WorldWideScience

Sample records for anonymizing weighted social

  1. Anonimos: An LP based Approach for Anonymizing Weighted Social Network Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sudipto; Abbadi, Amr El

    2010-01-01

    The increasing popularity of social networks has initiated a fertile research area in information extraction and data mining. Anonymization of these social graphs is important to facilitate publishing these data sets for analysis by external entities. Prior work has concentrated mostly on node identity anonymization and structural anonymization. But with the growing interest in analyzing social networks as a weighted network, edge weight anonymization is also gaining importance. We present An\\'onimos, a Linear Programming based technique for anonymization of edge weights that preserves linear properties of graphs. Such properties form the foundation of many important graph-theoretic algorithms such as shortest paths problem, k-nearest neighbors, minimum cost spanning tree, and maximizing information spread. As a proof of concept, we apply An\\'onimos to the shortest paths problem and its extensions, prove the correctness, analyze complexity, and experimentally evaluate it using real social network data sets. O...

  2. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  3. Redefining privacy and anonymity through social networking affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Cirucci, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites allow people to create, broadcast, and interpret the self in new and evolving ways. While early online social media studies praised the Internet for providing an anonymous space in which to experiment with identity, more recent research suggests that social networking sites have become not anonymous, as they compel users to perform identity in new ways. Through a novel application of affordance theory, this paper argues that instead of attempting to apply outdated defi...

  4. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Yu; Pan Hu; Ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we...

  5. Link Prediction by De-anonymization: How We Won the Kaggle Social Network Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Rubinstein, Benjamin I P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the winning entry to the IJCNN 2011 Social Network Challenge run by Kaggle.com. The goal of the contest was to promote research on real-world link prediction, and the dataset was a graph obtained by crawling the popular Flickr social photo sharing website, with user identities scrubbed. By de-anonymizing much of the competition test set using our own Flickr crawl, we were able to effectively game the competition. Our attack represents a new application of de-anonymization to gaming machine learning contests, suggesting changes in how future competitions should be run. We introduce a new simulated annealing-based weighted graph matching algorithm for the seeding step of de-anonymization. We also show how to combine de-anonymization with link prediction---the latter is required to achieve good performance on the portion of the test set not de-anonymized---for example by training the predictor on the de-anonymized portion of the test set, and combining probabilistic predictions from de-anony...

  6. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  7. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  8. Online Piracy, Anonymity and Social Change – Deviance Through Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns; Kaminski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses current trends in the use of anonymity services among younger Swedes (15-25) and focuses on individuals engaging in illegal file sharing in order to better understand the rationale behind both file sharing as well as online anonymity, especially in relation to enforcement of copyright. By comparing the findings of a survey conducted on three different occasions (early 2009, late 2009 and early 2012), we measure the fluctuations in the use of anonymity services among appr...

  9. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  10. LinkMirage: How to Anonymize Links in Dynamic Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Changhchang; Mittal, Prateek

    2015-01-01

    Social network based trust relationships present a critical foundation for designing trustworthy systems, such as Sybil defenses, secure routing, and anonymous/censorshipresilient communications. A key issue in the design of such systems, is the revelation of users' trusted social contacts to an adversary-information that is considered sensitive in today's society. In this work, we focus on the challenge of preserving the privacy of users' social contacts, while still enabling the design of s...

  11. Making Meaning of Alcoholics Anonymous for Social Workers: Myths, Metaphors, and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane Rae; Jansen, Golie G.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses common critiques of Alcoholics Anonymous by offering a way of understanding it as a "normative narrative community" where identity transformation takes place through the use of metaphor and storytelling. Suggests alternative meanings of key metaphors, describes areas of program strength and potential barriers for social workers, and…

  12. Social contagions on weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity can not only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that, the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinder social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  13. PRESERVING IDENTITY OF USERS IN SOCIAL NETWORK SITES BY INTEGRATING ANONYMIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Kavianpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Social Networking Sites (SNSs expand internet users’ relationships and their businesses. Despite the huge benefits gained by SNS users, the huge amount of information exchanged by different users makes SNSs an easy target for privacy threats. The goal of this paper is to explain how information disclosure to adversaries will be minimized by using integrated algorithm. This study takes the advantages of Kanonymity algorithm and ldiversity algorithm then evaluated the effectiveness of the combined strengths. The result shows that the proposed algorithm increases the level of privacy for SNSs users by anonymizing and diversifying disclosed information.

  14. Social Esteem versus Social Stigma: the role of anonymity in an income reporting game.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Casal; Luigi Mittone

    2014-01-01

    When the phenomenon of tax evasion is discussed, both scholars and authorities agree on the fact that, although essential, classical enforcements are not enough to ensure tax compliance: some other forms of incentives must be adopted. The paper’s aim is to experimentally test the role of different non- monetary incentives for tax compliance: participants have been treated with different experimental conditions, which differ in the role played by anonymity. Indeed, subjects have been informed ...

  15. Multilayer weighted social network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  16. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  17. Social Networks for Social Changes: Case Study of Facebook Group Anonymous Hrvatska (Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanišević, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Two-way communication, participation in creating and sharing content on the Internet and complete human experience enabled in cyberspace or social media affected the emergence of a new form of culture – real virtuality. Social power transforms and moves to cyberspace. The Internet became the most democratic medium and a framework for updating information on various problems and planning actions in order to solve them. This sets up new aspects of resistance and social o...

  18. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishonna Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  20. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kishonna Gray; Wanju Huang

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1) anonymity, 2) endless narrative, and 3) socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based m...

  1. The Interactive Effects of Motivations and Trust in Anonymity on Adolescents' Enduring Participation in Web-Based Social Science Research: A Longitudinal Behavioral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Stiglbauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on self-determination and social exchange theory, this study investigates the effects of extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and trust in anonymity on enduring survey participation over a period of 2 years. Trust in anonymity was expected to act as a moderator between motivations and the likelihood of repeated survey participation. Participants were N = 227 adolescent members of an academic online panel for youth research. Results of longitudinal logistic regression analyses demonstrated a steady decline in the probability of survey participation over time. Extrinsic but not intrinsic motivation significantly increased the probability of initial survey participation, whereas both, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, buffered the declining probability of survey participation over time; however, only if trust in anonymity was comparably low. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations on enduring survey participation are especially prevalent if trust in anonymity is of low to medium size.

  2. Anonymous Gossiping

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  3. Against anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  4. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  5. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  6. PRESERVING IDENTITY OF USERS IN SOCIAL NETWORK SITES BY INTEGRATING ANONYMIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Kavianpour; Zuraini Ismail; and Amirhossein Mohtasebi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, Social Networking Sites (SNSs) expand internet users’ relationships and their businesses. Despite the huge benefits gained by SNS users, the huge amount of information exchanged by different users makes SNSs an easy target for privacy threats. The goal of this paper is to explain how information disclosure to adversaries will be minimized by using integrated algorithm. This study takes the advantages of Kanonymity algorithm and ldiversity algorithm then evaluated the effectivenes...

  7. Narcotics Anonymous: Anonymity, admiration, and prestige in an egalitarian community

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Jeffrey K.; Fessler, Daniel M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) supports long-term recovery for those addicted to drugs. Paralleling social dynamics in many small-scale societies, NA exhibits tension between egalitarianism and prestige-based hierarchy, a problem exacerbated by the addict’s personality as characterized by NA’s ethnopsychology.  We explore how NA’s central principle of anonymity normatively translates into egalitarianism among group members.  Turning to the lived reality of membership, building on Carr’s (2011) conc...

  8. Anonymity in Large Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Gomberg; Cesar Martinelli; Ricard Torres

    2002-01-01

    In a social choice model with an infinite number of agents, there may occur "equal size" coalitions that a preference aggregation rule should treat in the same manner. We introduce an axiom of equal treatment with respect to a measure of coalition size and explore its interaction with common axioms of social choice. We show that, provided the measure space is sufficiently rich in coalitions of the same measure, the new axiom is the natural extension of the concept of anonymity, and in particu...

  9. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image. PMID:25311196

  10. Generalized Social Marginal Welfare Weights for Optimal Tax Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Saez; Stefanie Stantcheva

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to evaluate tax reforms, by aggregating losses and gains of different individuals using “generalized social marginal welfare weights.” A tax system is optimal if no budget neutral small reform can increase the weighted sum of (money metric) gains and losses across individuals. Optimum tax formulas take the same form as standard welfarist tax formulas by simply substituting standard marginal social welfare weights with those generalized marginal social welfare wei...

  11. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  12. Socially weighted linear composites in environmental decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for combining social values and technical information, for environmental decision making for the selection of a site for a nuclear power plant is described. Eight factors are identified by which six different thermal power plant site and design options could be evaluated. A method is described by which the factors could be weighted by social values and the weighted factor scores could be summed for each option. These weighted sums can then be compared with each other in order to determine the best choice from both a social and a technical point of view

  13. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Motwani, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  14. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  15. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  16. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  17. Economical quantum anonymous transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new information-theoretically secure protocol for the anonymous transmission of quantum information. Different from the pioneering works, we use single photons to construct anonymous entanglement instead of multi-partite entangled states in this protocol, and therefore we reduce the complexity of physical implementation in practice.

  18. Discount rates, equity weights and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equity weighting has been proposed as a way of allowing welfare equivalents to be included in the social cost of carbon since a dollar to a poor person is worth more than a dollar to a rich one. Here we use the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model to show that the social cost of carbon is higher without equity weights (an elasticity of marginal utility with respect to income of 0) than with them. This might seem counter-intuitive, but it comes about because of the logical link between equity weights and discount rates; as the elasticity goes from 0 to - 0.5 to - 1.0, the social rate of time preference rises, and the drop in present values that results far outweighs the small increase in impacts that equity weights bring. (author)

  19. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  20. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance. PMID:26801339

  1. Anonymity in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuroskeptic

    2013-05-01

    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  2. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  3. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women's Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...

  4. Anonymity in the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Federrath, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Research in Privacy Enhancing Technology has meanwhile a tradition of at least 20 years. One application (if not the most significant at the present) of Privacy Enhancing Technology is anonymous Web surfing. While weak protection can be achieved by simple proxy solutions, strong anonymity needs more effort: Systems like JAP and TOR are based on the idea of the "mix network" introduced by David Chaum in 1981. The talk presents selected basic privacy enhancing techniques, available practical so...

  5. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  6. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaj Ali Jalila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  7. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  8. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  9. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  10. Privacy and Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Wacks, R

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the digital area, privacy and anonymity have been impacted drastically (both, positively and negatively), by the different technologies developed for communications purposes. The broad possibilities that the Internet offers since its conception, makes it a mandatory target for those entities that are aiming to know and control the different channels of communication and the information that flows through. In this paper, we address the current threats against privacy and...

  11. Mediated Traceable Anonymous Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Izabachène, Malika; Pointcheval, David; Vergnaud, Damien

    2010-01-01

    The notion of key privacy for asymmetric encryption schemes was formally defined by Bellare, Boldyreva, Desai and Pointcheval in 2001: it states that an eavesdropper in possession of a ciphertext is not able to tell which specifi key, out of a set of known public keys, is the one under which the ciphertext was created. Since anonymity can be misused by dishonest users, some situations could require a tracing authority capable of revoking key privacy when illegal behavior is detected. Prior wo...

  12. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  13. Anonymous Publish-Subscribe Overlays

    OpenAIRE

    Daubert, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Freedom of speech is a core value of our society. While it can be exercised anonymously towards undesired observers in the physical world, the Internet is based on unique and nonanonymous identifiers (IDs) for every participant. Anonymity, however, is a crucial requirement to exercise freedom of speech using the Internet without having to face political persecution. To achieve anonymity, messages must be unlinkable to senders an receivers. That means that messages cannot be linked to IDs and ...

  14. Unintended Effects of Anonymous Resumes

    OpenAIRE

    Behaghel, Luc; Crépon, Bruno; Le Barbanchon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate an experimental program in which the French public employment service anonymized resumes for firms that were hiring. Firms were free to participate or not; participating firms were then randomly assigned to receive either anonymous resumes or name-bearing ones. We find that participating firms become less likely to interview and hire minority candidates when receiving anonymous resumes. We show how these unexpected results can be explained by the self-selection of firms into the p...

  15. Social Indispensability in Spite of Temporal and Spatial Separation: Motivation Gains in a Sequential Task During Anonymous Cooperation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wittchen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated motivation gains during synchronous group work compared to individual work when group members’ contribution was indispensable for the group’s success (e.g., Hertel, Kerr, & Messé, 2000, Hertel, Deter, & Konradt, 2003. The current study extends this earlier research (a by examining indispensability effects during sequential cooperation (temporal separation, and (b by exploring these effects under conditions of high anonymity on the Internet (spatial separation. A 2 (Internet vs. laboratory context x 3 (high vs. low vs. no impact of personal contribution for a group x 2 (individual vs. group trial design was used with the last factor measured within subjects (N = 231. Motivation was measured with a vigilance task that simulated an Internet travel agency selling package holidays according to incoming customer requests. During all trials, participants received contemporaneous feedback about their own performance. During the group trials, participants additionally received information about their partner’s alleged previous performance at this point of the trial, which suggested that the partner had always performed slightly better than the participant. As expected, both in the laboratory and the Internet setting, the highest motivation gains occurred when participants’ contribution to the group’s outcome was indispensable for the group. This finding provides evidence that motivation gains among inferior group members are possible even during sequential group work under highly anonymous conditions.

  16. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via...

  17. The influence of family, friend, and coworker social support and social undermining on weight gain prevention among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine longitudinal associations between sources of social support and social undermining for healthy eating and physical activity and weight change. Design and Methods Data are from 633 employed adults participating in a cluster-randomized multilevel weight gain prevention intervention. Primary predictors included social support and social undermining for two types of behaviors (healthy eating and physical activity) from three sources (family, friends, and coworkers) obtained via ...

  18. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  19. The Role of Social Media in Online Weight Management: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tammy; Chopra, Vineet; Zhang, Catherine; Woolford, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social media applications are promising adjuncts to online weight management interventions through facilitating education, engagement, and peer support. However, the precise impact of social media on weight management is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically describe the use and impact of social media in online weight management interventions. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for English-language studies publi...

  20. Graph Based Local Recoding for Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Ramana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Releasing person specific data could potentially reveal the sensitive information of an individual. kanonymityis an approach for protecting the individual privacy where the data is formed into set ofequivalence classes in which each class share the same values. Among several methods, local recodingbased generalization is an effective method to accomplish k-anonymization. In this paper, we proposed aminimum spanning tree partitioning based approach to achieve local recoding. We achieve it in twophases. During the first phase, MST is constructed using concept hierarchical and the distances amongdata points are considered as the weights of MST and in the next phase we generate the equivalence classesadhering to the anonymity requirement. Experiments show that our proposed local recoding frameworkproduces better quality in published tables than existing Mondrian global recoding and k-memberclustering approaches.

  1. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Goldberger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.

  2. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  3. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  4. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  5. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  6. Anonymity-Proof Voting Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Conitzer, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    A (randomized, anonymous) voting rule maps any multiset of total orders of (aka. votes over) a fixed set of alternatives to a probability distribution over these alternatives. A voting rule f is neutral if it treats all alternatives symmetrically. It satisfies participation if no voter ever benefits from not casting her vote. It is falsename-proof if no voter ever benefits from casting additional (potentially different) votes. It is anonymity-proof if it satisfies participation and it i...

  7. Attitudinal Conformity and Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Herbert; Kaplowitz, Stan

    1977-01-01

    Tested college students for conformity when conditions contributing to conformity were absent. Found that social pressures (responding in public, being surveyed by fellow group members) are necessary to produce conformity. (RL)

  8. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support, and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mozhdeh Nasseh Lotf; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Nygren, Lennart; Nojomi, Marzieh; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW. PMID:23817159

  9. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    OpenAIRE

    D A Leon

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social cla...

  10. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  11. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success. Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence. Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence. Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:158-63.].

  12. Role of social support in lifestyle-focused weight management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Bakx, J.C.; Weel, C. van; Koelen, M.A.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Social support is important to achieve beneficial changes in risk factors for disease, such as overweight and obesity. This paper presents the theoretical and practical framework for social support, and the mechanisms by which social support affects body weight. The theoretical and practical framewo

  13. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  14. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, R R; Jeffery, R W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the benefits of social support for weight loss and maintenance, this study recruited participants (N = 166) either alone or with 3 friends or family members and then randomly assigned them to a standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or SBT with social support strategies. Participants recruited with friends had greater weight losses at the end of the 4-month treatment and at Month 10 follow-up. Both recruitment strategy and the social support manipulation affected treatment completion and weight-loss maintenance. In those recruited alone and given SBT, 76% completed treatment and 24% maintained their weight loss in full from Months 4 to 10. Among those recruited with friends and given SBT plus social support, 95% completed treatment and 66% maintained their weight loss in full. PMID:10028217

  15. Socially weighted linear composites in environmental decision making. [Nuclear power plant site options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J.A.; Lindell, M.K.; Maynard, W.S.; Nealey, S.M.; Burnham, J.B.

    1975-11-01

    A method for combining social values and technical information, for environmental decision making for the selection of a site for a nuclear power plant is described. Eight factors are identified by which six different thermal power plant site and design options could be evaluated. A method is described by which the factors could be weighted by social values and the weighted factor scores could be summed for each option. These weighted sums can then be compared with each other in order to determine the best choice from both a social and a technical point of view. (CH)

  16. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  17. Impact of Anonymity on Information Sharing through Internal Psychological Processes: A Case of South Korean Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Lee; Jaewon Choi; Kyung Kyu Kim; Ae Ri Lee

    2014-01-01

    Many web users post their opinions and information without revealing their identities (i.e., demographics, social standing, and/or expertise); anonymity has become a common form of information exchange in online communities such as social media sites and Internet forums. In the meantime, negative social consequences have resulted from anonymous activities in online communities. Existing literature reports largely mixed results about the impact of online anonymity on online community outcomes....

  18. On the performance of social network and likelihood-based expert weighting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using expert judgment data from the TU Delft's expert judgment database, we compare the performance of different weighting schemes, namely equal weighting, performance-based weighting from the classical model [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.], social network (SN) weighting and likelihood weighting. The picture that emerges with regard to SN weights is rather mixed. SN theory does not provide an alternative to performance-based combination of expert judgments, since the statistical accuracy of the SN decision maker is sometimes unacceptably low. On the other hand, it does outperform equal weighting in the majority of cases. The results here, though not overwhelmingly positive, do nonetheless motivate further research into social interaction methods for nominating and weighting experts. Indeed, a full expert judgment study with performance measurement requires an investment in time and effort, with a view to securing external validation. If high confidence in a comparable level of validation can be obtained by less intensive methods, this would be very welcome, and would facilitate the application of structured expert judgment in situations where the resources for a full study are not available. Likelihood weights are just as resource intensive as performance-based weights, and the evidence presented here suggests that they are inferior to performance-based weights with regard to those scoring variables which are optimized in performance weights (calibration and information). Perhaps surprisingly, they are also inferior with regard to likelihood. Their use is further discouraged by the fact that they constitute a strongly improper scoring rule

  19. Quantified Self Meets Social Media: Sharing of Weight Updates on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yafei; Weber, Ingmar; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of people use wearables and other smart devices to quantify various health conditions, ranging from sleep patterns, to body weight, to heart rates. Of these Quantified Selfs many choose to openly share their data via online social networks such as Twitter and Facebook. In this study, we use data for users who have chosen to connect their smart scales to Twitter, providing both a reliable time series of their body weight, as well as insights into their social surroundings ...

  20. Social stress increases cortisol and hampers attention in adolescents with excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

    Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.

  1. Toward Analysis of the Relations Among the Youth Counterculture, Telephone Hotlines, and Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizerman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    During the 1960's, there emerged innovative human service programs for youth. Among the actual differences in these programs compared to their older, established human service agencies was (is) the prominent position of the social value of client anonymity. This anonymity is examined in an attempt to understand its role. (RC)

  2. Spousal Social Control During a Weight Loss Attempt: A Daily Diary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sarah A.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated perceptions of spousal social control and the partners’ behavior, affect, and relationship satisfaction at the start of a weight loss attempt. Gender and body mass index (BMI) were explored as moderators. In order to examine the short-term effects of social control, participants completed daily assessments reporting spouses’ influence and their own behavior and well-being. Instrumental and reinforcing social control were associated with better health behavior, well-being, and ...

  3. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  4. Anonymous Client Authentication for Transport Layer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, anonymity and privacy protecting mechanisms are becoming more and more important. The anonymity of platforms and the privacy of users operating in the Internet are major concerns of current research activities. Although different techniques for protecting anonymity exist, standard protocols like Transport Layer Security are still missing adequate support for these technologies. In this paper, we analyze how Trusted Computing technologies and anonymous credential systems can be used ...

  5. [Name Withheld]: Anonymity and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Weicher, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Anonymity allows the individual to have a voice without having a name. Since the word “anonymous” entered the English language with the advent of the printing press, the implications of being anonymous - and its lexical offspring “anonymity” - have shifted with time, place, and circumstance. What are the perceived effects of being anonymous/anonymity on the individual and on society? In this paper, I will explore some of the shifting meanings and implications of this concept, first as i...

  6. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos

    2003-01-01

    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  7. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  8. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101

  9. The Effect of Social Feedback in a Reddit Weight Loss Community

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Tiago O.; Weber, Ingmar; Haddadi, Hamed; Pappa, Gisele L.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted as common wisdom that receiving social feedback is helpful to (i) keep an individual engaged with a community and to (ii) facilitate an individual's positive behavior change. However, quantitative data on the effect of social feedback on continued engagement in an online health community is scarce. In this work we apply Mahalanobis Distance Matching (MDM) to demonstrate the importance of receiving feedback in the "loseit" weight loss community on Reddit. Concretely we...

  10. Different ways of providing anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Glavač, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to show the importance of security and anonymity on the internet by demonstrating the use of a SOCKS proxy. In theoretical part, properties of various security mechanisms are explored with focus on SOCKS protocol as one of the most widely used systems. Presented are the inner workings and different versions as well as advantages and drawbacks of the protocol. The paper tries to identify the simplest way of encrypting data traffic by using SOCKS protocol with SSH tunn...

  11. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  12. With a little help from my friends: How social networks help college students trying to lose weight

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Most young adults gain weight while attending college, setting the stage for long-term weight gain, and associated chronic disease. Interventions that use social and mobile technologies, and leverage social network support may help students adopt health-enhancing habits such as regular exercise. The first study explored how overweight/obese college students participating in project SMART (N = 404), a remotely delivered two-year weight loss trial, engaged their social networks, and used soci...

  13. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymity in Dissent

    OpenAIRE

    Syta, Ewa; Johnson, Aaron; Corrigan-Gibbs, Henry; Weng, Shu-Chun; Wolinsky, David; Ford, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Users often wish to communicate anonymously on the Internet, for example in group discussion or instant messaging forums. Existing solutions are vulnerable to misbehaving users, however, who may abuse their anonymity to disrupt communication. Dining Cryptographers Networks (DC-nets) leave groups vulnerable to denial-of-service and Sybil attacks, mix networks are difficult to protect against traffic analysis, and accountable voting schemes are unsuited to general anonymous messaging. DISSENT ...

  14. Internet and the right of anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Voorhoof, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This articles explores the ratio and characteristics of the right of anonymity on the Internet. A right of anonymity is considered as a shield against oppression, harassment, retaliation, censorship or discrimination and therefore it is considered as a vital component of freedom of speech or freedom of expression. Reference is made to several existing types of rights of anonymity in relation to freedom of expression, such as the right to protect (confidential) journalistic sources, free elec...

  15. Privacy-Preserving Updates to Anonymous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasubramanian, R.; K.P. KALIYAMURTHIE

    2013-01-01

    Suppose a medical facility connected with a research institution and the researchers can use themedical details of a patient without knowing the personal details. Thus the research data base used by theresearchers must be anonymized (Sanitized). We can consider another problem in the area of census.Individuals give the private information to a trusted party (Census Bureau) and the census bureau mustpublish anonymized or sanitized version of data. So anonymization is done for privacy. Our work...

  16. Comparison of the Personality Profiles of Inmate Anonymous and Non-Anonymous Male Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Erfani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the personality profiles of inmate anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts. Method: The participants of study were anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts of the prisons of the Hamadan province in 1391. The population was 3130 addicts, including 627 anonymous and 2503 non-anonymous addicts. The 310 addicts were selected by stratified random sampling the sample size was determined by Cochran formula.The short-form NEO Five Factor personality questionnaire administered among selected sample. Data analyzed by descriptive statistic as frequency and percentage, also, inferential statistic as multivariate analysis of variance was run. Results: The results showed that personality profiles of anonymous and non-anonymous addicts were significantly different. That is, mean score of neuroticism in anonymous addicts was less than non anonymous. Also, mean score of extraversion was higher in anonymous addicts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the anonymous male addicts are differ with non-anonymous male addicts in personality traits.

  17. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity. PMID:25612150

  18. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  19. Neural connections foster social connections: a diffusion-weighted imaging study of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, William H; Unger, Ashley; Von Der Heide, Rebecca J; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-05-01

    Although we know the transition from childhood to adulthood is marked by important social and neural development, little is known about how social network size might affect neurocognitive development or vice versa. Neuroimaging research has identified several brain regions, such as the amygdala, as key to this affiliative behavior. However, white matter connectivity among these regions, and its behavioral correlates, remain unclear. Here we tested two hypotheses: that an amygdalocentric structural white matter network governs social affiliative behavior and that this network changes during adolescence and young adulthood. We measured social network size behaviorally, and white matter microstructure using probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of neurologically normal adolescents and young adults. Our results suggest amygdala white matter microstructure is key to understanding individual differences in social network size, with connectivity to other social brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobe predicting much variation. In addition, participant age correlated with both network size and white matter variation in this network. These findings suggest the transition to adulthood may constitute a critical period for the optimization of structural brain networks underlying affiliative behavior. PMID:26755769

  20. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  1. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  2. Distributed anonymous discrete function computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickx, Julien M; Tsitsiklis, John N

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes. In this model, each node has bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not grow with the network size. Furthermore, each node only knows its neighbors, not the entire graph. Our goal is to characterize the class of functions that can be computed within this model. In our main result, we provide a necessary condition for computability which we show to be nearly sufficient, in the sense that every function that violates this condition can at least be approximated. The problem of computing suitably rounded averages in a distributed manner plays a central role in our development; we provide an algorithm that solves it in time that grows quadratically with the size of the network.

  3. [Encryption technique for linkable anonymizing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2004-06-01

    Linkage of different records such as health insurance claims or medical records for the purpose of cohort studies or cancer registration usually requires matching with personal names and other personally identifiable data. The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of performing such privacy-sensitive procedures in a "linkable anonymizing" manner using encryption. While bidirectional communication entails encryption and deciphering, necessitating both senders and receivers sharing a common secret "key", record linkage entails only encryption and not deciphering because researchers do not need to know the identity of the linked person. This unidirectional nature relieves researchers from the historical problem of "key sharing" and enables data holders such as municipal governments and insurers to encrypt personal names in a relatively easy manner. The author demonstrates an encryption technique using readily available spread-sheet software, Microsoft Excel in a step-by-step fashion. Encoding Chinese characters into the numeric JIS codes and replacing the codes with a randomly assigned case-sensitive alphabet, all names of Japanese nationals will be encrypted into gibberish strings of alphabet, which can not be deciphered without the secret key. Data holders are able to release personal data without sacrificing privacy, even when accidental leakage occurs and researchers are still able to link records of the same name because encrypted texts, although gibberish, are unique to each name. Such a technical assurance of privacy protection is expected to satisfy the Privacy Protection Act or the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and enhance public health research. Traditional encryption techniques, however, cannot be applied to cancer or stroke registration, because the registrar receives reports from numerous unspecified senders. The new public key encryption technique will enable disease registry in a linkable anonymizing manner. However

  4. Community Detecting and Feature Analysis in Real Directed Weighted Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Real social networks usually have some structural features of the complex networks, such as community structure, the scale-free degree distribution, clustering, "small world" network, dynamic evolution and so on. A new community detecting algorithm for directed and weighted social networks is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of more reference information, the accuracy of the algorithm is better than some of the typical detecting algorithms. And because of the use of heap structure and multi-task modular architecture, the algorithm also got a high computational efficiency than other algorithms. The effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm is validated by experiments on real social networks. Based on the theories and models of complex networks, the features of the real large social networks are analyzed.

  5. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  6. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared...... their Danish counterparts, Finnish women and men had higher average relative weight and they were more often obese. There were no country differences in the socio-economic patterning of obesity by educational attainment, but a stronger patterning of obesity by occupational status was found among Danish...

  7. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Line K; Vik Torstein; Lydersen Stian; Løhaugen Gro CC; Skranes Jon; Brubakk Ann-Mari; Indredavik Marit S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Me...

  8. Examining Social Influence on Participation and Outcomes among a Network of Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention Enrollees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Carson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that social networks, social support, and social influence are associated with weight trajectories among treatment- and non-treatment-seeking individuals. This study examined the impact of having a social contact who participated in the same group behavioral weight-control intervention in the absence of specific social support training on women engaged in a weight-loss program. Participants (n=92; 100% female; 54% black; mean age: 46±10 years; mean BMI: 38±6 were grouped based upon whether or not they reported a social contact enrolled previously/concurrently in our behavioral weight-control studies. Primary outcomes were 6-month weight change and treatment adherence (session attendance and self-monitoring. Half of the participants (53% indicated that they had a social contact; black women were more likely to report a social contact than white women (67.3% versus 39.5%; P<0.01. Among participants with a social contact, 67% reported at least one contact as instrumental in the decision to enroll in the program. Those with a contact lost more weight (5.9 versus 3.7 kg; P=0.04, attended more group sessions (74% versus 54%; P<0.01, and submitted more self-monitoring journals (69% versus 54%; P=0.01 than those without a contact. Participants' weight change was inversely associated with social contacts' weight change (P=0.04. There was no association between participant and contact’s group attendance or self-monitoring. Social networks may be a promising vehicle for recruiting and engaging women in a behavioral weight-loss program, particularly black women. The role of a natural social contact deserves further investigation.

  9. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  10. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  11. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.

    2013-01-01

    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  12. Revisiting the Four Horsemen of the Infopocalypse: Representations of anonymity and the Internet in Canadian newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Robert F.; Burkell, Jacquelyn

    2007-01-01

    The concept of anonymity is central to much discussion about the Internet. In this paper, we wish to identify the term's work in the context of more expansive claims about the function, value and consequences of networked information technology in society. We argue that themes and topics in a sample of Canadian print news stories are exemplary of a discourse about the Internet in which anonymity is portrayed as an element that facilitates positive or negative social outcomes of the technology.

  13. PHENOMENAL EXPLORATION INTO IMPACT OF ANONYMITY ON LAW AND ORDER IN CYBERSPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingan

    2015-01-01

    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  14. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. METHODS: Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. RESULTS: FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  15. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  16. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  17. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  18. Providing Group Anonymity Using Wavelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Providing public access to unprotected digital data can pose a threat of unwanted disclosing the restricted information. The problem of protecting such information can be divided into two main subclasses, namely, individual and group data anonymity. By group anonymity we define protecting important data patterns, distributions, and collective features which cannot be determined through analyzing individual records only. An effective and comparatively simple way of solving group anonymity problem is doubtlessly applying wavelet transform. It's easy-to-implement, powerful enough, and might produce acceptable results if used properly. In the paper, we present a novel method of using wavelet transform for providing group anonymity; it is gained through redistributing wavelet approximation values, along with simultaneous fixing data mean value and leaving wavelet details unchanged (or proportionally altering them). Moreover, we provide a comprehensive example to illustrate the method.

  19. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina;

    2013-01-01

    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receiver...... resource (e.g. a confidential anonymous channel) from given real resources (e.g. a broadcast channel). We define appropriate anonymous communication resources and show that a very natural resource can be constructed by using a PKE scheme which fulfills three properties that appear in cryptographic...... applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate for the...

  20. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    H.Jayasree; .Damodaram

    2012-01-01

    Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and we...

  1. Seeking Anonymity in an Internet Panopticon

    OpenAIRE

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Ford, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining and maintaining anonymity on the Internet is challenging. The state of the art in deployed tools, such as Tor, uses onion routing (OR) to relay encrypted connections on a detour passing through randomly chosen relays scattered around the Internet. Unfortunately, OR is known to be vulnerable at least in principle to several classes of attacks for which no solution is known or believed to be forthcoming soon. Current approaches to anonymity also appear unable to offer accurate, princi...

  2. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  3. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  4. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-12-31

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  5. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  6. The socially-weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeghanSumner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken words are highly variable. A single word may never be uttered the same way twice. As listeners, we regularly encounter speakers of different ages, genders, and accents, increasing the amount of variation we face. How listeners understand spoken words as quickly and adeptly as they do despite this variation remains an issue central to linguistic theory. We propose that learned acoustic patterns are mapped simultaneously to linguistic representations and to social representations. In doing so, we illuminate a paradox that results in the literature from, we argue, the focus on representations and the peripheral treatment of word-level phonetic variation. We consider phonetic variation more fully and highlight a growing body of work that is problematic for current theory: Words with different pronunciation variants are recognized equally well in immediate processing tasks, while an atypical, infrequent, but socially-idealized form is remembered better in the long-term. We suggest that the perception of spoken words is socially-weighted, resulting in sparse, but high-resolution clusters of socially-idealized episodes that are robust in immediate processing and are more strongly encoded, predicting memory inequality. Our proposal includes a dual-route approach to speech perception in which listeners map acoustic patterns in speech to linguistic and social representations in tandem. This approach makes novel predictions about the extraction of information from the speech signal, and provides a framework with which we can ask new questions. We propose that language comprehension, broadly, results from the integration of both linguistic and social information.

  7. Viral depletion of VTA BDNF in rats modulates social behavior, consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, and long-term weight regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation,...

  8. On-Line Anonymity: A New Privacy Battle in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laurie Thomas

    1996-01-01

    States that lawsuits are being filed that challenge anonymity and freedom of speech in cyberspace--is there a right to online anonymity? Examines the debate and issues associated with anonymous communications in cyberspace. Explores the "right of informational privacy" as it pertains to anonymity. Suggests some regulatory approaches for addressing…

  9. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context.

  10. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  11. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  12. A Fast Survey on Methods for Classification Anonymity Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Kharaji, Morteza Yousefi; Rizi, Fatemeh Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Anonymity has become a significant issue in security field by recent advances in information technology and internet. The main objective of anonymity is hiding and concealing entities privacy inside a system. Many methods and protocols have been proposed with different anonymity services to provide anonymity requirements in various fields until now. Each anonymity method or protocol is developed using particular approach. In this paper, first, accurate and perfect definitions of privacy and a...

  13. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  14. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Liusheng Huang; Fang Song

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of...

  15. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  16. Anonymous Fingerprinting with Robust QIM Watermarking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Lagendijk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting is an essential tool to shun legal buyers of digital content from illegal redistribution. In fingerprinting schemes, the merchant embeds the buyer's identity as a watermark into the content so that the merchant can retrieve the buyer's identity when he encounters a redistributed copy. To prevent the merchant from dishonestly embedding the buyer's identity multiple times, it is essential for the fingerprinting scheme to be anonymous. Kuribayashi and Tanaka, 2005, proposed an anonymous fingerprinting scheme based on a homomorphic additive encryption scheme, which uses basic quantization index modulation (QIM for embedding. In order, for this scheme, to provide sufficient security to the merchant, the buyer must be unable to remove the fingerprint without significantly degrading the purchased digital content. Unfortunately, QIM watermarks can be removed by simple attacks like amplitude scaling. Furthermore, the embedding positions can be retrieved by a single buyer, allowing for a locally targeted attack. In this paper, we use robust watermarking techniques within the anonymous fingerprinting approach proposed by Kuribayashi and Tanaka. We show that the properties of an additive homomorphic cryptosystem allow for creating anonymous fingerprinting schemes based on distortion compensated QIM (DC-QIM and rational dither modulation (RDM, improving the robustness of the embedded fingerprints. We evaluate the performance of the proposed anonymous fingerprinting schemes under additive-noise and amplitude-scaling attacks.

  17. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  18. Blocking Misbehaving Users in Anonymizing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    Internet services can be accessed privately through anonymizing networks like Tor. A set of routers are used to achieve this in order to hide the identity of client from server. The users of such networks often indulge into malicious activities and cause damage to popular web applications. The...... administrators of those web sites do block the IP address from which the request comes. This is not the practical solution as the hackers operate through anonymous networks. Blocking a node based on IP address will cau se misbehaving and genuine users to lost access to the web sites. This is the problem in the...... existing systems and motivation to take up this research work. The proposed system develops a security mechanism that ensures that only the misbehaving users are blackl isted while genuine users and their anonymity are preserved. Even though the misbehaving users are blacklisted, their privacy is still...

  19. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sen...

  20. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  1. Automatic Control of Configuration of Web Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sochor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymization of the Internet traffic usually hides details about the request originator from the target server. Such a disguise might be required in some situations, especially in the case of web browsing. Although the web traffic anonymization is not a part of the http specification, it could be achieved using a certain extra tool. Significant deceleration of anonymized traffic compared to normal traffic is inevitable but it can be controlled in some cases as this article suggests. The results presented here focus on measuring the parameters of such deceleration in terms of response time, transmission speed and latency and proposing the way how to control it. This study focuses on TOR primarily because recent studies have concluded that other tools (like I2P and JAP provide worse service. Sets of 14 file locations and 30 web pages have been formed and the latency, response time and transmission speed during the page or file download were measured repeatedly both with TOR active in various configurations and without TOR. The main result presented here comprises several ways how to improve the TOR anonymization efficiency and the proposal for its automatic control. In spite of the fact that efficiency still remains too low compared to normal web traffic for ordinary use, its automatic control could make TOR a useful tool in special cases.

  2. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. "Dear Professor: I Hate You"--Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Flip through a stack of anonymous student evaluations of professors and the mild comments, even the compliments, tend to blend together. But often, hidden among them, is a dagger. Then there are the out-and-out insults. Students' comments can be more than simply mean. Sometimes student comments aren't cruel, just weird. In this article, some…

  4. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  5. Anonymity control in electronic check systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunguang; Yang Yixian; Hu Zhengming

    2005-01-01

    Electronic check systems, as one of electronic payment systems, are more desirable than other electronic cash systems. In the system, only a single check is used to pay any price that is not more than the face value. The main problem in check systems is to design an efficient refund mechanism that makes refund checks undistinguished from initial checks during payment and deposit. The problem of anonymity control also called fairness is also an important issue in check systems. All check systems yet are unconditional anonymity that opens the door to misuse for crime such as laundering and blackmailing. In this paper, the notion of anonymity revocation is introduced to electronic check system for the first time, and a model of fair electronic check system is proposed. An efficient fair online electronic check system with reusable refund is presented. In the system, a passive trustee is employed to revoke the anonymity of un-honest users. Moreover, the system solves the reusability problem of refunds thanks to the RSA-based partially signature. The system is efficient and meets all basic security requirements.

  6. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling

  7. Research on Anonymization and De-anonymization in the Bitcoin System

    OpenAIRE

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin system is an anonymous, decentralized crypto-currency. There are some deanonymizating techniques to cluster Bitcoin addresses and to map them to users' identifications in the two research directions of Analysis of Transaction Chain (ATC) and Analysis of Bitcoin Protocol and Network (ABPN). Nowadays, there are also some anonymization methods such as coin-mixing and transaction remote release (TRR) to cover the relationship between Bitcoin address and the user. This paper studies an...

  8. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  9. Anonymous quantum communications using the quantum one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first quantum secure communication protocol for an anonymous receiver without the assistance of anonymous entanglement. In previous works, if a public sender wants to send quantum messages to a chosen receiver while protecting the identity of the receiver from others, all participants should cooperate first to construct the entanglement between the sender and the anonymous receiver. This is the most important process in anonymous quantum communications. With anonymous entanglement, the sender can communicate quantum messages to the anonymous receiver by applying teleportation protocols. In contrast, our protocol is novel and achieves communication of quantum messages directly from the public sender to the anonymous receiver based on the quantum one-time pad and current achievements. Notably, the anonymity of the receiver, as well as the privacy of the quantum messages, is perfectly protected with the exception of an exponentially small probability in our protocol. (paper)

  10. Determination of the Internet Anonymity Influence on the Level of Aggression and Usage of Obscene Lexis

    OpenAIRE

    Potapova, Rodmonga; Gordeev, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of the semantic content of the anonymous Russian-speaking forum 2ch.hk, different verbal means of expressing of the emotional state of aggression are revealed for this site, and aggression is classified by its directions. The lexis of different Russian-and English- speaking anonymous forums (2ch.hk and iichan.hk, 4chan.org) and public community "MDK" of the Russian-speaking social network VK is analyzed and compared with the Open Corpus of the Russian lang...

  11. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2013-01-01

    bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  12. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  13. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  14. SSA-Caterpillar in Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Tavrov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a common practice to protect various types of statistical data before publishing them for different researches. For instance, when conducting extensive demographic surveys such as national census, the collected data should be at least depersonalized to guarantee proper level of privacy preservation. In practice, even more complicated methods of data protection need to be used. All these methods can be generally divided into two classes. The first ones aim at providing individual data anonymity, whereas the other ones are focused on protecting information about a group of respondents. In this paper, we propose a novel technique of providing group anonymity in statistical data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA).Also, we apply SSA to defining hidden patterns in demographic data distribution.

  15. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette

    1997-01-01

    problem concerning its application when dealing with people having a serious mental, social or even physical disability. Within the field of artificial procreation there are even more problems. Informed written consent is often demanded from anonymous donors of gametes in order to ensure their consent to...... the legal and moral consequences of their anonymity. The child resulting from the artificial procreation, on the contrary, cannot consent to, nor be informed before being conceived, of the secrecy laid on the identity of its genetic parents. Some countries resolve this problem by allowing the children......, when they reach their majority, to obtain some information pertaining to the health or the identity of their genetic parents. This presents ethical problems. It can be argued that the anonymity of the parents chiefly affects the children, so that an agreement on this point among parents, doctors and...

  16. EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL-FACTORS ON THE COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT OF VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; BAERTS, W; SMRKOVSKY, M; SAUER, PJJ

    1993-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of biological and social factors on the cognitive development of very low birth weight children, a longitudinal follow-up study was conducted from birth to 3.6 years of age. Methodology. The study group consisted of a cohort of 79 surviving high-risk, very low b

  17. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    OpenAIRE

    Israt Jahan; Mohammad Zahidur Rahman; K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jerin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending). An observer is a tamper-resis...

  18. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at http://www.bionews.org.uk/new.lasso?storyid=2808). In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  19. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  20. Anonymity, Efficiency Wages and Technological Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Broadberry, Stephen; Ghosal, Sayantan; Proto, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Although the Industrial Revolution is often characterized as the culmination of a process of commercialisation, the precise nature of such a link remains unclear. This paper models and analyzes such link: the role of commercialisation in raising efficiency wages as impersonal and anonymous labour market transactions replace personalized customary relations. In the presence of an aggregate capital externality, we show that the resulting shift in relative factor prices leads to higher capital-i...

  1. Infrared observations of anonymous IRC sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Infrared (0.9 to 18 microns) observations of 232 anonymous 2-micron Sky survey (IRC) sources are reported. Most of the objects appear to be late-type stars with little or no long-wave excess. About ten percent exhibit large excesses. Thirty-one of the brightest 11-micron sources have been remeasured to determine variability. These brighter objects appear to fall into two groups; one group resembles NML Tauri, while the other is like NML Cygni.

  2. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace; Dr. John Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET). Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS) device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated int...

  3. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  4. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON

    2007-01-01

    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  5. The BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace

    CERN Document Server

    Nielson, Seth James

    2011-01-01

    The very nature of operations in peer-to-peer systems such as BitTorrent exposes information about participants to their peers. Nodes desiring anonymity, therefore, often chose to route their peer-to-peer traffic through anonymity relays, such as Tor. Unfortunately, these relays have little incentive for contribution and struggle to scale with the high loads that P2P traffic foists upon them. We propose a novel modification for BitTorrent that we call the BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace. Peers in our system trade in k swarms obscuring the actual intent of the participants. But because peers can cross-trade torrents, the k-1 cover traffic can actually serve a useful purpose. This creates a system wherein a neighbor cannot determine if a node actually wants a given torrent, or if it is only using it as leverage to get the one it really wants. In this paper, we present our design, explore its operation in simulation, and analyze its effectiveness. We demonstrate that the upload and download characteristics of c...

  6. Digital anonymity on the internet : new rules for anonymous electronic transactions? an exploration of the private law implications of digital anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Prins, C.

    2001-01-01

    This article sets out the most important conclusions of the first stage of a study into the dimensions of digital anonymity. It is intended to set out the problem, make people aware of the intricacies of the problem and thus stimulate the debate on useful legal structures for anonymity. The article focuses on Holland’s private law dimensions, addressing situations where consumers want to purchase anonymously on the Internet.

  7. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  8. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  9. Anonymity in the Wild: Mixes on unstructured networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaraja, Shishir

    2007-01-01

    As decentralized computing scenarios get ever more popular, unstructured topologies are natural candidates to consider running mix networks upon. We consider mix network topologies where mixes are placed on the nodes of an unstructured network, such as social networks and scale-free random networks. We explore the efficiency and traffic analysis resistance properties of mix networks based on unstructured topologies as opposed to theoretically optimal structured topologies, under high latency conditions. We consider a mix of directed and undirected network models, as well as one real world case study -- the LiveJournal friendship network topology. Our analysis indicates that mix-networks based on scale-free and small-world topologies have, firstly, mix-route lengths that are roughly comparable to those in expander graphs; second, that compromise of the most central nodes has little effect on anonymization properties, and third, batch sizes required for warding off intersection attacks need to be an order of ma...

  10. When overweight is the normal weight: an examination of obesity using a social media internet database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kuebler

    Full Text Available Using a large social media database, Yahoo Answers, we explored postings to an online forum in which posters asked whether their height and weight qualify themselves as "skinny," "thin," "fat," or "obese" over time and across forum topics. We used these data to better understand whether a higher-than-average body mass index (BMI in one's county might, in some ways, be protective for one's mental and physical health. For instance, we explored whether higher proportions of obese people in one's county predicts lower levels of bullying or "am I fat?" questions from those with a normal BMI relative to his/her actual BMI. Most women asking whether they were themselves fat/obese were not actually fat/obese. Both men and women who were actually overweight/obese were significantly more likely in the future to ask for advice about bullying than thinner individuals. Moreover, as mean county-level BMI increased, bullying decreased and then increased again (in a U-shape curve. Regardless of where they lived, posters who asked "am I fat?" who had a BMI in the healthy range were more likely than other posters to subsequently post on health problems, but the proportions of such posters also declined greatly as county-level BMI increased. Our findings suggest that obese people residing in counties with higher levels of BMI may have better physical and mental health than obese people living in counties with lower levels of BMI by some measures, but these improvements are modest.

  11. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  12. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  13. Anonymizing Binary Tables is APX-hard

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is increasingly important. An interesting formalization is the $k$-anonymization, where all rows in a table are clustered in sets of at least $k$ records, and all the entries for which records in the same cluster have different values are suppressed. The problem has been shown to be NP-hard when the records values are over a ternary alphabet and $k=3$. In this paper we show that the problem is not only NP-hard, but also APX-hard, when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$.

  14. Effects of Maternal Pregnancy Intention, Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Risk of Low Birth Weight: A Prospective Study from Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. Methods Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which...

  15. The Influence of Social Norms upon Behavioral Expressions of Implicit and Explicit Weight-Related Stigma in an Interactive Game

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, John B.; Reeder, Glenn D.; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Williams, Kipling D.; Wirth, James H.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of os...

  16. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  17. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni;

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user to...

  18. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  19. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  20. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. PMID:26883282

  1. Nymble: Blocking Misbehaving Users inAnonymizing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali V. Yelane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’sIP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, has been limited by users employing this anonymity for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. As a result, administrators block a l known exit nodes of anonymizing networks, denying anonymous access to misbehaving and behaving users alike. To address this problem, we present Nymble, a system in which servers can “blacklist” misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without compromising their anonymity.Our system is thus agnostic to different servers’ definitions of misbehavior — servers can blacklist users for whatever reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is maintained.

  2. Challenges of Anonymous Communication: Bridging Gaps between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    Anonymous communication is an important building block for privacy enhancing technologies and in addition to this, the deployed anonymity networks have become important tools to protect the users’ privacy in the Internet where hundreds of thousands of users rely on them. During the last decades, researchers have investigated the security aspects of anonymous communication networks. One important research methodology is the investigation of attacks which helps to understand the security proper...

  3. Longitudinal influences of neighbourhood built and social environment on children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children's body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children's BMI-SDS. Between 2006-2008 and 2010-2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8-6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/buses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children's BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135

  4. Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Manfred J.; Maike Johannsen; Beate Landsberg; Bianca Willié; Sandra Plachta-Danielzik; Maria Gose

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4)). Socio-de...

  5. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET. Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated into the existing Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR, it is expected that security services such as authentication, data integrity, privacy and confidentiality will be provided. This work proposes to protect the network against active attacks such as impersonation and modification.

  6. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  7. Anonymization and De-identification of Surveillance Visual Information: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoja, Cesar; Fernandez Arguedas, Virginia; Izquierdo, Ebroul

    2013-01-01

    The recent widespread adoption of video surveillance systems implies an invasive proactive approach to ensure citizen’s security. The ever-increasing amount of recorded information, implies a direct threat to citizen’s privacy and their right to preserve their personal information. Thus, a general social concern has raised for the citizen’s lost of privacy, demanding new approaches to preserve and protect their privacy, ensuring their anonymity and freedom of action whilst m...

  8. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trendyouth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  9. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  10. Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsdottir Inga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys. Methods Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight. A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires. Results Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (β's>0.10. Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (β's>0.10, whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (β>0.10 Conclusion Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake.

  11. Group Aggression: The Effects of Friendship Ties and Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrack, Merle; Miller, Norman

    The degree of acquaintance among group members (friends or strangers) and the opportunity for group members to observe each other's actions (anonymous or non-anonymous) were manipulated in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to determine the amount of aversive stimulation that would be administered to a target person. When group members could not observe…

  12. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  13. An Anonymous Authenticated Protocol Based on Zero Knowledge Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, anonymity and privacy protection in many applications of the scene is critical. The anonymous authentication means that the server cant know the users identity when they are communicating with each other. In this paper, based on the Wangs zero knowledge proof scheme of possessing a digital signature, we propose a new anonymous authentication scheme. Compared with the Cui-Caos anonymous authentication protocol based on the ring signature, our scheme has two advantages. First, we dont need to know all users public keys. And then our scheme reduces the communication traffic largely. We also discuss the security attributes of our new scheme which are authentication, anonymity and unlinkablity. And then we introduce a concrete application of our scheme. Finally, we make a conclusion of this paper.

  14. Improving Security Architecture of Anonymous Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    As users of networks increasingly aware of their privacy needs, the importance of anonymity is gaining popularity. The reason behind it is that anonymity can hide the actual identity of end users while allowing their to access services of network or web site. More over they are allowed to do so...... without being traced. This usage is prevailing in P2P systems and also payment based networks like e-cash. Achieving anonymity and being able to trace misbehaving users are the two conflicting requirements. This paper proposes a security architecture that is aimed at providing complete anonymity to honest...... users while tracing misbehaving users thus resolving the conflict between anonymity and traceability requirements. In addition to these, this paper also focuses on basic security requirements such as nonrepudiation, data integrity, confidentiality, and authentication. The empirical results revealed that...

  15. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  16. Social inequalities in body weight and physical activity: exploring the role of fitness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions ofexclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this relation. Using publicly available data and guided by Bourdieu's theory of habitus, we classified fitness centers in Calgary, Canada, on three dimensions of exclusivity (economic, social, and appearance). We found that, although some highly exclusive centers exist, most demonstrated low exclusivity based on our dimensions. An overall contribution of centers to inequalities appears to be limited; however, caution is warranted in light of cutbacks to municipal budgets that can have an impact on publicly funded facilities. PMID:22428416

  17. The influence of social norms upon behavioral expressions of implicit and explicit weight-related stigma in an interactive game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, John B; Reeder, Glenn D; Wesselmann, Eric D; Williams, Kipling D; Wirth, James H

    2013-06-01

    This research explored the roles of social influence and stigma-related attitudes in how people behaved toward an overweight female in an interactive computer game. Photographs were used to manipulate whether one of the players in the game was overweight or average weight. We found that both explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes influenced interactions with an overweight player, but only when other players ostracized the overweight player, not when they included her. Under conditions of ostracism, explicit attitudes were better predictors of more controllable behaviors, while implicit attitudes were better predictors of more automatic behaviors. PMID:23766740

  18. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  19. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  20. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  1. Distributed anonymous data perturbation method for privacy-preserving data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Jin MA; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a critical requirement in distributed data mining. Cryptography-based secure multiparty computation is a main approach for privacy preserving. However, it shows poor performance in large scale distributed systems. Meanwhile, data perturbation techniques are comparatively efficient but are mainly used in centralized privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM). In this paper, we propose a light-weight anonymous data perturbation method for efficient privacy preserving in distributed data mining. We first define the privacy constraints for data perturbation based PPDM in a semi-honest distributed environment. Two protocols are proposed to address these constraints and protect data statistics and the randomization process against collusion attacks: the adaptive privacy-preserving summary protocol and the anonymous exchange protocol. Finally, a distributed data perturbation framework based on these protocols is proposed to realize distributed PPDM. Experiment results show that our approach achieves a high security level and is very efficient in a large scale distributed environment.

  2. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  3. Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, E

    1976-05-01

    Three of Zimbardo's deindividuation input variables (group presence, anonymity, and arousal) were manipulated in laboratory experiment, and their effects on aggression and deindividuation were measured. Only arousal produced a significant increase in aggression (p less than .05), while group presence produced a significant decrease in aggression (p less than .01). Anonymity had no significant effect on subjects' aggressiveness. Deindividuation per se was measured on a postsession questionnaire that assessed subjects' memory for their own aggressive behavior, self-consciousness, concern for social evaluation, and memory for central and peripheral cues. Only arousal condition participants showed deindividuation changes, but a factor analysis revealed that the deindividuation changes did not comprise a unified factor. Also it did not appear that the internal changes caused aggressive behavior, since the correlation between the two was low. PMID:1271222

  4. Entanglements in Practice: Performing Anonymity Through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems researchers have shown an increasing interest in the notion of sociomateriality. In this paper, we continue this exploration by focusing specifically on entanglement: the inseparability of meaning and matter. Our particular approach is differentiated by its grounding in a relational and performative ontology, and its use of agential realism. We explore some of the key ideas of entanglement through a comparison of two phenomena in the travel sector: an institutionalized acc...

  5. Use of anonymous Web communities and websites by medical consumers in Japan to research drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the status of researching drug information online, and the type of Internet user who uses anonymous Web communities and websites. A Web-based cross-sectional survey of 10875 male and female Internet users aged 16 and over was conducted in March 2010. Of 10282 analyzed respondents, excluding medical professionals, about 47% reported that they had previously searched the Internet for drug information and had used online resources ranging from drug information search engines and pharmaceutical industry websites to social networking sites and Twitter. Respondents who had researched drug information online (n=4861) were analyzed by two multivariable logistic regressions. In Model 1, the use of anonymous websites associated with age (OR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.742-0.816), referring to the reputation and the narrative of other Internet users on shopping (OR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.450-1.855), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.806; 95% CI, 0.705-0.922), and frequent consulting with non-professionals about medical care and health (OR, 1.613; 95% CI, 1.396-1.865). In Model 2, use of only anonymous websites was associated with age (OR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.705-0.805), using the Internet daily (OR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.462-0.808), taking a prescription drug (OR, 0.614; 95% CI, 0.505-0.747), and experience a side effect (OR, 0.526; 95% CI, 0.421-0.658). The analysis revealed the profiles of Internet users who researched drug information on social media sites where the information providers are anonymous and do not necessarily have adequate knowledge of medicine and online information literacy. PMID:21532265

  6. The effect of group-based weight control intervention on adolescent psychosocial outcomes: Perceived peer rejection, social anxiety and self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Jelalian, Elissa; Sato, Amy; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of group-based weight control treatment on adolescent social functioning. Eighty-nine adolescents who were randomized to group-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) with aerobic exercise (CBT+EXER) or peer enhanced adventure therapy (CBT+PEAT) completed measures of social functioning at baseline, end of treatment, and 12-month follow-up. Results demonstrated significant reductions in adolescent perceptions of peer rejection and social anxiety over ti...

  7. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  8. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401

    2011-01-01

    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  9. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Merener

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  10. Identity and anonymity: victims and perpetrators in human rights reports

    OpenAIRE

    De Cock, Barbara; Michaud Maturana, Daniel; 4th Biennial Meeting of the International Association for the Study of Spanish in Society (SIS-EES) / 6th International Conference of Hispanic Linguistics

    2013-01-01

    Identity and anonymity: victims and perpetrators in human rights reports In this paper, we look into the construction of identity and anonymity in human rights reports, more concretely in the report by the Rettig Commission on human rights violations under the Pinochet regime. In the preliminaries to this report, the commission formulates its desire to give an account that is as complete as possible yet also its refraining from attributing individual responsibility (Oteíza 2010). We will anal...

  11. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Jacques; Couchot, Jean-François; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level...

  12. Internet anonymity with mobility - key challenges for the future.

    OpenAIRE

    Doswell, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Privacy, including the privacy of correspondence (communications), is a human right. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) provide a number of tools with the aim to protect this right. Anonymity networks, such as Tor, contribute to privacy by providing a degree of anonymity for an individual's Internet traffic. An increase in mobile devices connecting to the Internet is predicted to surpass static connections by 2014. The desire for privacy will provide additional challenges in the future, fo...

  13. Scalable Techniques for Security and Anonymity in Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Akhoondi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Security and privacy in distributed systems are long-standing hard problems. On the one hand, solutions for anonymous communications over the Internet are either vulnerable to traffic analysis or offer poor performance. On the other hand, compromises within enterprises remain hard to track down due to complex dependencies between hosts, applications, and their data.In this thesis, I develop two solutions to improve the anonymity vs. performance trade-off for communications over the Internet. ...

  14. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min

    2005-01-01

    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  15. On the Feasibility of (Practical Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pulls

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous cloud storage services which require user payment (which we call commercial anonymous cloud storage. Anonymity in this context can be seen as the absence of information to uniquely identify a provider's client that is storing and manipulating data at the provider while at the same time still allowing fair billing, for both, the clients and the cloud provider. Although encrypting data prior to outsourcing helps to protect data privacy and can be achieved without the cloud provider's consent, the issues we are interested in, do not seem to be achievable that easily. However, while various measures for the latter issue, i.e., realizing access privacy, have been studied in the past, the role of privacy in context of billing and payment for cloud storage has, until now, remained unexplored. We therefore introduce an abstract model for commercial cloud storage services to define various types of anonymous cloud storage, study several payment and billing models for cloud storage services and their impact on the anonymity of the service's clients. Moreover, we discuss several solutions to provide anonymity within the different models. Our findings highlight the importance of anonymous payment for the practical deployment of commercial privacy-friendly cloud storage services. Furthermore, we provide directions for future work in some settings, i.e., when anonymous payment is not available, as interesting open challenges.

  16. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    R. KALPANA; N. Rengarajan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms an...

  17. A peaceful pyramid? Hierarchy and anonymity in newspaper comment sections

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, João Fernando Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have linked deindividuation to an increase in aggression and incivility. This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of anonymity and hierarchy in online aggression by comparing two different newspaper comment sections: one with a hierarchical system and the other with an equalitarian setting. This study distinguishes itself form previous works by analyzing systems where identification is optional and where identified and anonymous users coexist. The hierarchical solution m...

  18. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert (British painter, ca.1730-1791); Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a can...

  19. [Self-disclosure on the Internet: the effects of anonymity of the self and the other].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio

    2008-02-01

    The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous) x 2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure. PMID:18402057

  20. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM

    2015-01-01

    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  1. Optimizing Spread of Influence in Weighted Social Networks via Partial Incentives

    CERN Document Server

    Cordasco, Gennaro; Rescigno, Adele A; Vaccaro, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    A widely studied process of influence diffusion in social networks posits that the dynamics of influence diffusion evolves as follows: Given a graph $G=(V,E)$, representing the network, initially \\emph{only} the members of a given $S\\subseteq V$ are influenced; subsequently, at each round, the set of influenced nodes is augmented by all the nodes in the network that have a sufficiently large number of already influenced neighbors. The general problem is to find a small initial set of nodes that influences the whole network. In this paper we extend the previously described basic model in the following ways: firstly, we assume that there are non negative values $c(v)$ associated to each node $v\\in V$, measuring how much it costs to initially influence node $v$, and the algorithmic problem is to find a set of nodes of \\emph{minimum total cost} that influences the whole network; successively, we study the consequences of giving \\emph{incentives} to member of the networks, and we quantify how this affects (i.e., r...

  2. Endogenouse Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Carpenter

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing discussion in economics has developed around the issue of whether institutions (specifically markets) affect people’ social preferences. One theory posits that markets force people to interact repeatedly, and in doing do reduce anonymity, curtail opportunistic behavior, and make agents more socially minded. The opposing view contends that markets are alienating because they make interactions more (not less) anonymous and competition erodes peoples’ preferences to engage in sel...

  3. Socialization and selection effects in the association between weight conscious peer groups and thin-ideal internalization: A co-twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHuysse, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; O'Connor, Shannon M; Thompson, J Kevin; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-06-01

    Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8-15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605

  4. Experimental Analysis of Popular Smartphone Apps Offering Anonymity, Ephemerality, and End-to-End Encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Onwuzurike, Lucky; De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    As social networking takes to the mobile world, smartphone apps provide users with ever-changing ways to interact with each other. Over the past couple of years, an increasing number of apps have entered the market offering end-to-end encryption, self-destructing messages, or some degree of anonymity. However, little work thus far has examined the properties they offer. To this end, this paper presents a taxonomy of 18 of these apps: we first look at the features they promise in their appeal ...

  5. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  6. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms. PMID:26939060

  7. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  8. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Broeck Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007, a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed was used. Self-reported weight (height was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm, or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height. A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI. Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1 under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2 under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3 accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  9. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M

    2014-12-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  10. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  11. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  12. Anonymous Authorship Control for User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Bong LEE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC is opening up new large market in content services, and more and more people are visiting web sites to share and enjoy UGCs. These trends make many authors to move into online. Authors want to conserve their authorship and expect to publish their UGC anonymously in cases. To meet the requirements, we propose a new authorship control model based on watermarking and metadata. Authors can embed their authorship into their UGC with identities or with anonym. Even though an author publishes his UGC anonymously, he can prove his authorship without unveiling his identity via 5 methods utilizing the proposed authorship model. The proposed model and methods need no TTP and are robust even based on fragile underlying watermarking scheme.

  13. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sub Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.

  14. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  15. Why Barbie Feels Heavier than Ken: The Influence of Size-Based Expectancies and Social Cues on the Illusory Perception of Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijker, Anton J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the relative influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the perceived weight of objects, two studies were performed, using equally weighing dolls differing in sex-related and age-related vulnerability or physical strength cues. To increase variation in perceived size, stimulus objects were viewed through optical…

  16. Anonymous authentication protocol for multi-services in wireless environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To provide mutual authentication among users, wireless networks, and service providers in roaming wireless environments, this article presents an anonymous authentication and access control protocol. Bases on this protocol, entities of different trusted domains can mutually authenticate each other and preserve the anonymity of users. Hybrid cryptosystem, secret splitting, and hash chains are used in the protocol, which decrease computational loads and establish trusted relations for both entities. The proposed protocol has the least computation complexity compared with other protocols, whereas, the security has been significantly improved.

  17. LAS HABILIDADES SOCIALES EN UNIVERSITARIOS, ADOLESCENTES Y ALCOHÓLICOS EN RECUPERACIÓN DE UN GRUPO DE ALCOHÓLICOS ANÓNIMOS (AA/ SOCIAL ABILITIES IN ADOLESCENTS, UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY IN A GROUP OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nava Quiroz***

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los factores de riesgo de inicio al consumo de alcohol se encuentra el déficit en habilidades sociales, que aunqueno es determinante, sí es un factor que de alguna manera influye en la conducta de beber en exceso. En la presenteinvestigación se realizó un análisis de habilidades sociales en tres muestras distintas: universitarios, adolescentes y alcohólicosen recuperación (AA. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – ParteMotora (EMES-M: Caballo, 1987, 2006 y la Escala Multidimensional de Expresión Social – Parte Cognitiva (EMES-C:Caballo, 1987, 2006. Estas escalas se aplicaron a una muestra de 157 participantes (74 hombres y 83 mujeres. Se distribuyeronde la siguiente forma: 58 adolescentes (estudiantes de secundaria, 55 integrantes de AA y 44 estudiantes universitarios. Seencontraron diferencias significativas entre algunas subescalas y los diferentes grupos de referencia. La mayoría de estasdiferencias se encontraron en cuanto a habilidades sociales de corte cognitivo. El grupo de alcohólicos AA marcó ladiferencia, mostrando éstos una mayor puntuación en las subescalas que indican «temor» o «preocupación» en ciertassituaciones sociales. Se discuten estos resultados y las implicaciones de éstos para el tratamiento y prevención del alcoholismo.ABSTRACTAmong the risk factors for alcohol use initiation is the deficit in social skills, which while not conclusive, if it is a factorthat somehow influences the behavior of excessive drinking. In the present study it conducted an analysis of social skills inthree different samples: college, young people and alcoholics in recovery (AA. The following instruments were used:Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression-Motor Part (EMES-M: Horse, 1987 and Multidimensional Scale of SocialExpression-Cognitive Part (EMES-C: Caballo, 1987. These scales were applied to a sample of 157 participants (74 menand 83 women and they

  18. Law, Norms, Piracy and Online Anonymity – Practices of de-identification in the global file sharing community

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns; Kaminski, Marcin; Rönkkö, Kari; Alkan Olsson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand online anonymity in the global file-sharing community in the context of social norms and copyright law. The study describes the respondents in terms of use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) or similar services with respect to age, gender, geographical location, as well as analysing the correlation with file-sharing frequencies. Design/methodology/approach This study, to a large extent, collected descriptive data through ...

  19. Knowledge Sharing Systems: Advantages of Public Anonymity and Private Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the benefits of the design elements of public anonymity and private accountability in classroom Knowledge Sharing Systems (KSS). The major findings of this study indicate that classroom KSS have the potential to allow for greater equity of input, reduce academic anxiety, increase teachers knowledge of student understanding …

  20. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  1. Provider Aware Anonymization Algorithm for Preserving M - Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Usha Rani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the collaborative data publishing problem for anonymizing horizontally partitioned data at multiple data providers. We consider a new type of “insider attack” by colluding data providers who may use their own data records (a subset of the overall data in addition to the external background knowledge to infer the data records contributed by other data providers. The paper addresses this new threat and makes several contributions. First, we introduce the notion of m-privacy, which guarantees that the anonymized data satisfies a given privacy constraint against any group of up to m colluding data providers. Second, we present heuristic algorithms exploiting the equivalence group monotonicity of privacy constraints and adaptive ordering techniques for efficiently checking m-privacy given a set of records. Finally, we present a data provider-aware anonymization algorithm with adaptive m- privacy checking strategies to ensure high utility and m-privacy of anonymized data with efficiency. Experiments on real-life datasets suggest that our approach achieves better or comparable utility and efficiency than existing and baseline algorithms while providing m-privacy guarantee.

  2. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  3. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  4. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  5. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  6. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering

    2013-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  7. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  8. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  9. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...

  10. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  12. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…

  13. ANONYMOUS OFF-LINE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE BANKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  14. Improving Content Availability in the I2P Anonymous File-Sharing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Timpanaro, Juan Pablo; Chrisment, Isabelle; Festor, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Anonymous communication has gained more and more interest from Internet users as privacy and anonymity problems have emerged. Dedicated anonymous networks such as Freenet and I2P allow anonymous file-sharing among users. However, one major problem with anonymous file-sharing networks is that the available content is highly reduced, mostly with outdated files, and non-anonymous networks, such as the BitTorrent network, are still the major source of content: we show that in a 30-days period, 21...

  15. What drives the association between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating? Disentangling genetic and environmental selection from pure socialization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27043917

  16. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8–14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight conscious peer groups. PMID:27043917

  17. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.

    2013-01-01

    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  18. Challenging the role of social norms regarding body weight as an explanation for weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases: Development and application of a new approach to examining misreporting and misclassification bias in surveys

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brestoff, Jonathan R

    2011-05-18

    Abstract Background Cultural pressures to be thin and tall are postulated to cause people to misreport their body weight and height towards more socially normative (i.e., desirable) values, but a paucity of direct evidence supports this idea. We developed a novel non-linear approach to examining weight, height, and BMI misreporting biases and used this approach to examine the association between socially non-normative weight and misreporting biases in adults. Methods The Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes, and Nutrition 2007 (SLÁN 2007), a nationally representative survey of the Republic of Ireland (N = 1942 analyzed) was used. Self-reported weight (height) was classified as under-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), over-reported by ≥2.0 kg (2.0 cm), or accurately reported within 2.0 kg (2.0 cm) to account for technical errors of measurement and short-term fluctuations in measured weight (height). A simulation strategy was used to define self-report-based BMI as under-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, over-estimated by more than 1.40 kg\\/m2, or accurately estimated within 1.40 kg\\/m2. Patterns of biases in self-reported weight, height, and BMI were explored. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with mis-estimated BMI and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 99% confidence intervals (99%CI). Results The patterns of bias contributing the most to BMI mis-estimation were consistently, in decreasing order of influence, (1) under-reported weight combined with over-reported height, (2) under-reported weight with accurately reported height, and (3) accurately reported weight with over-reported height. Average bias in self-report-based BMI was -1.34 kg\\/m2 overall and -0.49, -1.33, and -2.66 kg\\/m2 in normal, overweight, and obese categories, respectively. Despite the increasing degree of bias with progressively higher BMI categories, persons describing themselves as too heavy were, within any given BMI category, less likely to have under

  19. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsook Lee; Juryon Paik

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreig...

  20. Effects of data anonymization by cell suppression on descriptive statistics and predictive modeling performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Vinterbo, Staal; Dreiseitl, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Protecting individual data in disclosed databases is essential. Data anonymization strategies can produce table ambiguation by suppression of selected cells. Using table ambiguation, different degrees of anonymization can be achieved, depending on the number of individuals that a particular case must become indistinguishable from. This number defines the level of anonymization. Anonymization by cell suppression does not necessarily prevent inferences from being made from the disclosed data. P...

  1. social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Weremchuk Ida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of eating disorders, this paper aims on the investigation of our relation with body, discussing the normative practices that constitute our ways of life. From an aesthetic standard that relates body to beauty and success, we intend to put in question the social context where eating disorders have been produced. To achieve this objective, we base our study on anorexia and bulimia analysis. The symptoms of these psychopathologies have difficult treatment and reflect an excessive worry about weight, corporal image and fattening up. Our interest is to contribute to this discussion, avoiding an individualized perspective, focused on anorexic and/or bulimic young boy or girl and on the dysfunctional interactions of his/her familiar system, but shifting the focus on eating disorders as devices that denunciate the extremism of the way of thinking, feeling and experiencing body in our society. Therefore, our objective is to present some subsidies that allow us to dislocate this matter from the exclusive scope of individual experience to an analysis of the social practices of our relation with body that reside contemporary experience, considering eating disorders in the present time as the exacerbation of a social symptom.

  2. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first ...

  3. RESILIENT WOMEN: FROM VICTIMHOOD TO AUTONOMY. CASE STUDY IN THE SELF-HELP GROUPS CODEPENDENT ANONYMOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Blanco, Alicia Elena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on highlighting the resilience developed by the women interviewed about the violence they were subjected and on observing the new life conditions that they wanted to develop grounded in their reality. This analysis belongs to the field of social sciences and psychology since it describes resilience, a phenomenon addressed by both disciplines. The hypothesis proposes that through the active belonging to the self-help groups Codependent Anonymous, women who have experienced violence can distance themselves from the problem and develop a sense of responsibility for their own lives. From a gender point of view, this research finds its justification in the category of gender oppression, formulated by Marcela Lagarde on her work entitled "Women captivities." In the field of personality theory, the explanation of interaction dynamics in codependent relationships is sustained through Transactional Analysis, based on Gloria Noriega Gayol's research on codependence and its relation with transgenerational roles. In order to give a sociological explanation of codependence as a phenomenon, Pierre Bourdieu's theory of fields has been applied and codependence has been defined as a habitus. This work shows the way some women participating in Codependent Anonymous self-help groups, were able to achieve a higher level of consciousness through the training offered by these groups and were able to choose strategies that enabled them to face their life situation more centred in themselves while taking responsibility for their lifestyle choice.

  4. Faculty mentoring programme--ways of reducing anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, R; Honold, M; Stehle, I; Stehr, S; Steudel, W I

    1998-07-01

    Increasing anonymity and the lack of personal contact between professor and student due to high enrolment is one of the major problems at German universities. Therefore, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Saarland started a pilot project in 1995. The intention was to reduce anonymity within the faculty by introducing a faculty mentoring programme (Studientutorium). A group of up to 12 students from different years is allocated a faculty member on a personal basis. The member responds to questions and problems concerning such areas as the curriculum, career planning or doctoral thesis as well as to personal problems. After 2 years participants were interviewed about the programme for the first time and the acceptance turned out to be high. PMID:9743811

  5. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  6. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  7. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  8. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  9. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  10. Dovetail: Stronger Anonymity in Next-Generation Internet Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Sankey, Jody; Wright, Matthew,

    2014-01-01

    Current low-latency anonymity systems use complex overlay networks to conceal a user's IP address, introducing significant latency and network efficiency penalties compared to normal Internet usage. Rather than obfuscating network identity through higher level protocols, we propose a more direct solution: a routing protocol that allows communication without exposing network identity, providing a strong foundation for Internet privacy, while allowing identity to be defined in those higher leve...

  11. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Hamacher; Micha Ober; Stefan Katzenbeisser

    2013-01-01

    The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network struc...

  12. Secure Logging of Retained Data for an Anonymity Service

    OpenAIRE

    KÖPSELL, Stefan; Švenda, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We have analyzed the newly arising risks associated with the process of accessing and storage of the retained data and propose a secure logging system, which utilizes cryptographic smart cards, trusted timestamping servers and distributed storage. These key components will allow for controlled access...

  13. Accountable Anonymous Service Usage in Mobile Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buttyan, Levente; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a model that allows of anonymous yet accountable service usage in mobile communication systems. This model is based on the introduction of a new business role, called the customer care agency, and a ticket based mechanism for service access. We motivate the introduction of customer care agencies by analyzing their role and emphasizing their advantages. We introduce the general idea of ticket based service access, present a categorization of ticket types and ticket acquisi...

  14. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  15. Anonymity in a Limit-Order Market: An Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Majois, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt an experimental approach to evaluate the impact of pre-trade anonymity in order-driven markets. More specifically, we build an experimental design of an electronic limit-order market, and compare two settings: one in which traders observe the identities of agents placing orders in the order book, and the other one where this information is not available on market screens. We find that ID code disclosure does not alter liquidity, efficiency or traders’ pr...

  16. Guaranteeing anonymity when sharing medical data, the Datafly System.

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, L.

    1997-01-01

    We present a computer program named Datafly that maintains anonymity in medical data by automatically generalizing, substituting, and removing information as appropriate without losing many of the details found within the data. Decisions are made at the field and record level at the time of database access, so the approach can be used on the fly in role-based security within an institution, and in batch mode for exporting data from an institution. Often organizations release and receive medic...

  17. On the Feasibility of (Practical) Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Pulls; Daniel Slamanig

    2015-01-01

    Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous clo...

  18. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  19. Discrimination and nepotism: the efficiency of the anonymity rule.

    OpenAIRE

    Fershtman, C.; Gneezy, U.; Verboven, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Paper considers two categories of discrimination: ‘discrimination against’ and ‘discrimination in favour’, which Becker coins ‘nepotism’. The Paper develops an experimental test to distinguish between these two types of discrimination. The experiment compares the behaviour towards individuals of different groups with the behaviour towards anonymous individuals (those having no clear group affiliation). We illustrate the two attitudes by considering two segmented societies: Belgian society...

  20. Enhancing Censorship Resistance in the Tor Anonymity Network

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Baksidestext The Tor network was originally designed as low-latency anonymity network.However, as the years progressed, Tor earned a reputation as also being a useful tool to circumvent Internet censorship. At times, the network counted 30,000 users only from China. Censors reacted by tightening their grip on the national communication infrastructure. In particular, they developed techniques to prevent people from being able to access the Tor network. This arms race now counts several iterati...

  1. An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity in Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic currency system, is a complicated issue. Within the system, users are identified by public-keys only. An attacker wishing to de-anonymize its users will attempt to construct the oneto- many mapping between users and public-keys and associate information external to the system with the users. Bitcoin frustrates this attack by storing the mapping of a user to his or her public-keys on that user's node only and by allowing each user to generate as many public-keys as required. In this paper we consider the topological structure of two networks derived from Bitcoin's public transaction history. We show that the two networks have a non-trivial topological structure, provide complementary views of the Bitcoin system and have implications for anonymity. We combine these structures with external information and techniques such as context discovery and flow analysis to investigate an alleged theft of Bitcoins, which, at the time of the theft, had a market value of approx...

  2. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

  3. Anonymous and Non-Repudiation E-Payment Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J. Aboud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many proposals offer anonymous and non-repudiation e-payment protocols. But they have the drawbacks that the anonymity can be misused by fraudulent to perform a perfect crimes. Currently, the hot research concentrates on the accepting of e-payment protocols where the anonymity of the coins is cancelable via a trusted authority in the case of criminal entities. In the article we suggest an efficient protocol for e-payment scheme that offers a good level of security with appreciate to its efficiency. The proposed protocol prevents the blind office and the bank from impersonate an entity, so that the entity could not repudiate it when the entity misused a coin. Another benefit is that it is constructed from efficient cryptography schemes so that its security can simply be analyzed. The strength of this scheme is in its easiness. So, we claim that the suggested protocol is more efficient than the existing schemes, since it allows to both a blind office and a bank to impersonate an entity to find and to spend a coin without to be noticed. It might cause a repudiation difficulty where the entity can repudiate his bad activities by proposing that both the bank and the blind office acted inaccurately. Other relevant issues related to the new protocol will be discussed in the section of the security of the scheme.

  4. Reversible Anonymization of DICOM Images using Cryptography and Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussain ELFADIL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical images. The DICOM file contains the image data and a number of attributes such as identified patient data (name, age, insurance ID card,…, and non-identified patient data (doctor’s interpretation, image type,…. Medical images serve not only for examination, but can also be used for research and education purposes. For research they are used to prevent illegal use of information; before authorizing researchers to use these images, the medical staff deletes all the data which would reveal the patient identity to prevent patient privacy. This manipulation is called anonymization. In this paper, we propose a reversible anonymization of DICOM images. Identifying patient data with image digest, computed by the well-known SHA-256 hash function, are encrypted using the proposed probabilistic public key crypto-system. After compressing the Least Significant Bit (LSB bitplan of the image using Hofmann coding algorithm, the encrypted data is inserted into a liberated zone of the LSB bitplan of the image. The proposed method allows researchers to use anonymous DICOM images and keep to authorized staff -if necessary- the possibility to return to the original image with all related patient data.

  5. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  6. The role of quasi-identifiers in k-anonymity revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bettini, C.; Wang, X S; S. Jajodia

    2006-01-01

    The concept of k-anonymity, used in the recent literature to formally evaluate the privacy preservation of published tables, was introduced based on the notion of quasi-identifiers (or QI for short). The process of obtaining k-anonymity for a given private table is first to recognize the QIs in the table, and then to anonymize the QI values, the latter being called k-anonymization. While k-anonymization is usually rigorously validated by the authors, the definition of QI remains mostly inform...

  7. Reidentification and k-anonymity: a model for disclosure risk in graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Klara; Torra, Vicenç

    2011-01-01

    In this article we provide a formal framework for reidentification in general. We define n-confusion as a concept for modelling the anonymity of a database table and we prove that n-confusion is a generalization of k- anonymity. After a short survey on the different available definitions of k- anonymity for graphs we provide a new definition for k-anonymous graph, which we consider to be the correct definition. We provide a description of the k-anonymous graphs, both for the regular and the n...

  8. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  9. Effects of personality and loss of anonymity on aggression: a reevaluation of deindividuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, L R

    1979-09-01

    Zimbardo's deindividuation hypothesis was reexamined by individuating some subjects. Twelve four-person groups administered shock to a confederate in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of social individuation (subjects' level of anonymity to group members), two levels of nonsocial individuation (subjects' opportunity to give identifying information to the experimenter on a word association test) and two levels of individual differences. It was found that subjects, who individuated themselves by giving information to the experimenter on the word association test showed more, not less, antisocial behavior. Furthermore, this increased antisocial behavior was exhibited only by externally oriented subjects: those with an external locus of control and a low mysticism score. Some of those more antisocial subjects were also more likely to report feeling like they stood out from the group. It was concluded that antisocial behavior in this paradigm may thus be a response to experimenter demand felt most strongly when subjects felt most identifiable. PMID:490306

  10. A MULTIPLE BALLOTS ELECTION SCHEME USING ANONYMOUS DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Okamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting is an important application for security protocols. Most existing voting schemes aredesigned for elections in which each voter has only one ballot. However, some elections permit voters tocast multiple ballots. In this paper, we present a new voting scheme in which each voter can havemultiple ballots, and can vote for multiple candidates. The proposed scheme allows the voter to simplypick their candidates and post a single encrypted message. Anonymous distribution of secret informationis used so that no one knows which information is being passed to whom.

  11. Distributed anonymous function computation in information fusion and multiagent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickx, Julien M; Tsitsiklis, John N

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes, with bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not scale with the network size. Our goal is to characterize the class of functions that can be computed within this model. In our main result, we exhibit a class of non-computable functions, and prove that every function outside this class can at least be approximated. The problem of computing averages in a distributed manner plays a central role in our development.

  12. Virtues and Perils of Anonymity: Should Intermediaries Bear the Burden?

    OpenAIRE

    Zingales, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    On October 10, 2013, the Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) handed down a judgment (Delfi v. Estonia) condoning Estonia for a law which, as interpreted, held a news portal liable for the defamatory comments of its users. Amongst the considerations that led the Court to find no violation of freedom of expression in this particular case were, above all, the inadequacy of the automatic screening system adopted by the website and the users’ option to post their comments anonym...

  13. Business Information Exchange System with Security, Privacy, and Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Muftic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Information Exchange is an Internet Secure Portal for secure management, distribution, sharing, and use of business e-mails, documents, and messages. It has three applications supporting three major types of information exchange systems: secure e-mail, secure instant messaging, and secure sharing of business documents. In addition to standard security services for e-mail letters, which are also applied to instant messages and documents, the system provides innovative features of privacy and full anonymity of users and their locations, actions, transactions, and exchanged resources. In this paper we describe design, implementation, and use of the system.

  14. Deindividuation, anonymity, and violence: findings from Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silke, Andrew

    2003-08-01

    The author examined the relation between anonymity and aggression in violent interpersonal assaults that occurred in Northern Ireland. Of the 500 violent attacks that the author studied, 206 were carried out by offenders who wore disguises to mask their identities. The findings revealed that significant positive relationships existed between the use of disguises and several measures of aggression. Disguised offenders inflicted more serious physical injuries, attacked more people at the scene, engaged in more acts of vandalism, and were more likely to threaten victims after the attacks. The author discussed these results within the framework of deindividuation theory. PMID:12934837

  15. Quantum anonymous ranking based on the Chinese remainder theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient quantum anonymous ranking protocol with single particles is proposed. A semitrusted server is introduced to help multiple users achieve this secure task. At the end of the protocol, each user can obtain the rankings of his private data, and keep these data secret. The Chinese remainder theorem is utilized to reduce the level of signal particles and to improve the efficiency of the presented protocol. Meanwhile, a secret transmission order of the signal particles is used to keep the traveling particles secure. Finally, we discuss the security of this protocol and prove it to be secure against certain common attacks under ideal conditions.

  16. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)

  17. The end of donor anonymity: how genetic testing is likely to drive anonymous gamete donation out of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Kennett, Debbie; Reisel, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Thousands of people worldwide have been conceived using donor gametes, but not all parents tell their children of their origin. Several countries now allow donor-conceived offspring to potentially know their genetic parent if they are informed of their donor-conceived status. At the same time, personal genetic testing is a rapidly expanding field. Over 3 million people have already used direct-to-consumer genetic testing to find information about their ancestry, and many are participating in international genetic genealogy databases that will match them with relatives. The increased prevalence of these technologies poses numerous challenges to the current practice of gamete donation. (i) Whether they are donating in a country that practices anonymous donation or not, donors should be informed that their anonymity is not guaranteed, as they may be traced if their DNA, or that of a relative, is added to a database. (ii) Donor-conceived adults who have not been informed of their status may find out that they are donor-conceived. (iii) Parents using donor conception need to be fully informed that their children's DNA will identify that they are not the biological parents and they should be encouraged to disclose the use of donor gametes to their children. Together, these concerns make urgent a wide-ranging societal conversation about how to best safeguard and promote the interests of donor-conceived offspring and protect the rights of donors. Specifically, there is a need to ensure that new genetic information is communicated in a way that promotes both the safety and the privacy rights of offspring and donors alike. All parties concerned must be aware that, in 2016, donor anonymity does not exist. PMID:27073260

  18. Social Defeat Stress Produces Prolonged Alterations in Acoustic Startle and Body Weight Gain in Male Long Evans Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pulliam, John V.K.; Dawaghreh, Ahmad M.; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Plotsky, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals exposed to psychological stressors may experience a long-term resetting of behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of their “stress response” so that they either hyper or hypo-respond to subsequent stressors. These effects of psychological or traumatic stressors may be mimicked in rats using the resident-intruder model of social defeat.

  19. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  20. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  1. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  2. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  3. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought. PMID:22908618

  4. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  5. IdentiDroid: Android can finally Wear its Anonymous Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Shebaro

    2014-04-01

    from applications when the smartphone is used under the anonymous modality. They are re-instated back when the smartphone returns to work in the normal modality. In addition, both solutions offer protection from applications that identify their users through traces left in the application's data storage or through exchanging identifying data messages. We developed IdentiDroid, a customized Android operating system, to deploy these solutions and built IdentiDroid Profile Manager, a profile-based configuration tool that allows one to set different configurations for each installed Android application. With this tool, applications running within the same device are configured to be given different identifications and privileges to limit the uniqueness of device and user information. We analyzed 250 Android applications to determine what information, services, and permissions can identify users and devices. Our experiments show that when IdentiDroid is deployed and properly configured on Android devices, users' anonymity is better guaranteed by either of the proposed solutions with no significant impact on most device applications.

  6. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  7. Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Intercommunication in the Internet of Things Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Youngseok Chung; Seokjin Choi; Dongho Won

    2015-01-01

    Authentication and privacy protection are important security mechanisms for keeping things safe in the Internet of Things environments. In particular, an anonymous authentication scheme is a privacy preserving authentication technique which provides both authentication and privacy preservation. An authentication scheme with anonymity in mobility networks was proposed recently. However, it was proven that it failed to provide anonymity against passive adversaries and malicious users and securi...

  8. AIB-OR: Improving Onion Routing Circuit Construction Using Anonymous Identity-Based Cryptosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first p...

  9. A Self-Encryption Remote User Anonymous Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang

    2006-01-01

    Remote user authentication is essential in distributed network environment to protect unauthorized access of a networked system. However, most of those existing remote user authentication schemes have not provided the user identity anonymity, while user anonymity is particularly important in some practical applications.Therefore, based on self-encryption mechanism, a new remote user authentication scheme was proposed. The scheme not only has no need of maintaining a password table at the remote server, but also can protect the user's anonymity.

  10. ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking Application

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Steven; Tsudik, Gene; Uzun, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Content-centric networking -- also known as information-centric networking (ICN) -- shifts emphasis from hosts and interfaces (as in today's Internet) to data. Named data becomes addressable and routable, while locations that currently store that data become irrelevant to applications. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a large collaborative research effort that exemplifies the content-centric approach to networking. NDN has some innate privacy-friendly features, such as lack of source and destination addresses on packets. However, as discussed in this paper, NDN architecture prompts some privacy concerns mainly stemming from the semantic richness of names. We examine privacy-relevant characteristics of NDN and present an initial attempt to achieve communication privacy. Specifically, we design an NDN add-on tool, called ANDaNA, that borrows a number of features from Tor. As we demonstrate via experiments, it provides comparable anonymity with lower relative overhead.

  11. Protecting whistle-blowers: Anonymity on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though strict legislation exists in many countries, it appears that the next few years should be a golden opportunity for groups to successfully monitor and publish the activity of the nuclear states, and human right violations through use of the Internet. The reasons for this are: 1. The Internet is becoming widespread even in repressive regimes; 2. Software is available to either hide messages from others or hide the mailers account; 3. Information from sites in other countries can be easily obtained to be read inside repressive regimes from the Internet. In this regard It is suggested the Pugwash or a similar organization should set up either an anonymous account to receive information or maybe use a more heavily protected cyperpunk remailer. Such an ability would hopefully prompt more people to notify treaty violations

  12. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  13. Anonymity, ethics and credibility in the blogosphere and on Twitter: gastronomic criticism in “Alhos, passas & maçãs” and in @carapuceiro

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Maria do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    This article intends to understand the anonymous restaurant critic currently made on the Internet, based on the cases of the Alhos, passas & maçãs blog and the @carapuceiro Twitter. Before considered as personal diaries or means of communication among friends, today blogs and social networks have no limits – and, when used to criticize restaurants negatively, its impact reaches unpremeditated boundaries, including reactions of chefs and journalists themselves. At the same time that these tool...

  14. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback. PMID:26879526

  15. Searchable Encryption Revisited: Consistency Properties, Relation to Anonymous IBE, and Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, Michel; Bellare, Mihir; Catalano, Dario; Kiltz, Eike; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Lange, Tanja; Malone-Lee, John; Neven, Gregory; Paillier, Pascal; Shi, Haixia

    computationally consistent, and provide a new scheme that is statistically consistent. We also provide a transform of an anonymous IBE scheme to a secure PEKS scheme that, unlike the previous one, guarantees consistency. Finally we suggest three extensions of the basic notions considered here, namely anonymous...

  16. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  17. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  18. Challenging More Updates: Towards Anonymous Re-publication of Fully Dynamic Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Most existing anonymization work has been done on static datasets, which have no update and need only one-time publication. Recent studies consider anonymizing dynamic datasets with external updates: the datasets are updated with record insertions and/or deletions. This paper addresses a new problem: anonymous re-publication of datasets with internal updates, where the attribute values of each record are dynamically updated. This is an important and challenging problem for attribute values of records are updating frequently in practice and existing methods are unable to deal with such a situation. We initiate a formal study of anonymous re-publication of dynamic datasets with internal updates, and show the invalidation of existing methods. We introduce theoretical definition and analysis of dynamic datasets, and present a general privacy disclosure framework that is applicable to all anonymous re-publication problems. We propose a new counterfeited generalization principle alled m-Distinct to effectively anon...

  19. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  20. Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...

  1. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims. PMID:23924178

  2. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection. PMID:23366349

  3. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  4. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet. PMID:25815879

  5. Anonymous birth law saves babies-optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5 % chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

  6. Enhanced P-Sensitive K-Anonymity Models for Privacy Preserving Data Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxun Sun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Publishing data for analysis from a micro data table containing sensitive attributes, while maintaining individual privacy, is a problem of increasing significance today. The k-anonymity model was proposed for privacy preserving data publication. While focusing on identity disclosure, k-anonymity model fails to protect attribute disclosure to some extent. Many efforts are made to enhance the k-anonymity model recently. In this paper, we propose two new privacy protection models called (p, a-sensitive k-anonymity and (p^{+}, a-sensitive k-anonymity, respectively. Different from previous the p-sensitive k-anonymity model, these new introduced models allow us to release a lot more information without compromising privacy. Moreover, we prove that the (p, a-sensitive and (p^{+}, a-sensitive k-anonymity problems are NP-hard. We also include testing and heuristic generating algorithms to generate desired micro data table. Experimental results show that our introduced model could significantly reduce the privacy breach.

  7. Are 'anonymous' and 'non-directed' prerequisites for living altruistic donation? The views of transplant physicians from France and Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marie-Chantal; Dion-Labrie, Marianne; Hébert, Marie-Josée; Achille, Marie; Doucet, Hubert

    2008-07-01

    It can be argued that living altruistic donors should remain anonymous and should not express preferences in the selection of organ recipients. This study aimed to describe the views of transplant physicians in France and Québec regarding these issues. A total of 27 French and 19 Québec renal transplant physicians took part in individual, semi-directed interviews. Almost all of the physicians agreed that anonymity is mandatory in living altruistic donation (LAD). Regarding the issue of directed donation, most of the French physicians (78%) were opposed to any form of the practice, compared to only a third of their Québec colleagues (32%). We found that these positions were embedded in their respective cultural, legal and social contexts. These results afford a better understanding of these complex issues in two different cultural contexts, and will be useful in the development of international guidelines for LAD. PMID:18406031

  8. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...

  9. Weighted aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  10. Atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 李朝阳; 杨德礼

    2004-01-01

    Atomicity and anonymity are desirable properties for reliable and security e-Cash transaction and the guarantee of the participants' interests. But there are conflicts between these two properties. In this paper, an atomic and anonymous e-Cash transaction protocol with off-line TTP (Trust Third Party) based on the extended CEMBS is presented. The novel protocol is analyzed for its atomicity and anonymity. The results of the analysis show that it not only provides atomicity and anonymity under unreliable communication and dishonest partici-pants, but also features high efficiency and practicability. The new protocol also avoids transaction from a am-biguous state. Furthermore, it will be referenced often for the application of the atomic e-Cash transaction proto-col.

  11. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  12. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  13. Security analysis and improvement of an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Paik, Juryon

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.'s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2) it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3) it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.'s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme. PMID:25302330

  14. Public Forum Help Seeking: the Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Public Forum Help Seeking: The Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behaviour David J. Barnes Published in Computer Based Learning in Science '99, Editor Graham M. Chapman, ISBN 80-7042-144-4. Conference Proceedings of CBLIS '99, Twente University, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2nd July - 6th July 1999. Abstract We investigate the impact of providing anonymity to a group of undergraduate Computing students, in order to encourage them to seek help for course related questions. We...

  15. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Younsung Choi; Junghyun Nam; Donghoon Lee; Jiye Kim; Jaewook Jung; Dongho Won

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register man...

  16. The Impact of anonymity in elicitation of brand associations : theoretical and empirical developments

    OpenAIRE

    Supphellen, Magne

    1998-01-01

    Effective brand management requires a thorough understanding of the consumer. In particular, managers need to know which associations consumers have for their brands. In this study, we address the role of anonymity in interviews designed to elicit brand associations from consumers' memories. First, the concept of anonymity is examined in order to arrive at a useful definition. Based on a review ofpotential psychological motives for response distortion and a review of the nature...

  17. 4chan and /b/: An Analysis of Anonymity and Ephemerality in a Large Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Michael; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés; Harry, Drew; André, Paul; Panovich, Katrina; Vargas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies of online ephemerality and anonymity based on the popular discussion board /b/ at 4chan.org: a website with over 7 million users that plays an influential role in Internet culture. Although researchers and practitioners often assume that user identity and data permanence are central tools in the design of online communities, we explore how /b/ succeeds despite being almost entirely anonymous and extremely ephemeral. We begin by describing /b/ and performing a content an...

  18. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    OpenAIRE

    Bodó, B.

    2015-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the...

  19. A secure and effective anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei ZHAO; Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Mun et al. analyzed Wu et al.'s authentication scheme and proposed a enhanced anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility networks. However, through careful analysis, we find that Mun et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks and insider attacks, and cannot provide user friendliness, user's anonymity, proper mutual authentication and local verification. To remedy these weaknesses, in this paper we propose a ...

  20. Mesh Technique for Nymble Architecture Sustaining - Secrecy and Security in Anonymizing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    J.Praveen Kumar; B Shyam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, hasbeen limited by users employing this secrecy for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing ne...

  1. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  2. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Li; Jianwei Niu; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Zhibo Wang

    2013-01-01

    We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP), Diffie-Hellman p...

  3. The Efficacy of Overeaters Anonymous in Fostering Abstinence in Binge-Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Kriz, Kerri-Lynn Murphy

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the variables associated with abstinence from binge-eating disorder and Bulimia Nervosa in the twelve-step recovery program of Overeaters Anonymous. The data were gathered through the completion of a survey by 231 active members of Overeaters Anonymous in the Washington metropolitan area. In addition to assessing the demographic composition of the aforementioned population, the variables that were assessed comprise the â toolsâ of Overeaters ...

  4. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  5. Social Norms for Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Park, Jaeok; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Sustaining cooperation among self-interested agents is critical for the proliferation of emerging online social communities, such as online communities formed through social networking services. Providing incentives for cooperation in social communities is particularly challenging because of their unique features: a large population of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, having asymmetric interests, and dynamically joining and leaving the community; operation errors; and low-cost reput...

  6. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  7. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  8. Weight scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hultnäs, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Scaling pulpwood according to its weight for payment purposes is done in many places around the world. In North America, pulpwood is commonly scaled according to its green weight, while in Central Europe the wood is commonly scaled according to its dry weight. In Sweden pulpwood is measured according to its volume. This doctoral thesis aims to study the prerequisites for Sweden to weight scale its pulpwood. Historical observations of the green density plus meteorological data were used...

  9. Re-identification of home addresses from spatial locations anonymized by Gaussian skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassa Christopher A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such versions are available, each can be used to incrementally refine estimates of the original geocoded location. Results We produce multiple anonymized data sets using a single set of addresses and then progressively average the anonymized results related to each address, characterizing the steep decline in distance from the re-identified point to the original location, (and the reduction in privacy. With ten anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a substantial decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.2 km between the estimated, re-identified address and the original address. With fifty anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.1 km. Conclusion We demonstrate that multiple versions of the same data, each anonymized by non-deterministic Gaussian skew, can be used to ascertain original geographic locations. We explore solutions to this problem that include infrastructure to support the safe disclosure of anonymized medical data to prevent inference or re-identification of original address data, and the use of a Markov-process based algorithm to mitigate this risk.

  10. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  11. An Efficient Authentication and Access Control Scheme to Protect Integrity of Anonymous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh S, Asst. Prof. Alok Ranjan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about privacy and security have received greater attention with the rapid growth and public acceptance of the Internet and the pervasive deployment of various network technologies. Anonymous network services is a large field of research and development that steadily continues to grow. Several credential systems have been proposed in which users can authenticate to services anonymously. Various anonymous network are readily available such as tor, i2p these allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. But this provision can be utilized both by the genuine users and misbehaving ones alike. Dishonest users take advantage of anonymity for abusive purpose such as website defacing. The administrators of these websites are unable to blacklist such users since their identity is not known. As a result they block the complete network using onion routing to ensure protection to their servers denying anonymous access to genuine and dishonest users alike. To surmount this problem, assuming a tor environment a credential system is proposed which enables the system administrators to detect any malicious activity and further block the malicious user continuing un-interrupted access to genuine users

  12. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  13. 可追踪的匿名证书%The Traceable Anonymous Certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the traceable anonymous certificate, and analyzes the proposed traceable anonymous certificate is⁃suing and tracing protocol in detail, the traceable anonymous certificate should possess two core characteristics: anonymity and non-repudiation, the two features ensure that users can prove the identity himself but without revealing his true identity, this certificate can be used to provide anonymous service in network application.%该文介绍了可追踪匿名证书,并对提出的可追踪匿名证书的发布和追踪协议进行了详细的分析,可追踪匿名证书应该具有匿名性和不可否认性两个核心特点,这两个特点保证了用户可以在不泄露自己的真实身份的情况下来证明用户的身份,这样的证书可以被用于需要提供匿名服务的网络应用中。

  14. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  15. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated. Such an......Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identified various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor that...

  16. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in speciWc contexts, and many times they need to be activated. Such an......Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view......, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor that...

  17. Achieving k-anonymity Using Improved Greedy Heuristics for Very Large Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korra Sathya Babu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in data storage, data collection and inference techniques have enabled the creation of huge databases of personal information. Dissemination of information from such databases - even if formally anonymised, creates a serious threat to individual privacy through statistical disclosure. One of the key methods developed to limit statistical disclosure risk is k-anonymity. Several methods have been proposed to enforce k-anonymity notably Samarati's algorithm and Sweeney's Datafly, which both adhere to full domain generalisation. Such methods require a trade off between computing time and information loss. This paper describes an improved greedy heuristic for enforcing k-anonymity with full domain generalisation. The improved greedy algorithm was compared with the original methods. Metrics like information loss, computing time and level of generalisation were deployed for comparison. Results show that the improved greedy algorithm maintains a better balance between computing time and information loss.

  18. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  19. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  20. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  1. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  2. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  3. Weighted Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clusteringproblem, considering clustering tasks in which differentinstances may have different weights.We conduct the firstextensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighteddata on standard clustering algorithms in both the partitionaland hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions underwhich algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent frameworkfor clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitiveproperties that...

  4. Comparison of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Systems - Practical Usage and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ries, Thorsten; Panchenko, Andriy; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The most popular system for providing practical low-latency anonymity on the Internet is Tor. However, many other tools besides Tor exist as both free and commercial solutions. In this paper, we consider five most popular low-latency anonymisation services that represent the current state of the art: single-hop proxies (Perfect Privacy and free proxies) and Onion Routing based solutions (Tor, I2P, and Jon-Donym). We assess their usability and rank them in regard to their anonymity. We also as...

  5. Online political discussions tend to be less civil when the participants are anonymous

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Despite the internet’s unlimited potential in informing, engaging, and empowering citizens, it is all too often used as a forum for foul-tempered arguments behind a veil of anonymity, with obvious repercussions for our democracy. Drawing on a study of the content of comments left by readers of the Washington Post online, Ian Rowe argues that it is anonymity that is often to blame, and that the more accountable model used by Facebook holds hope for a more civil online political ...

  6. Open Access and Database Anonymization an Open Source Procedure Based on an Italian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leschiutta, Luca; Futia, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The only method, believed to be compliant to privacy laws, to open a database that contains personal data is anonymization. This work is focused on a car accidents database case study and on the Italian DP law. Database anonymization is described from a procedural point of view and it is explained how it is possible to complete the whole process relying solely on widespread open-source software applications. The proposed approach is empirical and is founded on the letter of the Italian privac...

  7. Efficient Anonymous Authentication Protocol Using Key-Insulated Signature Scheme for Secure VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngho; Sur, Chul; Jung, Chae Duk; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In this paper, we propose an efficient authentication protocol with conditional privacy preservation for secure vehicular communications. The proposed protocol follows the system model to issue on-the-fly anonymous public key certificates to vehicles by road-side units. In order to design an efficient message authentication protocol, we consider a key-insulated signature scheme for certifying anonymous public keys of vehicles to such a system model. We demonstrate experimental results to confirm that the proposed protocol has better performance than other protocols based on group signature schemes.

  8. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the......40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory....

  9. Weight and age at menarche.

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, O; Peckham, C S; Moynihan, C.

    1989-01-01

    In the National Child Development Study (1958 cohort) information on their age at menarche and their weights and heights measured at 7, 11, and 16 years was available for 4427 girls. The distribution of age at menarche was not influenced by social class. Weight adjusted for height did not play an important part in the timing of sexual maturation of the girls in the study. Relative weight (weight expressed as a percentage of standard weight) at the ages of 7 and 11 years explained only 3.2%, a...

  10. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents : a cross-national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tynjälä Jorma; Villberg Jari; Currie Candace; Välimaa Raili; Vereecken Carine; Ojala Kristiina; Kannas Lasse

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. T...

  11. What's in a Name? Some Reflections on the Sociology of Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Gary T.

    1999-01-01

    Presents seven types of identity knowledge. Identifies major rationales and contexts for anonymity and identifiability and suggests a principle which holds that those who use pseudonyms on the Internet in personal communications are obliged to indicate they are doing so. Suggests 13 procedural questions to guide the development and assessment of…

  12. Mesh Technique for Nymble Architecture Sustaining - Secrecy and Security in Anonymizing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Praveen Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, hasbeen limited by users employing this secrecy for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. As a result, administrators block all known exit nodes of anonymizing networks, denying secrecy access to misbehaving and behaving users alike. To address this problem, present Nymble, a system in which servers can “blacklist”misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without compromising their anonymity. Our system is thus agnostic to different servers’ definitions of misbehavior servers can blacklist user’s .by using of Mesh technique. Which has been completely blocked by several services because of users who abuse their secrecy and providing security with MD5 algorithm

  13. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  14. Improvement of the security of quantum protocols for anonymous voting and surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Several quantum protocols were proposed in a recent paper by Vaccaro,Spring and Chefles for ensuring the anonymous voting in a number of different scenarios.However,it is shown that their protocols are very vulnerable in terms of security.Improved schemes are also presented to recover the security.

  15. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  16. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  17. Leadership Style, Anonymity, and Creativity in Group Decision Support Systems: The Mediating Role of Optimal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Kahai, Surinder S.; Avolio, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 159 undergraduates found that flow (a psychological state characterized by concentration, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) mediated effects of leadership style on creativity in a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) context, and that its role may be moderated by anonymity. Results also indicated that both flow and anonymity…

  18. Anonymity in giving in a natural context - a field experiment in 30 churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR

    2005-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in 30 Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either 'closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When usi

  19. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  20. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Burghardt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper studies this tradeoff systematically. To this end, we implement an algorithm for the anonymization of search histories which is flexible regarding the target function. It can retain frequent terms or terms where corresponding ads are clicked with a high probability, keep up the number of users it can derive interests for, etc. We quantify the usefulness of the anonymized log for ad placement in a broad way, e.g., by estimating the number of ad clicks or of ad impressions, based on marketing data from Yahoo! As a result, anonymized search logs are still useful for ad placement, but this very much depends on the target function.

  1. Reconsiderations: Anonymity and Violence--Jane Tompkins's "Fighting Words" Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In her influential 1988 essay, "Fighting Words," Jane Tompkins argued that the arguments typically made by literary critics are characterized by an aggressive competitiveness that amounts to violence. But, as Tompkins's own rhetorical strategies demonstrate, at least as deplorable are the practices whereby critics render certain people anonymous.…

  2. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  3. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  4. Understanding the Role of Storytelling in the Transformation of Female Cocaine Addicts in Narcotics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Melissa Weida

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the role of storytelling in the transformation of female cocaine addicts in Narcotics Anonymous. For this research the primary investigator utilized a theoretical orientation of transformative learning theory and storytelling. The rationale for employing transformative learning theory is that…

  5. Evolutionary approach to violating group anonymity using third-party data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavrov, Dan; Chertov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    In the era of Big Data, it is almost impossible to completely restrict access to primary non-aggregated statistical data. However, risk of violating privacy of individual respondents and groups of respondents by analyzing primary data has not been reduced. There is a need in developing subtler methods of data protection to come to grips with these challenges. In some cases, individual and group privacy can be easily violated, because the primary data contain attributes that uniquely identify individuals and groups thereof. Removing such attributes from the dataset is a crude solution and does not guarantee complete privacy. In the field of providing individual data anonymity, this problem has been widely recognized, and various methods have been proposed to solve it. In the current work, we demonstrate that it is possible to violate group anonymity as well, even if those attributes that uniquely identify the group are removed. As it turns out, it is possible to use third-party data to build a fuzzy model of a group. Typically, such a model comes in a form of a set of fuzzy rules, which can be used to determine membership grades of respondents in the group with a level of certainty sufficient to violate group anonymity. In the work, we introduce an evolutionary computing based method to build such a model. We also discuss a memetic approach to protecting the data from group anonymity violation in this case. PMID:26844025

  6. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  7. Anonymity to Promote Peer Feedback: Pre-Service Teachers' Comments in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Craig D.; Barrett, Andrew F.; Frick, Theodore W.

    2010-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental case study, we compared five sections of a basic undergraduate technology course. Within an asynchronous web forum, pre-service teachers wrote short critiques of websites designed by their classmates. This peer feedback was provided anonymously by students in two classes (n = 35) whereas providers and recipients of peer…

  8. Medical Relabeling in Gamblers Anonymous: The Construction of an Ideal Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David N.; Saunders, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Observed 2 Gamblers Anonymous (GA) groups in South Wales over a 12-month period. Determined 2 broad consequences arose from encountering fellow sufferers: acceptance of diagnosis and commitment to recovery and to will of GA, or rejection of the diagnosis with the knowledge that they are returning to the outside world with a reconstituted…

  9. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  10. Anonymous Multi-Receiver Identity-Based Authenticated Encryption with CCA Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-receiver encryption system, a sender chooses a set of authorized receivers and sends them a message securely and efficiently, as the message is well encrypted and only one ciphertext corresponding to the message is generated no matter how many receivers the sender has chosen. It can be applied to video conferencing systems, pay-per-view channels, remote education, and so forth. Due to privacy considerations, an authorized receiver may not expect that his identity is revealed. In 2010, anonymous multi-receiver identity-based (ID-based encryption was first discussed, and furthermore, many works on the topic have been presented so far. Unfortunately, we find that all of those schemes fail to prove the chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security in either confidentiality or anonymity. In this manuscript, we propose the first anonymous multi-receiver ID-based authenticated encryption scheme with CCA security in both confidentiality and anonymity. In the proposed scheme, the identity of the sender of a ciphertext can be authenticated by the receivers after a successful decryption. In addition, the proposed scheme also is the first CCA-secure one against insider attacks. Moreover, only one pairing computation is required in decryption.

  11. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  12. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  13. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  14. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  15. Adolescents' reply intent for sexual disclosure in cyberspace: gender differences and effects of anonymity and topic intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the effects of anonymity and topic intimacy on adolescents' reply intent for cyber partners' sexual disclosure on the Internet. Two hundred thirty-seven Taiwanese adolescents with sexual self-disclosure experiences on the Internet participated in an experimental study. Regardless of anonymity and topic intimacy, male adolescents were more willing than females to respond to cyber friends' sexual disclosure. The higher the anonymity was, the higher the reply intent for sexual self-disclosure. Participants exhibited higher reply intent when cyber friends self-disclosed sexual topics with higher intimacy. However, the effect of topic intimacy was moderated by anonymity. Topic intimacy displayed prominent influence on adolescents' reply intent in responding to cyber friends' sexual disclosure only when their disclosing condition was under moderate and high anonymity. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17927545

  16. Correlated Equilibrium, Confirmity and Stereotyping in Social Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna Wooders; Edward Cartwright

    2012-01-01

    We argue that a social norm and the coordination of behavior within social groups can be expressed by a correlated equilibrium. Given a social group structure (a partition of individuals into social groups), we propose four conditions that one may expect of a correlated equilibrium consistent with social norms. These are: (a) within-group anonymity (conformity within groups), (b) group independence (no conformity between groups), (c) homophily (individuals in the same group have similar attri...

  17. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  18. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  19. Toward Trusted Sharing of Network Packet Traces Using Anonymization: Single-Field Privacy/Analysis Tradeoffs

    CERN Document Server

    Yurcik, William; Hellings, Greg; Khan, Latifur; Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2007-01-01

    Network data needs to be shared for distributed security analysis. Anonymization of network data for sharing sets up a fundamental tradeoff between privacy protection versus security analysis capability. This privacy/analysis tradeoff has been acknowledged by many researchers but this is the first paper to provide empirical measurements to characterize the privacy/analysis tradeoff for an enterprise dataset. Specifically we perform anonymization options on single-fields within network packet traces and then make measurements using intrusion detection system alarms as a proxy for security analysis capability. Our results show: (1) two fields have a zero sum tradeoff (more privacy lessens security analysis and vice versa) and (2) eight fields have a more complex tradeoff (that is not zero sum) in which both privacy and analysis can both be simultaneously accomplished.

  20. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs. PMID:25352490

  1. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.

  2. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu

    2006-01-01

    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  3. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs. PMID:24481718

  4. Targeted and anonymized smartphone-based public health interventions in a participatory sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Public health interventions comprising information dissemination to affect behavioral adjustment have long been a significant component of public health campaigns. However, there has been limited development of public health intervention systems to make use of advances in mobile computing and telecommunications technologies. Such developments pose significant challenges to privacy and security where potentially sensitive data may be collected. In our previous work we identified and demonstrated the feasibility of using mobile devices as anonymous public health data collection devices as part of a Health Participatory Sensing Network (HPSN). An advanced capability of these networks extended in this paper would be the ability to distribute, apply, report on and analyze the usage and effectiveness of targeted public health interventions in an anonymous way. In this paper we describe such a platform, its place in the HPSN and demonstrate its feasibility through an implementation. PMID:25570789

  5. Anonymous Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Scheme for Telecare Medical Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Dong, Na; Wong, Duncan S.

    2014-01-01

    Telecare Medical Information Systems (TMIS) provide an effective way to enhance the medical process between doctors, nurses and patients. For enhancing the security and privacy of TMIS, it is important while challenging to enhance the TMIS so that a patient and a doctor can perform mutual authentication and session key establishment using a third-party medical server while the privacy of the patient can be ensured. In this paper, we propose an anonymous three-party password-authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocol for TMIS. The protocol is based on the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem. For security, we apply the pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our 3PAKE protocol for TMIS can provide anonymity for patient and doctor while at the same time achieves mutual authentication and session key security. The proposed scheme is secure and efficient, and can be used in TMIS. PMID:25047235

  6. The Comparative Study of Coping Styles and Hope among Narcotic Anonymous and Methadone Maintenance Treatment Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Beygi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcotic Anonymous (NA, and related 12-steps program have predominant influence on drug abuse treatment programs. The aim of this study was to compare coping styles and hope among Narcotic Anonymous and Methadone Maintenance Treatment members. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 100 male (50: NA, 50: MMT. Age: 20-40, minimal clean: 6 mounth, from Shahrood city completed coping styles scale, and hope scale. Findings: Results showed that Mean scores of Agency thinkig, Task-oriented copig style, and Avoidance-oriented coping style, in NA members was significantly high, from MMT members. Also, results of Discriminant Analisis showed that comparative differences between this samples were highlited in compound of variables. Conclusion: It seems that actively attendance in NA may enhances effective Coping style and hope.

  7. NETWORK CODING COMBINED WITH ONION ROUTING FOR ANONYMOUS AND SECURE COMMUNICATION IN A WIRELESS MESH NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel scheme that provides high level of security and privacy in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN. We combine an approach of Network Coding with multiple layered encryption of onion routing for a WMN. An added superior feature provides higher level of security and privacy. Sensitive network information is confined to 1-hop neighborhood which is available anyways in a wireless medium with nodes using a bivariate polynomial. The only routing information divulged to a relay node is about next hop. No plain text is ever transmitted and all data can only be decrypted by its source and destination. Prior work finds it difficult to enforce encryption with network coding without divulging in complete routing information,hence losing privacy and anonymity. We compare our scheme with other existing approach for several networks. The preliminary results show this work to provide superior security and anonymity at low overhead cost

  8. 一种基于SPKI的匿名支付方案%An Anonymous Payment Scheme Based on SPKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆生; 李唯唯; 王茜; 傅鹤岗

    2003-01-01

    SPKI is a proposed standard for public-key certificates. One important property of SPKI is that SPKI is key-oriented rather than name-oriented, and the public-key is globally unique. In this paper we propose an anonymous paymentscheme based on SPKI aiming at the problem of anonymous payment in B2C e-commerce. In the scheme we use the key-oriented characteristic of SPKI to link the public key to the account, and use authorization certificates to pay. The scheme achieves the anonymity very well.

  9. Why are they hiding ? Study of an Anonymous File Sharing System

    OpenAIRE

    Cunche, Mathieu; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Chen, Terence; Boreli, Roksana; Mahanti, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper characterizes a recently proposed anonymous file sharing system, OneSwarm. This characterisation is based on measurement of several aspects of the OneSwarm system such as the nature of the shared and searched content and the geolocation and number of users. Our findings indicate that, as opposed to common belief, there is no significant difference in downloaded content between this system and the classical BitTorrent ecosystem. We also found that a majorit...

  10. Compliance or Obscurity? Online Anonymity as a Consequence of Fighting Unauthorised File-sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns

    2010-01-01

    The European Union directive on Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement (IPRED) was implemented in Sweden on April 1, 2009, and was meant to be the enforcement needed to achieve increased compliance with intellectual property online, especially copyright. This, therefore, was the manifest function of the directive. The article empirically shows changes in levels of use of Online Anonymity Services (OAS) as a result of the implementation of IPRED in Sweden, as being a latent dysfunction of th...

  11. Verifying Public Keys without Trust: How Anonymity Can Guarantee Data Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Lachlan J.; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Despite the inroads that public-key cryptography has made on the web, the difficulty of key management has for the most part kept it out of the hands of the general public. With key-distribution software for PGP beginning to natively support the anonymizing service Tor, we describe a protocol to take advantage of this, allowing users and identity holders to detect malicious keyservers with an known and arbitrarily small probability of failure, allowing users to safely exchange public keys acr...

  12. Double-blind in light of the internet: A note on author anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the credibility of author anonymity that is provided by a double-blind review process. It is argued that authors have strong incentives to disseminate information about their papers before publication. A sample from two economics journals, both using double-blind review processes, provides evidence that author-revealing information of most accepted papers is available on the Internet before the review process is finished. The difficulty and cost of identifying authors of u...

  13. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira; José Renato Gaziero Cella

    2015-01-01

    The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be reth...

  14. 7-year trajectories of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and associations with treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; AVALOS, Lyndsay AMMON

    2009-01-01

    Although many members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are introduced to AA during treatment, the relationship between treatment and AA attendance over time is unknown. This paper describes four latent classes of AA attendance among 586 dependent alcoholics interviewed by telephone 1, 3, 5 and 7 years after baseline, and models the relationship between treatment exposure and AA attendance in each class. There was a low AA group (averaging fewer than 5 meetings at most follow-ups), a medium AA gro...

  15. A Comparison of the Effects of K-Anonymity on Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden Wimmer; Loreen Powell

    2014-01-01

    While research has been conducted in machine learning algorithms and in privacy preserving in data mining (PPDM), a gap in the literature exists which combines the aforementioned areas to determine how PPDM affects common machine learning algorithms. The aim of this research is to narrow this literature gap by investigating how a common PPDM algorithm, K-Anonymity, affects common machine learning and data mining algorithms, namely neural networks, logistic regression, decision trees, and Baye...

  16. Robust ``pro-poorest'' poverty reduction with counting measures: the non-anonymous case

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Gallegos; Gaston Yalonetzky

    2014-01-01

    When measuring poverty with counting measures, are there conditions ensuring that poverty reduction not only reduces the average poverty score further but also decreases deprivation inequality among the poor more, thereby emphasizing improvements among the poorest of the poor? In the case of a non-anonymous assessment, i.e. when we can track poverty experiences of the same individuals or households using panel datasets, we derive three conditions whose fulfillment allows us to conclude that m...

  17. Robust ``pro-poorest'' poverty reduction with counting measures: The anonymous case

    OpenAIRE

    José V. Gallegos; Gaston Yalonetzky

    2015-01-01

    When measuring poverty with counting measures, it is worth inquiring into the conditions prompting poverty reduction which not only reduce the average poverty score further but also decrease deprivation inequality among the poor, thereby emphasizing improvements among the poorest of the poor. For comparisons of cross-sectional datasets of the same society in different periods of time (i.e. an anonymous assessment), Lasso de la Vega (2010) and Alkire and Foster (2011) developed a first-order d...

  18. Gender and Generosity: Does Degree of Anonymity or Group Gender Composition Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    C. Bram Cadsby; Maroš Servátka; Fei Song

    2009-01-01

    Employing a two-by-two factorial design that manipulates whether dictator groups are single or mixed-sex and whether procedures are single or double-blind, we examine gender effects in a standard dictator game. No gender effects were found in any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, neither single- versus mixed-sex groups nor level of anonymity had any impact on either male or female behavior.

  19. Anonymity, Reciprocity, and Conformity: Evidence from Voluntary Contributions to a National Park in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpizar, Francisco; Carlson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity for voluntary contributions, based on a natural field experiment conducted at a national park in Costa Rica. Contributions made in public in front of the solicitor were 25 percent higher than contributions made in private. Giving subjects a small gift before requesting a contribution increased the likelihood of a positive contribution. At the same time, however, the conditional contribution decreased. The total effect of givin...

  20. Decentralized Formation Control for Small-Scale Robot Teams with Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geunho; Nak Young, Chong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents decentralized formation controls for a team of anonymous mobile robots performing a task through cooperation. Robot teams are required to generate and maintain various geometric patterns adapting to environmental changes in many cooperative robotics applications. In particular, all robots must continue to strive toward achieving the team’s mission even if some members fail to perform their role. Toward this end, formation control approaches are proposed under the condition...

  1. Tourism and spaces of anonymity: An Israeli lesbian woman's travel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Yaniv

    2006-01-01

    This study examines an Israeli lesbian woman's travel experience based on the analysis of her published diary. The comparison of her experience and attitudes towards various spaces (e.g. her apartment, open spaces near her home, and locations in which she is involved in tourist activity) suggests that her perception of the space as 'free from people she knows' allows her and her partner to benefit from anonymity, live a lesbian lifestyle and benefit from sense of existential...

  2. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When using baskets, attendants' contributions can be identified by their direct neighbors, and attendants can observe the total amount given by the people who preceded them. Initially, contributions to...

  3. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addi...

  4. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Re-Identification of Home Addresses from Spatial Locations Anonymized by Gaussian Skew

    OpenAIRE

    Cassa Christopher A; Wieland Shannon C; Mandl Kenneth D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such...

  6. A new authentication protocol for revocable anonymity in ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Zwierko, Aneta; Kotulski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for authentication in ad-hoc networks. The protocol has been designed to meet specialized requirements of ad-hoc networks, such as lack of direct communication between nodes or requirements for revocable anonymity. At the same time, a ad-hoc authentication protocol must be resistant to spoofing, eavesdropping and playback, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The article analyzes existing authentication methods based on the Public Key Infrastructure, and finds th...

  7. Applying Semigroup Property of Enhanced Chebyshev Polynomials to Anonymous Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Lai; Jinghua Xiao; Lixiang Li; Yixian Yang

    2012-01-01

    We apply semigroup property of enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to present an anonymous authentication protocol. This paper aims at improving security and reducing computational and storage overhead. The proposed scheme not only has much lower computational complexity and cost in the initialization phase but also allows the users to choose their passwords freely. Moreover, it can provide revocation of lost or stolen smart card, which can resist man-in-the-middle attack and off-line dictionary a...

  8. An anonymous reputation mechanism for cloud computing networks using volunteer resources

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Morillo, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    One of the major problems when using non-dedicated volunteer resources in a distributed network is the high volatility of these hosts since they can go offline or become unavailable at any time without control. Furthermore, the use of volunteer resources implies some security issues due to the fact that they are generally anonymous entities which we know nothing about. So, how to trust in someone we do not know?. Over the last years an important number of reputation-based tr...

  9. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  10. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  11. A Model for Spam Prevention in IP Telephony Networks using Anonymous Verifying Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shukla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsolicited emails, more commonly known as spam, have plagued the use and efficiency of email since its inception. With the introduction of ungoverned cheap voice communications, such as IP telephony, spam over telephony (SPIT and its prevention is set to dominate and drive whether the technology is widely adopted or not. A possible example of voice spam schemes includes the use of Interactive Voice Response (IVR systems in conjunction with automated telemarketing sales to repeatedly initiate call setups and fill voicemail boxes. The problem faced is to design a system that allows legitimate voice call establishment while anonymously blocking unwelcome ones. An anonymous approach prevents voice spam by prohibiting spammers from establishing call and do not call lists. In this paper we propose a new model as an extension to a call signalling phase (or call setup phase as a means to prevent unwanted voice spam. In doing so we define a IP telephony “call me back” scheme using an Anonymous Verifying Authority (AVA and Mediator in blocking unsolicited voice calls. We illustrate the use of a “call me back” request in allowing the callee to accept or reject the call. Verification may be based on the callee’s personal call policy thus filtering unsolicited voice spam.

  12. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  13. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  14. A Review on anonymization approach to preserve privacy of Published data through record elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha K. Gayki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing data. Data Privacy is collection of data and dissemination of data. Privacy issues arise in different area such as health care, intellectual property, biological data, financial transaction etc. It is very difficult to protect the data when there is transfer of data. Sensitive information must be protected. There are two kinds of major attacks against privacy namely record linkage and attribute linkage attacks. Research have proposed some methods namely k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness for data privacy. K-anonymity method preserves the privacy against record linkage attack alone. It is unable to prevent address attribute linkage attack. ℓ-diversity method overcomes the drawback of k-anonymity method. But it fails to prevent identity disclosure attack and attribute disclosure attack. t-closeness method preserves the privacy against attribute linkage attack but not identity disclosure attack. A proposed method used to preserve the privacy of individuals sensitive data from record and attribute linkage attacks. In the proposed method, privacy preservation is achieved through generalization by setting range values and through record elimination. A proposed method overcomes the drawback of both record linkage attack and attribute linkage attack.

  15. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  16. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Effects of Weight and Shape Social Comparisons on Women With Eating Pathology, High Body Dissatisfaction, and Low Body Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance comparisons on women’s affect, body satisfaction, and compensatory cognitions and behaviors. Using ecological momentary assessment, women with high body dissatisfaction and eating pathology (EPHB), high body dissatisfaction (HB), or low body dissatisfaction (LB) recorded their reactions to appearance-focused social comparisons. EPHB and HB women made more upward appearance comparisons than LB women. All women experienced neg...

  17. Is it the end for anonymity as we know it? A critical examination of the ethical principle of anonymity in the context of 21st century demands on the qualitative researcher

    OpenAIRE

    Tilley, Liz; Woodthorpe, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Told from the perspective of two UK-based early career researchers, this article is an examination of contemporary challenges posed when dealing with the ethical principle of anonymity in qualitative research, specifically at the point of dissemination. Drawing on their respective doctoral experience and literature exploring the difficulties that can arise from the application of anonymity with regard to historical and geographical contexts, the authors question the applicability of the princ...

  18. Anonymous figures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    Paris : Gallimard, 2009 - (Azoulay, E.), s. 228-231 ISBN 9782070125319. - (Editions Babylone) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Upper Paleolithic * female figurines * Eurasia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. Perceived Barriers to Weight Management in Primary Care—Perspectives of Patients and Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruelaz, Alicia R.; Diefenbach, Pamela; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andy; Arterburn, David; Shekelle, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the consequences of overweight and obesity, effective weight management is not occurring in primary care. Objective To identify beliefs about obesity that act as barriers to weight management in primary care by surveying both patients and providers and comparing their responses. Design Anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered survey of patients and providers of a Veteran’s Administration Primary Care Clinic, distributed at the clinic site. Subjects Forty-eight Internal...

  20. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.; Maurer, Hans H.; Meyer, Markus R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were collected anonymously from urinal and HMMA-d3 and trimipramin-d3 were added as internal standards. Additionally, 12 soil samples were collected near fences where people urinated. Urine samples were processe...

  1. Anonymity, ethics and credibility in the blogosphere and on Twitter: gastronomic criticism in “Alhos, passas & maçãs” and in @carapuceiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria do Amaral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to understand the anonymous restaurant critic currently made on the Internet, based on the cases of the Alhos, passas & maçãs blog and the @carapuceiro Twitter. Before considered as personal diaries or means of communication among friends, today blogs and social networks have no limits – and, when used to criticize restaurants negatively, its impact reaches unpremeditated boundaries, including reactions of chefs and journalists themselves. At the same time that these tools extend the possibilities of subjective comments written by ordinary people, without a degree in journalism, the press loses credibility by choosing to criticize in a courteous way, submitting itself to the invitations sent by press offices and to the “cordial journalism”.

  2. The discussion of anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard%匿名的道德主体与网络行为规范探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟娟

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet era, the human being into a new"network society, the network has gradually exposed more and more problems, anonymous moral subject and network behavior standard has gradually been of concern to the people. Because of the social morality can not fully applied in the virtual world of the Internet, in order to adapt to this gradually step into people's lives, learning new social exchange way, must treat the network moral seriously, and actively promote the progress and development of network morality. The author will from the moral phenomena and conflicts of virtual space, to discuss how to standardize network behavior in the moral subject anonymous environment.%随着网络时代的到来,人类正在走进一个全新的“网络社会”,随之而来的网络中也逐渐暴露出越来越多的问题,匿名的道德主体与网络的行为规范也逐渐被人们所关注。由于当今的社会道德不能够完全的应用于虚拟的网络世界,为适应这一逐渐步进入人们生活的新型社会交流、学习的方式,就必须认真对待网络道德这一问题,积极促进网络道德的进步与发展。下面笔者将从虚拟的空间里发生的道德现象和冲突等问题进行讨论,就如何在道德主体匿名的环境下去规范网络行为加以讨论。

  3. The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra,1 Marla R Rogers2 1Alliance Wellness and Rehabilitation, Moose Jaw, 2College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: Few community-based obesity reduction programs have been evaluated. After 153 community consultations, the City of Moose Jaw, SK, Canada, decided to initiate a free comprehensive program. The initiative included 71 letters of support from the Mayor, every family physician, cardiologist, and internist in the city, and every relevant community group including the Heart and Stroke Foundation, the Canadian Cancer Society, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.Objective: To promote strong adherence while positively influencing a wide range of physical and mental health variables measured through objective assessment or validated surveys.Methods: The only inclusion criterion was that the individuals must be obese adults (body mass index >30 kg/m2. Participants were requested to sign up with a “buddy” who was also obese and identify three family members or friends to sign a social support contract. During the initial 12 weeks, each individual received 60 group exercise sessions, 12 group cognitive behavioral therapy sessions, and 12 group dietary sessions with licensed professionals. During the second 12-week period, maintenance therapy included 12 group exercise sessions (24 weeks in total.Results: To date, 243 people have been referred with 229 starting. Among those who started, 183 completed the program (79.9%, while 15 quit for medical reasons and 31 quit for personal reasons. Mean objective reductions included the following: 31.0 lbs of body fat, 3.9% body fat, 2.9 in from the waist, 2.3 in from the hip, blood cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg (all P<0.000. There were no changes in blood sugar levels. There was also statistically significant differences in aerobic fitness, self-report health, quality of

  4. Patient Perspectives on Sharing Anonymized Personal Health Data Using a Digital System for Dynamic Consent and Research Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Kaye, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic health records are widely acknowledged to provide an important opportunity to anonymize patient-level health care data and collate across populations to support research. Nonetheless, in the wake of public and policy concerns about security and inappropriate use of data, conventional approaches toward data governance may no longer be sufficient to respect and protect individual privacy. One proposed solution to improve transparency and public trust is known as Dynamic Consent, which uses information technology to facilitate a more explicit and accessible opportunity to opt out. In this case, patients can tailor preferences about whom they share their data with and can change their preferences reliably at any time. Furthermore, electronic systems provide opportunities for informing patients about data recipients and the results of research to which their data have contributed. Objective To explore patient perspectives on the use of anonymized health care data for research purposes. To evaluate patient perceptions of a Dynamic Consent model and electronic system to enable and implement ongoing communication and collaboration between patients and researchers. Methods A total of 26 qualitative interviews and three focus groups were conducted that included a video presentation explaining the reuse of anonymized electronic patient records for research. Slides and tablet devices were used to introduce the Dynamic Consent system for discussion. A total of 35 patients with chronic rheumatic disease with varying levels of illness and social deprivation were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic; 5 participants were recruited from a patient and public involvement health research network. Results Patients were supportive of sharing their anonymized electronic patient record for research, but noted a lack of transparency and awareness around the use of data, making it difficult to secure public trust. While there were general concerns about

  5. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability. PMID:24350272

  6. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Thorben Burghardt; Klemens Bohm; Achim Guttmann; Chris Clifton

    2011-01-01

    Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper stu...

  7. Proof-of-Work as Anonymous Micropayment: Rewarding a Tor Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Pustogarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new micropayments scheme which can be used to reward Tor relay operators. Tor clients do not pay Tor relays with electronic cash directly but submit proof of work shares which the relays can resubmit to a crypto-currency mining pool. Relays credit users who submit shares with tickets that can later be used to purchase improved service. Both shares and tickets when sent over Tor circuits are anonymous. The analysis of the crypto-currencies market prices shows that th...

  8. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer. (general)

  9. Photometry of the 'Seyfert Sextet' /VV 115/ and the anonymous galaxy 1558.2 + 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, D. H.; Chincarini, G.

    1976-01-01

    Photometric observations of the Seyfert Sextet (VV 115) are analyzed. Apparent integrated magnitudes are derived relative to the sky brightness, and isophotal maps are given for the field. No evidence for interaction between NGC 6027 and d is found. Luminosity profiles are given for NGC 6027, a, b, and d, with the d profile having been corrected for seeing effects in one dimension. The corrected profile parameters favor the interpretation of d as a highly luminous background galaxy at its cosmological distance. The nearby anonymous galaxy 1558.2 + 2100 is similarly studied, with no clear evidence of photometric peculiarities detected. Its interaction with the Seyfert Sextet appears to be excluded.

  10. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  11. A Location-based Mobile Service utilizing Anonymous Indoor User Location Data : An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hoang Thanh; Thingstad, Trond

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, navigation and location-based services have automatically been integrated into people's lives. The prevalence of devices with GPS-capabilities have exploded since the first device for end-users was presented, and most new smart phones have GPS and Wi-Fi capabilities. New fields such as outdoor and indoor location-based services have come from these opportunities. One area that has not been thoroughly researched is the usage of anonymous location data from indoor position...

  12. Crawling Facebook for Social Network Analysis Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore A.; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo; Provetti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work in the collection and analysis of massive data describing the connections between participants to online social networks. Alternative approaches to social network data collection are defined and evaluated in practice, against the popular Facebook Web site. Thanks to our ad-hoc, privacy-compliant crawlers, two large samples, comprising millions of connections, have been collected; the data is anonymous and organized as an undirected graph. We describe a set of tools that w...

  13. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  14. A user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zuowen

    2014-03-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables the patients gain health monitoring at home and access medical services over internet or mobile networks. In recent years, the schemes based on cryptography have been proposed to address the security and privacy issues in the telecare medicine information systems. However, many schemes are insecure or they have low efficiency. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a three-factor authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems. In this paper, we show that their scheme is vulnerable to the reflection attacks. Furthermore, it fails to provide three-factor security and the user anonymity. We propose a new three-factor authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme provides mutual authentication, server not knowing password and freedom of password, biometric update and three-factor security. Moreover, the new scheme provides the user anonymity. As compared with the previous three-factor authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and practical. PMID:24643750

  15. Improved Anonymization Algorithms for Hiding Sensitive Information in Hybrid Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Mary A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this modern era of computing, information technology revolution has brought drastic changes in the way data are collected for knowledge mining. The data thus collected are of value when it provides relevant knowledge pertaining to the interest of an organization. Therefore, the real challenge lies in converting high dimensional data into knowledge and to use it for the development of the organization. The data that is collected are generally released on internet for research purposes after hiding sensitive information in it and therefore, privacy preservation becomes the key factor for any organization to safeguard the internal data and also the sensitive information. Much research has been carried out in this regard and one of the earliest is the removal of identifiers. However, the chances of re-identification are very high. Techniques like k-anonymity and l-diversity helps in making the records unidentifiable in their own way, but, these techniques are not fully shielded against attacks. In order to overcome the drawbacks of these techniques, we have proposed improved versions of anonymization algorithms. The result analysis show that the proposed algorithms are better when compared to existing algorithms.

  16. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic. PMID:24146334

  17. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Damodaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  18. Stealthy Traffic Analysis of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Using Throughput Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Juen, Joshua; Caesar, Matthew; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity systems such as Tor aim to enable users to communicate in a manner that is untraceable by adversaries that control a small number of machines. To provide efficient service to users, these anonymity systems make full use of forwarding capacity when sending traffic between intermediate relays. In this paper, we show that doing this leaks information about the set of Tor relays in a circuit (path). We present attacks that, with high confidence and based solely on throughput information, can (a) reduce the attacker's uncertainty about the bottleneck relay of any Tor circuit whose throughput can be observed, (b) exactly identify the guard relay(s) of a Tor user when circuit throughput can be observed over multiple connections, and (c) identify whether two concurrent TCP connections belong to the same Tor user, breaking unlinkability. Our attacks are stealthy, and cannot be readily detected by a user or by Tor relays. We validate our attacks using experiments over the live Tor network. We find that the at...

  19. Implementation of Fair-exchange and Anonymous Online E-cash Protocol for E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world of internet, e-commerce is one of the most prominent sectors where user wants to shop and pay online for online products. E-cash is one of these payment methods. In e-cash, every time a unique string is generated for user so that user uses that string to pay for any online product. At the time of online purchasing a trust should be maintain between customers and merchant such that the product price which is going to pay by customer is fair or not, the merchant is indeed genuine to deliver the product after getting online payment or not. Trust issues are resolved by using fair exchange concept at the time of online purchasing. Anonymity is also a major concern; it means that true identity of users must be hidden from merchant. By keeping these issues in mind we proposed a protocol which ensures users anonymity by using e-cash payment method and fair exchange by using off-line TTP which invokes by customer when any dispute occur from merchant side. In this paper, we implement our proposed protocol and also analyze its performance and compare it with other protocol.

  20. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  1. Beyond k-Anonymity: A Decision Theoretic Framework for Assessing Privacy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Lebanon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An important issue any organization or individual has to face when managing data containing sensitive information, is the risk that can be incurred when releasing such data. Even though data may be sanitized before being released, it is still possible for an adversary to reconstruct the original data using additional information thus resulting in privacy violations. To date, however, a systematic approach to quantify such risks is not available. In this paper we develop a framework, based on statistical decision theory, that assesses the relationship between the disclosed data and the resulting privacy risk. We model the problem of deciding which data to disclose, in terms of deciding which disclosure rule to apply to a database. We assess the privacy risk by taking into account both the entity identification and the sensitivity of the disclosed information. Furthermore, we prove that, under some conditions, the estimated privacy risk is an upper bound on the true privacy risk. Finally, we relate our framework with the k-anonymity disclosure method. The proposed framework makes the assumptions behind k-anonymity explicit, quantifies them, and extends them in several natural directions.

  2. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments. PMID:18721101

  3. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winking

    Full Text Available Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006 in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006 and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1 any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations, (2 nothing at all, (3 only zero donations, and (4 and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  4. Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González-Zapata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were

  5. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although the...... methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence that...... subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  6. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems. PMID:15655039

  7. CREATION A MATHEMATICAL MODEL, THAT PROVIDES A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF ANONYMITY IN E-VOTING SYSTEM WITH THE INTEGRITY AND PRIVACY OF TRANSMITTED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  8. Weight self-regulation process in adolescence: the relationship between control weight attitudes, behaviors and body weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi ePich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  9. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  10. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  11. Identity Management and Mental Health Discourse in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly being adopted in health discourse. We examine the role played by identity in supporting discourse on socially stigmatized conditions. Specifically, we focus on mental health communities on reddit. We investigate the characteristics of mental health discourse manifested through reddit's characteristic ‘throwaway’ accounts, which are used as proxies of anonymity. For the purpose, we propose affective, cognitive, social, and linguistic style measures, drawing from li...

  12. Optimal scales in weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Fink, Thomas M A; Caldarelli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of networks characterized by links with heterogeneous intensity or weight suffers from two long-standing problems of arbitrariness. On one hand, the definitions of topological properties introduced for binary graphs can be generalized in non-unique ways to weighted networks. On the other hand, even when a definition is given, there is no natural choice of the (optimal) scale of link intensities (e.g. the money unit in economic networks). Here we show that these two seemingly independent problems can be regarded as intimately related, and propose a common solution to both. Using a formalism that we recently proposed in order to map a weighted network to an ensemble of binary graphs, we introduce an information-theoretic approach leading to the least biased generalization of binary properties to weighted networks, and at the same time fixing the optimal scale of link intensities. We illustrate our method on various social and economic networks.

  13. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Many of these tainted products are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some ... illegal diet products. In addition, FDA maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products. To help ...

  14. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some can also be found on ... use of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, ...

  15. Principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso The main biological and social characteristics of children low birth-weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se as principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso (£ 2.500 g comparado com o de peso normal (> 2.500 através de uma amostra de recém-nascidos admitidos no berçário e nascidos na Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP durante o período de 1 ano. As características individuais do recém-nascido foram avaliadas através das variáveis sexo, cor, medidas antropométricas e condições clínicas. A assistência dispensada ao recém-nascido foi estudada quer sob o ponto de vista quantitativo como qualitativo. As condições sócio-econômicas foram analisadas através da caracterização ao tamanho da família, tipo de união, qualificação da mão de obra, escolaridade e renda. Também foram analisados o comportamento e a atitude das mães dos recém-nascidos quanto à utilização dos recursos de saúde, idade ideal para ter filhos e número ideal de filhos. As principais características médico-sociais identificadas e analisadas neste estudo fornecem elementos para subsidiar o estabelecimento de uma assistência global à gestante.A study was made on the main biological and social characteristics of low birth-weight (£ 2500 g as compared to normal weight (> 2500 g based on a sample of newborn admited to the nursery and born at the "Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo" during the period of one year. The individual characteristics of the new-born were evaluated according to the variables sex, color, anthropometric measures and clinical conditions. Medical care given to new-born was studied not only as to the aspect of quantity but also of quality. Social-economic conditions were analyzed based on the characterization of family size, legal conditions of marriage, man-power qualification, schooling and income. Behavior and attitudes of mothers of the newborn were also analyzed as regards the

  16. Finding God through the Spirituality of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sandoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process which evokes a psychic change sufficient to recover from this disease. Although a relatively new spiritual discipline, the 12 Step program is built upon a foundation of much older and more traditional paths to God including devotion, understanding, service and meditation. Recent research provides insights into the 12 Step program. Specifically, the path of recovery is highlighted by the reduction of resentment and the promotion of forgiveness which are key factors of recovery.

  17. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.

  18. ANONYMIZATION BASED ON NESTED CLUSTERING FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION IN DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Rajalakshmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy Preservation in data mining protects the data from revealing unauthorized extraction of information. Data Anonymization techniques implement this by modifying the data, so that the original values cannot be acquired easily. Perturbation techniques are variedly used which will greatly affect the quality of data,since there is a trade-off between privacy preservation and information loss which will subsequently affect the result of data mining. The method that is proposed in this paper is based on nested clustering of data andperturbation on each cluster. The size of clusters is kept optimal to reduce the information loss. The paper explains the methodology, implementation and results of nested clustering. Various metrics are also provided to explicate that this method overcomes the disadvantages of other perturbation methods.

  19. Suicidal ideation and sex differences in relation to 18 major psychiatric disorders in college and university students: anonymous web-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Hong, Jennifer Y; Gibori, Ron; Blitchington, Timothy F; Krishnan, K Ranga R

    2015-04-01

    College/university students are at high risk for psychiatric disorder and suicide secondary to age, campus stressors, and social pressures. We therefore report frequencies of 18 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision disorders and suicidal ideation (SI) acquired anonymously from a Web site receiving 113,181 visits from more than 1,500 predominantly US colleges/universities. Depression was foremost, followed by social phobia and eating disorders. Substance-related disorders were less frequent than expected. SI occurred in 47.1% of students, with women evidencing somewhat stronger findings than men. SI was more associated with substance, bipolar, and panic disorders than depression. Self-reported emotional volatility exceeded thoughts of self-harm for all disorders. The results support two subtypes of suicide risk: dysphoric premeditators and those primarily angry and/or impulsive. Clinicians and researchers should therefore consider suicide as an independent psychopathological phenomenon that includes emotional volatility as a risk factor and thoroughly evaluate psychiatric disorders potentially conferring greater suicidal propensity than depression. PMID:25784307

  20. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  1. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  2. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  3. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  4. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  5. Social Desirability in Virtual Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Massara; Fabio Ancarani; Michele Costabile; Francesco Ricotta

    2012-01-01

    As virtual worlds and social media in general become important settings for marketing actions, we need to know what is the weight of social norms within such contexts. To what degree can a researcher expect that the answers obtained within a virtual world ¨C ultimately a social network ¨C reflect real opinions and are not inflated by social desirability? Does the social context of an online community induce higher social desirability? This paper investigates whether social desirability is str...

  6. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  7. Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Sandra; Correia, Teresa; Ramos, Elisabete; Fraga, Silvia; Barros, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of young people’s involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. We also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. Methods: We evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys) aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. Information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. Results: T...

  8. Distributed Performance Measurement and Usability Assessment of the Tor Anonymization Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While the Internet increasingly permeates everyday life of individuals around the world, it becomes crucial to prevent unauthorized collection and abuse of personalized information. Internet anonymization software such as Tor is an important instrument to protect online privacy. However, due to the performance overhead caused by Tor, many Internet users refrain from using it. This causes a negative impact on the overall privacy provided by Tor, since it depends on the size of the user community and availability of shared resources. Detailed measurements about the performance of Tor are crucial for solving this issue. This paper presents comparative experiments on Tor latency and throughput for surfing to 500 popular websites from several locations around the world during the period of 28 days. Furthermore, we compare these measurements to critical latency thresholds gathered from web usability research, including our own user studies. Our results indicate that without massive future optimizations of Tor performance, it is unlikely that a larger part of Internet users would adopt it for everyday usage. This leads to fewer resources available to the Tor community than theoretically possible, and increases the exposure of privacy-concerned individuals. Furthermore, this could lead to an adoption barrier of similar privacy-enhancing technologies for a Future Internet.

  9. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful. PMID:18569064

  10. Cool neutral hydrogen in the direction of an anonymous OB association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H I self-absorption is seen in the direction l = 55.06 probably physically associated with an anonymous OB association which has the Cepheid GY Sagittae as a member. The cool H I is in two clouds at least 15 pc in diameter located 3.25 kpc from the Sun. If their temperature is approx. =50 K, the cloud masses are approx. =103 M/sub sun/. The neutral atomic hydrogen clouds are probably warm envelopes surrounding cold molecular cloud cores because CO observations in this region show two molecular clouds nearly coincident with the absorbing H i gas. Since the OB association is only approx. =107 years old, these clouds are likely to be part of the original cloud complex from which the stellar cluster formed. The H i clouds are part of the larger Arecibo survey of self-absorption which suggests that many of the Arecibo clouds are associated with heretofore unidentified star clusters. Even if this is generally not the case, the Arecibo objects have accurate kinematic distances and thus provide a new sample of cool H I clouds whose thermodynamic properties can be studied

  11. OBLIVIOUS TRANSFER WITH ACCESS CONTROL AND IDENTITYBASED ENCRYPTION WITH ANONYMOUS KEY ISSUING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lingling; Zhang Fangguo; Wen Yamin

    2011-01-01

    In ACM'CCS 2009,Camenisch,et al.proposed the Obhvious Transfer with Access Control (AC-OT) in which each item is associated with an attribute set and can only be available,on request,to the users who have all the attributes in the associated set.Namely,AC-OT achieves access control policy for conjunction of attributes.Essentially,the functionality of AC-OT is equivalent to the simplified version that we call AC-OT-SV:for each item,one attribute is associated with it,and it is requested that only the users who possess the associated attribute can obtain the item by queries.On one hand,AC-OT-SV is a special case of AC-OT when there is just one associated attribute with each item.On the other hand,any AC-OT can be realized by an AC-OT-SV.In this paper,we first present a concrete AC-OT-SV protocol which is proved to be secure in the model defined by Camenisch,et al..Then from the protocol,interestingly,a concrete Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) with Anonymous Key Issuing (AKI) is given which is just a direct application to AC-OT-SV.By comparison,we show that the AKI protocol we present is more efficient in communications than that proposed by Chow.

  12. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  13. Private Queries and Trajectory Anonymization: a Dual Perspective on Location Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ghinita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile devices with Internet connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi and global positioning capabilities (e.g., GPS have triggered the widespread development of location-based applications. For instance, users are able to ask queries about points of interest in their proximity. Furthermore, users can act as mobile sensors to monitor traffic flow, or levels of air pollution. However, such applications require users to disclose their locations, which raises serious privacy concerns. With knowledge of user locations, a malicious attacker can infer sensitive information, such as alternative lifestyles or political affiliations. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based services (LBS. Currently, two main LBS use scenarios exist: in the first one, users send location-based queries to an un-trusted server, and the privacy objective is to protect the location of the querying user. In the second setting, a trusted entity, such as a telephone company, gathers large amounts of location data (i.e., trajectory traces and wishes to publish them for data mining (e.g., alleviating traffic congestion. In this case, it is crucial to prevent an adversary from associating trajectories to user identities. In this survey paper, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in location privacy protection from the dual perspective of query privacy and trajectory anonymization. We review the most prominent design choices and technical solutions, and highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  14. [Through her anonymous works, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville, a woman writer and an enlightened chemist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardez, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    Self-taught and polygraph, philanthropist and moralist, Madame Thiroux d'Arconville (1720-1805) published thirty works or so, all of them anonymously. She devoted herself to science, in particular to chemistry, for about ten years. She translated two books from English, improving them with a number of useful notes: Robert Dossie's The Elaboratory laid open and Peter Shaw's Chemical lectures. In the latter book, she added a long preliminary discourse which amounts to a history of applied chemistry to arts. She also carried out the more than 300 experiments on the preservation of meat from putrefaction with the aim to obtain a theory on matter transformation, which was a subject of debate among physiologists and philosophers of her time. Her results were published in 1766 in the Essai pour servir à l'histoire de la putréfaction. From the analysis of her texts, both her large culture and her scientific qualities and ambition can be emphasized. PMID:20481121

  15. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  16. Role of Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein in host-cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Pawan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP is essential for sporozoite motility and for liver cell invasion. TRAP is a type 1 membrane protein that possesses multiple adhesive domains in its extracellular region. Methods Plasmodium falciparum TRAP (PfTRAP and its subdomains were expressed in a mammalian expression system, and eleven different mutants generated to study interaction of PfTRAP with liver cells. Binding studies between HepG2 cell extracts and PfTRAP were performed using co-immunoprecipitation protocols. Results Five different amino acid residues of PfTRAP that are involved in liver cell binding have been identified. These PfTRAP mutants bound to heparin like the wild type PfTRAP thereby suggesting a non-heparin mediated binding of PfTRAP to liver cells. Three Src family proteins -Lyn, Lck and CrkL which interact with PfTRAP are also identified. Liver cell extracts and immunoprecipitated Src family kinases phosphorylated PfTRAP at multiple sites. An analysis of multiple TRAP sequences revealed Src homology 3 domain (SH3 binding motifs. Conclusion Binding of PfTRAP to SH3-domain containing proteins like Src-family kinases and their ability to phosphorylate PfTRAP suggests a novel role for PfTRAP in cell signaling during sporozoite invasion and homing inside the liver cells. These data shed new light on TRAP-liver cell interactions.

  17. Misusability Weight Measure Using Ensemble Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Sakhamuri1 V.Ramachandran 2 Dr.Rupa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assigning a misusability weight to a given dataset is strongly related to the way the data is presented (e.g., tabular data, structured or free text and is domain specific. Therefore, one measure of misusability weight cannot fit all types of data in every domain but it gives a fair idea on how to proceed to handle sensitive data. Previous approaches such as M-score models that consider number of entities, anonymity levels, number of properties and values of properties to estimate misusability value for a data record has better efficiency in deducting record sensitivities. Quality of data, Quantity data, and the distinguishing attributes are vital factors that can influence Mscore. Combined with record ranking and knowledge models prior Approaches used one domain expert for deducting sensitive information. But for better performance and accuracy we propose to use the effect of combining knowledge from several experts (e.g., ensemble of knowledge models. Also we plan to extend the computations of sensitivity level of sensitive attributes to be objectively obtained by using machine learning techniques such as SVM classifier along with expert scoring models. This approach particularly fits the sensitive parameter values to the customer value based on customer activity which is far more efficient compared to face value specification with human involvement. A practical implementation of the proposed system validates our claim.

  18. Survey of robust and resilient social media tools on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Brussee, P. W. G.; Pouwelse, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of robust and resilient social media tools to overcome natural disasters, censorship and Internet kill switches. These social media tools use Android devices to communicate during disasters and aim to overcome attacks on freedom of expression. There is an abundance of projects that aim to provide resilient communication, enhance privacy, and provide anonymity. We focus specifically on the limited set of mature tools with a healthy development community and Internet-depl...

  19. Feasible elimination procedures in social choice : an axiomatic characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg, B.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Feasible elimination procedures (Peleg, 1978) play a central role in constructing social choice functions which have the following property: in the associated game form, for any preference profile there exists a strong Nash equilibrium resulting in the sincere outcome. In this paper we provide an axiomatic characterization of the social choice correspondence resulting from applying feasible elimination procedures. The axioms are anonymity, Maskin monotonicity, and independent blocking.

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...