WorldWideScience

Sample records for anonymizing weighted social

  1. Anonimos: An LP based Approach for Anonymizing Weighted Social Network Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sudipto; Abbadi, Amr El

    2010-01-01

    The increasing popularity of social networks has initiated a fertile research area in information extraction and data mining. Anonymization of these social graphs is important to facilitate publishing these data sets for analysis by external entities. Prior work has concentrated mostly on node identity anonymization and structural anonymization. But with the growing interest in analyzing social networks as a weighted network, edge weight anonymization is also gaining importance. We present An\\'onimos, a Linear Programming based technique for anonymization of edge weights that preserves linear properties of graphs. Such properties form the foundation of many important graph-theoretic algorithms such as shortest paths problem, k-nearest neighbors, minimum cost spanning tree, and maximizing information spread. As a proof of concept, we apply An\\'onimos to the shortest paths problem and its extensions, prove the correctness, analyze complexity, and experimentally evaluate it using real social network data sets. O...

  2. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  3. Applying l-Diversity in anonymizing collaborative social network

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ajay; Mitra, A; Singh, Arjun; Gour, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    To date publish of a giant social network jointly from different parties is an easier collaborative approach. Agencies and researchers who collect such social network data often have a compelling interest in allowing others to analyze the data. In many cases the data describes relationships that are private and sharing the data in full can result in unacceptable disclosures. Thus, preserving privacy without revealing sensitive information in the social network is a serious concern. Recent developments for preserving privacy using anonymization techniques are focused on relational data only. Preserving privacy in social networks against neighborhood attacks is an initiation which uses the definition of privacy called k-anonymity. k-anonymous social network still may leak privacy under the cases of homogeneity and background knowledge attacks. To overcome, we find a place to use a new practical and efficient definition of privacy called ldiversity. In this paper, we take a step further on preserving privacy in ...

  4. Link Prediction by De-anonymization: How We Won the Kaggle Social Network Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Rubinstein, Benjamin I P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the winning entry to the IJCNN 2011 Social Network Challenge run by Kaggle.com. The goal of the contest was to promote research on real-world link prediction, and the dataset was a graph obtained by crawling the popular Flickr social photo sharing website, with user identities scrubbed. By de-anonymizing much of the competition test set using our own Flickr crawl, we were able to effectively game the competition. Our attack represents a new application of de-anonymization to gaming machine learning contests, suggesting changes in how future competitions should be run. We introduce a new simulated annealing-based weighted graph matching algorithm for the seeding step of de-anonymization. We also show how to combine de-anonymization with link prediction---the latter is required to achieve good performance on the portion of the test set not de-anonymized---for example by training the predictor on the de-anonymized portion of the test set, and combining probabilistic predictions from de-anony...

  5. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  6. Online Piracy, Anonymity and Social Change – Deviance Through Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns; Kaminski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses current trends in the use of anonymity services among younger Swedes (15-25) and focuses on individuals engaging in illegal file sharing in order to better understand the rationale behind both file sharing as well as online anonymity, especially in relation to enforcement of copyright. By comparing the findings of a survey conducted on three different occasions (early 2009, late 2009 and early 2012), we measure the fluctuations in the use of anonymity services among appr...

  7. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  8. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  9. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  10. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  11. Social contagions on weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity can not only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that, the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinder social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  12. Social Esteem versus Social Stigma: the role of anonymity in an income reporting game.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Casal; Luigi Mittone

    2014-01-01

    When the phenomenon of tax evasion is discussed, both scholars and authorities agree on the fact that, although essential, classical enforcements are not enough to ensure tax compliance: some other forms of incentives must be adopted. The paper’s aim is to experimentally test the role of different non- monetary incentives for tax compliance: participants have been treated with different experimental conditions, which differ in the role played by anonymity. Indeed, subjects have been informed ...

  13. Social Networks for Social Changes: Case Study of Facebook Group Anonymous Hrvatska (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Two-way communication, participation in creating and sharing content on the Internet and complete human experience enabled in cyberspace or social media affected the emergence of a new form of culture – real virtuality. Social power transforms and moves to cyberspace. The Internet became the most democratic medium and a framework for updating information on various problems and planning actions in order to solve them. This sets up new aspects of resistance and social o...

  14. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishonna Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.

  15. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kishonna Gray; Wanju Huang

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1) anonymity, 2) endless narrative, and 3) socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based m...

  16. Multilayer weighted social network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  17. Anonymous Gossiping

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  18. Against anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  19. Against anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  20. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  1. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  2. Narcotics Anonymous: Anonymity, admiration, and prestige in an egalitarian community

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Jeffrey K.; Fessler, Daniel M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) supports long-term recovery for those addicted to drugs. Paralleling social dynamics in many small-scale societies, NA exhibits tension between egalitarianism and prestige-based hierarchy, a problem exacerbated by the addict’s personality as characterized by NA’s ethnopsychology.  We explore how NA’s central principle of anonymity normatively translates into egalitarianism among group members.  Turning to the lived reality of membership, building on Carr’s (2011) conc...

  3. Anonymity in Large Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Gomberg; Cesar Martinelli; Ricard Torres

    2002-01-01

    In a social choice model with an infinite number of agents, there may occur "equal size" coalitions that a preference aggregation rule should treat in the same manner. We introduce an axiom of equal treatment with respect to a measure of coalition size and explore its interaction with common axioms of social choice. We show that, provided the measure space is sufficiently rich in coalitions of the same measure, the new axiom is the natural extension of the concept of anonymity, and in particu...

  4. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image. PMID:25311196

  5. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Motwani, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  6. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  7. Anonymization of Court Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Claus; Jongejan, Bart; Hansen, Dorte Haltrup;

    We describe an anonymization tool that was commissioned by and specified together with Schultz, a publishing company specialized in Danish law related publications. Unavailability of training data and the need to guarantee compliance with pre-existing anonymization guidelines forced us to implement...

  8. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S.; Kassan, Anusha; Sesma-Vazquez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias.

  9. Anonymity in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuroskeptic

    2013-05-01

    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  10. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaj Ali Jalila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  11. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women's Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...

  12. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  13. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  14. Social Indispensability in Spite of Temporal and Spatial Separation: Motivation Gains in a Sequential Task During Anonymous Cooperation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wittchen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated motivation gains during synchronous group work compared to individual work when group members’ contribution was indispensable for the group’s success (e.g., Hertel, Kerr, & Messé, 2000, Hertel, Deter, & Konradt, 2003. The current study extends this earlier research (a by examining indispensability effects during sequential cooperation (temporal separation, and (b by exploring these effects under conditions of high anonymity on the Internet (spatial separation. A 2 (Internet vs. laboratory context x 3 (high vs. low vs. no impact of personal contribution for a group x 2 (individual vs. group trial design was used with the last factor measured within subjects (N = 231. Motivation was measured with a vigilance task that simulated an Internet travel agency selling package holidays according to incoming customer requests. During all trials, participants received contemporaneous feedback about their own performance. During the group trials, participants additionally received information about their partner’s alleged previous performance at this point of the trial, which suggested that the partner had always performed slightly better than the participant. As expected, both in the laboratory and the Internet setting, the highest motivation gains occurred when participants’ contribution to the group’s outcome was indispensable for the group. This finding provides evidence that motivation gains among inferior group members are possible even during sequential group work under highly anonymous conditions.

  15. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  16. Anonymous Broadcast Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lazic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dining Cryptographer network (or DC-net is a privacy preserving communication protocol devised by David Chaum for anonymous message publication. A very attractive feature of DC-nets is the strength of its security, which is inherent in the protocol and is not dependent on other schemes, like encryption. Unfortunately the DC-net protocol has a level of complexity that causes it to suffer from exceptional communication overhead and implementation difficulty that precludes its use in many real-world use-cases. We have designed and created a DC-net implementation that uses a pure client-server model, which successfully avoids much of the complexity inherent in the DC-net protocol. We describe the theory of DC-nets and our pure client-server implementation, as well as the compromises that were made to reduce the protocol’s level of complexity. Discussion centers around the details of our implementation of DC-net.

  17. Graph Based Local Recoding for Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Ramana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Releasing person specific data could potentially reveal the sensitive information of an individual. kanonymityis an approach for protecting the individual privacy where the data is formed into set ofequivalence classes in which each class share the same values. Among several methods, local recodingbased generalization is an effective method to accomplish k-anonymization. In this paper, we proposed aminimum spanning tree partitioning based approach to achieve local recoding. We achieve it in twophases. During the first phase, MST is constructed using concept hierarchical and the distances amongdata points are considered as the weights of MST and in the next phase we generate the equivalence classesadhering to the anonymity requirement. Experiments show that our proposed local recoding frameworkproduces better quality in published tables than existing Mondrian global recoding and k-memberclustering approaches.

  18. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Goldberger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.

  19. The influence of social power on weight perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Schnall, Simone

    2014-08-01

    Three studies explored whether social power affects the perception of physical properties of objects, testing the hypothesis that the powerless find objects to be heavier than the powerful do. Correlational findings from Study 1 revealed that people with a low personal sense of power perceived loaded boxes to be heavier than people with a high personal sense of power perceived them to be. In Study 2, experimentally manipulated power indicated that participants in the powerless condition judged the boxes to be heavier than did participants in the powerful condition. Study 3 further indicated that lacking power actively influences weight perception relative to a neutral control condition, whereas having power does not. Although much research on embodied perception has shown that various physiological and psychosocial resources influence visual perception of the physical environment, this is the first demonstration suggesting that power, a psychosocial construct that relates to the control of resources, changes the perception of physical properties of objects.

  20. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  1. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues.

  2. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  3. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via...

  4. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via ...

  5. The Role of Social Media in Online Weight Management: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tammy; Chopra, Vineet; Zhang, Catherine; Woolford, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social media applications are promising adjuncts to online weight management interventions through facilitating education, engagement, and peer support. However, the precise impact of social media on weight management is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically describe the use and impact of social media in online weight management interventions. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for English-language studies publi...

  6. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  7. Anonymous online purchases with exhaustive operational security

    OpenAIRE

    Van Mieghem, Vincent; Pouwelse, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the process of remaining anonymous online and its concurrent operational security that has to be performed. It focusses particularly on remaining anonymous while purchasing online goods, resulting in anonymously bought items. Different aspects of the operational security process as well as anonymously funding with cryptocurrencies are described. Eventually it is shown how to anonymously purchase items and services from the hidden web, as well as the delivery. It is shown ...

  8. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  9. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...

  10. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...

  11. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  12. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  13. Movement Data Anonymity through Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks and mobile devices, such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, sense and track the movements of people and vehicles, producing society-wide mobility databases. This is a challenging scenario for data analysis and mining. On the one hand, exciting opportunities arise out of discovering new knowledge about human mobile behavior, and thus fuel intelligent info-mobility applications. On other hand, new privacy concerns arise when mobility data are published. The risk is particularly high for GPS trajectories, which represent movement of a very high precision and spatio-temporal resolution: the de-identification of such trajectories (i.e., forgetting the ID of their associated owners is only a weak protection, as generally it is possible to re-identify a person by observing her routine movements. In this paper we propose a method for achieving true anonymity in a dataset of published trajectories, by defining a transformation of the original GPS trajectories based on spatial generalization and k-anonymity. The proposed method offers a formal data protection safeguard, quantified as a theoretical upper bound to the probability of re-identification. We conduct a thorough study on a real-life GPS trajectory dataset, and provide strong empirical evidence that the proposed anonymity techniques achieve the conflicting goals of data utility and data privacy. In practice, the achieved anonymity protection is much stronger than the theoretical worst case, while the quality of the cluster analysis on the trajectory data is preserved.

  14. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support, and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mozhdeh Nasseh Lotf; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Nygren, Lennart; Nojomi, Marzieh; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW. PMID:23817159

  15. Impact of Anonymity on Information Sharing through Internal Psychological Processes: A Case of South Korean Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Lee; Jaewon Choi; Kyung Kyu Kim; Ae Ri Lee

    2014-01-01

    Many web users post their opinions and information without revealing their identities (i.e., demographics, social standing, and/or expertise); anonymity has become a common form of information exchange in online communities such as social media sites and Internet forums. In the meantime, negative social consequences have resulted from anonymous activities in online communities. Existing literature reports largely mixed results about the impact of online anonymity on online community outcomes....

  16. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  17. Role of social support in lifestyle-focused weight management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, van C.; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical framewo

  18. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  19. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  20. Quantum communications with an anonymous receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new protocol for the anonymous communication of quantum information is proposed. The anonymity of the receiver and the privacy of the quantum information are perfectly protected except with exponentially small probability in this protocol. Furthermore, this protocol uses single photons to construct anonymous entanglement instead of multipartite entangled states, and therefore it reduces quantum resources compared with the pioneering work.

  1. Toward Analysis of the Relations Among the Youth Counterculture, Telephone Hotlines, and Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizerman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    During the 1960's, there emerged innovative human service programs for youth. Among the actual differences in these programs compared to their older, established human service agencies was (is) the prominent position of the social value of client anonymity. This anonymity is examined in an attempt to understand its role. (RC)

  2. Socially weighted linear composites in environmental decision making. [Nuclear power plant site options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J.A.; Lindell, M.K.; Maynard, W.S.; Nealey, S.M.; Burnham, J.B.

    1975-11-01

    A method for combining social values and technical information, for environmental decision making for the selection of a site for a nuclear power plant is described. Eight factors are identified by which six different thermal power plant site and design options could be evaluated. A method is described by which the factors could be weighted by social values and the weighted factor scores could be summed for each option. These weighted sums can then be compared with each other in order to determine the best choice from both a social and a technical point of view. (CH)

  3. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  4. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  5. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare...... the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...

  6. On the performance of social network and likelihood-based expert weighting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using expert judgment data from the TU Delft's expert judgment database, we compare the performance of different weighting schemes, namely equal weighting, performance-based weighting from the classical model [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.], social network (SN) weighting and likelihood weighting. The picture that emerges with regard to SN weights is rather mixed. SN theory does not provide an alternative to performance-based combination of expert judgments, since the statistical accuracy of the SN decision maker is sometimes unacceptably low. On the other hand, it does outperform equal weighting in the majority of cases. The results here, though not overwhelmingly positive, do nonetheless motivate further research into social interaction methods for nominating and weighting experts. Indeed, a full expert judgment study with performance measurement requires an investment in time and effort, with a view to securing external validation. If high confidence in a comparable level of validation can be obtained by less intensive methods, this would be very welcome, and would facilitate the application of structured expert judgment in situations where the resources for a full study are not available. Likelihood weights are just as resource intensive as performance-based weights, and the evidence presented here suggests that they are inferior to performance-based weights with regard to those scoring variables which are optimized in performance weights (calibration and information). Perhaps surprisingly, they are also inferior with regard to likelihood. Their use is further discouraged by the fact that they constitute a strongly improper scoring rule

  7. Does anonymity increase the reporting of mental health symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fear Nicola T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no doubt that the perceived stigma of having a mental disorder acts as a barrier to help seeking. It is possible that personnel may be reluctant to admit to symptoms suggestive of poor mental health when such data can be linked to them, even if their personal details are only used to help them access further care. This may be particularly relevant because individuals who have a mental health problem are more likely to experience barriers to care and hold stigmatizing beliefs. If that is the case, then mental health screening programmers may not be effective in detecting those most in need of care. We aimed to compare mental health symptom reporting when using an anonymous versus identifiable questionnaire among UK military personnel on deployment in Iraq. Methods Survey among UK military personnel using two questionnaires, one was anonymous (n = 315 and one collected contact details (i.e. identifiable, n = 296. Distribution was by alternate allocation. Data were collected in Iraq during January-February 2009. Results No significant difference in the reporting of symptoms of common mental disorders was found (18.1% of identifiable vs. 22.9% of anonymous participants. UK military personnel were more likely to report sub-threshold and probable PTSD when completing questionnaires anonymously (sub-threshold PTSD: 2.4% of identifiable vs. 5.8% of anonymous participants; probable PTSD: 1.7% of identifiable vs. 4.8% of anonymous participants. Of the 11 barriers to care and perceived social stigma statements considered, those completing the anonymous questionnaire compared to those completing the identifiable questionnaire were more likely to endorse three statements: “leaders discourage the use of mental health services” (9.3% vs. 4.6%, “it would be too embarrassing” (41.6% vs. 32.5% and “I would be seen as weak” (46.6% vs. 34.2%. Conclusions We found a significant effect on the reporting of sub

  8. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  9. Social stress increases cortisol and hampers attention in adolescents with excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

    Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.

  10. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2013-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control po...

  11. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p adolescents (p self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  12. Spousal Social Control During a Weight Loss Attempt: A Daily Diary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sarah A.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated perceptions of spousal social control and the partners’ behavior, affect, and relationship satisfaction at the start of a weight loss attempt. Gender and body mass index (BMI) were explored as moderators. In order to examine the short-term effects of social control, participants completed daily assessments reporting spouses’ influence and their own behavior and well-being. Instrumental and reinforcing social control were associated with better health behavior, well-being, and ...

  13. Varying social media post types differentially impacts engagement in a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Sarah B; Davidson, Charis; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether different types of posts differentially affect participant engagement and if engagement with social media enhances weight loss. Data are a subanalysis from a randomized weight loss study with a 4-month follow-up support period via private Facebook groups and monthly meetings. Counselors posted five different post types/week based on social cognitive theory (weight-related, recipes, nutrition information, poll votes, or requests for suggestions). Types of participant engagement (likes, comments/poll votes, and views) were assessed. Poll votes were the most engaging (mean number of votes or comments/poll 14.6 ± 3.4, P social support during weight loss interventions using remote methodology. PMID:25584084

  14. Octopus: A Secure and Anonymous DHT Lookup

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiyan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Hash Table (DHT) lookup is a core technique in structured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Its decentralized nature introduces security and privacy vulnerabilities for applications built on top of them; we thus set out to design a lookup mechanism achieving both security and anonymity, heretofore an open problem. We present Octopus, a novel DHT lookup which provides strong guarantees for both security and anonymity. Octopus uses attacker identification mechanisms to discover and remove malicious nodes, severely limiting an adversary's ability to carry out active attacks, and splits lookup queries over separate anonymous paths and introduces dummy queries to achieve high levels of anonymity. We analyze the security of Octopus by developing an event-based simulator to show that the attacker discovery mechanisms can rapidly identify malicious nodes with low error rate. We calculate the anonymity of Octopus using probabilistic modeling and show that Octopus can achieve near-optimal anonymity. We evaluate ...

  15. Privacy-Preserving Updates to Anonymous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasubramanian, R.; K.P. KALIYAMURTHIE

    2013-01-01

    Suppose a medical facility connected with a research institution and the researchers can use themedical details of a patient without knowing the personal details. Thus the research data base used by theresearchers must be anonymized (Sanitized). We can consider another problem in the area of census.Individuals give the private information to a trusted party (Census Bureau) and the census bureau mustpublish anonymized or sanitized version of data. So anonymization is done for privacy. Our work...

  16. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  17. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  18. Distributed anonymous discrete function computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickx, Julien M; Tsitsiklis, John N

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes. In this model, each node has bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not grow with the network size. Furthermore, each node only knows its neighbors, not the entire graph. Our goal is to characterize the class of functions that can be computed within this model. In our main result, we provide a necessary condition for computability which we show to be nearly sufficient, in the sense that every function that violates this condition can at least be approximated. The problem of computing suitably rounded averages in a distributed manner plays a central role in our development; we provide an algorithm that solves it in time that grows quadratically with the size of the network.

  19. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  20. The determinants of misreporting weight and height: The role of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Given the lack of availability of measured anthropometric data for the whole of Spain, this paper combines data from the 2006 Catalan Health and Health Examination Surveys to compute the size of weight and height self-reporting biases. The underlying determinants of these biases are then analyzed, placing special emphasis on the role played by social norms. Our findings show that social norms regarding "ideal" weight (proxied by the average weight of a reference group based on gender and age) tend to affect the self-reporting weight (relative) bias. This finding suggests that the more satisfied individuals feel with their own body image the less prone they are to under-report their weight, although this effect is contingent upon the definition of social norms and the correction of endogeneity. However, we found no evidence of a similar impact caused by the social norms governing height. The relationship found between the measured and self-reported anthropometric data was applied to the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) so as to correct the self-reported information contained in it. After correcting for self-reporting errors, both the BMI and the prevalence of obesity were found to be significantly underestimated, with instances of misreporting being more prevalent among women.

  1. Self-tallying quantum anonymous voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Yu, Chaohua; Gao, Fei; Qi, Haoyu; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Anonymous voting is a voting method of hiding the link between a vote and a voter, the context of which ranges from governmental elections to decision making in small groups like councils and companies. In this paper, we propose a quantum anonymous voting protocol assisted by two kinds of entangled quantum states. Particularly, we provide a mechanism of opening and permuting the ordered votes of all the voters in an anonymous manner; any party who is interested in the voting results can acquire a permutation copy and then obtains the voting result through a simple calculation. Unlike all previous quantum works on anonymous voting, our quantum anonymous protocol possesses the properties of privacy, self-tallying, nonreusability, verifiability, and fairness at the same time. In addition, we demonstrate that the entanglement of the quantum states used in our protocol makes an attack from an outside eavesdropper and inside dishonest voters impossible. We also generalize our protocol to execute the task of anonymous multiparty computation, such as anonymous broadcast and anonymous ranking.

  2. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  3. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.

    2013-01-01

    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  4. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  5. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  6. The Effect of Social Feedback in a Reddit Weight Loss Community

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Tiago O.; Weber, Ingmar; Haddadi, Hamed; Pappa, Gisele L.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted as common wisdom that receiving social feedback is helpful to (i) keep an individual engaged with a community and to (ii) facilitate an individual's positive behavior change. However, quantitative data on the effect of social feedback on continued engagement in an online health community is scarce. In this work we apply Mahalanobis Distance Matching (MDM) to demonstrate the importance of receiving feedback in the "loseit" weight loss community on Reddit. Concretely we...

  7. Towards a Theory of Anonymous Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderi, J

    2009-01-01

    The problem of anonymous networking when an eavesdropper observes packet timings in a communication network is considered. The goal is to hide the identities of source-destination nodes, and paths of information flow in the network. One way to achieve such an anonymity is to use mixers. Mixers are nodes that receive packets from multiple sources and change the timing of packets, by mixing packets at the output links, to prevent the eavesdropper from finding sources of outgoing packets. In this paper, we consider two simple but fundamental scenarios: double input-single output mixer and double input-double output mixer. For the first case, we use the information-theoretic definition of the anonymity, based on average entropy per packet, and find an optimal mixing strategy under a strict latency constraint. For the second case, perfect anonymity is considered, and a maximal throughput strategy with perfect anonymity is found that minimizes the average delay.

  8. With a little help from my friends: How social networks help college students trying to lose weight

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Most young adults gain weight while attending college, setting the stage for long-term weight gain, and associated chronic disease. Interventions that use social and mobile technologies, and leverage social network support may help students adopt health-enhancing habits such as regular exercise. The first study explored how overweight/obese college students participating in project SMART (N = 404), a remotely delivered two-year weight loss trial, engaged their social networks, and used soci...

  9. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  10. PHENOMENAL EXPLORATION INTO IMPACT OF ANONYMITY ON LAW AND ORDER IN CYBERSPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingan

    2015-01-01

    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  11. Providing Group Anonymity Using Wavelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Providing public access to unprotected digital data can pose a threat of unwanted disclosing the restricted information. The problem of protecting such information can be divided into two main subclasses, namely, individual and group data anonymity. By group anonymity we define protecting important data patterns, distributions, and collective features which cannot be determined through analyzing individual records only. An effective and comparatively simple way of solving group anonymity problem is doubtlessly applying wavelet transform. It's easy-to-implement, powerful enough, and might produce acceptable results if used properly. In the paper, we present a novel method of using wavelet transform for providing group anonymity; it is gained through redistributing wavelet approximation values, along with simultaneous fixing data mean value and leaving wavelet details unchanged (or proportionally altering them). Moreover, we provide a comprehensive example to illustrate the method.

  12. Finding routes in anonymous sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Renato C.; Barbosa, Valmir C

    2005-01-01

    We consider networks of anonymous sensors and address the problem of constructing routes for the delivery of information from a group of sensors in response to a query by a sink. In order to circumvent the restrictions imposed by anonymity, we rely on using the power level perceived by the sensors in the query from the sink. We introduce a simple distributed algorithm to achieve the building of routes to the sink and evaluate its performance by means of simulations.

  13. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  14. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  15. Community Detecting and Feature Analysis in Real Directed Weighted Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Real social networks usually have some structural features of the complex networks, such as community structure, the scale-free degree distribution, clustering, "small world" network, dynamic evolution and so on. A new community detecting algorithm for directed and weighted social networks is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of more reference information, the accuracy of the algorithm is better than some of the typical detecting algorithms. And because of the use of heap structure and multi-task modular architecture, the algorithm also got a high computational efficiency than other algorithms. The effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm is validated by experiments on real social networks. Based on the theories and models of complex networks, the features of the real large social networks are analyzed.

  16. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Line K; Vik Torstein; Lydersen Stian; Løhaugen Gro CC; Skranes Jon; Brubakk Ann-Mari; Indredavik Marit S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Me...

  17. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  18. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  19. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. METHODS: Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. RESULTS: FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  20. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context.

  1. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  2. Anonymous Fingerprinting with Robust QIM Watermarking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Lagendijk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting is an essential tool to shun legal buyers of digital content from illegal redistribution. In fingerprinting schemes, the merchant embeds the buyer's identity as a watermark into the content so that the merchant can retrieve the buyer's identity when he encounters a redistributed copy. To prevent the merchant from dishonestly embedding the buyer's identity multiple times, it is essential for the fingerprinting scheme to be anonymous. Kuribayashi and Tanaka, 2005, proposed an anonymous fingerprinting scheme based on a homomorphic additive encryption scheme, which uses basic quantization index modulation (QIM for embedding. In order, for this scheme, to provide sufficient security to the merchant, the buyer must be unable to remove the fingerprint without significantly degrading the purchased digital content. Unfortunately, QIM watermarks can be removed by simple attacks like amplitude scaling. Furthermore, the embedding positions can be retrieved by a single buyer, allowing for a locally targeted attack. In this paper, we use robust watermarking techniques within the anonymous fingerprinting approach proposed by Kuribayashi and Tanaka. We show that the properties of an additive homomorphic cryptosystem allow for creating anonymous fingerprinting schemes based on distortion compensated QIM (DC-QIM and rational dither modulation (RDM, improving the robustness of the embedded fingerprints. We evaluate the performance of the proposed anonymous fingerprinting schemes under additive-noise and amplitude-scaling attacks.

  3. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  4. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  5. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  6. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Liusheng Huang; Fang Song

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of...

  7. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serracino-Inglott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterious as popularly portrayed. Under a definition of vigilantism that includes reprobative punishment rather than violence as a key element, Anonymous are vigilantes. Many of its Ops can be justified in view of the mismatch between formal norm enforcement practice and Internet natives’ experience of it. Anons are more like eco-warriors than terrorists. While their actions are contentious, their force is framed in a vision of common good that is not unreasonable. Engaging with online deviants is shown to be a productive way of identifying the weaknesses in concepts underpinning moral evaluation of Internet-enabled phenomena.

  8. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina;

    2013-01-01

    . While anonymity and confidentiality appear to be orthogonal properties, making anonymous communication confidential is more involved than one might expect, since the ciphertext might reveal which public key has been used to encrypt. To address this problem, public-key cryptosystems with enhanced...... literature (IND-CCA, key-privacy, weak robustness). We also show that a desirable stronger variant, preventing the adversary from selective ”trial-deliveries” of messages, is unfortunately unachievable by any PKE scheme, no matter how strong. The constructive approach makes the guarantees achieved...

  9. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  10. Saúde perinatal: baixo peso e classe social Perinatal health: low birth weight and social class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Moura da Silva

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, no período de 1º de junho de 1978 a 31 de maio de 1979, 98% do universo de nascidos vivos, totalizando 8.878 crianças nascidas de parto único. As taxas de baixo peso e de peso deficiente ao nascer foram de 7,5% e de 21,1%, respectivamente. A maioria dos nascimentos de baixo peso eram crianças a termo, 50,6%, representando casos de retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. A prevalência de baixo peso nas classes sociais foi de 3,2% na burguesia empresarial, 2,8% na burguesia gerencial, 3,9% na pequena burguesia, 7,0% no proletariado e 9,5% no subproletariado, o que demonstra uma profunda disparidade. Definindo-se o baixo peso como menor ou igual a 2.500 gramas e comparando os resultados alcançados (8,3% com os de outro estudo clássico (8,7%, observou-se que não houve redução estatisticamente significativa na prevalência de baixo peso em Ribeirão Preto, no intervalo de uma década.A survey was carried out in Ribeirão Preto, S. Paulo State, Brazil, between June 1978 and May 1979 with a view to studying the prevalence of low birth weight and its occurrence among different social classes. Data were collected from 8,878 singleton live births in eight maternity hospitals, accounting for 98% of all births in the area. Social classes were determinated by the use of a model proposed by Singer and modified for epidemiological purposes by Barros. Out of the 8,878 births, 660 (7.5% were of low birth weight. The prevalence of deficient weight at birth (between 2,500 and 2,999 grams was of 21.1%. Analysis indicated that 50.6% of children with low birth weight were at term and the majority of them suffered form intrauterine growth retardation. The prevalence of low birth weight according to social class was seen to be lower in the bourgeoisie classes (ranging from 2.8% to 3.9% and higher in working classes (from 7% up to 9.5%. Low birth weight (defined as < 2,500 grams was used for purposes of comparison

  11. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  12. The socially-weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan eSumner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: Words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially-idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially-weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially-idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.

  13. Automatic Control of Configuration of Web Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sochor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymization of the Internet traffic usually hides details about the request originator from the target server. Such a disguise might be required in some situations, especially in the case of web browsing. Although the web traffic anonymization is not a part of the http specification, it could be achieved using a certain extra tool. Significant deceleration of anonymized traffic compared to normal traffic is inevitable but it can be controlled in some cases as this article suggests. The results presented here focus on measuring the parameters of such deceleration in terms of response time, transmission speed and latency and proposing the way how to control it. This study focuses on TOR primarily because recent studies have concluded that other tools (like I2P and JAP provide worse service. Sets of 14 file locations and 30 web pages have been formed and the latency, response time and transmission speed during the page or file download were measured repeatedly both with TOR active in various configurations and without TOR. The main result presented here comprises several ways how to improve the TOR anonymization efficiency and the proposal for its automatic control. In spite of the fact that efficiency still remains too low compared to normal web traffic for ordinary use, its automatic control could make TOR a useful tool in special cases.

  14. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  15. Anonymity control in electronic check systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunguang; Yang Yixian; Hu Zhengming

    2005-01-01

    Electronic check systems, as one of electronic payment systems, are more desirable than other electronic cash systems. In the system, only a single check is used to pay any price that is not more than the face value. The main problem in check systems is to design an efficient refund mechanism that makes refund checks undistinguished from initial checks during payment and deposit. The problem of anonymity control also called fairness is also an important issue in check systems. All check systems yet are unconditional anonymity that opens the door to misuse for crime such as laundering and blackmailing. In this paper, the notion of anonymity revocation is introduced to electronic check system for the first time, and a model of fair electronic check system is proposed. An efficient fair online electronic check system with reusable refund is presented. In the system, a passive trustee is employed to revoke the anonymity of un-honest users. Moreover, the system solves the reusability problem of refunds thanks to the RSA-based partially signature. The system is efficient and meets all basic security requirements.

  16. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  17. Viral depletion of VTA BDNF in rats modulates social behavior, consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, and long-term weight regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation,...

  18. Use of social networking sites and perception and intentions regarding body weight among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa‐Kanyinga, H.; Hamilton, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) not only offer users an opportunity to link with others but also allow individuals to compare themselves with other users. However, the link between the use of SNSs and the dissatisfaction with body weight is largely unknown. We investigated the associations between the use of SNSs and the perception of body weight and related behaviours among adolescent men and women. Methods The study sample consisted of 4,468 (48.5% women) 11–19‐year‐old Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Results Overall, 54.6% of students reported using SNSs for 2 h or less per day, 28.0% reported using them for more than 2 h d−1 and 17.4% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs (reference category). After adjustment for covariates, results showed that adolescent women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 had greater odds of dissatisfaction with body weight (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.16). More specifically, they were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.34−3.60) compared with those who reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Conversely, men who use SNSs for 2 h or less per day presented a lower risk for perceiving themselves as overweight (RRR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47−0.98) but not those who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1. Women who use SNSs for more than 2 h d−1 reported a greater likelihood of trying to lose weight (RRR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.62−3.90). Conclusions Our results showed that heavy use of SNSs is associated with dissatisfaction with body weight in adolescent women.

  19. Research on Anonymization and De-anonymization in the Bitcoin System

    OpenAIRE

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin system is an anonymous, decentralized crypto-currency. There are some deanonymizating techniques to cluster Bitcoin addresses and to map them to users' identifications in the two research directions of Analysis of Transaction Chain (ATC) and Analysis of Bitcoin Protocol and Network (ABPN). Nowadays, there are also some anonymization methods such as coin-mixing and transaction remote release (TRR) to cover the relationship between Bitcoin address and the user. This paper studies an...

  20. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  1. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  2. SSA-Caterpillar in Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Tavrov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a common practice to protect various types of statistical data before publishing them for different researches. For instance, when conducting extensive demographic surveys such as national census, the collected data should be at least depersonalized to guarantee proper level of privacy preservation. In practice, even more complicated methods of data protection need to be used. All these methods can be generally divided into two classes. The first ones aim at providing individual data anonymity, whereas the other ones are focused on protecting information about a group of respondents. In this paper, we propose a novel technique of providing group anonymity in statistical data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA).Also, we apply SSA to defining hidden patterns in demographic data distribution.

  3. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  4. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  5. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at http://www.bionews.org.uk/new.lasso?storyid=2808). In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  6. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  7. Anonymity, Efficiency Wages and Technological Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Broadberry, Stephen; Ghosal, Sayantan; Proto, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Although the Industrial Revolution is often characterized as the culmination of a process of commercialisation, the precise nature of such a link remains unclear. This paper models and analyzes such link: the role of commercialisation in raising efficiency wages as impersonal and anonymous labour market transactions replace personalized customary relations. In the presence of an aggregate capital externality, we show that the resulting shift in relative factor prices leads to higher capital-i...

  8. Determination of the Internet Anonymity Influence on the Level of Aggression and Usage of Obscene Lexis

    OpenAIRE

    Potapova, Rodmonga; Gordeev, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of the semantic content of the anonymous Russian-speaking forum 2ch.hk, different verbal means of expressing of the emotional state of aggression are revealed for this site, and aggression is classified by its directions. The lexis of different Russian-and English- speaking anonymous forums (2ch.hk and iichan.hk, 4chan.org) and public community "MDK" of the Russian-speaking social network VK is analyzed and compared with the Open Corpus of the Russian lang...

  9. The BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace

    CERN Document Server

    Nielson, Seth James

    2011-01-01

    The very nature of operations in peer-to-peer systems such as BitTorrent exposes information about participants to their peers. Nodes desiring anonymity, therefore, often chose to route their peer-to-peer traffic through anonymity relays, such as Tor. Unfortunately, these relays have little incentive for contribution and struggle to scale with the high loads that P2P traffic foists upon them. We propose a novel modification for BitTorrent that we call the BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace. Peers in our system trade in k swarms obscuring the actual intent of the participants. But because peers can cross-trade torrents, the k-1 cover traffic can actually serve a useful purpose. This creates a system wherein a neighbor cannot determine if a node actually wants a given torrent, or if it is only using it as leverage to get the one it really wants. In this paper, we present our design, explore its operation in simulation, and analyze its effectiveness. We demonstrate that the upload and download characteristics of c...

  10. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON

    2007-01-01

    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  11. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  12. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  13. Women and cigarette smoking: does amount of weight gain following a failed quit attempt affect social disapproval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Faye; Martz, Denise; Parker, Amy; Curtin, Lisa; Pai, Shilpa

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the perception of social attractiveness and approval of smoking in a vignette of an American college female smoker after a failed quit attempt. It was hypothesized that she would be perceived more favorably when she was smoking to control her weight, compared to a non-weight related excuse during a failed quit attempt. The design was a 2 (gender: male vs. female)x4 (condition: control, 5, 10, 20 lb gain)x3 (participants' smoking status: never, former, or current smoker) factorial design with the Social Attraction Index and Perception of Smoking Index as dependent variables. Contrary to the hypothesis, perceptions of the female were not affected by her disclosed amount of weight gain. However, consistent with the literature on stigmatization of smokers, smoking participants perceived the female target as most socially attractive and nonsmokers perceived her to be the least attractive. PMID:15833570

  14. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling

  15. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  16. Anonymizing Binary Tables is APX-hard

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is increasingly important. An interesting formalization is the $k$-anonymization, where all rows in a table are clustered in sets of at least $k$ records, and all the entries for which records in the same cluster have different values are suppressed. The problem has been shown to be NP-hard when the records values are over a ternary alphabet and $k=3$. In this paper we show that the problem is not only NP-hard, but also APX-hard, when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$.

  17. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  18. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  19. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni;

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user.......g. redistribution of copy-righted contents, illegal drug trading and so on)....

  20. EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL-FACTORS ON THE COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT OF VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; BAERTS, W; SMRKOVSKY, M; SAUER, PJJ

    1993-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of biological and social factors on the cognitive development of very low birth weight children, a longitudinal follow-up study was conducted from birth to 3.6 years of age. Methodology. The study group consisted of a cohort of 79 surviving high-risk, very low b

  1. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  2. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  3. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2013-01-01

    bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...... model in donor conception which offers women/couples a choice of anonymity or openness in donation.This paper is based on my talk on June 20, 2013 at London School of Economics at the conference “New Families and Genetic Identities: Developments in law, policy and research” organised by the Morgan...

  4. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  5. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  6. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kuebler

    Full Text Available Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve. Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  7. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  8. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  9. P-Sensitive K-Anonymity with Generalization Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous privacy models based on the k-anonymity property and extending the k-anonymity model have been introduced in the last few years in data privacy research: l-diversity, p-sensitive k-anonymity, (a, k anonymity, t-closeness, etc. While differing in their methods and quality of their results, they all focus first on masking the data, and then protecting the quality of the data as a whole. We consider a new approach, where requirements on the amount of distortion allowed on the initial data are imposed in order to preserve its usefulness. Our approach consists of specifying quasiidentifiers' generalization constraints, and achieving p-sensitive k-anonymity within the imposed constraints. We think that limiting the amount of allowed generalization when masking microdata is indispensable for real life datasets and applications. In this paper, the constrained p-sensitive k-anonymity model is introduced and an algorithm for generating constrained p-sensitive k-anonymous microdata is presented. Our experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm is comparable with existing algorithms used for generating p-sensitive k-anonymity with respect to the results' quality, and obviously the obtained masked microdata complies with the generalization constraints as indicated by the user.

  10. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  11. Improving Security Architecture of Anonymous Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    As users of networks increasingly aware of their privacy needs, the importance of anonymity is gaining popularity. The reason behind it is that anonymity can hide the actual identity of end users while allowing their to access services of network or web site. More over they are allowed to do so...... without being traced. This usage is prevailing in P2P systems and also payment based networks like e-cash. Achieving anonymity and being able to trace misbehaving users are the two conflicting requirements. This paper proposes a security architecture that is aimed at providing complete anonymity to honest...... users while tracing misbehaving users thus resolving the conflict between anonymity and traceability requirements. In addition to these, this paper also focuses on basic security requirements such as nonrepudiation, data integrity, confidentiality, and authentication. The empirical results revealed that...

  12. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  13. The Influence of Social Norms upon Behavioral Expressions of Implicit and Explicit Weight-Related Stigma in an Interactive Game

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, John B.; Reeder, Glenn D.; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Williams, Kipling D.; Wirth, James H.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of os...

  14. “We are Anonymous.” Anonymity in the Public Sphere – Challenges of Free and Open Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity, the stealth mode of public communication, challenges different actors who deal with freedom of communication issues in their day to day life – be it professional journalists, information and communication scientists, technicians or political activists. This article aims to deliver theoretical background on the concept of anonymity on the macro-level, as well as to shed light on how different communicators deal with anonymity on the micro-level. Based on the example of the Anonymous movement, communicative actions are put in relation to media technological artifacts and their surrounding media environment with a focus on journalistic practice and public response to the phenomenon. The analysis concludes with the need for a preservation of options for anonymous public communication as a dimension of freedom of communication after carefully considering both the advantages and the potential risks connected to that mode of private-public communication.

  15. Distributed anonymous data perturbation method for privacy-preserving data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Jin MA; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a critical requirement in distributed data mining. Cryptography-based secure multiparty computation is a main approach for privacy preserving. However, it shows poor performance in large scale distributed systems. Meanwhile, data perturbation techniques are comparatively efficient but are mainly used in centralized privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM). In this paper, we propose a light-weight anonymous data perturbation method for efficient privacy preserving in distributed data mining. We first define the privacy constraints for data perturbation based PPDM in a semi-honest distributed environment. Two protocols are proposed to address these constraints and protect data statistics and the randomization process against collusion attacks: the adaptive privacy-preserving summary protocol and the anonymous exchange protocol. Finally, a distributed data perturbation framework based on these protocols is proposed to realize distributed PPDM. Experiment results show that our approach achieves a high security level and is very efficient in a large scale distributed environment.

  16. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:24788113

  17. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  18. Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J. Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4. Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment.

  19. Subchronic and mild social defeat stress accelerates food intake and body weight gain with polydipsia-like features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Iio, Wataru; Moriya, Naoko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2014-08-15

    Development and characterization of animal models of depression are essential for fully understanding the pathogenesis of depression in humans. We made and analyzed a mouse model exhibiting social deficit and hyperphagia-like behavior using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were monitored during a test period, and their behaviors and serum components were analyzed at two stages: immediately after the sCSDS period and 1 month after the sCSDS. The body weight and food intake of defeated mice were significantly higher than control mice at the sCSDS period, and these differences were sustained until 1 month after the sCSDS, whereas the water intake of defeated mice was significantly higher than control mice for the period of sCSDS only. Behavioral analyses revealed that the defeated mice exhibit significant social aversion to unfamiliar mice in a social interaction test and a trend of anxiety-like behavior in an elevated-plus maze test. Possibly due to polydipsia-like symptoms, defeated mice had significantly lower levels of albumin and blood urea nitrogen than control mice immediately after the sCSDS period but not at 1 month after sCSDS. The present study revealed that our sCSDS mice keep much more water in their body than control mice. This study reports the first step toward an understanding of the mechanisms of stress-induced overhydration, over-eating and resultant weight gain.

  20. Constructions for Anonymous Secret Sharing Schemes Using Combinatorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-pu Deng; Li-feng Guo; Mu-lan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In an anonymous secret sharing scheme the secret can be reconstructed without knowledge of which participants hold which shares. In this paper some constructions of anonymous secret sharing schemes with 2 thresholds by using combinatorial designs are given. Let υ(t, ω, q) denote the minimum size of the set of shares of a perfect anonymous (t, ω) threshold secret sharing scheme with q secrets. In this paper we prove that υ(t, ω, q) = Θ(q) if t and ω are fixed and that the lower bound of the size of the set of shares in [4] is not optimal under certain condition.

  1. A NEW ANONYMITY CONTROLLED E-CASH SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fangguo; Wang Changjie; Wang Yumin

    2002-01-01

    E-cash is a type of very important electronic payment systems. The complete anonymity of E-cash can be used for criminal activities, so E-cash should be anonymity controlled.Moreover, Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) has been regard as the mainstream of current public cryptography . In this paper, a new anonymity controlled E-cash scheme based on ECC for the first time and using a new technology-one-time key pairs digital signature is designed, and its security and efficiency are analyzed. In our scheme, the coin tracing and owner tracing can be implemented.

  2. Entanglements in Practice: Performing Anonymity Through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems researchers have shown an increasing interest in the notion of sociomateriality. In this paper, we continue this exploration by focusing specifically on entanglement: the inseparability of meaning and matter. Our particular approach is differentiated by its grounding in a relational and performative ontology, and its use of agential realism. We explore some of the key ideas of entanglement through a comparison of two phenomena in the travel sector: an institutionalized acc...

  3. Using t-closeness anonymity to control for non-discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ruggieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between t-closeness, a well-known model of data anonymization against attribute disclosure, and a-protection, a model of the social discrimination hidden in data. We show that t-closeness implies bd f (t-protection, for a bound function bd f ( depending on the discrimination measure f( at hand. This allows us to adapt inference control methods, such as the Mondrian multidimensional generalization technique and the Sabre bucketization and redistribution framework, to the purpose of non-discrimination data protection. The parallel between the two analytical models raises intriguing issues on the interplay between data anonymization and non-discrimination research in data protection.

  4. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  5. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trendyouth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  6. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy. PMID:21532265

  7. Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsdottir Inga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight. A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10. Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10, whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10 Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake.

  8. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  9. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401

    2011-01-01

    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  10. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  11. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Merener

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  12. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min

    2005-01-01

    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  13. On the Feasibility of (Practical Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pulls

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous cloud storage services which require user payment (which we call commercial anonymous cloud storage. Anonymity in this context can be seen as the absence of information to uniquely identify a provider's client that is storing and manipulating data at the provider while at the same time still allowing fair billing, for both, the clients and the cloud provider. Although encrypting data prior to outsourcing helps to protect data privacy and can be achieved without the cloud provider's consent, the issues we are interested in, do not seem to be achievable that easily. However, while various measures for the latter issue, i.e., realizing access privacy, have been studied in the past, the role of privacy in context of billing and payment for cloud storage has, until now, remained unexplored. We therefore introduce an abstract model for commercial cloud storage services to define various types of anonymous cloud storage, study several payment and billing models for cloud storage services and their impact on the anonymity of the service's clients. Moreover, we discuss several solutions to provide anonymity within the different models. Our findings highlight the importance of anonymous payment for the practical deployment of commercial privacy-friendly cloud storage services. Furthermore, we provide directions for future work in some settings, i.e., when anonymous payment is not available, as interesting open challenges.

  14. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    R. KALPANA; N. Rengarajan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms an...

  15. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert (British painter, ca.1730-1791); Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a can...

  16. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM

    2015-01-01

    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  17. The influence of social norms upon behavioral expressions of implicit and explicit weight-related stigma in an interactive game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Wesselmann, Eric D; Williams, Kipling D; Wirth, James H

    2013-06-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of ostracism, explicit attitudes were better predictors of more controllable behaviors, while implicit attitudes were better predictors of more automatic behaviors. PMID:23766740

  18. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  19. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  20. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  1. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trendnetworks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight.

  2. The effect of group-based weight control intervention on adolescent psychosocial outcomes: Perceived peer rejection, social anxiety and self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Jelalian, Elissa; Sato, Amy; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of group-based weight control treatment on adolescent social functioning. Eighty-nine adolescents who were randomized to group-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) with aerobic exercise (CBT+EXER) or peer enhanced adventure therapy (CBT+PEAT) completed measures of social functioning at baseline, end of treatment, and 12-month follow-up. Results demonstrated significant reductions in adolescent perceptions of peer rejection and social anxiety over ti...

  3. Restricted common data in anonymous E-cash system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-jun; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Discuss the problem of infinite increasing coin list in anonymous E-cash systems, which reduce the efficiency of whole system greatly. Though some methods are suggested, no one can solve the problem with high efficiency and flexibility. Here, we use the technique of adding information in blind signatures to deal with this problem. Through adding timestamp in signatures, we can separate the valid period of all used coins into pieces. Only the coins in the last stage are recorded. So the scale of the coins list is controlled. We also analyze the anonymity of these data, and add some indispensable restrictions to them. These restrictions can ensure that the imported data don't break the anonymity of the customers. In order to fulfill these qualifications, we lead to the concept of restricted common data (RCD). Furthermore, we propose two schemes to add RCD in the blind signature. The simple one is easy to implement, while the complex one can note the value of the coin. The usage of RCD leads to little additional cost, as well as maintaining the anonymity of customers. This method fits for most kinds of anonymous E-cash systems.

  4. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  5. Experimental Analysis of Popular Smartphone Apps Offering Anonymity, Ephemerality, and End-to-End Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Onwuzurike, Lucky; De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    As social networking takes to the mobile world, smartphone apps provide users with ever-changing ways to interact with each other. Over the past couple of years, an increasing number of apps have entered the market offering end-to-end encryption, self-destructing messages, or some degree of anonymity. However, little work thus far has examined the properties they offer. To this end, this paper presents a taxonomy of 18 of these apps: we first look at the features they promise in their appeal ...

  6. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  7. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  8. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  9. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M

    2014-12-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  10. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  11. Anonymous Authorship Control for User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Bong LEE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC is opening up new large market in content services, and more and more people are visiting web sites to share and enjoy UGCs. These trends make many authors to move into online. Authors want to conserve their authorship and expect to publish their UGC anonymously in cases. To meet the requirements, we propose a new authorship control model based on watermarking and metadata. Authors can embed their authorship into their UGC with identities or with anonym. Even though an author publishes his UGC anonymously, he can prove his authorship without unveiling his identity via 5 methods utilizing the proposed authorship model. The proposed model and methods need no TTP and are robust even based on fragile underlying watermarking scheme.

  12. An Effective Clustering Approach to Web Query Log Anonymization

    CERN Document Server

    Fard, Amin Milani

    2010-01-01

    Web query log data contain information useful to research; however, release of such data can re-identify the search engine users issuing the queries. These privacy concerns go far beyond removing explicitly identifying information such as name and address, since non-identifying personal data can be combined with publicly available information to pinpoint to an individual. In this work we model web query logs as unstructured transaction data and present a novel transaction anonymization technique based on clustering and generalization techniques to achieve the k-anonymity privacy. We conduct extensive experiments on the AOL query log data. Our results show that this method results in a higher data utility compared to the state of-the-art transaction anonymization methods.

  13. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  14. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sub Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.

  15. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  16. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaojun Pang

    Full Text Available Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  17. Optimizing Spread of Influence in Weighted Social Networks via Partial Incentives

    CERN Document Server

    Cordasco, Gennaro; Rescigno, Adele A; Vaccaro, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    A widely studied process of influence diffusion in social networks posits that the dynamics of influence diffusion evolves as follows: Given a graph $G=(V,E)$, representing the network, initially \\emph{only} the members of a given $S\\subseteq V$ are influenced; subsequently, at each round, the set of influenced nodes is augmented by all the nodes in the network that have a sufficiently large number of already influenced neighbors. The general problem is to find a small initial set of nodes that influences the whole network. In this paper we extend the previously described basic model in the following ways: firstly, we assume that there are non negative values $c(v)$ associated to each node $v\\in V$, measuring how much it costs to initially influence node $v$, and the algorithmic problem is to find a set of nodes of \\emph{minimum total cost} that influences the whole network; successively, we study the consequences of giving \\emph{incentives} to member of the networks, and we quantify how this affects (i.e., r...

  18. Anonymous authentication protocol for multi-services in wireless environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To provide mutual authentication among users, wireless networks, and service providers in roaming wireless environments, this article presents an anonymous authentication and access control protocol. Bases on this protocol, entities of different trusted domains can mutually authenticate each other and preserve the anonymity of users. Hybrid cryptosystem, secret splitting, and hash chains are used in the protocol, which decrease computational loads and establish trusted relations for both entities. The proposed protocol has the least computation complexity compared with other protocols, whereas, the security has been significantly improved.

  19. Social rank of pregnant sows affects their body weight gain and behavior and performance of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, G; Van der Mheen, H; Fillerup, M; Hopster, H

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies on group housing of pregnant sows have mainly focused on reproduction, but we hypothesized that the social rank of pregnant sows housed in groups could also affect birth weight, growth, and behavior of their offspring. Therefore, in the present study, pregnant gilts and sows were housed in 15 different groups (n = 7 to 14 animals per group) from 4 d after AI until 1 wk before the expected farrowing date. All groups were fed by an electronically controlled sow feeding system that registered, on a 24-h basis, the time of first visit, number of feeding and non-feeding visits, and number of times succeeding another sow within 2 s. Only in the first 6 groups (n = 57 animals), agonistic interactions were observed continuously. The percentage of agonistic interactions won was highly correlated (r(s) = 0.90, P 50% (n = 62) and low-social ranking (LSR) sows a DS gestation length, litter size, or percentage of live born piglets. During a novel object (NO) test at 3 wk of age, HSR offspring moved and vocalized more than LSR offspring (P Pig breeders that apply group housing for pregnant sows should pay attention to reducing competition around the feeding area, which may reduce aggression among the sows and minimize differences between HSR and LSR sows.

  20. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los factores de riesgo de inicio al consumo de alcohol se encuentra el déficit en habilidades sociales, que aunqueno es determinante, sí es un factor que de alguna manera influye en la conducta de beber en exceso. En la presenteinvestigación se realizó un análisis de habilidades sociales en tres muestras distintas: universitarios, adolescentes y alcohólicosen recuperación (AA. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – ParteMotora (EMES-M: Caballo, 1987, 2006 y la Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – Parte Cognitiva (EMES-C:Caballo, 1987, 2006. Estas escalas se aplicaron a una muestra de 157 participantes (74 hombres y 83 mujeres. Se distribuyeronde la siguiente forma: 58 adolescentes (estudiantes de secundaria, 55 integrantes de AA y 44 estudiantes universitarios. Seencontraron diferencias significativas entre algunas subescalas y los diferentes grupos de referencia. La mayoría de estasdiferencias se encontraron en cuanto a habilidades sociales de corte cognitivo. El grupo de alcohólicos AA marcó ladiferencia, mostrando éstos una mayor puntuación en las subescalas que indican «temor» o «preocupación» en ciertassituaciones sociales. Se discuten estos resultados y las implicaciones de éstos para el tratamiento y prevención del alcoholismo.ABSTRACTAmong the risk factors for alcohol use initiation is the deficit in social skills, which while not conclusive, if it is a factorthat somehow influences the behavior of excessive drinking. In the present study it conducted an analysis of social skills inthree different samples: college, young people and alcoholics in recovery (AA. The following instruments were used:Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression-Motor Part (EMES-M: Horse, 1987 and Multidimensional Scale of SocialExpression-Cognitive Part (EMES-C: Caballo, 1987. These scales were applied to a sample of 157 participants (74 menand 83 women and they

  1. ANONYMOUS OFF-LINE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE BANKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  2. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...

  3. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  4. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering

    2013-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  5. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  6. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  7. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  9. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  10. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  11. Law, Norms, Piracy and Online Anonymity – Practices of de-identification in the global file sharing community

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns; Kaminski, Marcin; Rönkkö, Kari; Alkan Olsson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand online anonymity in the global file-sharing community in the context of social norms and copyright law. The study describes the respondents in terms of use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) or similar services with respect to age, gender, geographical location, as well as analysing the correlation with file-sharing frequencies. Design/methodology/approach This study, to a large extent, collected descriptive data through ...

  12. Estratificación del bajo peso al nacer desde un enfoque de determinantes sociales Stratification of Low Birth Weight from a Social Determinants Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meira Mileny Sotolongo Acosta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el área materno-infantil requiere de un enfoque en sus determinantes para aumentar el alcance estratégico de sus programas. Objetivo: estratificar el bajo peso al nacer en el municipio de Cienfuegos y caracterizar el bajo peso de acuerdo a determinantes sociales seleccionadas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, correlacional sobre la estratificación del bajo peso al nacer en los consejos populares del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período comprendido entre los años 2003 y 2007. Los estratos se definieron según el valor de la media del índice de bajo peso al nacer en este periodo. Para realizar el análisis de las variables cualitativas en muestras independientes se utilizó la prueba de independencia u homogeneidad utilizada en el caso de dos muestras con resultado dicotómico o más. El procesamiento estadístico se realizó en el programa SPSS versión 15,0 y se utilizaron como medidas matemáticas para las variables cualitativas el porcentaje, y para las variables cuantitativas la media aritmética. La técnica estadística para relacionar las variables fue la prueba Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: se mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los estratos de bajo, mediano y alto riesgo, en el nivel de escolaridad, estado civil, ocupación, evaluación nutricional, hábito de fumar, antecedentes de bajo peso al nacer, período ínter genésico. La única enfermedad asociada que mostró diferencias entre ellos fue la hipertensión gestacional. Conclusiones: el bajo peso al nacer continúa siendo un serio problema de salud en el municipio Cienfuegos, cuestión esta que debe ser abordada desde sus determinantes para realizar intervenciones futuras y el logro de mejores resultados.Background: maternal-infant area requires a determinants approach in order to enhance the strategic reach of its programs. Objective: to stratify low birth weight in the municipality of Cienfuegos and to

  13. Socialization and selection effects in the association between weight conscious peer groups and thin-ideal internalization: A co-twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHuysse, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; O'Connor, Shannon M; Thompson, J Kevin; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-06-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8-15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605

  14. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Broeck Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007, a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed was used. Self-reported weight (height was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height. A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI. Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1 under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2 under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3 accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  15. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsook Lee; Juryon Paik

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreig...

  16. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  17. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  18. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  19. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  20. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  1. FreeRec: an Anonymous and Distributed Personalization Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Boutet, Antoine; Frey, Davide; Jégou, Arnaud; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Ribeiro, Heverson B.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We present and evaluate FreeRec, an anonymous decentral- ized peer-to-peer architecture, designed to bring personalization while protecting the privacy of its users. FreeRec's decentralized approach makes it independent of any entity wishing to collect personal data about users. At the same time, its onion-routing-like gossip-based overlay protocols e ectively hide the association between users and their inter- est pro les without a ecting the quality of personalizatio...

  2. Discrimination and nepotism: the efficiency of the anonymity rule.

    OpenAIRE

    Fershtman, C.; Gneezy, U.; Verboven, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Paper considers two categories of discrimination: ‘discrimination against’ and ‘discrimination in favour’, which Becker coins ‘nepotism’. The Paper develops an experimental test to distinguish between these two types of discrimination. The experiment compares the behaviour towards individuals of different groups with the behaviour towards anonymous individuals (those having no clear group affiliation). We illustrate the two attitudes by considering two segmented societies: Belgian society...

  3. Accountable Anonymous Service Usage in Mobile Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buttyan, Levente; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a model that allows of anonymous yet accountable service usage in mobile communication systems. This model is based on the introduction of a new business role, called the customer care agency, and a ticket based mechanism for service access. We motivate the introduction of customer care agencies by analyzing their role and emphasizing their advantages. We introduce the general idea of ticket based service access, present a categorization of ticket types and ticket acquisi...

  4. Anonymity in a Limit-Order Market: An Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Majois, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt an experimental approach to evaluate the impact of pre-trade anonymity in order-driven markets. More specifically, we build an experimental design of an electronic limit-order market, and compare two settings: one in which traders observe the identities of agents placing orders in the order book, and the other one where this information is not available on market screens. We find that ID code disclosure does not alter liquidity, efficiency or traders’ pr...

  5. Guaranteeing anonymity when sharing medical data, the Datafly System.

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a computer program named Datafly that maintains anonymity in medical data by automatically generalizing, substituting, and removing information as appropriate without losing many of the details found within the data. Decisions are made at the field and record level at the time of database access, so the approach can be used on the fly in role-based security within an institution, and in batch mode for exporting data from an institution. Often organizations release and receive medic...

  6. On the Feasibility of (Practical) Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Pulls; Daniel Slamanig

    2015-01-01

    Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous clo...

  7. Best-Reply Dynamics in Large Anonymous Games

    OpenAIRE

    Yakov Babichenko

    2012-01-01

    We consider small-influence anonymous games with a large number of players $n$ where every player has two actions. For this class of games we present a best-reply dynamic with the following two properties. First, the dynamic reaches Nash approximate equilibria fast (in at most $cn\\ log n$ steps for some constant $c>0$). Second, Nash approximate equilibria are played by the dynamic with a limit frequency of at least $1-e^{-c'n}$ for some constant $c'>0$.

  8. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  9. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  10. Enhancing Censorship Resistance in the Tor Anonymity Network

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Baksidestext The Tor network was originally designed as low-latency anonymity network.However, as the years progressed, Tor earned a reputation as also being a useful tool to circumvent Internet censorship. At times, the network counted 30,000 users only from China. Censors reacted by tightening their grip on the national communication infrastructure. In particular, they developed techniques to prevent people from being able to access the Tor network. This arms race now counts several iterati...

  11. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  12. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  13. AATCT: Anonymously Authenticated Transmission on the Cloud with Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged Hamada Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Cloud computing, anonymous authentication is an important service that must be available to users in the Cloud. Users have the right to remain anonymous as long as they behave honestly. However, in case a malicious behavior is detected, the system – under court order – must be able to trace the user to his clear identity. Most of the proposed authentication schemes for the Cloud are either password-based authentication schemes that are vulnerable to offline dictionary attacks, or biometric-based authentication schemes that take a long time of execution specially in case of high security requirements. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure scheme to non-interactively authenticate the users on the Cloud to the remote servers while preserving their anonymity. In case of accusations, the registration authority is able to trace any user to his clear identity. We avoid using low entropy passwords or biometric mechanisms, instead, we employ pseudonym systems in our design. The computation complexity and storage requirements are efficient and suitable to be implemented on smart cards/devices. Our proposed scheme withstands challenging adversarial attacks such as, stolen databases attacks, databases insertion attacks, impersonation attacks, replay attacks and malicious users/servers collaboration attacks.

  14. Anonymous and Non-Repudiation E-Payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J. Aboud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many proposals offer anonymous and non-repudiation e-payment protocols. But they have the drawbacks that the anonymity can be misused by fraudulent to perform a perfect crimes. Currently, the hot research concentrates on the accepting of e-payment protocols where the anonymity of the coins is cancelable via a trusted authority in the case of criminal entities. In the article we suggest an efficient protocol for e-payment scheme that offers a good level of security with appreciate to its efficiency. The proposed protocol prevents the blind office and the bank from impersonate an entity, so that the entity could not repudiate it when the entity misused a coin. Another benefit is that it is constructed from efficient cryptography schemes so that its security can simply be analyzed. The strength of this scheme is in its easiness. So, we claim that the suggested protocol is more efficient than the existing schemes, since it allows to both a blind office and a bank to impersonate an entity to find and to spend a coin without to be noticed. It might cause a repudiation difficulty where the entity can repudiate his bad activities by proposing that both the bank and the blind office acted inaccurately. Other relevant issues related to the new protocol will be discussed in the section of the security of the scheme.

  15. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

  16. Reversible Anonymization of DICOM Images using Cryptography and Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussain ELFADIL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical images. The DICOM file contains the image data and a number of attributes such as identified patient data (name, age, insurance ID card,…, and non-identified patient data (doctor’s interpretation, image type,…. Medical images serve not only for examination, but can also be used for research and education purposes. For research they are used to prevent illegal use of information; before authorizing researchers to use these images, the medical staff deletes all the data which would reveal the patient identity to prevent patient privacy. This manipulation is called anonymization. In this paper, we propose a reversible anonymization of DICOM images. Identifying patient data with image digest, computed by the well-known SHA-256 hash function, are encrypted using the proposed probabilistic public key crypto-system. After compressing the Least Significant Bit (LSB bitplan of the image using Hofmann coding algorithm, the encrypted data is inserted into a liberated zone of the LSB bitplan of the image. The proposed method allows researchers to use anonymous DICOM images and keep to authorized staff -if necessary- the possibility to return to the original image with all related patient data.

  17. Utility-guided Clustering-based Transaction Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction data about individuals are increasingly collected to support a plethora of applications, spanning from marketing to biomedical studies. Publishing these data is required by many organizations, but may result in privacy breaches, if an attacker exploits potentially identifying information to link individuals to their records in the published data. Algorithms that prevent this threat by transforming transaction data prior to their release have been proposed recently, but they may incur significant utility loss due to their inability to: (i accommodate a range of different privacy requirements that data owners often have, and (ii guarantee that the produced data will satisfy data owners’ utility requirements. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering-based framework to anonymizing transaction data, which provides the basis for designing algorithms that better preserve data utility. Based on this framework, we develop two anonymization algorithms which explore a larger solution space than existing methods and can satisfy a wide range of privacy requirements. Additionally, the second algorithm allows the specification and enforcement of utility requirements, thereby ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended tasks. Experiments with both benchmark and real medical datasets verify that our algorithms significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of data utility, while being comparable in terms of efficiency.

  18. An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity in Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic currency system, is a complicated issue. Within the system, users are identified by public-keys only. An attacker wishing to de-anonymize its users will attempt to construct the oneto- many mapping between users and public-keys and associate information external to the system with the users. Bitcoin frustrates this attack by storing the mapping of a user to his or her public-keys on that user's node only and by allowing each user to generate as many public-keys as required. In this paper we consider the topological structure of two networks derived from Bitcoin's public transaction history. We show that the two networks have a non-trivial topological structure, provide complementary views of the Bitcoin system and have implications for anonymity. We combine these structures with external information and techniques such as context discovery and flow analysis to investigate an alleged theft of Bitcoins, which, at the time of the theft, had a market value of approx...

  19. Moves on the Street: Classifying Crime Hotspots Using Aggregated Anonymized Data on People Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month. PMID:27442957

  20. The role of quasi-identifiers in k-anonymity revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, C.; Wang, X S; S. Jajodia

    2006-01-01

    The concept of k-anonymity, used in the recent literature to formally evaluate the privacy preservation of published tables, was introduced based on the notion of quasi-identifiers (or QI for short). The process of obtaining k-anonymity for a given private table is first to recognize the QIs in the table, and then to anonymize the QI values, the latter being called k-anonymization. While k-anonymization is usually rigorously validated by the authors, the definition of QI remains mostly inform...

  1. Reidentification and k-anonymity: a model for disclosure risk in graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Klara; Torra, Vicenç

    2011-01-01

    In this article we provide a formal framework for reidentification in general. We define n-confusion as a concept for modelling the anonymity of a database table and we prove that n-confusion is a generalization of k- anonymity. After a short survey on the different available definitions of k- anonymity for graphs we provide a new definition for k-anonymous graph, which we consider to be the correct definition. We provide a description of the k-anonymous graphs, both for the regular and the n...

  2. What drives the association between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating? Disentangling genetic and environmental selection from pure socialization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27043917

  3. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  4. Anonimato de vida e de morte: figuras contemporâneas de uma trama social violenta El anonimato de la vida y de la muerte: figuras contemporáneas de una trama social violenta Anonymity of live and death: contemporary images of a violent sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Sousa Catroli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende traçar as bordas da especificidade do fenômeno da violência na contemporaneidade. Mais especificamente, procura evidenciar de que forma este novo delineamento, aliado à lógica de controle global, irá imprimir suas marcas na sociedade brasileira. A partir desta articulação entre um funcionamento global e sua incidência no contexto específico do processo histórico brasileiro, iremos pensar sobre os impasses trazidos por esta nova especificidade do fenômeno da violência e os desafios para os processos de subjetivação e inscrição no laço social do contemporâneo. Interessar-nos-á conduzir esta discussão a partir da hipótese de que haveria uma desfiguração do outro social, possível graças a uma zona de anomia, onde a legalidade e a ilegalidade se confundiriam. Desta forma, a partir da intersecção entre os modos de subjetivação do contemporâneo e as práticas do exercício do poder, discutiremos os impasses à singularização num contexto desértico da mais completa dessubjetivação do socius.El presente artículo pretende trazar las bordas de la especificidad del fenómeno de la violencia en la contemporaneidad. Aún, más específicamente, se trata de evidenciar de qué forma esta nueva delineación, aliada a la lógica de control global, va a imprimir sus marcas en la sociedad brasileña. A partir de esta articulación entre un funcionamiento global y su incidencia en el contexto específico del proceso histórico brasileño, vamos a pensar sobre los dilemas traídos por esta nueva especificidad del fenómeno de la violencia y los desafíos para los procesos de subjetivación e inscripción en el lazo social de la contemporaneidad. Nos interesará conducir esta discusión a partir de la hipótesis de que habría una desfiguración del otro social, posible gracias a una zona de anomia, donde la legalidad y la ilegalidad se confundirían. De esta forma, de la intersección entre los modos de

  5. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  6. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R

    2011-05-18

    Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg\\/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg\\/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg\\/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  7. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)

  8. Business Information Exchange System with Security, Privacy, and Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Information Exchange is an Internet Secure Portal for secure management, distribution, sharing, and use of business e-mails, documents, and messages. It has three applications supporting three major types of information exchange systems: secure e-mail, secure instant messaging, and secure sharing of business documents. In addition to standard security services for e-mail letters, which are also applied to instant messages and documents, the system provides innovative features of privacy and full anonymity of users and their locations, actions, transactions, and exchanged resources. In this paper we describe design, implementation, and use of the system.

  9. Distributed anonymous function computation in information fusion and multiagent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickx, Julien M; Tsitsiklis, John N

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes, with bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not scale with the network size. Our goal is to characterize the class of functions that can be computed within this model. In our main result, we exhibit a class of non-computable functions, and prove that every function outside this class can at least be approximated. The problem of computing averages in a distributed manner plays a central role in our development.

  10. Virtues and Perils of Anonymity: Should Intermediaries Bear the Burden?

    OpenAIRE

    Zingales, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    On October 10, 2013, the Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) handed down a judgment (Delfi v. Estonia) condoning Estonia for a law which, as interpreted, held a news portal liable for the defamatory comments of its users. Amongst the considerations that led the Court to find no violation of freedom of expression in this particular case were, above all, the inadequacy of the automatic screening system adopted by the website and the users’ option to post their comments anonym...

  11. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented,based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state.We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness,soundness,privacy,eligibility,unreusability,fairness,and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest.This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels.In addition,any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.

  12. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first ...

  13. social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Weremchuk Ida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of eating disorders, this paper aims on the investigation of our relation with body, discussing the normative practices that constitute our ways of life. From an aesthetic standard that relates body to beauty and success, we intend to put in question the social context where eating disorders have been produced. To achieve this objective, we base our study on anorexia and bulimia analysis. The symptoms of these psychopathologies have difficult treatment and reflect an excessive worry about weight, corporal image and fattening up. Our interest is to contribute to this discussion, avoiding an individualized perspective, focused on anorexic and/or bulimic young boy or girl and on the dysfunctional interactions of his/her familiar system, but shifting the focus on eating disorders as devices that denunciate the extremism of the way of thinking, feeling and experiencing body in our society. Therefore, our objective is to present some subsidies that allow us to dislocate this matter from the exclusive scope of individual experience to an analysis of the social practices of our relation with body that reside contemporary experience, considering eating disorders in the present time as the exacerbation of a social symptom.

  14. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  15. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  16. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  17. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  18. IdentiDroid: Android can finally Wear its Anonymous Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Shebaro

    2014-04-01

    from applications when the smartphone is used under the anonymous modality. They are re-instated back when the smartphone returns to work in the normal modality. In addition, both solutions offer protection from applications that identify their users through traces left in the application's data storage or through exchanging identifying data messages. We developed IdentiDroid, a customized Android operating system, to deploy these solutions and built IdentiDroid Profile Manager, a profile-based configuration tool that allows one to set different configurations for each installed Android application. With this tool, applications running within the same device are configured to be given different identifications and privileges to limit the uniqueness of device and user information. We analyzed 250 Android applications to determine what information, services, and permissions can identify users and devices. Our experiments show that when IdentiDroid is deployed and properly configured on Android devices, users' anonymity is better guaranteed by either of the proposed solutions with no significant impact on most device applications.

  19. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  20. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  1. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  2. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  3. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Potter, Kerry L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT), while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR). Methods. Freshmen (n = 45) aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, -0.25 ± 0.45%; P = 0.01). Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR) and 98% (SCT); SCTSR students (>50%) remarked that the online tracking required "too much time." Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  4. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in

  5. A Self-Encryption Remote User Anonymous Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang

    2006-01-01

    Remote user authentication is essential in distributed network environment to protect unauthorized access of a networked system. However, most of those existing remote user authentication schemes have not provided the user identity anonymity, while user anonymity is particularly important in some practical applications.Therefore, based on self-encryption mechanism, a new remote user authentication scheme was proposed. The scheme not only has no need of maintaining a password table at the remote server, but also can protect the user's anonymity.

  6. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  7. ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking Application

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Steven; Tsudik, Gene; Uzun, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Content-centric networking -- also known as information-centric networking (ICN) -- shifts emphasis from hosts and interfaces (as in today's Internet) to data. Named data becomes addressable and routable, while locations that currently store that data become irrelevant to applications. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a large collaborative research effort that exemplifies the content-centric approach to networking. NDN has some innate privacy-friendly features, such as lack of source and destination addresses on packets. However, as discussed in this paper, NDN architecture prompts some privacy concerns mainly stemming from the semantic richness of names. We examine privacy-relevant characteristics of NDN and present an initial attempt to achieve communication privacy. Specifically, we design an NDN add-on tool, called ANDaNA, that borrows a number of features from Tor. As we demonstrate via experiments, it provides comparable anonymity with lower relative overhead.

  8. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  9. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  10. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  11. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  12. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  13. The emergence of age-dependent social cognitive deficits after generalized insult to the developing brain: a longitudinal prospective analysis using susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Cooper, Janine M; Beare, Richard; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Silk, Timothy; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Anderson, Vicki A

    2015-05-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie complex social and emotional behavior including Theory of Mind (ToM). While structural correlates of ToM are well described in adults, less is known about the anatomical regions subsuming these skills in the developing brain or the impact of cerebral insult on the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. This study aimed to examine the differential influence of age-at-insult and brain pathology on ToM in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with TBI (n = 112) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) middle childhood (5-9 years; n = 41); (ii) late childhood (10-11 years; n = 39); and (iii) adolescence (12-15 years; n = 32) and group-matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status to a typically developing (TD) control group (n = 43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks postinjury and were assessed on a battery of ToM tasks at 6- and 24-months after injury. Results showed that for adolescents with TBI, social cognitive dysfunction at 6- and 24-months postinjury was associated with diffuse neuropathology and a greater number of lesions detected using SWI. In the late childhood TBI group, we found a time-dependent emergence of social cognitive impairment, linked to diffuse neuropathology. The middle childhood TBI group demonstrated performance unrelated to SWI pathology and comparable to TD controls. Findings indicate that the full extent of social cognitive deficits may not be realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Evidence for brain structure-function relationships suggests that the integrity of an anatomically distributed network of brain regions and their connections is necessary for the acquisition and establishment of high-level social

  14. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  15. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection. PMID:23366349

  16. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  17. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection.

  18. Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...

  19. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs.

  20. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

  1. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  2. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  3. Are 'anonymous' and 'non-directed' prerequisites for living altruistic donation? The views of transplant physicians from France and Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marie-Chantal; Dion-Labrie, Marianne; Hébert, Marie-Josée; Achille, Marie; Doucet, Hubert

    2008-07-01

    It can be argued that living altruistic donors should remain anonymous and should not express preferences in the selection of organ recipients. This study aimed to describe the views of transplant physicians in France and Québec regarding these issues. A total of 27 French and 19 Québec renal transplant physicians took part in individual, semi-directed interviews. Almost all of the physicians agreed that anonymity is mandatory in living altruistic donation (LAD). Regarding the issue of directed donation, most of the French physicians (78%) were opposed to any form of the practice, compared to only a third of their Québec colleagues (32%). We found that these positions were embedded in their respective cultural, legal and social contexts. These results afford a better understanding of these complex issues in two different cultural contexts, and will be useful in the development of international guidelines for LAD. PMID:18406031

  4. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  5. Atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 李朝阳; 杨德礼

    2004-01-01

    Atomicity and anonymity are desirable properties for reliable and security e-Cash transaction and the guarantee of the participants' interests. But there are conflicts between these two properties. In this paper, an atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP (Trust Third Party) based on the extended CEMBS is presented. The novel protocol is analyzed for its atomicity and anonymity. The results of the analysis show that it not only provides atomicity and anonymity under unreliable communication and dishonest partici-pants, but also features high efficiency and practicability. The new protocol also avoids transaction from a am-biguous state. Furthermore, it will be referenced often for the application of the atomic e-Cash transaction proto-col.

  6. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  7. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  8. [Quality of anonymous delivery procedures: analysis of practices and ethical issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Moutel, Grégoire; Cabrol, Dominique; Hervé, Christian

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of procedures for anonymous delivery and also to determine the awareness of the medical team. MATERIAL: and method. We reviewed retrospectively all deliveries performed in a Paris maternity ward during the years 2000-2003 where the mother requested application of the anonymous procedure. A questionnaire was also addressed to all physicians and midwives in the same institution in order to evaluate their knowledge of the procedu...

  9. Mesh Technique for Nymble Architecture Sustaining - Secrecy and Security in Anonymizing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    J.Praveen Kumar; B Shyam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, hasbeen limited by users employing this secrecy for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing ne...

  10. The Impact of anonymity in elicitation of brand associations : theoretical and empirical developments

    OpenAIRE

    Supphellen, Magne

    1998-01-01

    Effective brand management requires a thorough understanding of the consumer. In particular, managers need to know which associations consumers have for their brands. In this study, we address the role of anonymity in interviews designed to elicit brand associations from consumers' memories. First, the concept of anonymity is examined in order to arrive at a useful definition. Based on a review ofpotential psychological motives for response distortion and a review of the nature...

  11. 4chan and /b/: An Analysis of Anonymity and Ephemerality in a Large Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Michael; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés; Harry, Drew; André, Paul; Panovich, Katrina; Vargas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies of online ephemerality and anonymity based on the popular discussion board /b/ at 4chan.org: a website with over 7 million users that plays an influential role in Internet culture. Although researchers and practitioners often assume that user identity and data permanence are central tools in the design of online communities, we explore how /b/ succeeds despite being almost entirely anonymous and extremely ephemeral. We begin by describing /b/ and performing a content an...

  12. A secure and effective anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei ZHAO; Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Mun et al. analyzed Wu et al.'s authentication scheme and proposed a enhanced anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility networks. However, through careful analysis, we find that Mun et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks and insider attacks, and cannot provide user friendliness, user's anonymity, proper mutual authentication and local verification. To remedy these weaknesses, in this paper we propose a ...

  13. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  14. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  15. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  16. Anthropometric and Health-Related Behavioral Factors in the Explanation of Social Inequalities in Low Birth Weight in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pfinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.59, 4.86 and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24. Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  17. [BREASTFEEDING PROBLEMS AND OTHER FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXCESSIVE NEONATAL WEIGHT LOSS IN A SOCIAL SECURITY HOSPITAL IN LIMA, PERU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Larrañaga, Melissa; Bustamante-Abuid, Claudia; Díaz-Vergara, Silvia; Tresierra-Cabrera, Julio; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; R Segura, Eddy

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: durante los primeros días de vida la madre es la principal fuente de alimento para el recién nacido. Sin embargo, es común que la madre presente trastornos de la lactancia y se genere una pérdida de peso neonatal superior a la fisiológica. Objetivo: estimar la magnitud y asociación entre los trastornos de la lactancia y la pérdida de peso neonatal superior a la fisiológica en neonatos en el área de alojamiento conjunto de un servicio de neonatología en un hospital de la Seguridad Social en Lima, Perú. Métodos: estudio de tipo transversal analítico. Registramos el peso neonatal en una evaluación de rutina (entre las 24 y 72 horas de vida) y lo comparamos con el peso al nacer. La pérdida de peso excesiva fue definida como una diferencia igual o mayor al 7%. Mediante una encuesta y una verificación visual investigamos los trastornos de la lactancia materna (retraso en el inicio, posición de la boca, duración de la lactancia, frecuencia de la lactancia, sobreabrigo, dolor en el pezón y forma de la C). La asociación entre la pérdida de peso excesiva y los trastornos, ajustada por otros factores, fue cuantificada mediante un modelo lineal generalizado múltiple. Resultados: en 18,8% (74/393) de los neonatos, la pérdida de peso excesiva fue igual o superior al 7% del peso al nacer. La posición inadecuada de la boca en el pezón estuvo presente en el 53,7% (211/393) de los neonatos, mientras que el dolor en el pezón fue reportado en el 44,0% (173/393) de las madres. En el análisis ajustado, el dolor en el pezón [RP = 1,50 (IC95%:1,02-2,22)] y la posición inadecuada de la boca [RP = 1,67 (IC95%:1,09- 2,57)] estuvieron asociados a una mayor pérdida de peso excesiva. Conclusiones: los trastornos de la lactancia son comunes. Estos factores están directa y positivamente asociados a una mayor pérdida de peso excesiva. La introducción de mejoras en las prácticas de lactancia, por ejemplo mediante programas educativos, podr

  18. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  19. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  20. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  1. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  2. 可追踪的匿名证书%The Traceable Anonymous Certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the traceable anonymous certificate, and analyzes the proposed traceable anonymous certificate is⁃suing and tracing protocol in detail, the traceable anonymous certificate should possess two core characteristics: anonymity and non-repudiation, the two features ensure that users can prove the identity himself but without revealing his true identity, this certificate can be used to provide anonymous service in network application.%该文介绍了可追踪匿名证书,并对提出的可追踪匿名证书的发布和追踪协议进行了详细的分析,可追踪匿名证书应该具有匿名性和不可否认性两个核心特点,这两个特点保证了用户可以在不泄露自己的真实身份的情况下来证明用户的身份,这样的证书可以被用于需要提供匿名服务的网络应用中。

  3. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  4. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  5. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  6. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  7. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  8. 电子投票匿名性分析%Anonymity Analysis of Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福人; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    电子投票公布计票结果会影响投票者的匿名性.针对该问题,定义匿名性为投票选择的不确定度,利用熵衡量投票系统的投票者匿名性,比较计票结果公布前后投票者的匿名性变化.分析结果表明,投票规模越小,投票者匿名性在结果公布后受到的损失越大;在小规模电子投票情况下,计票结果应该选择只公布获胜者,不公布具体得票数,以减少投票者匿名的损失.%The disclosure of the number of votes can compromise the voters' anonymity of the electronic voting. Aiming at this problem, this paper defines anonymity by using the uncertainty of the voting choices and measures the anonymity of the whole voting system by entropy. It compares the anonymity after the release of the voting results with that before releasing the voting results. Analysis result shows that the smaller the voting scale is, the more the voters' anonymity loses. In the design of small-scale electronic-voting scheme, releasing the winner instead of the number of votes that candidates gained decreases the loss of anonymity.

  9. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  10. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  11. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  12. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  13. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  14. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  15. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identified various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  16. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  17. Social Norms for Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Park, Jaeok; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Sustaining cooperation among self-interested agents is critical for the proliferation of emerging online social communities, such as online communities formed through social networking services. Providing incentives for cooperation in social communities is particularly challenging because of their unique features: a large population of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, having asymmetric interests, and dynamically joining and leaving the community; operation errors; and low-cost reput...

  18. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  19. The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Anonymous End-of-Course Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Nancy; Rovai, Alfred; Ponton, Michael; Derrick, Gail; Davis, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of student comments on anonymous end-of-course evaluations differed relative to course delivery medium. Comments evaluated were submitted by 202 graduate students enrolled in face-to-face (F2F) and online versions of research and statistics courses over a four-year period. Results suggested…

  20. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Burghardt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper studies this tradeoff systematically. To this end, we implement an algorithm for the anonymization of search histories which is flexible regarding the target function. It can retain frequent terms or terms where corresponding ads are clicked with a high probability, keep up the number of users it can derive interests for, etc. We quantify the usefulness of the anonymized log for ad placement in a broad way, e.g., by estimating the number of ad clicks or of ad impressions, based on marketing data from Yahoo! As a result, anonymized search logs are still useful for ad placement, but this very much depends on the target function.

  1. Extended K-Anonymity Model for Privacy Preserving on Micro Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, information collectors, particularly statistical organizations, are faced with two conflicting issues. On one hand, according to their natural responsibilities and the increasing demand for the collected data, they are committed to propagate the information more extensively and with higher quality and on the other hand, due to the public concern about the privacy of personal information and the legal responsibility of these organizations in protecting the private information of their users, they should guarantee that while providing all the information to the population, the privacy is reasonably preserved. This issue becomes more crucial when the datasets published by data mining methods are at risk of attribute and identity disclosure attacks. In order to overcome this problem, several approaches, called p-sensitive k-anonymity, p+-sensitive k-anonymity, and (p, α-sensitive k-anonymity, were proposed. The drawbacks of these methods include the inability to protect micro datasets against attribute disclosure and the high value of the distortion ratio. In order to eliminate these drawbacks, this paper proposes an algorithm that fully protects the propagated micro data against identity and attribute disclosure and significantly reduces the distortion ratio during the anonymity process.

  2. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  3. Improvement of the security of quantum protocols for anonymous voting and surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Several quantum protocols were proposed in a recent paper by Vaccaro,Spring and Chefles for ensuring the anonymous voting in a number of different scenarios.However,it is shown that their protocols are very vulnerable in terms of security.Improved schemes are also presented to recover the security.

  4. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  5. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  6. Compatibility of Adlerian Theory and Practice with the Philosophy and Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Tenets of Adlerian theory and practice are compatible with the philosophy and practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. Counselors can expect treatment approaches based on Adlerian counseling theory to be congruent with 12-step practices of individuals who are in recovery from alcohol dependence. (Author)

  7. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  8. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  9. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  10. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette

    1997-01-01

    they reach their majority, to obtain some information pertaining to the health or the identity of their genetic parents. This presents ethical problems. It can be argued that the anonymity of the parents chiefly affects the children, so that an agreement on this point among parents, doctors and others must...

  11. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  12. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  13. Anonymous Multi-Receiver Identity-Based Authenticated Encryption with CCA Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-receiver encryption system, a sender chooses a set of authorized receivers and sends them a message securely and efficiently, as the message is well encrypted and only one ciphertext corresponding to the message is generated no matter how many receivers the sender has chosen. It can be applied to video conferencing systems, pay-per-view channels, remote education, and so forth. Due to privacy considerations, an authorized receiver may not expect that his identity is revealed. In 2010, anonymous multi-receiver identity-based (ID-based encryption was first discussed, and furthermore, many works on the topic have been presented so far. Unfortunately, we find that all of those schemes fail to prove the chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security in either confidentiality or anonymity. In this manuscript, we propose the first anonymous multi-receiver ID-based authenticated encryption scheme with CCA security in both confidentiality and anonymity. In the proposed scheme, the identity of the sender of a ciphertext can be authenticated by the receivers after a successful decryption. In addition, the proposed scheme also is the first CCA-secure one against insider attacks. Moreover, only one pairing computation is required in decryption.

  14. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  15. Anonymity in giving in a natural context - a field experiment in 30 churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR

    2005-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in 30 Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either 'closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When usi

  16. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  17. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  18. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  19. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  20. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  1. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  2. Weight and age at menarche.

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, O; Peckham, C S; Moynihan, C.

    1989-01-01

    In the National Child Development Study (1958 cohort) information on their age at menarche and their weights and heights measured at 7, 11, and 16 years was available for 4427 girls. The distribution of age at menarche was not influenced by social class. Weight adjusted for height did not play an important part in the timing of sexual maturation of the girls in the study. Relative weight (weight expressed as a percentage of standard weight) at the ages of 7 and 11 years explained only 3.2%, a...

  3. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  4. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs. PMID:25352490

  5. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.

  6. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu

    2006-01-01

    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  7. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs. PMID:24481718

  8. Targeted and anonymized smartphone-based public health interventions in a participatory sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Public health interventions comprising information dissemination to affect behavioral adjustment have long been a significant component of public health campaigns. However, there has been limited development of public health intervention systems to make use of advances in mobile computing and telecommunications technologies. Such developments pose significant challenges to privacy and security where potentially sensitive data may be collected. In our previous work we identified and demonstrated the feasibility of using mobile devices as anonymous public health data collection devices as part of a Health Participatory Sensing Network (HPSN). An advanced capability of these networks extended in this paper would be the ability to distribute, apply, report on and analyze the usage and effectiveness of targeted public health interventions in an anonymous way. In this paper we describe such a platform, its place in the HPSN and demonstrate its feasibility through an implementation. PMID:25570789

  9. A new authentication protocol for revocable anonymity in ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Zwierko, Aneta; Kotulski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for authentication in ad-hoc networks. The protocol has been designed to meet specialized requirements of ad-hoc networks, such as lack of direct communication between nodes or requirements for revocable anonymity. At the same time, a ad-hoc authentication protocol must be resistant to spoofing, eavesdropping and playback, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The article analyzes existing authentication methods based on the Public Key Infrastructure, and finds th...

  10. Applying Semigroup Property of Enhanced Chebyshev Polynomials to Anonymous Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lai; Jinghua Xiao; Lixiang Li; Yixian Yang

    2012-01-01

    We apply semigroup property of enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to present an anonymous authentication protocol. This paper aims at improving security and reducing computational and storage overhead. The proposed scheme not only has much lower computational complexity and cost in the initialization phase but also allows the users to choose their passwords freely. Moreover, it can provide revocation of lost or stolen smart card, which can resist man-in-the-middle attack and off-line dictionary a...

  11. 7-year trajectories of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and associations with treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; AVALOS, Lyndsay AMMON

    2009-01-01

    Although many members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are introduced to AA during treatment, the relationship between treatment and AA attendance over time is unknown. This paper describes four latent classes of AA attendance among 586 dependent alcoholics interviewed by telephone 1, 3, 5 and 7 years after baseline, and models the relationship between treatment exposure and AA attendance in each class. There was a low AA group (averaging fewer than 5 meetings at most follow-ups), a medium AA gro...

  12. A Secure Anonymous Internet Electronic Voting Scheme Based on the Polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; CAO Zhenfu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use the polynomial function and Chaum's RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) blind signature scheme to construct a secure anonymous internet electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, each vote does not need to be revealed in the tallying phase. The ballot number of each candidate gets is counted by computing the degrees of two polynomials' greatest common divisor. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current internet.

  13. SW-SDF Based Personal Privacy with QIDB-Anonymization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Personalized anonymization is a method in which a guarding node is used to indicate whether the record owner is ready to reveal its sensitivity based on which anonymization will be performed. Most of the sensitive values that are present in the private data base do not require privacy preservation since the record owner sensitivity is a general one. So there are only few records in the entire distribution that require privacy. For example a record owner having disease flu doesn’t mind revealing his identity as compared to record owner having disease cancer. Even in this some of the record owners who have cancer are ready to reveal their identity, this is the motivation for SW-SDF based Personal Privacy. In this paper we propose a novel personalized privacy preserving technique that over comes the disadvantages of previous personalized privacy and other anonymization techniques. The core of this method can be divided in to two major components. The first component deals with additional attribute used in the table which is in the form of flags which can be used to divide sensitive attribute. Sensitive Disclosure Flag (SDF determines whether record owner sensitive information is to be disclosed or whether privacy should be maintained. The second flag that we are using is Sensitive Weigh (SW which indicates how much sensitive the attribute value is as compared with the rest. Second section deals with a novel representation called Frequency Distribution Block (FDB and Quasi–Identifier Distribution Block(QIDB which is used in anonymization. Experimental result show that it has lesser information loss and faster execution time as compared with existing methods.

  14. An anonymous reputation mechanism for cloud computing networks using volunteer resources

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Morillo, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    One of the major problems when using non-dedicated volunteer resources in a distributed network is the high volatility of these hosts since they can go offline or become unavailable at any time without control. Furthermore, the use of volunteer resources implies some security issues due to the fact that they are generally anonymous entities which we know nothing about. So, how to trust in someone we do not know?. Over the last years an important number of reputation-based tr...

  15. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  16. Anonymity, Reciprocity, and Conformity: Evidence from Voluntary Contributions to a National Park in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpizar, Francisco; Carlson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity for voluntary contributions, based on a natural field experiment conducted at a national park in Costa Rica. Contributions made in public in front of the solicitor were 25 percent higher than contributions made in private. Giving subjects a small gift before requesting a contribution increased the likelihood of a positive contribution. At the same time, however, the conditional contribution decreased. The total effect of givin...

  17. Decentralized Formation Control for Small-Scale Robot Teams with Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geunho; Nak Young, Chong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents decentralized formation controls for a team of anonymous mobile robots performing a task through cooperation. Robot teams are required to generate and maintain various geometric patterns adapting to environmental changes in many cooperative robotics applications. In particular, all robots must continue to strive toward achieving the team’s mission even if some members fail to perform their role. Toward this end, formation control approaches are proposed under the condition...

  18. Tourism and spaces of anonymity: An Israeli lesbian woman's travel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Yaniv

    2006-01-01

    This study examines an Israeli lesbian woman's travel experience based on the analysis of her published diary. The comparison of her experience and attitudes towards various spaces (e.g. her apartment, open spaces near her home, and locations in which she is involved in tourist activity) suggests that her perception of the space as 'free from people she knows' allows her and her partner to benefit from anonymity, live a lesbian lifestyle and benefit from sense of existential...

  19. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When using baskets, attendants' contributions can be identified by their direct neighbors, and attendants can observe the total amount given by the people who preceded them. Initially, contributions to...

  20. Robust ``pro-poorest'' poverty reduction with counting measures: the non-anonymous case

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Gallegos; Gaston Yalonetzky

    2014-01-01

    When measuring poverty with counting measures, are there conditions ensuring that poverty reduction not only reduces the average poverty score further but also decreases deprivation inequality among the poor more, thereby emphasizing improvements among the poorest of the poor? In the case of a non-anonymous assessment, i.e. when we can track poverty experiences of the same individuals or households using panel datasets, we derive three conditions whose fulfillment allows us to conclude that m...

  1. Robust ``pro-poorest'' poverty reduction with counting measures: The anonymous case

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Gallegos; Gaston Yalonetzky

    2015-01-01

    When measuring poverty with counting measures, it is worth inquiring into the conditions prompting poverty reduction which not only reduce the average poverty score further but also decrease deprivation inequality among the poor, thereby emphasizing improvements among the poorest of the poor. For comparisons of cross-sectional datasets of the same society in different periods of time (i.e. an anonymous assessment), Lasso de la Vega (2010) and Alkire and Foster (2011) developed a first-order d...

  2. Why are they hiding ? Study of an Anonymous File Sharing System

    OpenAIRE

    Cunche, Mathieu; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Chen, Terence; Boreli, Roksana; Mahanti, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper characterizes a recently proposed anonymous file sharing system, OneSwarm. This characterisation is based on measurement of several aspects of the OneSwarm system such as the nature of the shared and searched content and the geolocation and number of users. Our findings indicate that, as opposed to common belief, there is no significant difference in downloaded content between this system and the classical BitTorrent ecosystem. We also found that a majorit...

  3. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  4. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addi...

  5. 一种基于SPKI的匿名支付方案%An Anonymous Payment Scheme Based on SPKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆生; 李唯唯; 王茜; 傅鹤岗

    2003-01-01

    SPKI is a proposed standard for public-key certificates. One important property of SPKI is that SPKI is key-oriented rather than name-oriented, and the public-key is globally unique. In this paper we propose an anonymous paymentscheme based on SPKI aiming at the problem of anonymous payment in B2C e-commerce. In the scheme we use the key-oriented characteristic of SPKI to link the public key to the account, and use authorization certificates to pay. The scheme achieves the anonymity very well.

  6. A Review on anonymization approach to preserve privacy of Published data through record elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha K. Gayki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing data. Data Privacy is collection of data and dissemination of data. Privacy issues arise in different area such as health care, intellectual property, biological data, financial transaction etc. It is very difficult to protect the data when there is transfer of data. Sensitive information must be protected. There are two kinds of major attacks against privacy namely record linkage and attribute linkage attacks. Research have proposed some methods namely k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness for data privacy. K-anonymity method preserves the privacy against record linkage attack alone. It is unable to prevent address attribute linkage attack. ℓ-diversity method overcomes the drawback of k-anonymity method. But it fails to prevent identity disclosure attack and attribute disclosure attack. t-closeness method preserves the privacy against attribute linkage attack but not identity disclosure attack. A proposed method used to preserve the privacy of individuals sensitive data from record and attribute linkage attacks. In the proposed method, privacy preservation is achieved through generalization by setting range values and through record elimination. A proposed method overcomes the drawback of both record linkage attack and attribute linkage attack.

  7. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  8. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  9. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  10. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Russia Singapore Slovakia ... Grapevine & La Viña Magazines Contributions & Self-Support Archives & History Press / Media Videos and Audios A.A. General ...

  11. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.; Maurer, Hans H.; Meyer, Markus R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were collected anonymously from urinal and HMMA-d3 and trimipramin-d3 were added as internal standards. Additionally, 12 soil samples were collected near fences where people urinated. Urine samples were processe...

  12. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  13. Anonymity, ethics and credibility in the blogosphere and on Twitter: gastronomic criticism in “Alhos, passas & maçãs” and in @carapuceiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria do Amaral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to understand the anonymous restaurant critic currently made on the Internet, based on the cases of the Alhos, passas & maçãs blog and the @carapuceiro Twitter. Before considered as personal diaries or means of communication among friends, today blogs and social networks have no limits – and, when used to criticize restaurants negatively, its impact reaches unpremeditated boundaries, including reactions of chefs and journalists themselves. At the same time that these tools extend the possibilities of subjective comments written by ordinary people, without a degree in journalism, the press loses credibility by choosing to criticize in a courteous way, submitting itself to the invitations sent by press offices and to the “cordial journalism”.

  14. Probability-based location anonymity algorithm%利用概率的位置匿名算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉双; 谭示崇; 赵大为

    2015-01-01

    k匿名模型是一种有效的位置隐私保护技术,通过构造包含需要保护的用户在内的 k 个正在发送请求的用户的匿名区域,达到保护用户位置的目的。但是现有的 k匿名模型仅能利用当前正在发送请求的用户,当同时发送请求用户较少时,就会导致匿名区域过大。为此,提出一种利用概率的位置匿名算法来保护路网中的移动用户的位置,利用当前时刻的不活跃用户的历史位置轨迹,计算出进入匿名路段的概率,可明显减小匿名路段长度。实验结果证明,基于概率的位置匿名算法与一般的 k 匿名模型相比较,提高了匿名效率。%As one of the most effective location privacy preservation technologies , the k‐anonymity model provides safeguards for location privacy of the mobile client against vulnerabilities for abuse by constructing an anonymous area of k users including the protected one . However , most existing k‐anonymity models only utilize the users who are sending requests at recent time . If there are not enough requesting users , the generated anonymous area of the k‐anonymity model will be larger than expected . In this paper , a Probability‐based Location Anonymity ( PLA ) algorithm is proposed for protecting location privacy of the mobile users in a road network . The PLA model takes advantage of the historical path track of the users who are not sending the request currently , and then computes the probability into the anonymous section so that it can greatly reduce the size of the anonymous area . Experimental results show that the PLA algorithm is superior to the k‐anonymity and it increases its anonymous efficiency enormously .

  15. The discussion of anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard%匿名的道德主体与网络行为规范探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟娟

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet era, the human being into a new"network society, the network has gradually exposed more and more problems, anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard has gradually been of concern to the people. Because of the social morality can not fully applied in the virtual world of the Internet, in order to adapt to this gradually step into people's lives, learning new social exchange way, must treat the network moral seriously, and actively promote the progress and development of network morality. The author will from the moral phenomena and conflicts of virtual space, to discuss how to standardize network behavior in the moral subject anonymous environment.%随着网络时代的到来,人类正在走进一个全新的“网络社会”,随之而来的网络中也逐渐暴露出越来越多的问题,匿名的道德主体与网络的行为规范也逐渐被人们所关注。由于当今的社会道德不能够完全的应用于虚拟的网络世界,为适应这一逐渐步进入人们生活的新型社会交流、学习的方式,就必须认真对待网络道德这一问题,积极促进网络道德的进步与发展。下面笔者将从虚拟的空间里发生的道德现象和冲突等问题进行讨论,就如何在道德主体匿名的环境下去规范网络行为加以讨论。

  16. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Thorben Burghardt; Klemens Bohm; Achim Guttmann; Chris Clifton

    2011-01-01

    Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper stu...

  17. Proof-of-Work as Anonymous Micropayment: Rewarding a Tor Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Pustogarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new micropayments scheme which can be used to reward Tor relay operators. Tor clients do not pay Tor relays with electronic cash directly but submit proof of work shares which the relays can resubmit to a crypto-currency mining pool. Relays credit users who submit shares with tickets that can later be used to purchase improved service. Both shares and tickets when sent over Tor circuits are anonymous. The analysis of the crypto-currencies market prices shows that th...

  18. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  19. The Anonymous Plotter in the Routines of Renaissance Theatre and Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Pugliatti

    2012-01-01

    Renaissance theatre, both in England and Italy, was a commercial enterprise and, therefore, it utilized procedures of division of labour to meet the challenge of the market. One of these procedures was the compilation of preparatory texts of various kinds. But, while about one thousand scenari of the commedia dell’arte (some anonymous, some with the author’s name) survive, of the ‘plots’ compiled by the English ‘plotters’ in preparation of plays to be written only one incomplete specimen and ...

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  1. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  2. Perceived Barriers to Weight Management in Primary Care—Perspectives of Patients and Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruelaz, Alicia R.; Diefenbach, Pamela; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andy; Arterburn, David; Shekelle, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the consequences of overweight and obesity, effective weight management is not occurring in primary care. Objective To identify beliefs about obesity that act as barriers to weight management in primary care by surveying both patients and providers and comparing their responses. Design Anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered survey of patients and providers of a Veteran’s Administration Primary Care Clinic, distributed at the clinic site. Subjects Forty-eight Internal...

  3. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  4. Stealthy Traffic Analysis of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Using Throughput Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Juen, Joshua; Caesar, Matthew; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity systems such as Tor aim to enable users to communicate in a manner that is untraceable by adversaries that control a small number of machines. To provide efficient service to users, these anonymity systems make full use of forwarding capacity when sending traffic between intermediate relays. In this paper, we show that doing this leaks information about the set of Tor relays in a circuit (path). We present attacks that, with high confidence and based solely on throughput information, can (a) reduce the attacker's uncertainty about the bottleneck relay of any Tor circuit whose throughput can be observed, (b) exactly identify the guard relay(s) of a Tor user when circuit throughput can be observed over multiple connections, and (c) identify whether two concurrent TCP connections belong to the same Tor user, breaking unlinkability. Our attacks are stealthy, and cannot be readily detected by a user or by Tor relays. We validate our attacks using experiments over the live Tor network. We find that the at...

  5. Implementation of Fair-exchange and Anonymous Online E-cash Protocol for E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world of internet, e-commerce is one of the most prominent sectors where user wants to shop and pay online for online products. E-cash is one of these payment methods. In e-cash, every time a unique string is generated for user so that user uses that string to pay for any online product. At the time of online purchasing a trust should be maintain between customers and merchant such that the product price which is going to pay by customer is fair or not, the merchant is indeed genuine to deliver the product after getting online payment or not. Trust issues are resolved by using fair exchange concept at the time of online purchasing. Anonymity is also a major concern; it means that true identity of users must be hidden from merchant. By keeping these issues in mind we proposed a protocol which ensures users anonymity by using e-cash payment method and fair exchange by using off-line TTP which invokes by customer when any dispute occur from merchant side. In this paper, we implement our proposed protocol and also analyze its performance and compare it with other protocol.

  6. Privacy preserving data publishing of categorical data through k-anonymity and feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristodimou, Aristos; Antoniades, Athos; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2016-03-01

    In healthcare, there is a vast amount of patients' data, which can lead to important discoveries if combined. Due to legal and ethical issues, such data cannot be shared and hence such information is underused. A new area of research has emerged, called privacy preserving data publishing (PPDP), which aims in sharing data in a way that privacy is preserved while the information lost is kept at a minimum. In this Letter, a new anonymisation algorithm for PPDP is proposed, which is based on k-anonymity through pattern-based multidimensional suppression (kPB-MS). The algorithm uses feature selection for reducing the data dimensionality and then combines attribute and record suppression for obtaining k-anonymity. Five datasets from different areas of life sciences [RETINOPATHY, Single Proton Emission Computed Tomography imaging, gene sequencing and drug discovery (two datasets)], were anonymised with kPB-MS. The produced anonymised datasets were evaluated using four different classifiers and in 74% of the test cases, they produced similar or better accuracies than using the full datasets.

  7. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. PMID:24146334

  8. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Damodaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  9. The Anonymous Plotter in the Routines of Renaissance Theatre and Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pugliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Renaissance theatre, both in England and Italy, was a commercial enterprise and, therefore, it utilized procedures of division of labour to meet the challenge of the market. One of these procedures was the compilation of preparatory texts of various kinds. But, while about one thousand scenari of the commedia dell’arte (some anonymous, some with the author’s name survive, of the ‘plots’ compiled by the English ‘plotters’ in preparation of plays to be written only one incomplete specimen and a few fragments have been preserved; their nature, therefore, remains dubious. Furthermore, anonymous documents of a different nature, also confusingly called ‘plots’, but compiled as reminders for the actors’ entrances during performance, have survived in six, mostly fragmentary, manuscripts. This article discusses these three kinds of preparatory texts in order to characterize their different nature and argues that, although suggestive, the idea of a derivation of the two kinds of English ‘plots’ from the scenari appears unconvincing; indeed, the compilation, in both contexts, of preparatory texts was simply an obvious and necessary measure in order to speed up procedures.

  10. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winking

    Full Text Available Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006 in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006 and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1 any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations, (2 nothing at all, (3 only zero donations, and (4 and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  11. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity, their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05 and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03 whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001 whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002 and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009 respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower

  12. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Kate; Holmans, Peter A; van den Bree, Marianne BM; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity), their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05) and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03) whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001) whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002) and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009) respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower social class

  13. CREATION A MATHEMATICAL MODEL, THAT PROVIDES A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF ANONYMITY IN E-VOTING SYSTEM WITH THE INTEGRITY AND PRIVACY OF TRANSMITTED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  14. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  15. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  16. The Social Impact of Natural Language Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... identifies a number of social implications that NLP research may have, and discusses their ethical significance, as well as ways to address them....

  17. Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore A.; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo; Provetti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work in the collection and analysis of massive data describing the connections between participants to online social networks. Alternative approaches to social network data collection are defined and evaluated in practice, against the popular Facebook Web site. Thanks to our ad-hoc, privacy-compliant crawlers, two large samples, comprising millions of connections, have been collected; the data is anonymous and organized as an undirected graph. We describe a set of tools that w...

  18. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.

  19. DEVELOPING AND MODELING A NEW E-LOTTERY SYSTEM USING ANONYMOUS SIGNATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN MEDELEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional lottery systems, the players choose some numbers on a ticket, enroll it to the lottery organizer and pay an amount of money for it. But this perspective offers no guarantee to the players that the lottery organizer doesn’t manipulate the number selection in order to pay the least. This suspicion could be avoided if the lottery organizer didn’t know the numbers selected by the players before the draw. Such a system is possible to be realized by using anonymous signatures, but the design should also guarantee that forging lottery tickets after the moment of the draw or claim of a different ticket is not possible. This paper will propose and analyze a model in order to fulfill all requirement described before, using several cryptographic primitives

  20. ANONYMIZATION BASED ON NESTED CLUSTERING FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION IN DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Rajalakshmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy Preservation in data mining protects the data from revealing unauthorized extraction of information. Data Anonymization techniques implement this by modifying the data, so that the original values cannot be acquired easily. Perturbation techniques are variedly used which will greatly affect the quality of data,since there is a trade-off between privacy preservation and information loss which will subsequently affect the result of data mining. The method that is proposed in this paper is based on nested clustering of data andperturbation on each cluster. The size of clusters is kept optimal to reduce the information loss. The paper explains the methodology, implementation and results of nested clustering. Various metrics are also provided to explicate that this method overcomes the disadvantages of other perturbation methods.

  1. Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González-Zapata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were

  2. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  3. Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous with College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Ron, Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The recommended treatment for alcoholism in the past typically has been participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). However, the use of AA on college campuses has not been proven effective. With a new generation comes the opportunity to rethink this approach to the problem of alcohol abuse on campuses and to incorporate new methods in counseling…

  4. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  5. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  6. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  7. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems. PMID:15655039

  8. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  9. Identity Management and Mental Health Discourse in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly being adopted in health discourse. We examine the role played by identity in supporting discourse on socially stigmatized conditions. Specifically, we focus on mental health communities on reddit. We investigate the characteristics of mental health discourse manifested through reddit's characteristic ‘throwaway’ accounts, which are used as proxies of anonymity. For the purpose, we propose affective, cognitive, social, and linguistic style measures, drawing from li...

  10. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  11. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  12. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  13. From anonymity to “open doors”: IRB responses to tensions with researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitzman Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. Findings I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding, and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55% and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions. IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of “PR work” and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using “charm”. IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. Conclusions This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways – both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions. IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more “open doors” rather

  14. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Many of these tainted products are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some ... illegal diet products. In addition, FDA maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products. To help ...

  15. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some can also be found on ... use of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, ...

  16. Weight trimming and propensity score weighting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Lee

    Full Text Available Propensity score weighting is sensitive to model misspecification and outlying weights that can unduly influence results. The authors investigated whether trimming large weights downward can improve the performance of propensity score weighting and whether the benefits of trimming differ by propensity score estimation method. In a simulation study, the authors examined the performance of weight trimming following logistic regression, classification and regression trees (CART, boosted CART, and random forests to estimate propensity score weights. Results indicate that although misspecified logistic regression propensity score models yield increased bias and standard errors, weight trimming following logistic regression can improve the accuracy and precision of final parameter estimates. In contrast, weight trimming did not improve the performance of boosted CART and random forests. The performance of boosted CART and random forests without weight trimming was similar to the best performance obtainable by weight trimmed logistic regression estimated propensity scores. While trimming may be used to optimize propensity score weights estimated using logistic regression, the optimal level of trimming is difficult to determine. These results indicate that although trimming can improve inferences in some settings, in order to consistently improve the performance of propensity score weighting, analysts should focus on the procedures leading to the generation of weights (i.e., proper specification of the propensity score model rather than relying on ad-hoc methods such as weight trimming.

  17. Principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso The main biological and social characteristics of children low birth-weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se as principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso (£ 2.500 g comparado com o de peso normal (> 2.500 através de uma amostra de recém-nascidos admitidos no berçário e nascidos na Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP durante o período de 1 ano. As características individuais do recém-nascido foram avaliadas através das variáveis sexo, cor, medidas antropométricas e condições clínicas. A assistência dispensada ao recém-nascido foi estudada quer sob o ponto de vista quantitativo como qualitativo. As condições sócio-econômicas foram analisadas através da caracterização ao tamanho da família, tipo de união, qualificação da mão de obra, escolaridade e renda. Também foram analisados o comportamento e a atitude das mães dos recém-nascidos quanto à utilização dos recursos de saúde, idade ideal para ter filhos e número ideal de filhos. As principais características médico-sociais identificadas e analisadas neste estudo fornecem elementos para subsidiar o estabelecimento de uma assistência global à gestante.A study was made on the main biological and social characteristics of low birth-weight (£ 2500 g as compared to normal weight (> 2500 g based on a sample of newborn admited to the nursery and born at the "Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo" during the period of one year. The individual characteristics of the new-born were evaluated according to the variables sex, color, anthropometric measures and clinical conditions. Medical care given to new-born was studied not only as to the aspect of quantity but also of quality. Social-economic conditions were analyzed based on the characterization of family size, legal conditions of marriage, man-power qualification, schooling and income. Behavior and attitudes of mothers of the newborn were also analyzed as regards the

  18. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  19. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful.

  20. Trusted Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Trusted Network Connection in Mobile Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jun Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Technologies make the mobile terminals such as smart phones, PDAs and handsets much more powerful to access mobile network in recent years. Especially with the widely use of mobile terminals, mobile network now becomes a primary tool for daily and business interactions. However, the proliferation of mobile terminals also draws mobile malware’s attention which will do damage to the mobile terminal and further affect the security of mobile network. But the traditional access control and authentication mechanism cannot resolve such security issues. On the basis of trusted computing technology, we proposed a mobile trusted network architecture by extending the trusted network connection in mobile environment. And an improvement EAP-EHash method is used in the proposed architecture to implement authentication. We defined two service scenarios in the authentication scheme, home network authentication and roaming network authentication. The process of each scenario is described in detail. By introducing the pseudonym mechanism, our scheme can protect user identity. And the connection status not only depends on the identification process, but also the trust status of the platform. The analysis shows that our scheme benefits the properties of user identity anonymity, mutual authentication, fake agent resistance, platform integrity verification, EAP and TNC Compatible. And the ciphersuite negotiation makes our scheme more suitable for resource limited mobile terminals.

  1. Role of Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein in host-cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Pawan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP is essential for sporozoite motility and for liver cell invasion. TRAP is a type 1 membrane protein that possesses multiple adhesive domains in its extracellular region. Methods Plasmodium falciparum TRAP (PfTRAP and its subdomains were expressed in a mammalian expression system, and eleven different mutants generated to study interaction of PfTRAP with liver cells. Binding studies between HepG2 cell extracts and PfTRAP were performed using co-immunoprecipitation protocols. Results Five different amino acid residues of PfTRAP that are involved in liver cell binding have been identified. These PfTRAP mutants bound to heparin like the wild type PfTRAP thereby suggesting a non-heparin mediated binding of PfTRAP to liver cells. Three Src family proteins -Lyn, Lck and CrkL which interact with PfTRAP are also identified. Liver cell extracts and immunoprecipitated Src family kinases phosphorylated PfTRAP at multiple sites. An analysis of multiple TRAP sequences revealed Src homology 3 domain (SH3 binding motifs. Conclusion Binding of PfTRAP to SH3-domain containing proteins like Src-family kinases and their ability to phosphorylate PfTRAP suggests a novel role for PfTRAP in cell signaling during sporozoite invasion and homing inside the liver cells. These data shed new light on TRAP-liver cell interactions.

  2. OBLIVIOUS TRANSFER WITH ACCESS CONTROL AND IDENTITYBASED ENCRYPTION WITH ANONYMOUS KEY ISSUING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lingling; Zhang Fangguo; Wen Yamin

    2011-01-01

    In ACM'CCS 2009,Camenisch,et al.proposed the Obhvious Transfer with Access Control (AC-OT) in which each item is associated with an attribute set and can only be available,on request,to the users who have all the attributes in the associated set.Namely,AC-OT achieves access control policy for conjunction of attributes.Essentially,the functionality of AC-OT is equivalent to the simplified version that we call AC-OT-SV:for each item,one attribute is associated with it,and it is requested that only the users who possess the associated attribute can obtain the item by queries.On one hand,AC-OT-SV is a special case of AC-OT when there is just one associated attribute with each item.On the other hand,any AC-OT can be realized by an AC-OT-SV.In this paper,we first present a concrete AC-OT-SV protocol which is proved to be secure in the model defined by Camenisch,et al..Then from the protocol,interestingly,a concrete Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) with Anonymous Key Issuing (AKI) is given which is just a direct application to AC-OT-SV.By comparison,we show that the AKI protocol we present is more efficient in communications than that proposed by Chow.

  3. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  4. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  5. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  6. [Utilization of anonymous HIV testing by the federal health office--developments and motives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, J; Waldvogel, B

    1993-01-01

    In the state-run health office in Ulm a survey of the frequency of anonymous HIV-antibody tests was taken between 1985 to 1991, of the age and gender representation from 1988 to 1991, of the test motives from 1.1.1990 to 1.3.1991. The result was a regressive trend following the test boom of 1987 and 1988, which is becoming more and more stable. The relation of men and women has been amounting to 6:4 in the last four years; the proportion of women receding slightly but constantly. The main motive of being tested was finding out about a high-risk or potentially high-risk sexual contact, mostly at the beginning of a new partnership. The motive ranking second in frequency was the investigation of the consequences of blood exposure, mostly relating to medical work. The third place was taken by irrational anxieties as a test motive. The article discusses the fact that test at the beginning of a new partnership frequently have the meaning of a sacrifice and a symbol of bondage in combination with a vow to be faithful. In case of irrational anxieties about AIDS the test-counsellor gets a chance to diagnose a possibly neurotic development at a very early stage, so that painful and expensive chronification and generalisation could be stopped or eased. PMID:8435542

  7. Assessment Role of Participation in Narcotic Anonymous in Opiate Dependents during Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.

  8. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  9. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  10. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  11. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Hernández-Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  12. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  13. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance.

  14. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations.

  15. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed.

  16. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed. PMID:25432976

  17. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations. PMID:23363491

  18. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  19. Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Regin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.

  20. De-anonymization Technology and Applications in the Age of Big Data%大数据时代中的去匿名化技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广中; 魏燊; 谢幸

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we ilustrate the importance of privacy protection with an Internet case. Then we introduce some frequently-used anonymized methods in privacy protection, and present practical ways to de-anonymize data in some popular ifelds: rating recommendation system, social network and blogs. We believe the publication of data is beneifcial to academic research, but we stil need to work hard on privacy protection.%首先通过案例说明隐私保护的重要性,然后介绍隐私保护中常用的匿名化方法,并针对评分推荐系统、社交网络和博客分别介绍有效的去匿名化方法。表明在大数据时代下虽然数据的公开有利于学术研究,但是也需要加强考虑隐私保护的问题。

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  2. Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Sandra; Correia, Teresa; Ramos, Elisabete; Fraga, Silvia; Barros, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of young people’s involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. We also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. Methods: We evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys) aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. Information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. Results: T...

  3. Survey of Anonymous Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动自组网的匿名路由协议研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丰林; 葛连升; 刘琚; 段海新

    2009-01-01

    移动自组网中的恶意节点对路由协议的安全和隐匿具有严重威胁.现在针对安全路由协议的研究很多,但是很少有人涉及匿名性问题,匿名路由协议能够实现节点身份、位置和通信关系的隐匿,在军事和其它机密通信领域中具有重要意义.首先对匿名路由协议面临的攻击行为进行分析,介绍其定义、分类和匿名性评价方法,然后概括性的介绍已有的典型匿名路由协议,比较其匿名性和安全性,最后对以后研究的问题和方向作了总结和展望.%Malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) impose great threat on the security and anonymity of routing protocols. Although there is a huge amount of work in secure routing protocols, few focuses on anonymity problems recent years. Anonymous routing protocols are significantly important in military and other confidential areas because of their capability of hiding the node's identity, location and communication relations. In this paper, a detailed survey of existing literature on anonymous routing protocols is presented. Attack behaviois in anonymous routing protocols are first identified, and the strict definition, taxonomy and anonymity evaluation metrics are also introduced. Then several typical anonymous routing protocols are generally described and their performance on security and anonymity are analyzed and compared as well. At last, some main problems and possible directions for future research are summarized and discussed.

  4. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed.

  5. Alcoholics anonymous and twelve steps%AA与戒酒的十二个步骤--访美国嗜酒者互诫协会札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崧; 李冰

    2003-01-01

    @@ AA(Alcoholics Anonymous)的戒酒方案见诸于几乎所有有关药物依赖的教科书.在世界范围内,采纳AA十二个步骤的治疗原则来实现戒除成瘾性障碍的组织(如NA:Narcotics Anonymous,CA:CocaineAnonymous等)已超过250个.

  6. Molecular characterization of a new Babesia bovis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaa Terkawi

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a Babesia bovis protein that shares significant degree of similarity to other apicomplexan thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins (TRAPs was found in the genomic database and designated as BbTRAP2. Recombinant protein containing a conserved region of BbTRAP2 was produced in E. coli. A high antigenicity of recombinant BbTRAP2 (rBbTRAP2 was observed with field B. bovis-infected bovine sera collected from geographically different regions of the world. Moreover, antiserum against rBbTRAP2 specifically reacted with the authentic protein by Western blot analysis and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Three bands corresponding to 104-, 76-, and 44-kDa proteins were identified in the parasite lysates and two bands of 76- and 44-kDa proteins were detected in the supernatant of cultivated parasites, indicating that BbTRAP2 was proteolytically processed and shed into the culture. Apical and surface localizations of BbTRAP2 were observed in the intracellular and extracellular parasites, respectively, by confocal laser microscopic examination. Moreover, native BbTRAP2 was precipitated by bovine erythrocytes, suggesting its role in the attachment to erythrocytes. Furthermore, the specific antibody to rBbTRAP2 inhibited the growth of B. bovis in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, pre-incubation of the free merozoites with the antibody to rBbTRAP2 resulted in an inhibition of the parasite invasion into host erythrocytes. Interestingly, the antibody to rBbTRAP2 was the most inhibitive for the parasite's growth as compared to those of a set of antisera produced against different recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c, rhoptry-associated protein 1 C-terminal (BbRAP-1CT, and spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1. These results suggest that BbTRAP2 might be a potential candidate for development of a subunit vaccine against B. bovis infection.

  7. FROM ANONYMITY TO SELF-DISCLOSURE; RECONTEXTUALISATION OF COMMUNICATION IN NEW MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Praprotnik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Social Web applications are becoming an important communication tool for managing diverse personal and other information among users. The so-called participative culture is a brand new setting calling for intense interactivity. Well-informed citizens with ideas for collaboration is welcomed. The collaboration and sharing of ideas, information and opinions are well documented even in more personal Social Web applications, such as Facebook. Here we are confronting with the problem of privacy and potential harmful or risky behavior. Multimedia production with multimedia convergence of different online communication tools (Social web, forums, online chat, digital photography has unified communication channels and converged different communication setting. Once strongly separate divisions among different communication setting (private-public has disappeared. The so-called »privacy paradox« states that while internet users are concerned about privacy, their behavior do not reflect these concerns. Additionally, the divisions between different social groups (friends, parents, employers are blurring, primary because of interconnectivity of different Social Web applications. Facebook users hardly guess who are their exact audience. The transmission of information intended for one group can be transferred into other context. It has to be mentioned that Facebook users are highly diverse and so are diverse their attitudes toward privacy concerns and willingness to self-disclose. Research indicate that users are to some extent aware of privacy problems, but researches also indicate that general social relevance of particular Social Web applications and personal aspects of general willingness to self-disclose are the major contextual factors influencing users how to communicate in social networking sites such as Facebook.

  8. Feasible elimination procedures in social choice : an axiomatic characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg, B.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Feasible elimination procedures (Peleg, 1978) play a central role in constructing social choice functions which have the following property: in the associated game form, for any preference profile there exists a strong Nash equilibrium resulting in the sincere outcome. In this paper we provide an axiomatic characterization of the social choice correspondence resulting from applying feasible elimination procedures. The axioms are anonymity, Maskin monotonicity, and independent blocking.

  9. Survey of robust and resilient social media tools on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Brussee, P. W. G.; Pouwelse, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of robust and resilient social media tools to overcome natural disasters, censorship and Internet kill switches. These social media tools use Android devices to communicate during disasters and aim to overcome attacks on freedom of expression. There is an abundance of projects that aim to provide resilient communication, enhance privacy, and provide anonymity. We focus specifically on the limited set of mature tools with a healthy development community and Internet-depl...

  10. A Mixed Anonymous System based on Tor%基于Tor的混合匿名转发系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光; 薛质

    2011-01-01

    随着互联网应用的不断增加,人们对网络通信的保密性也越来越重视。Tor匿名通信系统具有低时延、数据加密传输,安全信道等优点,能够有效保护通信者的信息安全,目前正成为一种流行的匿名通信系统。但随着Tor系统使用和研究的人增多,Tor系统本身的一些缺陷给其安全带来了隐患。为此,在现有Tor系统分析的基础上,文中提出了一种安全新型的混合匿名转发系统H—Tor。该系统由Hordes和Tor有效级联组合,充分发挥了两者的优势。分析表明,H—Tor可以抵御通信流攻击和端对端攻击,有效保护通信者的匿名安全。%With the continuous increase of lnternet applications, people pay much attention to the confidentiality of network communications. Tor anonymous communication system, with low latency, data eneryption transmission, secure channel, etc., could effectively protect the information security of the correspondents, and thus becomes a popular anonymous communication system. However, with in-depth study wide use of the Tor system, Tor presents some defects in security risks. Currently, a new system called H-Tor is proposed upon the analysis of Tor. The system combines Hordes with Tor and gives full play to their advantages. Analysis shows that the H-Tor integration can effectively protect the anonymity of the correspondents.

  11. Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors Violencia en los adolescentes: factores sociales y conductas asociadas

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sousa; Teresa Correia; Elisabete Ramos; Sílvia Fraga; Henrique Barros

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of young people's involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. We also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. Methods: We evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys) aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. Information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. Results: T...

  12. Pacific Islanders in the U.S.: A Struggle Against Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Faye Untalen

    1976-01-01

    Asserts that an accurate examination and documentation of Pacific Islanders' educational, health, and socioeconomic status is needed. Argues that until Guamanians and Samoans are recognized as a legitimate responsibility of the United States and are provided governmental programs for educational, economic, and social development, this country is…

  13. Weighted network modules

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Illes J.; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm (CPMw, Clique Percolation Method with weights) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique per...

  14. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points: - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  15. Probabilistic weighted automata

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Nondeterministic weighted automata are finite automata with numerical weights on transitions. They define quantitative languages $L$ that assign to each word $w$ a real number $L(w)$. The value of an infinite word $w$ is computed as the maximal value of all runs over $w$, and the value of a run as the maximum, limsup, liminf, limit average, or discounted sum of the transition weights. We introduce probabilistic weighted automata, in which the transitions are chosen in a randomized (rather ...

  16. Stochastic Weighted Fractal Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Timoteo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce new models of complex weighted networks sharing several properties with fractal sets: the deterministic non-homogeneous weighted fractal networks and the stochastic weighted fractal networks. Networks of both classes can be completely analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters. The proposed algorithms improve and extend the framework of weighted fractal networks recently proposed in (T. Carletti & S. Righi, in press Physica A, 2010)

  17. Childhood Obesity: Issues of Weight Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Washington, Reginald L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese child...

  18. Inhomogeneous epidemics on weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A social (sexual) network is modeled by an extension of the configuration model to the situation where edges have weights, e.g. reflecting the number of sex-contacts between the individuals. An epidemic model is defined on the network such that individuals are heterogeneous in terms of how susceptible and infectious they are. The basic reproduction number R_0 is derived and studied for various examples, but also the size and probability of a major outbreak. The qualitative conclusion is that R_0 gets larger as the community becomes more heterogeneous but that different heterogeneities (degree distribution, weight, susceptibility and infectivity) can sometimes have the cumulative effect of homogenizing the community, thus making $R_0$ smaller. The effect on the probability and final size of an outbreak is more complicated.

  19. Ethical Consumption and Social Context: Experimental Evidence from Germany and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe, Ulf; Veronika A. Andorfer; Gwartney, Patricia A.; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the role of social context in ethical consumption, specifically, the extent to which anonymity and social control influence individuals' decisions to purchase organic and Fair Trade coffee. Our research design overcomes biases of prior research by combining framing and discrete choice experiments in a survey. We systematically vary coffee growing method (organic or not), import status (Fair Trade or not), flavor, and price across four social contexts that vary in degree...

  20. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  1. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  2. Factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results in a free and anonymous screening centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope

    2015-07-01

    Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.

  3. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琪; 胡斌; 陈克非; 刘文浩; 谭肖

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency.

  4. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  5. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  6. Comparative population genetic analysis of bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis using anonymous and gene-associated simple sequence repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, Vincent P; Kimbrell, Carol A; Lynn, Eric A; Hyde, John R

    2012-01-01

    Comparative population genetic analyses of traditional and emergent molecular markers aid in determining appropriate use of new technologies. The bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis is a high gene-flow marine species off the west coast of North America that experienced strong population decline over the past 3 decades. We used 18 anonymous and 13 gene-associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci (expressed sequence tag [EST]-SSRs) to characterize range-wide population structure with temporal replicates. No F(ST)-outliers were detected using the LOSITAN program, suggesting that neither balancing nor divergent selection affected the loci surveyed. Consistent hierarchical structuring of populations by geography or year class was not detected regardless of marker class. The EST-SSRs were less variable than the anonymous SSRs, but no correlation between F(ST) and variation or marker class was observed. General linear model analysis showed that low EST-SSR variation was attributable to low mean repeat number. Comparative genomic analysis with Gasterosteus aculeatus, Takifugu rubripes, and Oryzias latipes showed consistently lower repeat number in EST-SSRs than SSR loci that were not in ESTs. Purifying selection likely imposed functional constraints on EST-SSRs resulting in low repeat numbers that affected diversity estimates but did not affect the observed pattern of population structure.

  7. An Anonymity Attack Model for a Mobile Computing Environment%一种在移动计算环境中的匿名攻击:漠型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮

    2012-01-01

    In a mobile computing environment, anonymity is the property of keeping secret of user's the identity. Currently, many anonymity mechanisms have been proposed, but they seldom concern how to evaluate the security of an anonymity mechanism for a mobile computing environment. This paper proposes a novel conceptual anonymity analysis model based on the fuzzy relation theory in fuzzy mathematics. Theoretic analysis shows that the proposed model can effectively analyze and evaluate the security of anonymity mechanisms in a mobile computing environment.%在移动计算环境中,匿名能够保障用户身份的隐秘性。目前学界提出了很多有关匿名的解决方案,但对如何评估在移动计算环境中匿名机制安全性的研究较少。文章基于模糊关系理论提出了一种新的在移动计算环境中的匿名攻击模型。理论分析表明,该模型能够有效地分析和评估在移动计算环境中匿名机制的安全性。

  8. Blogging for weight loss: personal accountability, writing selves, and the weight-loss blogosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt-Cook, Chez; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2012-09-01

    Body weight is a key concern in contemporary society, with large proportions of the population attempting to control their weight. However, losing weight and maintaining weight loss is notoriously difficult, and new strategies for weight loss attract significant interest. Writing about experiences of weight loss in online journals, or blogging, has recently expanded rapidly. Weight-loss bloggers typically write about daily successes and failures, report calorie consumption and exercise output, and post photographs of their changing bodies. Many bloggers openly court the surveillance of blog readers as a motivation for accountability to their weight-loss goals. Drawing from a sample of weight-loss blogs authored by women, we explore three issues arising from this practice of disclosing a conventionally private activity within an online public domain. First, we examine motivations for blogging, focusing on accountability. Secondly, we consider the online construction of self, exploring how weight-loss bloggers negotiate discourses around fatness, and rework selves as their bodies transform. Finally, we consider the communities of interest that form around weight-loss blogs. This 'blogosphere' provides mutual support for weight loss. However, participating in online social spaces is complicated and bloggers must carefully manage issues of privacy and disclosure.

  9. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  10. SSL VPN中匿名身份认证方案的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme in SSL VPN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项顺伯

    2011-01-01

    Considered the security of authentication for the mobile clients in SSL VPN, an anonymous authentication scheme was proposed. The security and anonymity of the scheme were analyzed. It is showed that the scheme is efficient, the security and anonymity of authentication for the mobile clients in SSL VPN can be ensured.%针对SSL VPN中移动客户端身份认证的安全性问题,提出一种匿名身份认证的方案,并对方案的安全性和匿名性进行了分析.分析表明,该方案有效可行,能保证SSL VPN移动客户端身份认证的匿名性和安全性.

  11. 具有快速ID匿名的移动IP注册协议%Mobile IP Registration Protocol with ID Fast Anonymity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董博; 王保仓; 魏文佳

    2012-01-01

    In view of the anonymous authentication and certification problems in the mobile IP registration,a mobile IP registration protocol with ID anonymity rapidly is proposed.The security of the protocol is based on the elliptic curve CDH.Temporary IDs varying with each registration guarantee anonymity and intractability of the true ID.%针对移动IP注册过程中的匿名和认证问题,提出一个具有快速ID匿名的移动IP注册协议。该协议安全性是基于椭圆曲线CDH问题,通过构造临时ID保证真实ID的匿名性,每次注册请求中的临时ID都在不断变化,实现了用户ID的匿名性和位置隐蔽性。

  12. Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women among Heterosexual Social Work Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonody, Jill M.; Woodford, Michael R.; Brennan, David J.; Newman, Bernie; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study reports results from a national Internet-based survey administered anonymously to a cross-section of social work faculty in the United States. Drawn from a sampling frame of 700 accredited or in candidacy schools, data were collected between November 2010 and March 2011. We investigate the role of sex, sexual orientation, race,…

  13. Power of Peer Review: An Online Collaborative Learning Assignment in Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Christie

    2007-01-01

    In a semester-long, peer review assignment, undergraduates enrolled in a social psychology course wrote essays that applied course concepts to life experiences. Students anonymously posted essays for the entire class to view, and peers posted commentaries on classmates' essays using an online discussion board. Students rated the assignment as…

  14. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  15. Dogmatism and Social Desirability: How to Change "Personality" in Two Easy Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Gary R.; Mulkey, Young J.

    This study describes the influence of social desirability on Rokeach Dogmatism scores and demonstrates how misleading self-report inventories can be. Dogmatism instruments with instructions suggesting either that commitment or control of personal beliefs is desirable were randomly distributed to 20 anonymous elementary teachers before a workshop…

  16. Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance : The strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W

    2002-01-01

    In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the anonym

  17. Paved with good intentions: Paradoxical eating responses to weight stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Laurence J; Eshleman, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Because body weight is largely seen as controllable, weight stigma-the social devaluation of those who are overweight-is not subject to the social norms that condemn open expression of racism and sexism. Indeed, rejection of peers based on perceptions of excess weight is normative. Since weight stigma is internalized, popular views (and often the views of physicians) have suggested that increasing the salience of weight stigma might produce a reduction in overeating and/or an increase in physical activity. However, that perspective is not rooted in scientific evidence. Recent randomized controlled designs demonstrate that stigma may promote overeating. Correlational evidence suggests that self-reported stigma experience is associated with risk for binge eating and decreased interest in physical exercise and dieting, for children and adults. In addition to reviewing these research studies, this paper examines the potential for intersectionality of stigma across multiple social identities and considers alternatives to stigmatizing weight loss interventions. PMID:26802721

  18. Methodologies used in non-anonymous IAEA short term intercomparison exercises for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA has conducted two short term intercomparison exercises for the determination of gamma, alpha and beta emitters in different matrices to evaluate the readiness of ALMERA network laboratories, as one of the objectives, for using their services in case of boundary transgression of radioactive contamination. Procedures used in the Lab were applied in analyzing the samples and the results submitted with in the target time of less than a week. Total of 42 radionuclides including alpha-beta emitters in grass, spinach, water and soil were analyzed. The paper discusses the procedures used and analyses the short comings. A weighted summary index (WSI) was formulated to compare the performance of the Lab in two exercises conducted in 2006 and 2007. (author)

  19. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat: 42.

  20. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 7th EDBT/ICDT Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Marius Truta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The seventh Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT and International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT in Athens, Greece. The PAIS 2014 workshop provided an open yet focused platform for researchers and practitioners from fields such as computer science, statistics, healthcare informatics, and law to discuss and present current research challenges and advances in data privacy and anonymity research. The present special issue contains three extended papers that have been selected as the best three papers presented at PAIS 2014 workshop.

  1. Walks on Weighted Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU An-Cai; XU Xin-Jian; WU Zhi-Xi; WANG Ying-Hai

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of random walks on weighted networks. Assuming that the edge weight and the node strength are used as local information by a random walker. Two kinds of walks, weight-dependent walk and strength-dependent walk, are studied. Exact expressions for stationary distribution and average return time are derived and confirmed by computer simulations. The distribution of average return time and the mean-square that a weight-dependent walker can arrive at a new territory more easily than a strength-dependent one.

  2. A Policy Based Approach for the Management of Web Browser Resources to Prevent Anonymity Attacks in Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    Web browsers are becoming the universal interface to reach applications and services related with these systems. Different browsing contexts may be required in order to reach them, e.g., use of VPN tunnels, corporate proxies, anonymisers, etc. By browsing context we mean how the user browsers the Web, including mainly the concrete configuration of its browser. When the context of the browser changes, its security requirements also change. In this work, we present the use of authorisation policies to automatise the process of controlling the resources of a Web browser when its context changes. The objective of our proposal is oriented towards easing the adaptation to the security requirements of the new context and enforce them in the browser without the need for user intervention. We present a concrete application of our work as a plug-in for the adaption of security requirements in Mozilla/Firefox browser when a context of anonymous navigation through the Tor network is enabled.

  3. Anonymous Communication Method of MANET's Trusted Routing%MANET中的可信路由匿名通信方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐劢; 王剑

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays,MANET is widely used in military,disaster relief,small meetings and so on. Since MANET has high node mob-ility and quick changes of network topology,the secure routing algorithm applied in normal wireless networks couldn't fairly solve the security problems of MANET's routing,and thus MANET's secure routing algorithm becomes a research hotspot. In actual demand,MA-NET routing algorithms are often reqired to meet strong security,quick links and anonymous communication,and however the current studies merely focus on security concerns. In combination of trusted computing,a novel secure routing algorithm TAAODV( Trusted A-nonymous AODV) is proposed. Based on AODV(ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing) algorithm,this proposed algorithm in-corporates trusted computing and realizes anonymous communication,and by introducing zero-knowledge proof and ring signature into node certification,requires no online TA. Simulation indicates that this algorithm can resist most known attack methods,and compared with AODV,it could satisfy the demands of fast connections without much additional cost of resources.%目前,MANET已经广泛应用于军事、抢险救灾、小型会议等用途。由于MAENT其节点移动性高、网络拓扑变化快等特点,一般应用于无线网络中的安全路由算法并不能很好地解决其路由安全的问题,故其安全路由算法一直是研究的热点。在实际需求中,MANET安全路由算法往往需要满足强安全性、快速链接、匿名通信等要求,而现今的大多数研究更仅侧重于安全性方面的讨论。文中结合可信计算的内容,提出了一种新颖的安全路由算法TAAODV( Trusted Anonymous AODV)。该算法基于AODV( ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing)算法,引入可信计算,使用伪名来进行匿名通信,在节点间的认证环节引入零知识证明、环签名等方法,并且不需要在线的可信第三方。经过仿真验证,该算法可

  4. A secure user anonymity-preserving three-factor remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Recent advanced technology enables the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) for the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and also to access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Several remote user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for TMIS. However, most of them are either insecure against various known attacks or they are inefficient. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Tan's scheme is efficient, it has several security drawbacks such as (1) it fails to provide proper authentication during the login phase, (2) it fails to provide correct updation of password and biometric of a user during the password and biometric update phase, and (3) it fails to protect against replay attack. In addition, Tan's scheme lacks the formal security analysis and verification. Later, Arshad and Nikooghadam also pointed out some security flaws in Tan's scheme and then presented an improvement on Tan's s scheme. However, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme is still insecure against the privileged-insider attack through the stolen smart-card attack, and it also lacks the formal security analysis and verification. In order to withstand those security loopholes found in both Tan's scheme, and Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme, we aim to propose an effective and more secure three-factor remote user authentication scheme for TMIS. Our scheme provides the user anonymity property. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis using random oracle models and the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool, we show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is also efficient as compared to other related schemes. PMID:25677956

  5. Duke Surgery Patient Safety: an open-source application for anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss surgical events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCready Mariana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that 4% of hospitalized patients suffer from an adverse event caused by the medical treatment administered. Some institutions have created systems to encourage medical workers to report these adverse events. However, these systems often prove to be inadequate and/or ineffective for reviewing the data collected and improving the outcomes in patient safety. Objective To describe the Web-application Duke Surgery Patient Safety, designed for the anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss events as well as scheduled reporting to surgeons and hospital administration. Software architecture DSPS was developed primarily using Java language running on a Tomcat server and with MySQL database as its backend. Results Formal and field usability tests were used to aid in development of DSPS. Extensive experience with DSPS at our institution indicate that DSPS is easy to learn and use, has good speed, provides needed functionality, and is well received by both adverse-event reporters and administrators. Discussion This is the first description of an open-source application for reporting patient safety, which allows the distribution of the application to other institutions in addition for its ability to adapt to the needs of different departments. DSPS provides a mechanism for anonymous reporting of adverse events and helps to administer Patient Safety initiatives. Conclusion The modifiable framework of DSPS allows adherence to evolving national data standards. The open-source design of DSPS permits surgical departments with existing reporting mechanisms to integrate them with DSPS. The DSPS application is distributed under the GNU General Public License.

  6. Who clicks there!: Anonymizing the photographer in a camera saturated society

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffer, Peter; Nagaraja, Shishir

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, social media has played an increasingly important role in reporting world events. The publication of crowd-sourced photographs and videos in near real-time is one of the reasons behind the high impact. However, the use of a camera can draw the photographer into a situation of conflict. Examples include the use of cameras by regulators collecting evidence of Mafia operations; citizens collecting evidence of corruption at a public service outlet; and political dissidents protesting at public rallies. In all these cases, the published images contain fairly unambiguous clues about the location of the photographer (scene viewpoint information). In the presence of adversary operated cameras, it can be easy to identify the photographer by also combining leaked information from the photographs themselves. We call this the camera location detection attack. We propose and review defense techniques against such attacks. Defenses such as image obfuscation techniques do not protect camera-location informa...

  7. Losing weight after pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... weight by 6 to 12 months after delivery. Most women lose half of their baby weight by 6 weeks after childbirth (postpartum). The rest usually comes off over the ...

  8. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth > For Teens > Should I Gain Weight? Print A A A Text Size ... Healthy Habits Matter en español ¿Debería ganar peso? "I want to play hockey, like I did in ...

  9. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these,...

  10. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. PMID:26898319

  11. Quantifying social influence in an online cultural market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco Krumme

    Full Text Available We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.

  12. A Cross-Platform Collection of Social Network Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Maria Han; Eickhoff, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of Internet-enabled devices and services has led to a shifting balance between digital and analogue aspects of our everyday lives. In the face of this development there is a growing demand for the study of privacy hazards, the potential for unique user de-anonymization and information leakage between the various social media profiles many of us maintain. To enable the structured study of such adversarial effects, this paper presents a dedicated dataset of cross-platform soci...

  13. Social networks and social norms are associated with obesity treatment outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Doyle, Caroline Y.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Bihuniak, Jessica; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether overweight social network members and normative influence for obesity are associated with weight loss outcomes during obesity treatment. Design and Methods Participants (N=214) in a behavioral weight loss trial reported (a) the weight status of various members of their social network and (b) level of obesogenic normative influence within their social network. Weight was objectively assessed before and after treatment. Results At baseline, participants with partner...

  14. The Impact of Counselor Recovery Status Similarity on Perceptions of Attractiveness with Members of Alcoholics Anonymous: An Exception to the Repulsion Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priester, Paul E.; Azen, Razia; Speight, Suzette; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of counselor alcoholism recovery status on perceptions of recovering alcoholics who are active members of Alcoholics Anonymous. The participants (n = 116) were given a description of an analogue counselor and rated this counselor using the "Counselor Rating Form-Short." There were three forms of the analogue…

  15. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  16. A Comparison of Anonymous versus Identifiable e-Peer Review on College Student Writing Performance and the Extent of Critical Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiling; Bol, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Peer review has become commonplace in composition courses and is increasingly employed in the context of telecommunication technology. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of anonymous and identifiable electronic peer (e-peer) review on college student writing performance and the extent of critical peer feedback. Participants…

  17. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  18. Light-weight plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  19. ‘The Use of Social Media to Foster Trust, Mentorship, and Collaboration in Scientific Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj; Mawrie, Somya A.; Hastings, Calla M.

    2014-01-01

    Many domains are well known for their resistance to social media. Currently, there is a dearth of literature that explores social media use in these contexts. This study seeks to help address this gap by evaluating the use of social media within a scientific organization (anonymized as SciCity) that has a strong virtual presence and quarterly face-to-face meet-ups. We evaluated SciCity’s use of social media to foster trust, collaboration, and mentorship. We found that the prominent social med...

  20. Anonymization of big data based on hybrid tree%基于混合式子树算法的大数据匿名化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炯宁

    2015-01-01

    The top-down specialization( TDS) and the bottom-up generalization( BUG) are two ways to fulfill the sub-tree anonymization. However,existing approaches for sub-tree anonymization fall short of parallelization capability,thereby lacking scalability in handling big data on cloud. Still,both the TDS and the BUG suffer from poor performances for certain value of the K anonymity parameter when they are utilized individually. In view of that,a hybrid approach combining the TDS and the BUG for efficient sub-tree anonymization over big data is proposed. Further,the MapReduce is designed based algorithms for two components ( TDS and BUG ) to gain the high scalability by exploiting powerful computation capability of cloud. Experiment evaluations demonstrate that the hybrid approach significantly improves the scalability and the efficiency of the sub-tree anonymization scheme over existing approaches.%自顶而下具体化( TDS)和自底向上泛化( BUG)是子树匿名化的主要方法,但其并行能力不足,易导致在云数据处理中缺乏可扩展性。当TDS和BUG分开使用时,很难准确确定K匿名参数。针对这一问题,该文提出一种在大数据中进行有效数据匿名化的基于TDS和BUG的混合方法,设计了基于该混合方法的MapReduce模型,以提高云计算能力的可扩展性。实验表明,与现有方法相比,该混合法可以显著提高扩展性和子树匿名化的效率。