjusted model it increased to 13.88 (95% CI: 4.68–41.13 indicating cumulative effects of all the investigated stressors. Conclusions: Workplace bullying is particularly prevalent among Lithuanian family physicians, as are the symptoms of post-traumatic distress. Strong associations between post-traumatic stress and exposure to severe bullying indicate that bullying is a significant source of mental health.

  19. Opt-out of voluntary HIV testing: a Singapore hospital's experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene C Chua

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since 2008, the Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH has expanded HIV testing by increasing anonymous HIV test sites, as well as issuing a directive to hospitals to offer routine voluntary opt out inpatient HIV testing. We reviewed this program implemented at the end of 2008 at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH, the second largest acute care general hospital in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January 2009 to December 2010, all inpatients aged greater or equal than 21 years were screened for HIV unless they declined or were not eligible for screening. We reviewed the implementation of the Opt Out testing policy. There were a total of 93,211 admissions; 41,543 patients were included based on HIV screening program eligibility criteria. Among those included, 79% (n = 32,675 opted out of HIV screening. The overall acceptance rate was 21%. Majority of eligible patients who were tested (63% were men. The mean age of tested patients was 52 years. The opt out rate was significantly higher among females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6, aged >60 years (OR: 2.3, 95%CI: 2.2-2.4 and Chinese ethnicity (OR: 1.7, 95%CI:1.6-1.8. The false positive rate of the HIV screening test is 0.56%. The proportion of patients with HIV infection among those who underwent HIV screening is 0.18%. All 16 confirmed HIV patients were linked to care. CONCLUSION: The default opt-in rate of inpatient HIV testing was low at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Efforts to address individual HIV risk perception and campaigns against HIV stigma are needed to encourage more individuals to be tested for HIV.

  20. The Alternative Workplace: Changing Where and How People Work. (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon, IV


    Discusses the alternative workplace, the combination of nontraditional work practices, settings, and locations that is beginning to supplement traditional offices. Looks at myths and realities, options, advantages and disadvantages, and implementation of alternative workplaces. (JOW)

  1. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima


    as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  2. Effect of workplace innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vaas, F.


    Workplace innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising and organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work and organising smarter. Workplace innovation is theoretical

  3. Cyberbullying: the new face of workplace bullying? (United States)

    Privitera, Carmel; Campbell, Marilyn Anne


    While the subject of cyberbullying of children and adolescents has begun to be addressed, less attention and research have focused on cyberbullying in the workplace. Male-dominated workplaces such as manufacturing settings are found to have an increased risk of workplace bullying, but the prevalence of cyberbullying in this sector is not known. This exploratory study investigated the prevalence and methods of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying of males at work. One hundred three surveys (a modified version of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire [NAQ-R]) were returned from randomly selected members of the Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union (AMWU). The results showed that 34% of respondents were bullied face-to-face, and 10.7% were cyberbullied. All victims of cyberbullying also experienced face-to-face bullying. The implications for organizations' "duty of care" in regard to this new form of bullying are indicated.

  4. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;


    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  5. School and workplace as learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    In vocational education and training the school and the workplace are two different learning environments. But how should we conceive of a learning environment, and what characterizes the school and the workplace respectively as learning environments? And how can the two environ-ments be linked......? These questions are treated in this paper. School and workplace are assessed us-ing the same analytical approach. Thereby it is pointed out how different forms of learning are en-couraged in each of them and how different forms of knowledge are valued. On this basis sugges-tions are made about how to understand...... the linking of the two learning environments in a learning perspective....

  6. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  7. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David


    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  8. Exploring Writing In The Workplace: Implications For Human Resource Development


    AKDERE, Dr. Mesut; AZEVEDO, Dr.Ross E.


    Writing in the workplace is among the understudied business topics in the field of HRD. Yet, the impacts of writing in today's workplace are significant, and organizations making it a priority benefit from it. Furthermore, writing is related to the issue of workplace literacy which is the umbrella term for basic communication skills. This literature review provides a general view on workplace writing and discusses implications to HRD within a model research proposal

  9. [Self-affirmation in the workplace]. (United States)

    Stresemann, E


    Self-affirmation establishes the basis for self-esteem through self-realisation in daily life and at the workplace. Examples of attainment of self-affirmation support motivation during adolescence where a lack of orientation in life causes socialisation to be at risk. Personal ambition to achieve superiority may provoke critical trends when assuming morally questionable behaviour at the workplace. Beginners in employment often face an atmosphere of unbalanced tension at work and deserve protective understanding and experienced support when striving for self-affirmation.

  10. Migraine disorder: workplace implications and solutions. (United States)

    Berry, Peggy A


    Migraine disorder is disabling, costly, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. It affects employees' quality of life and ability to work or attend school, potentially decreasing their earning ability. Migraine disorder impacts the workplace substantially through absenteeism and presenteeism and increases health care costs. Although research on migraine disorder is expansive, no systematic research tool or design exists within population studies. This may account for the different prevalence rates seen, especially in African studies, which rely on verbal interviews instead of mail or telephone surveys. Women have a higher prevalence rate throughout the research, but they seek help more often than men. This may contribute to their higher rates, although hormones also play a role. Occupational health nurses can affect the outcome of migraine disorder for employees and employers. They can assist in identifying those employees with migraine disorder who are not diagnosed, those who have not investigated the various available medications, or the lifestyle changes that would decrease the intensity and frequency of migraine attacks. Research is needed to quantify the cost savings of workplace intervention in identifying employees with migraine disorder and its effect on absenteeism, presenteeism, and health care use. Occupational health nurses can determine the effectiveness of education by measuring motivation, lifestyle changes, and workplace modification against the intensity and frequency of migraine attacks. This, in turn, will yield measurable results in reducing absenteeism and presenteeism in the workplace. Occupational health nurses can spread this information through employees to their families. As more undiagnosed and undertreated individuals with migraine become educated and pursue diagnosis, treatment, and lifestyle changes, a measurable decrease in health care use and costs may occur. The economic impact of migraine disorder, in terms of workplace absenteeism and

  11. Distributed anonymous data perturbation method for privacy-preserving data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Jin MA; Jian-hua LI


    Privacy is a critical requirement in distributed data mining. Cryptography-based secure multiparty computation is a main approach for privacy preserving. However, it shows poor performance in large scale distributed systems. Meanwhile, data perturbation techniques are comparatively efficient but are mainly used in centralized privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM). In this paper, we propose a light-weight anonymous data perturbation method for efficient privacy preserving in distributed data mining. We first define the privacy constraints for data perturbation based PPDM in a semi-honest distributed environment. Two protocols are proposed to address these constraints and protect data statistics and the randomization process against collusion attacks: the adaptive privacy-preserving summary protocol and the anonymous exchange protocol. Finally, a distributed data perturbation framework based on these protocols is proposed to realize distributed PPDM. Experiment results show that our approach achieves a high security level and is very efficient in a large scale distributed environment.

  12. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu


    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  13. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li


    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  15. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.


    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  16. An Economic Model of Workplace Mobbing in Academe (United States)

    Faria, Joao Ricardo; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.; Salter, Sean P.


    Workplace bullying or mobbing can be defined as the infliction of various forms of abuse (e.g., verbal, emotional, psychological) against a colleague or subordinate by one or more other members of a workplace. Even in the presence of academic tenure, workplace mobbing remains a prevalent issue in academe. This study develops an economic model that…

  17. 18 CFR 1316.7 - Drug-free workplace. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1316.7 Section 1316.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY GENERAL... drug abuse in the workplace; (ii) Contractor's policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (iii)...

  18. Integrating Mathematics, Statistics, and Technology in Vocational and Workplace Education. (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Gail E.


    Workplace mathematics and statistics are essential for communication and decision-making, and mathematics, statistics, and technology education in/for the workplace must take into account the cultural diversity that exists within and between workplaces. Outlines some ways in which to address the challenge of making mathematics, statistics, and…

  19. It's Your Business...Smoking Policies for the Workplace. (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This brochure was written to help those considering a workplace smoking policy. It begins with a set of facts about workplace smoking and discusses legislation in various states concerning smoking at work. The health consequences of involuntary smoking are also explored. Other sections examine the need for workplace smoking policies, how employees…

  20. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff


    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  1. Anonymous-key quantum cryptography and unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, H P


    A new cryptographic tool, anonymous quantum key technique, is introduced that leads to unconditionally secure key distribution and encryption schemes that can be readily implemented experimentally in a realistic environment. If quantum memory is available, the technique would have many features of public-key cryptography; an identification protocol that does not require a shared secret key is provided as an illustration. The possibility is also indicated for obtaining unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocols with this technique.

  2. Lessons in Fluidity: Anonymous and the Communicative Formation of Organizational Identity


    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Dobusch, Leonhard


    Most research on organizational identity tends to take an essentialist perspective, differentiating between an identity construed internally by members of the organization and an image construed by external actors. However, the duality of identity and image struggles with capturing more fluid, open, or partial organizational arrangements, where it is difficult to uphold this distinction. Looking at the case of the hacker collective Anonymous as an extreme example of organization, this paper p...

  3. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura


    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  4. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir


    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  5. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis


    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  6. A Secure Anonymous Internet Electronic Voting Scheme Based on the Polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; CAO Zhenfu


    In this paper, we use the polynomial function and Chaum's RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) blind signature scheme to construct a secure anonymous internet electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, each vote does not need to be revealed in the tallying phase. The ballot number of each candidate gets is counted by computing the degrees of two polynomials' greatest common divisor. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current internet.

  7. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam


    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  8. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach. (United States)

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John


    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN.

  9. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Shakour Abuzneid


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc. and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC protocol for WSN.

  10. Apriori-based algorithms for k m-anonymizing trajectory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Poulis


    Full Text Available The proliferation of GPS-enabled devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets and locationbased social networks has resulted in the abundance of trajectory data. The publication of such data opens up new directions in analyzing, studying and understanding human behavior. However, it should be performed in a privacy-preserving way, because the identities of individuals, whose movement is recorded in trajectories, can be disclosed even after removing identifying information. Existing trajectory data anonymization approaches offer privacy but at a high data utility cost, since they either do not produce truthful data (an important requirement of several applications, or are limited in their privacy specification component. In this work, we propose a novel approach that overcomes these shortcomings by adapting km-anonymity to trajectory data. To realize our approach, we develop three efficient and effective anonymization algorithms that are based on the apriori principle. These algorithms aim at preserving different data characteristics, including location distance and semantic similarity, as well as user-specified utility requirements, which must be satisfied to ensure that the released data can be meaningfully analyzed. Our extensive experiments using synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed algorithms are efficient and effective at preserving data utility.

  11. There is no ``I'' in referee: Why referees should be anonymous (United States)

    Ucko, Daniel


    From the early days of modern science, it has been recognized that scientific claims must be verified by someone who is not the maker of those claims, and who furthermore has no stake in the matter. In other words, claims need to be evaluated objectively, by the community. The way in which this tends to be done is by peer review conducted by journals. Peer review as currently practiced touches on the themes of trust, where the trust is in institutions and procedures that emerge from expert communities. The practice of peer review is viewed as a citizenly duty of scientists in the scientific community, because all scientists take turns serving either as authors, referees, and editors in the peer review process We lack the resources to have a work evaluated by the entire community, so we substitute with a representative. Yet, in most examples of scientific review, the referee or referees are anonymous. This question is particularly important when the peer review process is brought to bear in order to evaluate matters beyond scientific validity, more ``subjective'' criteria such as relative importance, broadness of interest - criteria that do not appear to have an objective standard of comparison and validation. I will show that the anonymity of referees, far from endangering this trust, actually strengthens it. I will show that this anonymity is crucial in order to maintain any objectivity in scientific peer review, and why authors should not try to unmask the referee. Also at American Physical Society (APS).

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous (United States)

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  13. "HIV is irrelevant to our company": everyday practices and the logic of relationships in HIV/AIDS management by Japanese multinational corporations in northern Thailand. (United States)

    Michinobu, Ryoko


    Multinational corporations (MNCs) are important participants in workplace initiatives on HIV/AIDS as they collaborate with international organizations to globally promote various policies and guidelines. To date, MNCs have enacted the majority of such initiatives in North America, Europe and South Africa, but we have little information on how MNCs elsewhere, especially in Japan, have responded to the issue of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. This study examines the actual on the ground situation of HIV/AIDS management in Japanese MNCs, specifically investigating everyday corporate practices in the context of internal interactions and relationships and the resulting practices and outlook concerning HIV/AIDS. It is based on a secondary analysis of ethnographic case studies conducted in 10 Japanese-affiliated companies in northern Thailand. Japanese managers, Thai managers and ordinary Thai workers all considered HIV/AIDS to be "irrelevant" to their company and/or themselves. HIV/AIDS measures in the companies were limited to provision of information. This perception and management of HIV/AIDS developed from their everyday interactions governed by the logic of relationships in the companies. In these interactions, they categorized others based on their ascriptive status, primarily based on class, ethnicity and nationality. They sought scapegoat groups that were lower than them in the class- and ethnicity/nationality-based hierarchical system, and cast the risk of HIV infection upon the scapegoat groups, thus reducing their own sense of risk. The paper shows that the relational logic, not ideals or principles, influences their views of and actions concerning HIV/AIDS management in the companies. This is why Japanese companies are unable to deal with HIV/AIDS in terms of international policies and guidelines that are based on the logic of human rights and the logic of business principles. The results suggest a need for international policymakers to pay more attention to

  14. Modeling the Global Workplace Using Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Dorazio, Patricia; Hickok, Corey


    The Fall 2006 term of COM495, Senior Practicum in Communication, offered communication and information design students the privilege of taking part in a transatlantic intercultural virtual project. To emulate real world experience in today's global workplace, these students researched and completed a business communication project with German…

  15. Workplace Stress Among Teachers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleura Shkëmbi


    Full Text Available Teaching has been regarded as one of the most stressful professions, and workplace stress within this professional category has been thoroughly investigated. Nonetheless, no empirical research so far has examined workplace stress among teachers in Kosovo. The present study aimed to identify age and gender-related patterns of workplace stress as well as examine the role of marital status, educational level, and working experience in a sample of Kosovo teachers. The different types of stressors reported by teachers were also examined. The sample consisted of 799 teachers (Mage = 42.94; SD = 11.50, 33.8% males and 65.2% females. The measures included the National Stress Awareness Day (NSAD Stress Questionnaire, and one self-report questionnaire designed by the authors for the purpose of the research. Results showed that 33.2% (265 participants of the sample reported high levels of stress. Workplace stress was significantly predicted by place of residence (β = −.442, p < .00 and level of education (β = −.191, p < .00 but not age, gender, marital status, or working experience F(6, 520 = 34.162, p < .001, R2 = .283. As regards the specific stressors, the most frequently reported were inadequate wages (36.8%, physical working environment (30.1%, and undisciplined students (26.2%. Results are discussed in the context of practical implications they have and suggestions for future research are provided.

  16. Vocational Teachers between Educational Institutions and Workplaces (United States)

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka


    The aim of this study is to analyze discursively how the relationship between educational institutions and workplaces materializes in the position of a vocational teacher. Several studies have pointed out that the role of vocational teachers is changing as a result of current educational reforms, which can be understood in terms of bringing…

  17. Workplace Stress and the Student Learning Experience (United States)

    Stevenson, Anne; Harper, Sarah


    Purpose: To investigate the possible effects of workplace stress in academics on the student learning experience. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were designed and distributed to all academic staff at a Scottish Higher Education Institute. This measured perceived levels of stress amongst academic staff and the possible impact of this…

  18. When Violence Threatens the Workplace: Personnel Issues. (United States)

    Willits, Robert L.


    Discusses violence in the workplace and suggests a three-tier approach to dealing with violence in libraries that focuses on personnel issues: (1) preventive measures, including applicant screening, supervisory training, and employee assistance programs; (2) threat management, including policy formation and legal action; and (3) crisis/post-trauma…

  19. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians (United States)

    Hecker, Thomas E.


    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  20. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers. (United States)

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  1. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altru

  2. Home Learning, Technology, and Tomorrow's Workplace. (United States)

    Rieseberg, Rhonda L.


    Discusses characteristics and trends of home schools and workplaces. Use of computers and computer applications (CD-ROMS, interactive software, and networking) in home schooling provides a compatible environment for future home-based businesses and telecommuting trends. Sidebars include information on home schools on line; standardized test…

  3. Blackboard Bullies: Workplace Bullying in Primary Schools (United States)

    Fahie, Declan


    This paper offers a comprehensive examination of the "lived experience" of workplace bullying in primary schools in Ireland. Underpinned by the qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with a class teacher, a chairperson of a Board of Management and a school principal--all of whom who believe themselves to have been targets of…

  4. Employee Perspectives on MOOCs for Workplace Learning (United States)

    Egloffstein, Marc; Ifenthaler, Dirk


    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) can be considered a rather novel method in digital workplace learning, and there is as yet little empirical evidence on the acceptance and effectiveness of MOOCs in professional learning. In addition to existing findings on employers' attitudes, this study seeks to investigate the employee perspective towards…

  5. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions. (United States)

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark


    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  6. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada. (United States)

    Sass, R


    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  7. The Struggles of Reluctant Workplace Bloggers (United States)

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman


    Blogs act as knowledge repositories and personalize knowledge management within learning organizations.These knowledge repositories allow capturing and disseminating tacit knowledge which improve task implementations. However, workplace blogging is not popular among academicians as there are not many academicians blog about their working…

  8. Project Future. A Workplace Literacy Project. (United States)

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY.

    This document contains 12 units of study for a competency-based workplace literacy program, developed by Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Kentucky, for a local plastics and engineering company. Each unit covers between two and nine competencies. Of the 12 units, 5 are devoted to language skills and 7 are devoted to mathematics. Each…

  9. Workplace Issues: Testing, Training and Policy. (United States)

    Feuer, Dale


    Presents information on organizations with over 50 employees concerning such workplace issues as drug testing, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome testing, and policies on these issues and on smoking, sexual harassment, and affirmative action. Results are broken down by company size and by industry. (CH)

  10. Workplace Learning to Create Social Quality (United States)

    Thijssen, Thomas


    Purpose: The present study aims to focus on workplace learning and understanding learning as creation (Kessels, 1995, 1996, 2001; Verdonschot, 2009; Billett and Choy, 2013) to bridge the gap between education and practice addressing the complex real world issue of poverty and social exclusion in The Netherlands. When researchers and practitioners…

  11. Workplace Discrimination and the Perception of Disability (United States)

    Draper, William R.


    Decisions by the EEOC in favor of claimants perceived to have disabilities disproportionately exceeded those in favor of claimants with documented disabilities. This finding lends support to the assertion that unconscious/implicit bias is persistent in the workplace. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of…

  12. Workplace innovation and social innovation : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, Jürgen; Oeij, Peter R.A.; Dhondt, Steven; Fruytier, Ben


    This is the introduction to the special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to enh

  13. Workplace innovation and social innovation: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Fruytier, B.


    This is the introduction to this special issue of World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development (WREMSD) dedicated to workplace innovation and social innovation related to work and organisation. As technological and business model innovations alone are not sufficient to en

  14. Communities of Practice in the School Workplace (United States)

    Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan


    Purpose: The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative as well as qualitative data were gathered from seven teacher…

  15. Raising Employee Engagement through Workplace Financial Education (United States)

    Vitt, Lois A.


    This chapter discusses shifts in hiring and benefits that changed the employment landscape, offering a historical look at workplace financial education, and arguing that educating employees to adjust to new financial realities is a win-win for employers and employees.

  16. Moral issues in workplace health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); S. van de Vathorst (Suzanne); M.T. Hilhorst (Medard); A. Burdorf (Alex)


    textabstractPurpose: There is debate to what extent employers are entitled to interfere with the lifestyle and health of their workers. In this context, little information is available on the opinion of employees. Within the framework of a workplace health promotion (WHP) program, moral consideratio

  17. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, W.J.; Nieuwenhuis, A.F.M.


    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In thi

  18. Preventing absenteeism at the workplace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.V. van; Gründemann, R.W.M.


    This paper, presented at the ninth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, Helsinki, Finland, 12-15 May 1999, gives the results of a study to document the processes and mechanisms of workplace initiatives to reduce absenteeism related with ill health, by identifying the methods used

  19. Workplace innovation as social innovation. Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Gramberen, M. van; Vlierberge, E. van


    TNO, Sozial-Forshungsstelle Dortmund (SFS Dortmund), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) en Flanders Synergy (FS) hebben samen op 26 en 27 april in Dortmund een workshop georganiseerd om hun ideeën over sociale innovatie binnen organisaties (Workplace Innovation) op elkaar af te stemmen. Hun

  20. Job access, workplace mobility, and occupational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van


    Are career opportunities influenced by the place where you live? Does it help your career if you accept a job at a longer distance? What is the best place to live if you want to combine maximum career opportunities with a minimum of commuting and migration costs? Job access, workplace mobility, and

  1. 基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法%Online trace anonymization based on anonymous flow table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春静; 葛敬国; 谢高岗; 李亮雄; 李佟; 刘韵洁


    A real-time network packet anonymous method named Fad-Pan (online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table) was proposed. The Fad-Pan algorithm was studied and an online trace anonymization prototype system based on DPDK library was developed. The experimental results prove that the Fad-Pan algorithm is faster more than 20 times than the existing method, and a single server can handle the real-time IPv4 and IPv6 traffic of the 10 Gbit/s link used by the Fad-Pan.%提出了基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法(Fad-Pan,online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table),主要研究Fad-Pan算法以及研发基于DPDK的Fad-Pan原型系统。实验结果表明,Fad-Pan算法比已有的方法在匿名化速度上提高了20倍以上,单个普通服务器可以实时处理万兆链路的IPv4和IPv6流量数据。

  2. HIV Life Cycle (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  3. HIV Latency


    Robert F. Siliciano; Greene, Warner C.


    HIV-1 can establish a state of latent infection at the level of individual T cells. Latently infected cells are rare in vivo and appear to arise when activated CD4+ T cells, the major targets cells for HIV-1, become infected and survive long enough to revert back to a resting memory state, which is nonpermissive for viral gene expression. Because latent virus resides in memory T cells, it persists indefinitely even in patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. This latent reservoir is recogni...

  4. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus L. Steenkamp


    Full Text Available An attempt was made to describe and to eventually implement work space that can be defined as psychologically meaningful and which has increased during the past 5−10 years. Indications are that various researchers on different continents have embarked on a journey to describe the meaningful workplace. Such a workplace is more than a geographical location, it is psychological space; space where the individual employee performs tasks that construe his or her work role, in collaboration with other individuals, within a framework of predetermined time frames, according to certain procedures, based on identified needs and within a formal workflow structure that is normally referred to as the organisation. Within this framework employees become alienated as a result of which the organisation as well as the individual suffer. The organisation experiences a loss of productivity, quality, innovation, et cetera, and the employee a loss of meaning in life and work. Yet, the workplace remains the space where meaning can be gained. It is both the framework and context for meaningfulness at work. Within this framework certain factors and constitutive elements play a facilitating role in experiencing meaningfulness. Various factors including values, and imbedded therein, the Protestant Ethic (PE, (and various other factors, such as for instance spirituality, culture, leadership and management style, etc., play an important role as facilitating factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. Developing a framework and context, on a conceptual level for the positioning of these factors as contributories towards the meaningful workplace, is a first priority. This is what this article is about: to conceptualise the workplace as psychological space, framework and context for understanding the contributory role of PE (and other factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. The positioning of values and the PE as Max Weber understood the

  5. An Investigation of Organizational and Regulatory Discourses of Workplace Bullying. (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B


    Organizations use policies to set standards for employee behaviors. Although many organizations have policies that address workplace bullying, previous studies have found that these policies affect neither workplace bullying for targets who are seeking assistance in ending the behaviors nor managers who must address incidents of bullying. This article presents the findings of a study that used critical discourse analysis to examine the language used in policies written by health care organizations and regulatory agencies to regulate workplace bullying. The findings suggest that the discussion of workplace bullying overlaps with discussions of disruptive behaviors and harassment. This lack of conceptual clarity can create difficulty for managers in identifying, naming, and disciplining incidents of workplace bullying. The documents also primarily discussed workplace bullying as a patient safety concern. This language is in conflict with organizations attending to worker well-being with regard to workplace bullying.

  6. Legal workplace policies for drugs and alcohol in Turkey. (United States)

    Akgür, Serap Annette; Erdem, Aslı; Coşkunol, Hakan


    The widespread of individual and social problems related to substance use/abuse provoked the new approaches for workplace drug testing systems in the world. Workplace drug testing laws are constructed to protect the community from the consequences of drug use by workers. In Turkey, the legal arrangements on workplace drug testing exist in Turkish Penal Code, Turkish Labour Law, Workplace Physicians Regulations, Maritime Labour Law and Medical Examination Instructions in Highway Transportation Although Turkey has made the initial attempts to develop homogeneous and reliable regulations for workplace drug testing, a detailed workplace policy for drug testing at workplace has still not been provided.. An amendment has been done in the Regulations on Seafarers and a drug test (marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine like drugs and opiate) has been added into the routine tests to take a "Seafarer Health Report".

  7. Screening and diagnosis for HIV (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. ...

  8. HIV/AIDS Coinfection (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  9. HIV and Immunizations (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Vaccines protect people from ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  10. Children and HIV (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  11. Prevalence of HIV and Treponema pallidum infections in pregnant women in Campinas and their association with socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Amaral

    Full Text Available The anonymous seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis was studied by collecting umbilical cord blood samples from 5,815 women who gave birth in Campinas' hospitals throughout a six-month period. ELISA and Western blot were used for HIV, and VDRL and TPHA for Treponema pallidum screening. While maintaining the anonymity of the women, information was recorded on the hospital of origin, divided into university (public and private hospitals, as well as on the form of payment (social security, private insurance or direct payment, age, marital status, education, employment and place of residence. Seroprevalence was 0.42 percent for HIV and 1.16 percent for syphilis. There was a significant correlation between a positive reaction to the two infections (p=0.02. After univariate and logistic regression analysis, only university hospitals were shown to be associated with seropositivity for HIV, whereas the same variable and an older age were associated with syphilis. All positive reactions were found either in public hospitals or among social security patients treated at private institutions. The conclusion was that HIV infection is becoming almost as prevalent as syphilis among this population, and affects primarily the lower socio-economic strata. This suggests that routine, voluntary HIV serology should be considered and discussed with patients during prenatal or delivery care whenever a population shows a seroprevalence close to or greater than 1 percent.

  12. Probability-based location anonymity algorithm%利用概率的位置匿名算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉双; 谭示崇; 赵大为


    k匿名模型是一种有效的位置隐私保护技术,通过构造包含需要保护的用户在内的 k 个正在发送请求的用户的匿名区域,达到保护用户位置的目的。但是现有的 k匿名模型仅能利用当前正在发送请求的用户,当同时发送请求用户较少时,就会导致匿名区域过大。为此,提出一种利用概率的位置匿名算法来保护路网中的移动用户的位置,利用当前时刻的不活跃用户的历史位置轨迹,计算出进入匿名路段的概率,可明显减小匿名路段长度。实验结果证明,基于概率的位置匿名算法与一般的 k 匿名模型相比较,提高了匿名效率。%As one of the most effective location privacy preservation technologies , the k‐anonymity model provides safeguards for location privacy of the mobile client against vulnerabilities for abuse by constructing an anonymous area of k users including the protected one . However , most existing k‐anonymity models only utilize the users who are sending requests at recent time . If there are not enough requesting users , the generated anonymous area of the k‐anonymity model will be larger than expected . In this paper , a Probability‐based Location Anonymity ( PLA ) algorithm is proposed for protecting location privacy of the mobile users in a road network . The PLA model takes advantage of the historical path track of the users who are not sending the request currently , and then computes the probability into the anonymous section so that it can greatly reduce the size of the anonymous area . Experimental results show that the PLA algorithm is superior to the k‐anonymity and it increases its anonymous efficiency enormously .

  13. [High time for wide application of an opting-out strategy for HIV testing]. (United States)

    Dukers-Muijrers, N H T; Dukers-Muijrers, H T M; Heijman, R L J; van Leent, E J M; Coutinho, R A; Thiesbrummel, H F J; Fennema, J S A


    --Despite the current active HIV test policy, the effects of the former policy are still visible, i.e. a relatively low number of individuals that have ever been tested for HIV. --The number of HIV tests and knowledge of current HIV status has increased among visitors to the STI clinic in Amsterdam. --Nevertheless, anonymous HIV surveillance among visitors to the STI clinic shows that a considerable proportion of HIV-infected individuals (24% of men who have sex with men (MSM) and 80% of heterosexuals) are unaware of the infection. --A new opting-out strategy for HIV testing in STI clinics is recommended. --The opting-out strategy may also be applicable to other medical settings, especially those that treat target populations such as MSM, heterosexuals with STI-related symptoms, and persons originating from AIDS-endemic regions. --The opting-out system was initiated in the Amsterdam STI clinic in 2007 in order to further reduce the number of undiagnosed HIV infections.

  14. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations. (United States)

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver


    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  15. Aging With HIV in the Era of Antiretroviral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Nideröst PhD


    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the living conditions and the quality of life of people aged more than 50 who were living with HIV in Switzerland. Participants were consecutively sampled through different HIV-specific sites. Seventy-two HIV-positive persons filled in an anonymous standardized questionnaire, either paper-pencil or online. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Quality of life was rated quite high (M = 14.9, SD = 4.14. The multivariate regression analyses showed that mental and physical health problems, long-term living with HIV, having a high degree of needed support, and financial problems decreased quality of life, and perceived available social support was an important predictor in maintaining quality of life. In addition to current offers to support mental health and social networks, efforts to integrate people of working age into the labor market and efforts to reduce stigma and the social marginalization of older HIV-positive people should be fostered.

  16. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei


    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  17. SAM: Secure Access of Media Independent Information Service with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangsong


    Full Text Available Seamless handover across different access technologies is very important in the future wireless networks. To optimize vertical handover in heterogeneous networks, IEEE 802.21 standard defines Media Independent Handover (MIH services. The MIH services can be a new target to attackers, which will be the main concern for equipment vendors and service providers. In this paper, we focus specifically on security of Media Independent Information Service (MIIS and present a new access authentication scheme with user anonymity for MIIS. The protocol can be used to establish a secure channel between the mobile node and the information server. Security and performance of the protocol are also analyzed in this paper.

  18. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity. (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru


    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  19. Anonymous One-Time Broadcast Using Non-interactive Dining Cryptographer Nets with Applications to Voting (United States)

    van de Graaf, Jeroen

    All voting protocols proposed so far, with the exception of a few, have the property that the privacy of the ballot is only computational. In this paper we outline a new and conceptually simple approach allowing us to construct a protocol in which the privacy of the ballot is unconditional. Our basic idea is to modify the protocol of Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta[1], which uses blind signatures so that the voter can obtain a valid ballot. However, instead of using a MIX net, we use a new broadcast protocol for anonymously publishing the vote, a Non-Interactive variation of the Dining Cryptographer Net.

  20. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization (United States)

    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance


    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels of EAP promotion and worksite activities were associated with greater likelihood of service use. Greater focus on wellness/prevention and unusual and significant stress were associated with lower likelihood of service use. Results provide stakeholders with insights on approaches to increasing utilization of EAP services. PMID:24058322

  1. Occupational stress in the multicultural workplace. (United States)

    Pasca, Romana; Wagner, Shannon L


    Occupational stress is a well researched topic leading to the development of strong, viable models of workplace stress. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to the applicability of this research to specific cultural groups, in particular those of immigrant status. The present paper reviews the extant literature regarding occupational stress from a multicultural perspective, evaluates the usefulness for existing models in the multicultural context, and discusses current issues with respect to increasing multiculturalism in the work environment. The authors conclude that workforce diversity is emerging as a pressing issue of organizational life and consequently, that future research needs to continue investigating whether current knowledge regarding workplace stress is fitting with the multicultural diversity of the present-day working population.

  2. Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace. (United States)

    Brief, Arthur P; Weiss, Howard M


    The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its definition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers' feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and challenges remain.

  3. Workplace spirituality: A tool or a trend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J.W. Schutte


    Full Text Available Workplace spirituality is a construct widely discussed over the past few decades and it is a much-disputed inquiry field which is gaining the interest of practitioners and scholars. Some clarifications regarding concepts and definitions are necessary in order to structure and direct the current debate. The aim of this conceptual article is to gain a better understanding regarding the direction in which this field of study is progressing and to put the question on the table namely, whether workplace spirituality is only a new tool to be used in leadership development or is it a trend to be taken seriously? The results showed that this field has potential to further development. This article can be used as foundation for future studies within the knowledge area of practical theology.

  4. Supporting Informal Learning at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Karen Lukosch


    Full Text Available In times of rapid technological and socio-economic changes, knowledge sharing and learning have become critical assets for most organizations and companies. New ways of learning and training are needed to cope with the rising demand of information. The Microtraining method developed on basis of recent learning theories and concepts is an answer to the need of flexibility of learning settings related to space and time, the availability of experts and the applicability of what is learned and trained at the workplace. This concept of informal learning comprises short learning sessions with work related topics. These learning occasions facilitate informal learning at the workplace on individual as well as on organizational level, as can be seen from two case studies.

  5. Perceptions of Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Wilks


    Full Text Available Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductivein social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behavioursare considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reducedeviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examinethe perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analysethe relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. Data was obtainedfrom 223 adults employed full-time. Results suggest a positive relationshipbetween the degree of acceptability of certain forms of deviant behaviour andorganizational commitment, but not with job satisfaction. They further indicatethat tenure was the factor having the most impact on the acceptanceof deviant behaviours. Implications of the findings for the management arediscussed.

  6. Communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Peru: implications for HIV prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Ferro, Enrico G; Weikum, Damian; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L


    The HIV epidemic in Peru is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Given that MSM have been documented as early adopters of emerging technology, we examined communication technology access and utilization, and mobile health (mHealth) acceptance among Peruvian MSM and transgender women (TGW) in order to gauge opportunities for mHealth-enabled HIV interventions. A convenience sample of 359 HIV-infected MSM and TGW recruited from three sites in Lima, Peru completed standardized assessments of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), risky sexual behavior, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence along with self-constructed measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. Most participants (86%) had daily access to any cell phone, including smartphones (30%). The most frequent communication activities were receiving and making calls, and receiving and sending text messages using cell phones. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (M = 3.21, SD = 1.32) and engaging in anonymous online interactions with health professionals to discuss HIV-related issues (M = 3.56, SD = 1.33). Importantly, no significant differences were found in communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among participants with AUDs, depression, and suboptimal ART adherence, all of which are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Findings show support for implementing mHealth-based intervention strategies using cell phones to assess and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM and TGW.

  7. HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors associated with awareness of HIV status among men who have sex with men in Paris, France. (United States)

    Velter, Annie; Barin, Francis; Bouyssou, Alice; Guinard, Jérôme; Léon, Lucie; Le Vu, Stéphane; Pillonel, Josiane; Spire, Bruno; Semaille, Caroline


    A cross-sectional survey, using self-sampled finger-prick blood on blotting paper and anonymous behavioral self-administrated questionnaires was conducted in Paris in 2009 among MSM attending gay venues. Paired biological results and questionnaires were available for 886 participants. HIV seroprevalence was 17.7 % (95 % CI: 15.3-20.4). Four groups were identified according to their knowledge of their HIV biological status. Among the 157 found to be seropositive, 31 (19.7 %) were unaware of their status and reported high levels of sexual risk behaviors and frequent HIV testing in the previous 12 months. Among the 729 MSM diagnosed HIV-negative, 183 were no longer sure whether they were still HIV-negative, or had never been tested despite the fact that they engaged in at-risk sexual behaviors. This study provides the first estimate of HIV seroprevalence among MSM in Paris and underlines the specific need for combined prevention of HIV infection in this MSM population.

  8. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott


    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  9. Power and language in a multicultural workplace


    Siiskonen, Asta


    Today’s work markets are increasingly shaped by the multilingual reality. The present research offers an intercultural communication perspective on language diversity and power relations at modern work environment. Study investigates how young professionals and their foreign colleagues perceive diversity affecting in their communicative behaviours in culturally heterogeneous workplace. Analysis of data from participants has been conducted through an analysis of open ended self‐report question...

  10. Coping with stress in the workplace


    Janine D. Oosthuizen; Burger van Lill


    The researchers investigated a simplified process model, a so-called salutogenic approach, of coping with stress in the workplace. Two constructs of salutogenic functioning, namely sense of coherence and locus of control (three dimensions: internal, external locus and autonomy), as well as the stress levels of 240 employees from a parastatal organisation were measured. As expected, individuals with a stronger sense of coherence and a stronger internal locus of control experienced lower levels...

  11. Control Workplace Stress with Systematic Approach


    Rehman, Zeeshan Rehman; Nasar, Asim; Mugheri, Saleem


    The reflection of the employees behaviour towards assigned task and lack of interest in routine activates generates the negative results for organizational sustainable growth. Generally, stress at workplace brings the negativity in whole environment, thus, individual feel uncomfortable to perform their task under pressure. This paper evaluates the factors that causing the stressful environment in the organizations among the workforce and confers for the solution with the model employment ...

  12. Workplace surveillance, privacy protection, and efficiency wages


    Schmitz, Patrick W.


    Consider an employer who wants her employee to work hard. As is well known from the efficiency wage literature, the employer must pay the (wealth-constrained) employee a positive rent to provide incentives for exerting unobservable effort. Alternatively, the employer could make effort observable by costly workplace surveillance. It is argued that a privacy protection law preventing surveillance may increase the total surplus. While such a law reduces the employer?s profit, this loss can be ov...

  13. Developing disability management in the workplace



    The authors of the article are concerned with how developing disability management in the workplace could open the possibilities for work for people with disability and can be matched with the opportunities of increasing the employment rate according to the European Disability Strategy (2010–2020) objectives as well as fighting against social exclusion and practical implementation of the United Convention on the rights of this group of people. As the statistical facts and figures show, there ...



    Octavian RUJOIU; Valentina RUJOIU


    It is known by many names...unethical behavior in higher education, academic fraud, academic misconduct. It takes many forms...plagiarism, cheating on tests or exams, cybercheating. But all describe the characteristics of the same phenomenon: academic dishonesty. It is met in all societies and in the academic environments since ancient times. The aim of this overview was to analyze the major studies and research having as central points of discussion academic dishonesty and workplace dishones...

  15. Trauma in the workplace: grief counseling 101. (United States)

    Zanni, Guido R


    Trauma in the workplace can be precipitated by a number of tragedies, but death of an employee is the most common occurrence. Bereavement, mourning, and grief are common reactions. In most cases, people successfully cope with the death within two months, but some develop chronic grief, which is also referred to as complicated grief. Principles of grief counseling are outlined along with the need for employee training on trauma.

  16. Motivation factors enabling positive deviance at workplace


    Olasmaa, Tomi


    Motivation concerns a person’s willingness to do something. Managers of organizations wish to keep their employees’ motivation level high and improve the performance of the organization. To keep the motivation level high, managers have to acknowledge what are the factors that influence the motivation level of employees. This Bachelor’s Thesis explores factors that influence personnel motivation at workplace. It also studies if these motivational factors enable positive deviance of organizatio...

  17. Managing motivation at the workplace through negotiation


    Carneiro, Davide Rua; Paulo NOVAIS; Zeleznikow, John; Andrade, Francisco Carneiro Pacheco; Neves, José


    Recent research shows that our performance and satisfaction at work depends more on motivational factors than the number of hours or the intensity of the work. In this paper we propose a framework aimed at managing motivation to improve workplace indicators. The key idea is to allow team managers and workers to negotiate over the conditions of the tasks so as to find the best motivation for the worker within the constraints of what the organization may offer. This work is pa...

  18. Teaching Workplace Skills to Technical Communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina M. Slattery


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce two programmes in Technical Communication (one distance, and one on-campus offered by the University of Limerick. Both programmes have been running for several years, but are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain relevant. We describe how these programmes correspond to industry needs, and how they develop core competencies of technical communicators. We outline two key types of assignment (writing and development, and explain their relevance to the workplace.

  19. Extending Knowledge Management to Mobile Workplaces


    Derballa, Volker; Pousttchi, Key


    Knowledge and Knowledge Management (KM) are evolving into an increasingly eminent source of competitive advantage. However,for the time being, the potential of KM is usually limited to stationary workplaces. This excludes a multiplicity of mobile workers, many of them in charge of knowledge-intensive activities.This paper examines the capabilities and limitations of mobile technology usage in order to support KM. After a general overview of KM, the relevant mobile technology is introduced.Sub...

  20. Workplace foodservice; perception of quality and trust. (United States)

    Price, Sarah; Hartwell, Heather; Hemingway, Ann; Chapleo, Chris


    In settings such as workplaces there is a growing acceptance that the food provided has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. This is a captive environment where the overall contribution of the meal served could be an important element of the overall diet and represents an under researched area. Despite growing demand, little information is available; time pressure when making food choice alongside the challenge of understanding information provided can act as barriers for healthy selection and can also decrease confidence in the food system. We would also argue that the fundamental human right of informing consumers what they are eating is not currently being addressed and is underscored. This study used focus groups to explore criteria that motivate peoples' food choice in a workplace foodservice setting. Thematic analysis was applied to categorise data according to frequently occurring responses. Data were collected from four focus groups in Germany and the UK with a total of 23 participants. Although there is little expectation in the quality of food served in the workplace, respondents valued any transparency of information and the opportunity to socialise with other work colleagues. Criteria of importance were identified as: Value for money, Variety, Naturalness, Nutrition, Portion Size, Taste, Visual Appearance, Origin, Animal welfare, Environmental impact, Fair Trade and Organic. Gaining insight into these criteria can enable operators to meet the needs and expectations of their customers in order to increase confidence in the food provided and in addition signpost a healthier selection.

  1. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Prem


    Full Text Available Abstract The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity.

  2. Health promotion in smaller workplaces in the United States. (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Linnan, Laura A; McLellan, Deborah L


    Most American workplaces are smaller, with fewer than 1,000 employees. Many of these employees are low-wage earners and at increased risk for chronic diseases. Owing to the challenges smaller workplaces face to offering health-promotion programs, their employees often lack access to health-promotion opportunities available at larger workplaces. Many smaller employers do not offer health insurance, which is currently the major funding vehicle for health-promotion services. They also have few health-promotion vendors to serve them and low internal capacity for, and commitment to, delivery of on-site programs. The programs they offer, whether aimed at health promotion alone or integrated with health protection, are rarely comprehensive and are understudied. Research priorities for health promotion in smaller workplaces include developing programs feasible for the smallest workplaces with fewer than 20 employees. Policy priorities include incentives for smaller workplaces to implement comprehensive programs and an ongoing system for monitoring and evaluation.

  3. Implementation of Fair-exchange and Anonymous Online E-cash Protocol for E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the world of internet, e-commerce is one of the most prominent sectors where user wants to shop and pay online for online products. E-cash is one of these payment methods. In e-cash, every time a unique string is generated for user so that user uses that string to pay for any online product. At the time of online purchasing a trust should be maintain between customers and merchant such that the product price which is going to pay by customer is fair or not, the merchant is indeed genuine to deliver the product after getting online payment or not. Trust issues are resolved by using fair exchange concept at the time of online purchasing. Anonymity is also a major concern; it means that true identity of users must be hidden from merchant. By keeping these issues in mind we proposed a protocol which ensures users anonymity by using e-cash payment method and fair exchange by using off-line TTP which invokes by customer when any dispute occur from merchant side. In this paper, we implement our proposed protocol and also analyze its performance and compare it with other protocol.

  4. Stealthy Traffic Analysis of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Using Throughput Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Juen, Joshua; Caesar, Matthew; Borisov, Nikita


    Anonymity systems such as Tor aim to enable users to communicate in a manner that is untraceable by adversaries that control a small number of machines. To provide efficient service to users, these anonymity systems make full use of forwarding capacity when sending traffic between intermediate relays. In this paper, we show that doing this leaks information about the set of Tor relays in a circuit (path). We present attacks that, with high confidence and based solely on throughput information, can (a) reduce the attacker's uncertainty about the bottleneck relay of any Tor circuit whose throughput can be observed, (b) exactly identify the guard relay(s) of a Tor user when circuit throughput can be observed over multiple connections, and (c) identify whether two concurrent TCP connections belong to the same Tor user, breaking unlinkability. Our attacks are stealthy, and cannot be readily detected by a user or by Tor relays. We validate our attacks using experiments over the live Tor network. We find that the at...

  5. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  6. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context. (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel


    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  7. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy


    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  9. The Anonymous Plotter in the Routines of Renaissance Theatre and Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pugliatti


    Full Text Available Renaissance theatre, both in England and Italy, was a commercial enterprise and, therefore, it utilized procedures of division of labour to meet the challenge of the market. One of these procedures was the compilation of preparatory texts of various kinds. But, while about one thousand scenari of the commedia dell’arte (some anonymous, some with the author’s name survive, of the ‘plots’ compiled by the English ‘plotters’ in preparation of plays to be written only one incomplete specimen and a few fragments have been preserved; their nature, therefore, remains dubious. Furthermore, anonymous documents of a different nature, also confusingly called ‘plots’, but compiled as reminders for the actors’ entrances during performance, have survived in six, mostly fragmentary, manuscripts. This article discusses these three kinds of preparatory texts in order to characterize their different nature and argues that, although suggestive, the idea of a derivation of the two kinds of English ‘plots’ from the scenari appears unconvincing; indeed, the compilation, in both contexts, of preparatory texts was simply an obvious and necessary measure in order to speed up procedures.

  10. The relationship between personality types and leisure time activities amongst Casino employees’ workplace expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Naude


    Full Text Available Orientation: Associations between a person’s character strengths, happiness and well-being can be explained with the overlap that they have with personality. Casino employees’ working hours were and are increasing, which means that their leisure time is decreasing concomitantly, with only 20 hours per week being used in pursuit of leisure activities.Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate 1502 casino employees’ personality types and the relationship it has on their leisure life and overall happiness.Motivation for the study: The importance of leisure participation and time to take part in leisure activities, and the effect it has on casino employees’ happiness in the workplace, warrants further investigation. If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce.Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of 3032 casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously. An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires.Main findings and practical/managerial implications: In terms of the structural equation modelling, it was found that the positive personalities such as extraversion and openness to experience correlated well with leisure life and happiness. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness. Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator between

  11. Health Impacts of Workplace Heat Exposure: An Epidemiological Review


    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana


    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All publis...

  12. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton


    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.


    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing home physicians in training (NHPT) and 62 supervisors. They participated in semi-structured group interviews, in which they discussed four questions regarding workplace learning. Qualitative analysi...

  13. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities. (United States)

    Dickinson, David


    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  14. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Diseases and Injuries (United States)

    ... Effects Stress Tick-Borne Diseases Tobacco in the Workplace Traumatic Occupational Injuries Traumatic Incident Stress Upper Limb Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium Tuberculosis Violence (Occupational) ( ...

  15. Social Justice as a Lens for Understanding Workplace Mistreatment. (United States)

    Moffa, Christine; Longo, Joy


    Workplace mistreatment can be viewed as a social injustice that prohibits one from achieving optimal well-being. Cognitive and interpersonal skills required of nurses can be impacted by workplace mistreatment, thus extending injustices by violating the rights of patients to optimal care. The purpose of this article is to view workplace mistreatment through the lens of Powers and Faden's theory of social justice. Workplace mistreatment is explored through the 6 dimensions of well-being, including health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination, identified in the theory. The implications for practice and policy are discussed and recommendations for research made.

  16. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    are not important for the overall transition rate from singlehood to partnership. The results suggest that the workplace constitutes a more important marriage market segment for individuals who are already in a partnership presumably due to higher search cost for (alternative) partners in general.......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...

  17. Workplace learning in midwifery education in Flanders (Belgium). (United States)

    Embo, M; Valcke, M


    Workplace learning plays a crucial role in midwifery education. Twelve midwifery schools in Flanders (Belgium) implemented a new competency framework and aimed at implementing a more standardized and evidence-based method to learn and assess competencies, as well as to guide continuous competency development in practice. This paper describes the introduction of 'Embo's continuous workplace learning model', a holistic and competency-based method that integrates all workplace learning components. Available research evidence helps concluding the learning model is a feasible approach to organize workplace learning in such a way that continuous professional competency development is achieved.

  18. HIV Structural Database (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  19. Positive attitudes to pediatric HIV testing: findings from a nationally representative survey from Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Buzdugan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early HIV testing and diagnosis are paramount for increasing treatment initiation among children, necessary for their survival and improved health. However, uptake of pediatric HIV testing is low in high-prevalence areas. We present data on attitudes towards pediatric testing from a nationally representative survey in Zimbabwe. METHODS: All 18-24 year olds and a proportion of 25-49 year olds living in randomly selected enumeration areas from all ten Zimbabwe provinces were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire on a personal digital assistant, and 16,719 people agreed to participate (75% of eligibles. RESULTS: Most people think children can benefit from HIV testing (91%, 81% of people who looked after children know how to access testing for their children and 92% would feel happier if their children were tested. Notably, 42% fear that, if tested, children may be discriminated against by some community members and 28% fear their children are HIV positive. People who fear discrimination against children who have tested for HIV are more likely than their counterparts to perceive their community as stigmatizing against HIV positive people (43% vs. 29%. They are also less likely to report positive attitudes to HIV themselves (49% vs. 74%. Only 28% think it is possible for children HIV-infected at birth to live into adolescence without treatment. Approximately 70% of people (irrespective of whether they are themselves parents think HIV-infected children in their communities can access testing and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric HIV testing is the essential gateway to prevention and care services. Our data indicate positive attitudes to testing children, suggesting a conducive environment for increasing uptake of pediatric testing in Zimbabwe. However, there is a need to better understand the barriers to pediatric testing, such as stigma and discrimination, and address the gaps in knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in children.

  20. [HIV and pregnancy]. (United States)

    Zweifel, Vineeta Bansal; Berger, Christoph; Nadal, David; Grawe, Claudia


    The use and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people has led to a reduction of vertical transmission of HIV. Pregnancy in HIV-positive women became more common. The success of prophylactic measures has led to a dramatic change in care of HIV-positive women. Today, a HIV-positive mother giving birth to a HIV-negative child is standard of care in industrialized countries. We describe the impact of an HIV-infection in pregnancy and outline the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  2. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia. (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary


    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  3. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  4. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  5. Dermatomyositis and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Chand


    Full Text Available HIV has been linked to several autoimmune disorders since its emergence in the 1980s. By affecting different cells and pathways in the immune system, HIV induces the development of certain autoimmune diseases while prohibiting the emergence of others. Dermatomyositis has been rarely described in patients with HIV. We present a case of dermatomyositis in a patient with HIV and explore the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders in HIV focusing on dermatomyositis.

  6. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其


    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  7. Attitudes to prenatal testing and notification for HIV infection in Nairobi, Kenya. (United States)

    Marjan, R S; Ruminjo, J K


    Four hundred antenatal clinic attendants were surveyed for their attitude to testing and notification for HIV infection test results. The participants were systematically sampled from the antenatal clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, and interviewed using a closed-ended structured questionnaire. All the attendants had heard of HIV, and only 5(1.3%) did not know how Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) presents. Fifty one percent of them had no objection to their blood being tested for HIV. In fact, 52.5% thought, wrongly, that blood was routinely tested for HIV at the hospital's antenatal clinic. More than one third (35.8%) of respondents wished their permission to be obtained before the testing and 95% wished to be informed of the test result. Acceptability of testing was 33.8%, for Named Voluntary Testing, 62.0% for Universal Testing and 1.0% for Anonymous Testing. All the women said they would want to use a method of contraception, principally tubal ligation, if found HIV seropositive and 63.7% would seek a termination of pregnancy. In this study population, acceptability and expressed willingness to know HIV test results and willingness to let a spouse/sexual partner know the result was high. This paper makes recommendations that HIV testing be made available at the ANC, together with competent pre and post-test counselling.

  8. Estimating the Number of HIV-infected gay sauna patrons in Taipei area (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lee, Shen-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming A.; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Lai, Shu-Fen; Chang, An-Lung


    We make use of the voluntary HIV and syphilis test results conducted at five gay saunas in Taipei from August of 1999 to end of 2002 to estimate the number of HIV-positive gay saunas patrons in Taipei area by utilizing Hierarchical Bayes method in Generalized Removal Model for Open Populations (GERMO). Considering the effect of a nearby anonymous HIV quick test program on the gay sauna HIV serotesting data, we make use of the association between HIV and syphilis serotesting results from the gay sauna program to amend possible measurement error occurred at the time of data collection by utilizing the regression calibration method. The median estimates for the number of HIV-positive patrons of the five gay saunas increase from 120 (95% CI: 76.5-159.0) during the first half of 2000 to 224 (95% CI: 171.0-265.5) for the second half of 2002. The result, indicating two-fold increase within two and half years, confirms that the gay sauna patrons in Taipei area are at high risk for HIV infection.

  9. Education and nutritional status of orphans and children of HIV-infected parents in Kenya. (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth


    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate logistic regression. Results indicate that orphans, fostered children, and children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to attend school than non-orphaned/non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are more likely to be underweight and wasted, and less likely to receive medical care for ARI and diarrhea. Children of HIV-negative single mothers are also disadvantaged on most indicators. The findings highlight the need to expand child welfare programs to include not only orphans but also fostered children, children of single mothers, and children of HIV-infected parents, who tend to be equally, if not more, disadvantaged.

  10. Feedback on Student Performance in the Workplace: The Role of Workplace Supervisors (United States)

    Peach, Deborah; Ruinard, Deborah; Webb, Fleur


    This chapter highlights the importance of feedback in work-integrated learning (WIL), the key role of workplace supervisors, and the importance of continuous improvement in systems to support feedback processes. The paper proposes a definition of feedback and formative feedback, as well as approaches for providing industry feedback in WIL. It…

  11. German in the Workplace: Workplace Learning for Immigrant and/or Ethnic Workers (United States)

    Zimmer, Veronika; Grünhage-Monetti, Matilde


    Although the importance of communicative competences in the workplace is conjured up in most discussions, there is little empirical research (in Germany) describing formal and informal communications in companies and branches with a high percentage of immigrant workers, particularly in the production sector. The study group "Deutsch am…

  12. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power (United States)

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.


    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  13. The Workplace Game - Netherlands researchers develop board game to adress behavior in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyne, E.; Thoolen, F.


    The article introduces the Workplace Game to the Englisch speaking FM-world. As a communication tool, the game enables office workers to exchange ideas about the use of their office environment, and makes the implicit thoughts and norms about office use, explicit. This helps to make office life easi

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  15. What Is HIV/AIDS? (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  16. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  18. Promoting Intercultural Competency in the Nuclear Workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachner K. M.


    Intercultural preparedness training is a staple of many workplaces that require international competence, including government, business, and non-profits. Even highly experienced diplomats are often advised to attend training sessions on this topic. Intercultural preparedness training promises to be especially relevant and useful for professionals working in the field of nuclear nonproliferation, including in the application of international nuclear safeguards. This paper outlines the fundamental philosophies underlying a training program that will benefit professionals in the nuclear arena, whether practitioners of nonproliferation or other sub-fields relying on international cooperation and collaboration, and how such a training program might be implemented efficiently.

  19. Coping with stress in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Oosthuizen


    Full Text Available The researchers investigated a simplified process model, a so-called salutogenic approach, of coping with stress in the workplace. Two constructs of salutogenic functioning, namely sense of coherence and locus of control (three dimensions: internal, external locus and autonomy, as well as the stress levels of 240 employees from a parastatal organisation were measured. As expected, individuals with a stronger sense of coherence and a stronger internal locus of control experienced lower levels of stress and vice versa. Nevertheless, in a regression analysis only the sense of coherence and external locus of control variables contributed significantly to variance in the criterion variable stress.



    Zinchenko, Yu.P.; E. I. Pervichko; O. D. Ostroumova


    Aim. To study the presence, severity and qualitative characteristics of «burnout syndrome» in patients with «workplace hypertension» (WPH), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and healthy people.Material and methods. Untreated patients with hypertension stage II, degree 1-2 (n=170; age 32-52 years; mean age 46.7Ѓ}4.1 years) were examined. Group 1 included 85 patients with WPH (mean age 44.7Ѓ}4.3 years) and Group 2 included 85 patients without WPH (mean age 47.4Ѓ}4.5 years)...