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Sample records for anomie

  1. Durkheim's Theory of Anomie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen R.

    1974-01-01

    Durkheim's theory of anomie is traced and argued to be a major development that followed the publication of "Suicide." Recognition of anomie as a macrosociological problem rendered it insoluble by Durkeheim's practical-humanistic orientation. In this connection his remedial proposals -- occupational, political, education, and…

  2. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  3. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addict...

  4. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addiction/abuse.

  5. Anomie in the Complex Socium

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia N. Mescheryakova

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the question of what changes should be made in the theory of social anomie, formulated by Emile Durkheim and developed by Robert Merton. This is necessary because modern society has entered a qualitatively new stage in its development and is characterized by the notion of a complex socium. Anomie in a simple socium can be defined as structural. Social system itself creates the conditions in which the destructive behavior is "normal" response to the social situation. Ano...

  6. Anomie in the Complex Socium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Mescheryakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the question of what changes should be made in the theory of social anomie, formulated by Emile Durkheim and developed by Robert Merton. This is necessary because modern society has entered a qualitatively new stage in its development and is characterized by the notion of a complex socium. Anomie in a simple socium can be defined as structural. Social system itself creates the conditions in which the destructive behavior is "normal" response to the social situation. Anomie of modern complex society can be defined as reflexive. Variety of value-normative systems leads to the fact that norms become an act of choice. Decision-making center has shifted to the level of the microcosm. They have become as unpredictable as social life in general.

  7. Marriage and Anomie: A Causal Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 394 married couples is employed to test the possibility of an association between marital satisfaction and personal (attitudinal) anomie. The hypothesis is supported. Conclusions are offered relevant to anomie theory, and to utilization of marital and family phenomena as independent variables in causal explanations of nonfamily events.…

  8. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  9. Social support and anomie: a multilevel analysis of anomie in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqun Cao; Ruohui Zhao; Ling Ren; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2010-08-01

    On the basis of the reasoning of social support theory, the authors examine the macro effect of social support on anomie at the individual level. Data from international surveys have documented wide variation in anomie across nations, but to what extent this variation among nations can be contributed to structural characteristics has not been explored before. Using hierarchical linear modeling techniques to sort out the effects of structural context and personal characteristics on anomie across 31 European and North American nations, the authors test the hypothesis that variation in social support at the national level is inversely related to individuals' sense of anomie. The study results support the hypothesis that structural characteristics of a nation, such as social support and population growth, influence individuals' sense of anomie. At the individual level, the results are consistent with Merton's predictions about anomie and the reasoning of social support theory. Policy implication is discussed within the limitations of data.

  10. THE HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF ANOMIE THEORY IN MODERN CRIMINOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with modern English theories of anomie. They can be used in Russian criminology.  The main goal of article consists in detection of actual theories of anomie and definition of prospects of their use. As modern theories of anomie are poorly submitted in the Russian sociological and criminological literature, the subject of research is actual. This work contains the analysis of opportunities for adoption of modern conceptions of anomie of individual in Russian practice. Durin...

  11. An Empirical Examination of the Anomie Theory of Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between anomie theory, as measured by Srole's Anomie Scale, and self-admitted drug use in an adult population (N=1,449). Bivariate cross-comparison correlations indicated anomie was significantly correlated with several drug variables, but these associations were extremely weak and of little explanatory value.…

  12. Returning to normality: anomie and crime in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun

    2007-02-01

    The current study explored the value change as manifested in the sense of anomie during the 1990s and sources of anomie in contemporary China. The multiple regression analysis found that employment, having children, and satisfaction in life were significantly related to anomie; however, the effect of education was related to anomie in the direction that was inconsistent with what was known in the Western literature. Age had no significant effect on anomie. It is concluded that the crime rates remain relatively low even after many years of dramatic increase, and that China may not be able to maintain its tight control over politics forever.

  13. THE HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF ANOMIE THEORY IN MODERN CRIMINOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modern English theories of anomie. They can be used in Russian criminology.  The main goal of article consists in detection of actual theories of anomie and definition of prospects of their use. As modern theories of anomie are poorly submitted in the Russian sociological and criminological literature, the subject of research is actual. This work contains the analysis of opportunities for adoption of modern conceptions of anomie of individual in Russian practice. During research development of the theory of anomie in the history of sociology was considered. The problem of anomie was admitted actual antique Greece. Anomie which is today concerned with normlessness and related to alienation is associated primarily with the works of Durkheim and Merton. Anomia developed in research by MacIver and Srole as a characteristic of individuals and related to the breakdown of the individual’s sense of attachment to society. Results of theoretical research show that theories of anomie of the personality have the greatest heuristic potential for modern Russian science. Other important conclusion of research is one that the anomie can have some sources of emergence. Further studying of this subject is necessary because English-language theories of anomie contain a set of theoretical and empirical results which can be used in the Russian criminology.

  14. Aspects of quality of life : social anomie in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huschka, Denis; Mau, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    "The concept of anomie is one of the classics of sociological theory. Developed and evolved by scholars such as Emile Durkheim and Robert K. Merton, the concept refers to the absence of clear social norms and values and to a lack of sense of social regulation. However, whereas Merton focused on features of relative deprivation that cause anomie, Durkheim was primarily interested in the link between rapid social change and social anomie. According to the latter, normative regulation is threate...

  15. Social Anomie and Racial Segregation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschka, Denis; Mau, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    The concept of anomie is one of the classics of sociological theory. Developed by scholars such as Emile Durkheim and Robert K. Merton, the concept refers to the absence of clear social norms and values and to a lack of sense of social regulation. However, whereas Merton focused on features of relative deprivation that cause anomie, Durkheim was…

  16. Anomy in Dostoiévski: denial of references

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    Flávio Honório da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reflect about the concept of anomy in Notes from Underground from Dostoievski analyzing the exacerbated individualism, constant dissatisfaction, a ethical and moral vacuum triggered by exercise of the ratio between other elements that can be understood as a social sin. In a theological approach the paper want to draw a parallel between  the anomy as social sin and the consciousness of social sin as open to salvation trough love.Keywords: Anomie, social sin, nihilism, God

  17. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Steven F.; Thome, Helmut; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT) and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talco...

  18. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  19. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  20. Success and anomy of the corporal

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    Larisa Viktorovna Efimova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The success and its anomichny manifestation in modern society becomes object of research of article. The success represents material prosperity and high position of the person in society, but ways of its achievement connected with knowledge, professionalism, working capacity, ability to make decisions and creativity are held back, negatively affecting interpretative practicians of a phenomenon mass consciousness. In the most Russian society the anomichnost of a state in which the dialectic interrelation of its social and individual modes is highlighted is found today. The anomy acts as an indicator of a mismatch of the purposes and standards of life, causing violations traditional, standard правовового, axiological. And individual acts as the most indicative illustration of an anomichnost of the social corporal as a component of modern success. The corporality is located in a discourse sexual today that involves artificial transformations of a body and as a result brings to a body/corporality razjyatiya from the owner. The success anomichnost situation by means of corporal transformations demands revival reflexive, traditional, moral and legal, restrictions manipulative the practician of mass media.

  1. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

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    Richard Rosenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talcott Parsons, we distinguish the “subjective” and “objective” dimensions of institutional dynamics and discuss their interrelationship. We elaborate on the theory’s cultural component with reference to Durkheim’s distinction between “moral” and “egoistic” individualism and propose that a version of the egoistic type characterizes societies in which the economy dominates the institutional structure, anomie is rampant, and levels of violent crime are high. We also offer a heuristic model of IAT that integrates macro- and individual levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss briefly issues for the further theoretical elaboration of this macro-social perspective on violent crime. Specifically, we call attention to the important tasks of explaining the emergence of economic dominance in the institutional balance of power and of formulating an institutional account for distinctive punishment practices, such as the advent of mass incarceration in the United States.

  2. Personality Value Orientations in Terms of Kyrgyzstan Society Anomie

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    Ruslan M. Asanaliyev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available All well-known definitions of an anomy extremely precisely approach to a current state Kyrgyz society. The chosen ways under of subjective and objective circumstances lead to society destabilization. During such periods of social development the developed values and valuable orientations can’t be equal to the existing realities, and new weren't created yet up to the end, exactly in such conditions the anomy and deviant behavior most extend. Today to the country deviant behavior of considerable part of the population embodies the destructive tendencies most dangerous. These tendencies must be studied and analyzed.

  3. Social Change and Anomie: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…

  4. Social Structure, Anomie, and National Levels of Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M; Altheimer, Irshad

    2016-06-01

    Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" seeks to explain how "socio-cultural" influences exert "definite pressures" to engage in non-conformity. Despite having a significant influence, few studies have assessed the degree to which Merton's propositions explain cross-national variation in levels of crime. Using data on national levels of homicide, data from the World Values Survey, and other structural controls, the present study assesses the degree to which deinstitutionalization, demoralization, and blocked opportunity interact to explain crime cross-nationally. Results provide a high degree of support for Merton's assertion that societal types characterized by relatively high levels of materialism and/or demoralization or deinstitutionalization suffer from higher levels of homicide. However, there is less support for Merton's assertion that inequality interacts with various societal patterns of means/ends integration in a meaningful way. Findings and implications for the utility of classical anomie as a general macro-level theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. RELIGIOUS ANOMIE AS THE DEVIATION CATALYST IN THE MODERN SOCIETY

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    Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article features of influence of religion on the individual in the modern society are considered. In the XXI century the religion shows weak ability to execute functions of social control. At the same time the religion remains the major psychological factor which in many respects defines the maintenance of the vital world of individuals. Strengthening of influence of religion as psychological factor allows to study social consequences of this influence. If the classical sociological theory considers religion as a factor certainly constraining an anomy, in modern conditions the religion has rather opposite effect. The Christian religion shows the highest, unrealizable requirements to the individual.As a result of it the individuals strongly subject to influence of Christian values feel ina-bility to correspond to Christian model of ideal human behavior. The variety of religions in the modern society of the western type and conducting interreligious dialogue is other reason of development of religious anomy. The mutual erosion of the valuable and standard bases of each religion turns out to be consequence of this dialogue. In addition, modern society is characterized by essential distinction in understanding individuals of norms and principles of that religion which supporters they are.As for change of functioning of religion as social institute, in this aspect the increasing reorientation of religious institutes of the western society to the market purposes and values is observed. The specified processes in general will lead to increase of deviant behavior due to development of religious anomy.

  6. Want Amid Plenty: Developing and Testing a Cross-National Measure of Anomie

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    John K. Cochran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing researchers trying to empirically test structural or institutional anomie theories is the operationalization of the key concept of anomie. This challenge is heightened by the data constraints involved in cross-national research. As a result, researchers have been forced to rely on surrogate or proxy measures of anomie and indirect tests of the theories. The purpose of this study is to examine an innovative and more theoretically sound measure of anomie and to test its ability to make cross-national predictions of serious crime. Our results are supportive of the efficacy of this construct to explain cross-national variations in crime rates. Nations with the highest rates of structural anomie also have the highest predicted rates of homicide.

  7. Psicología de la anomia Psychology Of Anomie

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    Narciso Benbenaste

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La anomia es un fenómeno que no sólo afecta a la convivencia sino que incide en la calidad de las instituciones y, tal cual lo estudiara el neo-institucionalismo económico, por ende, en las posibilidades del desarrollo económico. Hasta el presente el tratamiento de ese fenómeno proviene, predominantemente, de la vertiente sociológica. En ese sentido, en este trabajo se reconocen aportes de Emile Durkheim y Robert Merton agregando, por la perspicacia de sus observaciones sobre el comportamiento del argentino, precisiones realizadas por Carlos Nino en particular lo que él denominara "anomia boba". Luego, lo que hace al objetivo principal de este trabajo, describimos lo que estimamos es la configuración psicológica básica de una población en que la anomia no es percibida como disvalor.The anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects the living daily but as the quality of institutions and therefore, as is the study of the economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In this paper we recognize some contributions of Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton adding, by the perspicacity of his comments on the behaviour of the Argentine details by Carlos Nino in particular what he called "anomie boba." Then, what makes the main purpose of this article is to describe what we believe is the basic psychological con- figuration of a population in which the anomie is not perceived as a negative value.

  8. Bringing Anomie Back In: Exceptional Events and Excess Suicide

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    Mark Anthony Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that imitation is not the mechanism behind the observed increase in suicides subsequent to highly publicized celebrity suicides. Instead, we show that most celebrity suicides are exceptional events and because of that have similar effects on the daily suicide rate as other exciting events. This finding suggests that Durkheim was right in rejecting the Tardean hypothesis that imitation is an operative mechanism and provides substantial support for the competing hypothesis that disruptive and/or exciting events (whether favorable or unfavorable induce anomie and with it suicide.

  9. The Effect of Employees’ Perceptions of CSR Activities on Employee Deviance: The Mediating Role of Anomie

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    Yun Hyeok Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study hypothesizes that employees’ positive perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities at the individual level have a negative effect on employee deviance—a negative job-related behavior—and that anomie plays a mediating role in this relationship. In order to verify the relationship, this study conducts an empirical analysis with a questionnaire survey on employees of firms that implement CSR activities at the company level. Based on Social identity theory, this study examines the causal relationship between the employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and their deviance, and mechanisms by which anomie decreases in the process. The findings are as follows. First, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on employee deviance. Second, employees’ perceptions of CSR activities had a negative effect on anomie. Third, anomie had a positive effect on employee deviance. Fourth, anomie fully mediated the relationship between employees’ perceptions of CSR activities and employee deviance. This study is the first to document this relationship, which has great practical and academic significance, as it indicates the importance for companies to consider employees’ perceptions of CSR activities. In addition, the study identifies the mediating role of anomie as mentioned above. The results suggest that methodological considerations of CSR awareness enhancement at the company level be discussed more in depth, helping top management and middle managers understand that enhancing employees’ positive perceptions of CSR activities should be the first priority for reducing collective normlessness under the pressure of goal attainment and resolving ethical conflicts among employees.

  10. ANOMIE AND SUICIDE IN THE POST-COMMUNIST SOCIETIES

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    Professor SORIN M. RADULESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author aims to apply the theoretical model of anomie (developed by É. Durkheim and R. K. Merton for the assessment of the social, economic and political situation in the former communist societies. In the most of these countries, the normative regulation is insufficient or precarious and the actions of individuals are subscribed to the areas of deviance and „loss of determination” of their scope and human aspirations. With specific reference to Romania, the author mentions the main contributing factors that have conditioned or determined the increasing in the anomic suicide rates, in the post-communist period: the low performance and economic benefits, the deterioration of health and standards of living, increased consumption of alcohol and drugs, depression, stress, the spreading of illnesses, physical but moreover mental, the incapacity to adapt to the changes, to the new normative and cultural models, to find solutions for the new life problems, unemployment, poverty, dissolution of numerous family groups, immigration of the heads of the families, decreasing in the number of children, aging of the population etc

  11. Strategic culture and environmental dimensions as determinants of anomie in publicly-traded and privately-held firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, J.L.; Martin, K.D.; Saini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Anomie is a condition in which normative guidelines for governing conduct are absent. Using survey data from a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms, we explore the impact of internal (cultural) and external (environmental) determinants of organizational anomie. We suggest that four internal

  12. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  13. Development of suicidality within socioeconomic context: mediation effect of parental control and anomie.

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    Heydari, Arash; Teymoori, Ali; Nasiri, Hedayat

    Despite some scientific research on suicide as one of the most serious social and mental health problems in Iran, there is still lack of research on the effective structural and socio-familial factors contributing to the issue in Iran. The purpose of this study is to investigate some of the effective variables conditioning suicidality while also establishing a synthetic model. Three hundred-fifty university students (165 males, 185 females) were randomly chosen from Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a package of self-report questionnaires including subjective socioeconomic status (SES), feeling of anomie, perceived parental control, and suicidality. The results show that all correlations among variables are significant. For testing the theoretical model, results of standardized regression coefficients suggest that SES has direct effect on suicidality and indirect effect via anomie and parental control. In addition, parental control has direct effects on suicidality and indirect effect via anomie as well. The findings confirm the expected paths hypothesized among variables which are consistent with the theories of Durkheim, Merton, Kohn, and Agnew. It implies that the development of suicidality takes place within socioeconomic context through the influence of parental control and feeling of anomie.

  14. Hostility and anomie: Links to preterm delivery subtypes and ambulatory blood pressure at mid-pregnancy

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    Holzman, Claudia B; De Vos, Eric; Xu, Jia; Korzeniewski, Steve; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Goble, Monica M; Kallen, David

    2008-01-01

    Underlying maternal vascular disease has been implicated as one of several pathways contributing to preterm delivery (PTD) and psychosocial factors such as hostility, anomie, effortful coping, and mastery may be associated with PTD by affecting maternal vascular health. Using data from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study, we included 2,018 non-Hispanic White and 743 African American women from 52 clinics in 5 Michigan, USA communities who were interviewed at 15−27 weeks’ gestation and followed to delivery. We found that relations between psychosocial factors and PTD subtypes (i.e. medically indicated, premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous labor) varied by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position (Medicaid insurance status). Among African American women not insured by Medicaid, anomie levels in mid-pregnancy were positively associated with medically indicated PTD after adjusting for maternal age and education. Among all women not insured by Medicaid, hostility levels were positively associated with spontaneous PTD after adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, age, and education. Failure to detect links between psychosocial factors and PTD risk in poorer women may be due to their excess risk in multiple PTD pathways and/or a more complex web of contributing risk factors. In a subset of 395 women monitored for blood pressure, anomie scores were positively associated with systolic blood pressure and heart rate and hostility scores were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and mean arterial pressure in models that included time, awake/asleep, race/ethnicity, and age as covariates. Further adjustment for body mass index and smoking attenuated the anomie-vascular relations but had little effect on the hostility-vascular relations. Overall this study of pregnant women provides some physiologic evidence to support findings linking levels of anomie and hostility with risk of PTD. PMID:18179853

  15. Assessing the Relevance of Anomie Theory for Explaining Spatial Variation in Lethal Criminal Violence: An Aggregate-Level Analysis of Homicide within the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stults, Brian J.; Baumer, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most influential statements in the anomie theory tradition has been Merton’s argument that the volume of instrumental property crime should be higher where there is a greater imbalance between the degree of commitment to monetary success goals and the degree of commitment to legitimate means of pursing such goals. Contemporary anomie theories stimulated by Merton’s perspective, most notably Messner and Rosenfeld’s institutional anomie theory, have expanded the scope conditions by e...

  16. The Superman as Master Narrative in Wole Soyinka’s Season of Anomy

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    Amechi N. Akwanya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wole Soyinka’s Season of Anomy is regarded by some as one of the masterpieces of African literature, but it presents challenges in reading, leading others, among them literary critics, to pronounce it a failure. There is therefore deep ambivalence over this novel, but it comes from the expectations with which the readers approach it. Literary works may share elements of structure, but that does not mean that they should all be read in the same way, with the same expectations. The history of criticism of African literature going back to the early 1970s has put in place a tradition in which literature is directly connected to the so-called social context as its referential and basis of intelligibility. In response, creative writing is increasingly in sync with this theory, and critics formed in this tradition expect each work to provide a window on that social context. It is taken in this article that this tradition of reading is the reason for the difficulty many have with Soyinka’s texts. Season of Anomy demands both close reading and application of heuristic devices from literary theory and criticism because it is indeed a literary work of art. The master narrative of the superman is applied here to motivate a literary analysis of the work. Opening up Season of Anomy in this way makes it apparent that we are dealing with a great work, deeply grounded in a tradition of art much older than the mid-20th-century theory of engagement, and not a failure of any sort.

  17. Effects of anomie, alienation and confidence on antisocial behavior in youth out of school and work system

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    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish the antisocial and criminal behavior from perceived social and psychological anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions in young people who are outside the education system and labor in Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico. The results indicate that psychological and social anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions can explain 28% of the variability in the expression of antisocial and criminal behavior. In addition, three profiles were found that were called adolescents: a tight, b alienated c deinstitutionalized: We conclude that public policies aimed at young people must build trust and seek ways to facilitate them the access to formal education systems.

  18. Social change, institutional anomie, and serious property crime in transitional Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study examined socioeconomic change, social institutions, and serious property crime in transitional Russia. Durkheim's anomie theory and recent research on violence in Russia led us to expect an association between negative socioeconomic change and property crime. Based upon institutional anomie theory, we also tested the hypothesis that the association between change and crime is conditioned by the strength of non-economic social institutions. Using crime data from the Russian Ministry of the Interior and an index of socioeconomic change, we used OLS regression to estimate cross-sectional models using the Russian regions (n=78) as the unit of analysis. Results surprisingly showed no effect of socioeconomic change on two different measures of robbery, only very limited support for the hypothesis of direct effects of social institutions on crime, and obviously no support for the hypothesis that institutions moderate the effect of change on crime. We interpret these findings in the context of transitional Russia and conclude that rigorous research in other nations is important in determining the generalizability of criminological theories developed to explain crime in Western nations.

  19. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  20. Advancing institutional anomie theory: a microlevel examination connecting culture, institutions, and deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R

    2006-12-01

    Institutional anomie theory (IAT) contends that crime can be explained by an examination of American society, particularly the exaggerated emphasis on economic success inherent in American culture, which has created a "cheating orientation" that permeates structural institutions, including academia. Consistent with its macrosocial perspective, previous tests of IAT have examined IAT variables at the structural level only. The current study tests the robustness of IAT by operationalizing IAT variables at the individual level and looking at a minor form of deviance, student cheating. The author also examines the role statistical modeling has in testing the theory at the microlevel. Undergraduates, 122 American born and 48 international, were surveyed about their cheating behaviors and adherence to economic goal orientations. Results related to the hypothesis that American students, relative to foreign-born students, will have an increased adherence to economic goal orientations that increase cheating behaviors are presented, as are suggestions for future studies.

  1. 'Dreams don't come true in Eritrea': Anomie and family disintegration due to the structural militarization of society

    OpenAIRE

    Hirt, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes contemporary Eritrea's acute crisis within the framework of the theory of anomie. It is based on the hypothesis that militarization, forced labor, mass exodus, and family disintegration can be interpreted as the consequences of two incompatible norm and value systems: the collectivist, nationalistic, and militaristic worldview of the former liberation front and ruling party People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), and the traditional cultural system of Eritrea's ...

  2. 'Dreams don't come true in Eritrea': anomie and family disintegration due to the structural militarisation of society

    OpenAIRE

    Hirt, Nicole; Mohammad, Abdulkader Saleh

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses contemporary Eritrea's acute crisis within the framework of the theory of anomie. It is based on the hypothesis that militarisation, forced labour, mass exodus and family disintegration can be interpreted as the consequences of two incompatible norm and value systems: the collectivist, nationalistic and militaristic worldview of the former liberation front and ruling party People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), and the traditional cultural system of Eritrea's s...

  3. Assessing the Relevance of Anomie Theory for Explaining Spatial Variation in Lethal Criminal Violence: An Aggregate-Level Analysis of Homicide within the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Baumer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most influential statements in the anomie theory tradition has been Merton’s argument that the volume of instrumental property crime should be higher where there is a greater imbalance between the degree of commitment to monetary success goals and the degree of commitment to legitimate means of pursuing such goals. Contemporary anomie theories stimulated by Merton’s perspective, most notably Messner and Rosenfeld’s institutional anomie theory, have expanded the scope conditions by emphasizing lethal criminal violence as an outcome to which anomie theory is highly relevant, and virtually all contemporary empirical studies have focused on applying the perspective to explaining spatial variation in homicide rates. In the present paper, we argue that current explications of Merton’s theory and IAT have not adequately conveyed the relevance of the core features of the anomie perspective to lethal violence. We propose an expanded anomie model in which an unbalanced pecuniary value system – the core causal variable in Merton’s theory and IAT – translates into higher levels of homicide primarily in indirect ways by increasing levels of firearm prevalence, drug market activity, and property crime, and by enhancing the degree to which these factors stimulate lethal outcomes. Using aggregate-level data collected during the mid-to-late 1970s for a sample of relatively large social aggregates within the U.S., we find a significant effect on homicide rates of an interaction term reflecting high levels of commitment to monetary success goals and low levels of commitment to legitimate means. Virtually all of this effect is accounted for by higher levels of property crime and drug market activity that occur in areas with an unbalanced pecuniary value system. Our analysis also reveals that property crime is more apt to lead to homicide under conditions of high levels of structural disadvantage. These and other findings underscore the

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE DEVALUATION OF VULNERABLE GROUPS: A NOVEL APPLICATION OF INSTITUTIONAL ANOMIE THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Eva M.; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. PMID:26004470

  5. Understanding the devaluation of vulnerable groups: A novel application of Institutional Anomie Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövermann, Andreas; Groß, Eva M; Zick, Andreas; Messner, Steven F

    2015-07-01

    Prejudices legitimize the discrimination against groups by declaring them to be of unequal, especially of less, worth. This legitimizing power is highly relevant in social conflicts of modern societies that are governed by market-oriented value systems. However, prejudice research has yet to be linked to sociological discourses on the marketization of society. We argue that Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT), a theory originally developed to explain crime rates, offers a fruitful macro-sociological framework for a better understanding of micro-social prejudices that emerge along with processes of marketization. Extending IAT to explain prejudices in a German study based on survey data offers a first attempt to underpin our theoretical hypotheses with empirical data. Although the results need to be interpreted with due caution, they suggest that the extended IAT model can be usefully applied to explain how a marketized mentality is related to different forms of institutional integration, and how it is conducive to specific prejudices that emerge in market-dominated societies against purported economically burdening social groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anomic Strain and External Constraints: A Reassessment of Merton's Anomie/Strain Theory Using Data From Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaccio, Olena; Smith, William R; Gostjev, Feodor A

    2015-09-01

    This study provides a new assessment of Merton's anomie/strain theory and fills in several gaps in the literature. First, using the data from the sample of adolescents in an especially suitable and interesting setting, post-Soviet Ukraine, it investigates the applicability of the theory to this context and reveals that predictive powers of anomic strain may be influenced by larger sociocultural environments. Second, it evaluates the possibility of theoretical elaboration of Merton's theory through identifying contingencies such as external constraints on behavior and finds limited support for moderating effects of perceptions of risks of sanctioning and social bonds on anomic strain-delinquency relationships. Finally, it confirms that additional clarifications of the concept of anomic strain may be promising. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Déviance fiscale, anomie et régulation biaisée de la globalisation économique

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Cet article questionne la déviance dans son rapport au marché et à l’État dans le contexte de la globalisation économique. L’ampleur du phénomène (économie souterraine, fraude fiscale) est soulignée. La labellisation de la déviance fiscale est étudiée par une typologie qui croise les décisions de l’autorité publique et des contribuables. Une autre typologie classe les formes d’évitement de l’impôt selon les catégories socio-économiques. La théorie de l’anomie de Durkheim est ensuite utilisée ...

  8. Is the Market Eroding Moral Norms? A Micro-analytical Validation of Some Ideas of Anomie Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Burkatzki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anomie theorists have been reporting the suppression of shared welfare orientations by the overwhelming dominance of economic values within capitalist societies since before the outset of neoliberalism debate. Obligations concerning common welfare are more and more often subordinated to the overarching aim of realizing economic success goals. This should be especially valid with for social life in contemporary market societies. This empirical investigation examines the extent to which market imperatives and values of the societal community are anchored within the normative orientations of market actors. Special attention is paid to whether the shape of these normative orientations varies with respect to the degree of market inclusion. Empirical analyses, based on the data of a standardized written survey within the German working population carried out in 2002, show that different types of normative orientation can be distinguished among market actors. These types are quite similar to the well-known types of anomic adaptation developed by Robert K. Merton in “Social Structure and Anomie” and are externally valid with respect to the prediction of different forms of economic crime. Further analyses show that the type of normative orientation actors adopt within everyday life depends on the dregree of market inclusion. Confirming anomie theory, it is shown that the individual willingness to subordinate matters of common welfare to the aim of economic success—radical market activism—gets stronger the more actors are included in the market sphere. Finally, the relevance of reported findings for the explanation of violent behavior, especially with view to varieties of corporate violence, is discussed.

  9. Social Structural Effects on the Level and Development of the Individual Experience of Anomie in the German Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Can one observe an increasing level of individual lack of orientation because of rapid social change in modern societies? This question is examined using data from a representative longitudinal survey in Germany conducted in 2002–04. The study examines the role of education, age, sex, region (east/west, and political orientation for the explanation of anomia (micro level and its development. First we present the different sources of anomie in modern societies, based on the theoretical foundations of Durkheim and Merton, and introduce the different definitions of anomia, including our own cognitive version. Then we deduce several hypotheses from the theory, which we test by means of longitudinal data for the period 2002–04 in Germany using the latent growth curve model as our statistical method. The empirical findings show that all the sociodemographic variables, including political orientation, are strong predictors of the initial level of anomia. Regarding the development of anomia (macro level over time (2002–04, only the region (west has a significant impact. In particular, the results of a multi-group analysis show that people from West-Germany with a right-wing political orientation become more anomic over this period. The article concludes with some theoretical implications.

  10. THE «COLOR REVOLUTIONS» IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-CULTURAL ANOMIE: SYMPTOMS OF DEVIATIONS IN THE SOCIALIZATION OF THE MODERN CITIZEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Gennadevich Chukhin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the article analyzes the nature, characteristics and causes of socio-cultural anomie. We study the symptoms of deviations in the socialization of the modern citizen.Methodology: prediction.Results: the article analyzes the role of destructive social movements that use the techno-logy of «color revolutions» for the devaluation of civic traditions in modern citizen socialization.Practical implications: materials article may be of interest to researchers of the theory of civic education.

  11. PERCEPCIONES DE BIENESTAR SOCIAL, ANOMIA, INTERÉS E IMPOTENCIA POLÍTICA EN RELACIÓN CON LAS ACTITUDES HACIA LA DEMOCRACIA/ PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL WELL-BEING, ANOMIE, POLITICAL INTEREST AND POWERLESSNESS IN RELATION WITH ATTITUDES TOWARDS DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Ochoa Madrigal***

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste estudio empírico de corte transversal pone a prueba el supuesto de que las percepciones de bienestar social,anomia, interés político e impotencia política condicionan las actitudes hacia la democracia. Se tomó el modelo de cincodimensiones de Keyes (1998 para medir el bienestar social y se midió el constructo anomia desde la perspectiva psicosocialde Srole (1956. La muestra conformada por 568 sujetos mayores de edad de diferentes estados de México contestó unabatería que contenía cuatro cuestionarios: La Escala de Actitudes hacia la Democracia de Morales, Las Escalas de BienestarSocial de Keyes, La Escala de Anomia de Srole, La adaptación al español de la Escala de Impotencia Política y un ítem devalor único sobre Interés por la Política tomado de la Encuesta Social Europea 2006. Las correlaciones de bienestar social einterés por la política son positivas para la aceptación de la democracia. Los resultados muestran que a mayor percepciónde anomia e impotencia política mayor rechazo de la democracia.ABSTRACTThis empirical and transversal paper tests the hypothesis that perceived social well-being, anomie, political interest, andpolitical powerlessness condition attitudes towards democracy. We adopted the Keyes' five-dimension model to measuresocial well-being and the Srole's (1956 psychosocial perspective for anomie. A sample of 568 legally adult subjects ofdifferent states of Mexico filled out a battery containing four questionnaires: Morales' Attitudes Towards Democracy Scale,Keyes' Social Well-being Scales, Srole Anomie Scale, an adaptation into Spanish language of The Powerlessness Scale, andone item of unique value for Political Interest taken from the 2006 European Social Survey. Correlations between social wellbeing,political interest and acceptance of democracy were positives. Results show that higher perception of anomie andpolitical powerlessness indicates more rejection of democracy.

  12. „Die kriminelle Frau“ – ein „Anwendungsfall“ für die Anomietheorie? “The Criminal Woman”—A “Practice Case” for the Anomy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schmölzer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Die von der Verfasserin vorgenommene Bearbeitung der Anomietheorie des Soziologen Robert K. Merton zielt darauf ab, „relevante Unterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern zu finden, die den unterschiedlichen Anteil der Geschlechter bei der registrierten Kriminalität erklären können“ (S. 223. Dies gelingt insofern, als sie strukturelle Variablen herausarbeiten kann, die per se die Wahrscheinlichkeit von strafbarem Verhalten erhöhen. Das Geschlecht spielt dabei (nur insofern eine Rolle, als der Frauenanteil in der besonders kriminalitätsgefährdeten Personengruppe geringer ist.This treatment of sociologist Robert K. Merton’s anomy theory intends to “find relevant differences between women and men that could explain the uneven proportion of the sexes in registered criminal offenses” (p. 223. This succeeds insofar as the author is able to determine structural variables that could raise the possibility of criminal activity. Gender plays (only a role inasmuch as the proportion of women is lower in those groups of people that are particularly at risk of engaging in criminal activity.

  13. SELF SYSTEMS, ANOMIE AND SELF ESTEEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as

  14. Anomia y Alienación en Estudiantes Secundarios de Santiago de Chile: Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Comparativo 1989-2007 Anomie and Alienation in High School Students in Santiago of Chile: Initial Results of a Comparative Research Study 1989-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aceituno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los avances de un estudio sobre percepción de integración social y normativa en estudiantes de cuarto año de educación media de Santiago (N = 343. Se analizan los resultados de un cuestionario sobre anomia y alienación psicosocial, validado en un estudio análogo realizado en 1989. La replicación en 2007 contribuye a la caracterización de la experiencia de integración social y normativa en los jóvenes de hoy, así como al análisis de sus transformaciones casi 20 años después. Los resultados muestran que no existe una clara diferencia en los niveles de anomia y alienación, respecto a los de 1989.In a sample of Chilean students in their last year of high school (N = 343 anomie and psychosocial alienation were measured with a questionnaire validated in an analogous study done in 1989. This study compared the results of 1989 with those of 2007. This comparison contributes to the psychosocial characterization of social and normative integration experiences of Chilean youth today, and to the analysis of their transformations approximately 20 years later. The results show that there is not a clear difference in the social and normative integration levels in the studied youth, with respect to those of 1989.

  15. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  16. Convergences and dissonances between Luhmann and Bourdieu: the operational limits of anomie and autopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Treuke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text consists in a reflection on the policy protection for children and youth performed by the Portuguese state. The locus of the research was the city of Évora – Alentejo/Portugal Region. It is a case study of qualitative nature, in which the investigation method used as instruments of collection the documental analysis and the semi-structured interview with seven subjects of the area of children and youth involved in the management of equipment aimed at prevention, care and accountability. The research is centered in an exploratory position since it tries to interpret the events starting from the social actors. Impartially understand this social environment. Thus, it is perceived an effort of many entities (governmental and non-governmental to establish a prevention policy, monitoring and assistance to children and youth in Portuguese territory.  However, the data points to the economic difficulties that Portugal has faced reflect on the financing of the children and youth social protection policy.

  17. On the Usefulness of Merton's Anomie Theory: Academic Failure and Deviance Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira-McDonough, Josefina

    1983-01-01

    Data on tenth graders indicated that delinquency increased as grades decreased, supporting the hypothesis that failing students are under high strain. Rejection of school educational goals reinforced the inverse association between grades and delinquency. Extent of delinquency among students considered rebellious, ritualist, retreatist, or…

  18. Mord, Selbstmord und Anomie : ein neuer Ansatz zur Operationalisierung und empirischen Anwendung des Anomiekonstruktes von Emile Durkheim

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlkop, Guido; Graeff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Die Studie stützt sich auf Durkheims Anomietheorie, in der Mord- und Selbstmordraten als soziale Phänomene begriffen werden, die wiederum nur mit anderen sozialen Tatsachen zu erklären sind. Unter dieser soziologischen Perspektive interessiert also nicht das letztliche Motiv des Selbstmörders bzw. Mörders, sondern der Einfluss gesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse. Im Fokus dieser Analyse stehen variierende Mord- und Selbstmordraten zwischen Gesellschaften und über die Zeit hinweg. Verzichtet wird ...

  19. Anomie and Isolation: The Wind-up Bird Chronicle, Ghost in the Shell, Serial Experiments Lain, and Japanese Consensus Society

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    Elmo Gonzaga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores how the societal effects of Japan’s economic recession during the 1990s are reflected in several cultural texts from that period: Haruki Murakami’s novel The Wind-up Bird Chronicle, the animé film Ghost in the Shell and the animé series Serial Experiments Lain.Faced with sudden job uncertainty due to the recession, Japanese individuals accustomed to the ideology of progress of a society that values uniformity and conformity have fallen into listlessness and withdrawal. Accordingly, the protagonists of these texts all experience a crisis of embodied subjectivity, or shutaisei that is tied to a loss of community and history.They work to reconstitute their shutaisei by first uncovering their personal and collective history in the form of a coherent awareness of their past. Transcending their isolation, they likewise strive to develop bonds with others through reciprocal communication.Particularly because these texts are characterized by elements of the fantastic and narratives of metamorphosis, they can also be seen as allegories of subversion against Japanese consensus society and its ideology of progress.

  20. Agent-Based Model and System Dynamics Model for Peace-Keeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    sections look at three theories from the three major theoretical schools for criminal behaviors. 2.2.1 Anomie Theory In general, Anomie Theory (or Social...arise from several possibilities ranging from the uneven distribution of resources to alienation by the society. Anomie Theory hypothesized that as a...himself/herself, or to bring about change for the benefit of the society as a whole. Durkheim explained Anomie Theory as a process whereby some members of

  1. Avoiding the Leviathan: A Strategy to Limit Post-Conflict Normative Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    following a conflict. The study will use anomie theory to analyze the conditions in Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom and the conditions of other post...security, transition and reconstruction operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anomie , Rebellion, Innovation, Social Control Theory 16. SECURITY...Page Count: 32 Word Count: 5389 Key Terms: Anomie , Rebellion, Innovation, Social Control Theory Classification

  2. Jovens migrantes poloneses na Alemanha de 1989 a 1999: autoalienação e anomia interacional = Young Polish migrants to Germany from 1989 to 1999: self-alienation and interactional anomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata dos poloneses que deixaram seu país voluntariamente e sem problemas no período entre a queda do comunismo na Polônia, em 1989, e alguns anos antes da ampliação da União Europeia para o leste, em maio de 2004. Concentra-se em pessoas que eram jovens no momento de sua chegada na Alemanha (ou seja, não mais que 30 anos de idade e por isso constitui um grupo de uma geração “nova” ou “jovem” de imigrantes poloneses na Alemanha. Procura-se aqui descrever algumas condições balizadoras que provocam distúrbios no processo e/ou promovem o desenvolvimento de trajetória de sofrimento, ou seja, ilustrar e analisar várias circunstâncias sociais e biográficas que tornam o processo de imigração difícil ou que resultam em uma anomia interativa e aumentam a dinâmica das trajetórias. Essas condições de enquadramento surgem de análises acuradas de entrevistas narrativas autobiográficas com jovens poloneses na Alemanha

  3. „Die kriminelle Frau“ – ein „Anwendungsfall“ für die Anomietheorie? “The Criminal Woman”—A “Practice Case” for the Anomy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Schmölzer

    2008-01-01

    Die von der Verfasserin vorgenommene Bearbeitung der Anomietheorie des Soziologen Robert K. Merton zielt darauf ab, „relevante Unterschiede zwischen Frauen und Männern zu finden, die den unterschiedlichen Anteil der Geschlechter bei der registrierten Kriminalität erklären können“ (S. 223). Dies gelingt insofern, als sie strukturelle Variablen herausarbeiten kann, die per se die Wahrscheinlichkeit von strafbarem Verhalten erhöhen. Das Geschlecht spielt dabei (nur) insofern eine Rolle, als der ...

  4. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (7th Annual), The Human Element in Organizational Sensitivity, Held at White Oak, Maryland, 16-17 November 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-16

    34 of anomous into French as ]’ Anomie . As part of the study, Durkheim developed a theory of human needs and aspirations to explain variations in...30. See Richard A. Cloward, "Illegitimate Means, Anomie , and Deviant Behavior," in Hendrick M. Ruitenbeek, ed., Varieties of Modern Social Theory , New...phenomenon is the concept of anomie , a state of normlessness or lawless- ness that is characterized by individual disorientation, anxiety, and social

  5. A Social Control Perspective on Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    Some explanations for scientific misconduct are examined, including those based on theories of individual psychopathology, anomie, and alienation. An alternative explanation, drawing on the concept of social control, is presented, and implications for research and policy are examined. (MSE)

  6. Fires. A Joint Publication for U.S. Artillery Professionals. November - December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    asymmetric tactics can be explained by strain theory . The strain theory has roots taken from the theory of Anomie created by Emil Durkheim, a twentieth...U.S. Army War College strategy research project, Generational theory : Implications for recruiting Millennials. A major behavioral characteristic of...century French sociologist, and was later affirmed by Robert K. Merton, a twentieth century American sociologist. Anomie is the dismissal of societal

  7. World War 2 in Alaska: A Historic and Resources Management Plan. Volume 1. A History of World War 2 in Alaska and Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    involving alcohol-related crimes and Indian unrest, the Navy assumed jurisdiction from the Treasury Department in 1879, under the plausible theory that...to poor health care, inadequate housing and subsistence, neglect, and anomie . Their personal property was largely appropriated or damaged by military...s*eftflis i 1~, 7 + r,4 as v- +’~f poor health care, inadequate housing and subsistence, neglect, and anomie . Their personal property was largely

  8. Informal institutions and radical ideologies under institutional transformation

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    Irina Starodubrovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article questions one of the central postulates of institutional economic theory, i.e., that of the sustainability and purely evolutionary changes of informal institutions. To study the phenomenon of the destruction of informal institutions and its consequences, we use the tools of sociological theory, which acknowledge that a period of intensive urbanization is characterized by anomie, i.e., a lack of norms, in which traditional institutions are destroyed, while new urban institutions have not yet taken shape. We reviewed the possible reactions of communities and individuals to the conditions of anomie, including the compensatory mechanisms of ideologies. In the case of the Dagestan Republic, we show how the proliferation of fundamentalist Islamic ideology is associated with the state of anomie and the consequences to which it could lead from an institutional point of view. The analysis of the situation in Dagestan is based on long-term field research conducted in the region.

  9. Análisis comparativo de confiabilidad y validez de dos escalas de anomia

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Rodríguez García

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio psicométrico comparativo de la escala de la Anomie de Srole y de la escala de Anomy de McClosky y Schaar con el cual se evaluó la confiabilidad y validez de las escalas. La confiabilidad de las escalas fue explorada por medio del método de formas paralelas y la consistencia interna. La validez se valoró por medio de un método de validez de contenido, validez de criterio y de constructo. De los resultados se desprende que la escala de McClosky y Schaar muestra...

  10. Application of the anomic theory on the phenomenon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomie is used in sociology to describe a condition where the norms and values of a society or an institution are in flux or even partially destroyed. The public service is the most potent organ for the implementation of the policies and programmes of government. It is operated based on rules and regulations, which the public ...

  11. The Effect of Communicative Impediments on Interpersonal Attachment and Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Nick J.; Barnum, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a theory describing the relationship between factors that increase social isolation and deviance. The theory is examined in the context of virtual visitation. We integrate social exchange, anomie, and strain theories to argue that as communication is impeded between two actors, the less satisfied either will be with the…

  12. Vol.1 s and omen er and Rural olders pment ritage mann rally fferent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    dramatic theory and criticism and playwriting, the latter of which will be our focus in this paper. As a playwright ... our argument within the template of a recognizable theoretical framework such as postcolonial theory. ..... anomie manifests as petty thieves such as pickpocket and the belligerent but pseudo Beggar. Yet one is ...

  13. kidnapping in the southeastern states of contemporary nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    -64-. Theoretical Framework. The anomie theory of Robert Merton seems best to explain the crime of kidnapping in contemporary Nigeria. The word „anomie‟ is of the French origin, which denotes normlessness (lawlessness). It was anglicised and conceptualised in the 20th. Century by a Sociologist, Emile Durkheim ...

  14. Organized Programs of Study in France: Some Contributions of Stranger Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    The anomie experienced by students in their first few months abroad, and ways of coping with unfamiliarity of the host society are discussed. The needs of groups as well as individuals are considered, and specific related concerns of program administration are highlighted. (MSE)

  15. Forget the Muse, think only of the (Decentered) Subject?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    avant-garde critical theory; decentering and recentering; the Subject of traditional humanism. Amuse: 1480, from M.Fr. amuser ...... and anomie. The pulls between the centering and decentering of muses that I have explored in relation to Walcott and Soyinka in this paper is thus apposite to Osofisan's deflection of the subject ...

  16. Framing Cultural Attributes for Human Representation in Military Training and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    9 1. The Importance of Theory and Culture.................................. 9 D. SOCIAL-SCIENCE MODELS...of vast social science view about culture and theory . Chapter II continues with social science models that introduce terminology and concepts...within a culture that limits external communication and open discourse. One result can be anomie . As Émile Durkheim and later theorists argue

  17. Political Response to New Skills: The Conforming and the Deviant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Dean

    1970-01-01

    Anomie theory holds that the provision of new resources and skills to an inarticulate and non-participatory population can produce two distinct responses: increased conformity or increased and more efficient use of deviant methods. Data on vocational education students suggest that there is such a differential reaction to formal training in the…

  18. The Expanding Context of European and Mediterranean Security: A Joint Project Between the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) and Centro Militare di Studi Strategici (CeMiSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    being left in anomie in a betwixt and between world when they get to Europe, with its ancient class distinctions. Beyond the problems of the Middle East...Link theory emanates from the famous Nottenbohm decision of the International Court of Justice Judgment of Apr. 6, 1955, I.C.J. Rep. 4. The genuine

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    though briefly, the salient features of the post colonial literary theory. It goes on to highlight and interpret ... particularly, the postcolonial theory, usually signals and addresses a crisis in knowledge which has been ...... her preoccupation with exploring the post-colonial anomie, investigating the varied nature of the impact of ...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Combat Attitudes of Air Force Administrative Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    societies, mass armies which no longer fouqht in the trenches, and the beginning of guerrilla warfare. Finally. the emergin- theories and concepts of...The changing world of the American military (pp. 15-35). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Jacobowitz, D. W. (1977). Alienation, anomie , and combat

  1. Between Bethan and Me: A Dialogue on the Uncertain Promise of Education, Precarious Employment and What It Means to Be Productive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Remy Yi Siang

    2014-01-01

    The experience of precarious employment is growing across the occupational spectrum and some scholars have predicted that there will be a corresponding rise in anger, anomie, anxiety and alienation amongst those affected. Exploring more intimately how precarity might be differently experienced and confronted, this paper bases itself on a dialogue…

  2. Akomaye Oko, Tb.e Tragic Paradox: A Study ofWole Soyinka and his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a position in a university Theatre Arts Department, then go ahead. I have certain reservations, which, by and ... would1 be nothing on Opera Wonyosl, Death and the King's . Horsmnan, Season ofAnomy, Ake, Unlimited ... the author's use of Nigerian publishing houses, have been insurmountable. For example, Isara was ...

  3. NOTAS SOBRE TUTAMEIA­

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Corpas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Tutameia, watchwords of modernizing order and sociability shaped by the Brazilian proslavery past are overlapped. This article focuses on narratives from Guimarães Rosa´s last book, in which we find clear relationships between, on one hand, anomy and patriarchal customs, and on the other, resources, mentality and aesthetics apparently confronted with these customs.

  4. In Search of the Meaning of Life: An Ethical Evaluation of Albert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contemporary age has been described as one characterized by a wave of revolts. Every part of the world, every segment of society is dotted with one form of revolt or another. The resultant turbulence and anomie have caused thinkers to raise fundamental questions concerning the meaning of life. What sense does it ...

  5. 1Moist Forest R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-15

    Nov 15, 2014 ... H. (Lepidoptera, Noctudae), the shoot feeders,. Anomis Leona Shaus, Earias biplaga W. (Lepidoptera-Noctuidae). The major diseases of cocoa are the cacao swollen shoot virus. (CSSV) disease transmitted by mealybugs vectors - Plannococcoides njalences L.,. Planococcus citri R. and Ferrisiana virgrata.

  6. Alienación y anomia: dolores de la sociedad contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith Ortegón Salazar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the result of the investigation realized in Icontec, commercial headquarters Bogota, where two variables were correlated: 1 Alienation and 2 Anomie, or deviant behavior, with respect to the proposed by Karl Marx, alienation, and anomie, raised by Émile, is the result of research conducted in Icontec, commercial Bogotá, where this two correlated variables are present. With respect to the four forms of alienation that Marx proposed: Alienation in relation to the product, with respect to the generation of qualities in the worker, relative to the production process and relative to others; the second was measured in three ways concerning: deviant behavior in relation to the organization in relation to customers and relative to peers

  7. Self-destruction and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, C W

    1976-01-01

    In this paper a brief analysis of the development of the Western world after the second world war is attempted. It is stated that since the start of the sixties, anomie can be perceived in many of the components of its socio-cultural complex, especially in some major areas like the economy and religion, deeply influencing the others. To test the assumption that Durkheim's anomie theory is still valid and offers an adequate frame of reference for research of the underlying phenomena, the outcome of a research on 9.189 completed suicides in the Netherlands during the period 1961--1970 is presented, giving force to the validity and usefulness of this theory.

  8. The Best Way to Rob a Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marsavelski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cohen and Machalek’s (1988 evolutionary ecological theory of crime explains why obscure forms of predation can be the most lucrative. Sutherland explained that it is better to rob a bank at the point of a pen than of a gun. The US Savings and Loans scandal of the 1980s suggested ‘the best way to rob a bank is to own one’. Lure constituted by the anomie of warfare and transition to capitalism in former Yugoslavia revealed that the best way to rob a bank is to control the regulatory system: that is, to control a central bank. This makes possible theft of all the people’s money in a society. The criminological imagination must attune to anomie created by capitalism, and to the evolutionary ecology of lure.

  9. 644-IJBCS-Article-Dr Thiery B C Alavo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Ce criquet était abondant dans le champ et se nourrit des feuilles de H. suaveolens. Les jeunes plants étaient complètement détruits par ce ravageur qui consomme entièrement toutes les premières feuilles et le bourgeon terminal. Anomis (Cosmophila) flava (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Les chenilles de cette espèce se.

  10. Don’t Trust the Big Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    significant threat. In such a way, dissonance becomes anomie , which in turn manifests as violence. Discontent among a populace builds, as frustration grows...dependent variable are ideal for…developing insights” but “by themselves cannot test the theories they propose and hence cannot contribute to the...Stackpole Press, 1961. _____. “The Theory and Practice of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency.” The Naval War College Review (April 1965). Farah, Douglas

  11. International Considerations Associated with Economic Planning for Recovery from a Generalized Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    yet societies continued to function. Instead of anomie , we hear of riotous living. Again, another element in a case for the resiliency of societies in...of foreign trade: if the current foundations of foreign trade were changed by a nuclear attack, what does the theory that relates those foundations to...highvalue products, but only at high cost. 3.5. CHANGES IN RELATIVE FACTOR ABUNDANCE PATTZRNS The Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theory of int ational trade

  12. Economic Assistance and Security. Rethinking U. S. Policy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    dwellers have broken the cultural ties to their villages, their resulting alienation and anomie begin to reap a toll of violence, terror, and social...the past innovative ideas in development theory and aid policy-program lending linked to aggregate policy changes, flexibility on local cost...close to two decades ago in his essay "Preface to a Political Theory of Foreign Aid," in which he wrote that our policy of foreign aid "has been conceived

  13. The Unit First: Keeping the Promise of Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    current US Army leadership theories , the World War 11 Wehr- macht was a "power-down" army. Commanders up through regimental level had far more authority...leadership was not consciously obeying some theory of social or- ganization. The secretaries of war and chiefs of staff who determined or approved these...especially in the Ital- ian theater, made soldiers feel that they and their units were being ground down.9 Signs of anomie be- came widespread. In

  14. A Survey of Officer Career Values in the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps and their Effect on Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    found general confirmation for his theory . How- ever, House and Wigdor (House and Wigdor, 1967) reviewed thirty-one studies conducted through 1967...some of which did not use the critical incident method, and found a general lack of confirmation of Herzberg’s theory . In addition, Herzberg’s research...feeling of helplessness and dissatisfaction " anomie ". In contrast, data were obtained by D.R. Schwab and M.J. Wallace in a 1914 study of employee

  15. Concordance of U.S. Army Psychology Conference Proceedings from 1958 through 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    FROM A BEHAVIORAL MODEL 62 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY APPROACH TO BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION 62 BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION W FOCUS ON THE CHILD AND HIS FAMILY 62...AMEDD PSYCHOLOGY 69 010 GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY AND CONSULTATION 69 022 A BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE APPROACH TO THE ARMY COMMUNITY 69 024 REVISION OF AR 40-216...205 NATICK LABORATORIES PSYCHOLOGIST IN THE DOD FOOD PROGRAM 73 215 VIETNAM ERA VETERAN: ANOMIE AND ADJUSTMENT 73 221 ISSUES RELATED TO EEG ALPHA

  16. The Art of Wing Leadership and Aircrew Morale in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    understanding of aerospace power theory and application, these studies are published by the Air University Press and broadly distributed to the US Air...Manuscripts should deal with air and/or space power history, theory , doctrine or strategy, or with joint or combined service matters bearing on the...Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), 584; and Daniel W. Jacobowitz, “Alienation, Anomie , and Combat Effectiveness

  17. Integrating Women into Previously All Male Air Force Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-31

    structure and anomie ." In Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Minnigerode, Fred A. 1976 "Attitudes toward women, sex role...learning and reinforcement theory where clear distinctions are made in terms of the quality and quantity of learning which take place in conditions...females. Thus, these young men become more willing to attribute life events to forces beyond their control and if Rotter’s theory is correct they also

  18. Toward Holistic Joint Force Structure Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    practical problem of maintaining peace at home and normal relations with neighbors dictates compromise, but compromise begins to separate theory from...modernization generates feelings of alienation and anomie as traditional bonds and social relations are broken and leads to crises of identity to which...and has inserted in the Koran, not only religious doctrines, but political maxims, civil and criminal laws, and theories of science. The Gospel, on the

  19. An Examination of the Collateral Psychological and Political Damage of Drone Warfare in the FATA Region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    finds that terrorists frequently claim to be protecting the in-group from impure outsiders. Using alienation and anomie , leaders can construct a group...the feelings of acquiescence or resentment which may occur. According to materialist theories , disadvantaged groups will acquiesce rather than harbor...feelings of resentment. However, materialist theories do accept that under certain situations group-based inequalities do lead to feelings of

  20. Perspectives on Suicide in the Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    emphasis on individual perceptions in rela- tion to social groups, this perspective is labeled ‘‘social cognitive.’’ Joiner’s interper- sonal theory of...egoism and anomie -generated suicide. At the same time, the risk of altruistic suicide is potentially higher, although the US military arguably lacks the...intentions after deployment. The connection between such a loss and Joiner’s46 interpersonal theory of suicide is clear, in particular among men who

  1. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    nature of land warfare; ’ Matters affecting the Army’s future; " The concepts, philosophy, and theory of strategy; and " Other issues of importance to the...their mobilization. On the other hand, there is reason to point to Max Weber’s notion of social anomie operating in Egypt, which is what people...one aspect of gender inequality in Egypt that illustrates the gaps between theory and actualization in social change. Also part of the grand

  2. Developing Charisma: Nkrumag as a "CARGO" Benefactor in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    IIJIMA, Michio

    1998-01-01

    Some scholars view that Kwame Nkrumah's strength in the general elections of the 1950's simply resulted from the CPP's promise of economic benefits. But Nkrumah's appeal and influence might be more understood in his charisma akin to that of the prophets of the African Independent Churches. Nkrumah frequently used Chiristian symbolism, and prophet-like authority, to offer psychological 'healing' and economic security in a situation of social anomie of rapid transition. Nkrumah can be compared ...

  3. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  4. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  5. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Viren eSwami; Viren eSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  6. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  7. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives—Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory—that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian...

  8. Adolescent deviation and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, J

    1982-08-01

    Traditional theories of delinquency causation generally fail to consider delinquency in the context of norms and age-role transitions peculiar to adolescence. Hence, in this study, an age-based theory of delinquency causation is developed, which assumes the importance of norms and roles specific to adolescence. This theory draws upon the assumption that socialization is recurrent, in contrast to the premises regarding socialization which underlie traditional theories of adolescent deviance. The recurrent model of socialization and that assumed by traditional theorists are discussed, and their implications for the causes of delinquent behavior are examined. Some effort is made to show that the recurrent model of socialization suggests an anomie of age as the basis for delinquent acts. It is suggested that this age-based anomie stems from conditions of normlessness associated with certain role transitions in adolescence and the pacing of these transitions. Further, it is suggested that certain groups are especially prone to an anomic age transition. The role transitions most likely to be subject to such anomic conditions and the adolescent subgroups most prone to experience anomie as a result of the pacing of their age-role transitions are identified.

  9. Ethos without nomos: the Russian–Georgian War and the post-Soviet state of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Prozorov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the 2008 Russian–Georgian conflict in the context of the post-Soviet spatial order, approached in terms of Carl Schmitt's theory of nomos and Giorgio Agamben's theory of the state of exception. The ‘five-day war’ was the first instance of the violation by Russia of the integrity of the post-Soviet spatial order established in the Belovezha treaties of December 1991. While from the beginning of the postcommunist period Russia functioned as the restraining force in the post-Soviet realm, the 2008 war has made further recourse to this function impossible, plunging the post-Soviet space into the condition of anomie, or the state of exception. This paper interprets this disruptive policy in the post-Soviet space as the continuation of the domestic political process of the ‘management of anomie,’ which has characterized the entire postcommunist period. In the conclusion, we address the implications of the transformation of the international order into the ethos of anomie for rethinking the ethical dimension of global politics.

  10. Motherhood and the "Madness of Hunger": "...Want Almal Vra vir My vir 'n Stukkie Brood" ("...Because Everyone Asks Me for a Little Piece of Bread").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marié; Lourens, Marleen

    2016-03-01

    It is widely assumed that the social and economic conditions of poverty can be linked to common mental disorders in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Despite the considerable increase in quantitative studies investigating the link between poverty and mental health, the nature of the connection between poverty and emotional well-being/distress is still not fully comprehended. In this qualitative study, exploring how one group of Coloured South African women, diagnosed with depression and residing in a semi-rural low-income South African community, subjectively understand and experience their emotional distress, data was collected by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews and social constructionist grounded theory was used to analyse the data. We will attempt to show (1) that the depressed women in this group of respondents frequently refer to the emotional distress caused by hungry children and (2) that the emotional distress described by the respondents included emotions typically associated with depression (such as sadness, hopelessness and guilt), but also included emotions not necessarily associated with depression (such as anxiety, anger and anomie). In our attempt to understand (both psychologically and politically) the complex emotional response of mothers to their children's hunger, we argue that powerful gender and neo-liberal discourses within which mothers are interpellated to care for children, and more specifically, to make sure that children are not hungry, mean that the mothers of hungry children felt that they were not fulfilling their responsibilities and thus felt guilty and ashamed. This shame seemed, in turn, to lead to anger and/or anomie, informing acting out behaviours ranging from verbal and physical aggression to passive withdrawal. A vicious cycle of hunger, sadness and anxiety, shame, anger and anomie, aggression and withdrawal, negative judgement, and more shame, are thus maintained. As such, the unbearable rebukes of hungry

  11. The Art of Wing Leadership: Exploring the Influences of Aircrew Morale in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Century (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), 584, and Daniel W. Jacobowitz, “Alienation, Anomie , and Combat Effectiveness,” Air University Review 31...within the USAF recognize that morale is more than just a laundry list of comforts. Major Walter A. Grady uses J.F.C. Fuller’s war theory to explain...Management of the unit deals with the administration and logistics of war—how to feed, house, and supply the force. In theory it is very simple to

  12. The War Refugees in Europe and the Feature of "Other" Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Smolarek Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is subject to analyze the characteristic of "Other" as created by Carl Schmitt in the scenario of war refugees in European countries. The initial hypothesis is that the presence of a population marked by representative differences promotes the collision between freedoms as seen during the “collective rape" in Cologne - Germany. The theme is justified because it affects millions of people worldwide. The method used is the deductive and the work is divided into three parts dealing with the figure of the "other”, representativeness and Criminology of Anomie, presenting a research in development with partial results.

  13. Effects of Hafnium Additions on the Solidification Behavior of Directionally Solidified Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Further, the experimental data and detailed calculations supporting the theory have been obtained, mainly, from binary alloy systems. As has been pointed...spacings are plotted versus GR-My on a log-log axes in Figure 3.18. A line of slope -1/2 as would be the relation predicted by the theory is drawn through... anomial lcatin (tp) nt t th abrpt cang in coss-ecton (otto) i theD.S.casing,200 123. .5 *~~r 0 . uI E 0 - 00 m u -42~ 0 0 0 010 C C o w ( 0c 7LIP01

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Army Officer Career Commitment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Commitment: Theory , Research, and Measurement B. Measuring and Predicting Occupational Performance: A Review of Recent Literature C. Procedures and...ideology IV-I, 4, U to X Bureaucratic tendencies IV-A to C, E to H, K, Y Need for fate control IV-D, J, N, P, T Anomie IV-L, 0, Q to S Political position 1...rating scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1963, 47, 149-155. 33 ii Appendix A ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THEORY , RESEARCH, AND MEASUREMENT by Douglas

  15. Alcohol and marijuana use among high school and college students in Phoenix, Arizona: a test of Kandel's socialization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardert, R A; Dowd, T J

    1994-05-01

    Much of the existing research in the area of adolescent drug use is either atheoretical or poorly developed. While there is no widely accepted theory to account for an individual's decision to become involved in drugs, a number of relevant, theoretical frameworks have been developed. These include Kandel's socialization framework, based on her earlier work on selective influences of family and peers. The present research evaluates Kandel's socialization framework, and the findings tend to confirm many of her basic assumptions. The ramifications of this discovery are discussed in relation to the alienation/anomie perspective.

  16. Onset of addiction: a first attempt at prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, P H

    1978-11-01

    This study attempts to identify predictors of early heroin addiction. Natives of low social class origins are, as predicted by "social structure and anomie theory," more likely to be addicted when young. However, social class has little impact on age of addiction among migrants. Blue-collar migrants are strikingly less likely than blue-collar natives to be addicted when young; a nonsignificant trend in the same direction is found for white-collar respondents. Findings are interpreted in terms of commitment to traditional values. Contrary to expectations based on Moynihan, family intactness is unrelated to age of addiction.

  17. Teori Komunikasi dalam Perspektif Mazhab Frankfurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surahman Surahman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Frankfurt School of Thought, which rooted in Marxism and Critical paradigm, provided many ways to interpret the meaning of communication. This school of thought is primarily based on the main tenets of Critical Theory, i.e. totality, consciousness, anomie, and critic. Some questions arise concerning the ontology, epistemology, and axiology dimensions of Frankfurt School of Thought. Ontology discussion concerning the nature of communication involved an intensive outlook of Giddens’s Structuration Theory. Epistemology involved a discussion with Gramscian concepts of hegemony. Meanwhile, the problem of axiology is best addressed in Habermas fashion of agent-structur-dialectics.

  18. Solution of Media Risk and Social Responsibility Governance of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of media technology makes the modern society become a “social media” or even “over social media”, the rise of social media makes it beyond the tool attribute, and become an important force in the reconstruction of contemporary society, the risk of concomitant. The anomie and breach of Social media regularly staged, weakened its positive social function, forcing us to think about the social responsibility of social media,which are reflections on the lack of responsibility, but also positive response of resolving the media risk and ask for moral strength.

  19. Cross-cultural study of alcohol behaviour among Singapore college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, O T; Isralowitz, R E

    1989-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that Singapore Indian college students would experience higher rates of drinking problem behaviour than their Chinese counterparts, the Engs and Hanson questionnaire was administered to 767 Chinese and 185 Indian undergraduate students. The significant differences in drinking problems found between Indian and Chinese students were interpreted as reflected a higher level of anomie among the Indians in terms of their drinking norms. Singapore Indian students' alcohol-related problem behaviours, however, are considerably less than those found in college students from western countries.

  20. The Best Way to Rob a Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Marsavelski; John Braithwaite

    2018-01-01

    Cohen and Machalek’s (1988) evolutionary ecological theory of crime explains why obscure forms of predation can be the most lucrative. Sutherland explained that it is better to rob a bank at the point of a pen than of a gun. The US Savings and Loans scandal of the 1980s suggested ‘the best way to rob a bank is to own one’. Lure constituted by the anomie of warfare and transition to capitalism in former Yugoslavia revealed that the best way to rob a bank is to control the regulatory system: th...

  1. Los futuros posindustriales de la historieta en la era del populismo. El caso argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Kurlat Ares

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Argentina has a large corpus of science fiction comics with a strong ideological content. In this paper, I discuss two recent comics within this tradition: La burbuja de Bertold (2005 and Planeta Extra (2009 by Diego Agrimbau (1975 and Gabriel Ippóliti (1964. These comics are remarkable for their refined narrative and visual universes, built as dystopian spaces, which can be recognized as a future Argentina, where institutions have collapsed and where technology is unable to provide a semblance of civility. This comics are marked by a huge pessimism and their ideological readings provide a reading of the experience of political anomie.

  2. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  3. Informal roles and the stages of interdisciplinary team development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M P; Schmitt, M H; Heinemann, G D

    2001-08-01

    After presenting a theory of team development, we propose that the informal role structure of a team is dependent upon the degree of anomie in the team culture, and we provide measures of anomie and informal roles that can be used in field settings. Then we test hypotheses on a national sample of 111 interdisciplinary health care teams in geriatrics in US Veterans Affairs medical centers. We find evidence that as teams develop from early to later stages, the interpersonal behavior of members becomes less differentiated on three dimensions: prominence, sociability, and task-orientation. In addition, we find that images of each member come into clearer focus, as evidenced by reduced variation in how each member is seen by other team members. Finally, we find that regardless of stage of team development, the more education the team members have, the more prominent and task-oriented they are. In general, physicians score highest in prominence and task-orientation, but relatively low in sociability.

  4. A time series analysis of international immigration and suicide mortality in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, F

    1986-01-01

    A neglected topic concerning suicide as a sociological phenomenon is the relationship between international immigration and suicide mortality. This study examines the association between these variables using time series data for the period 1950 to 1982 in Canada. The central hypothesis, derived from the Durkheimian theory of social integration and suicide, is that the higher the immigration rate, the higher the rate of suicide. Two statistical controls, the unemployment rate and age composition, drawn from the "economic anomie" and "social demographic" perspectives respectively were introduced into a multiple regression model involving immigration and suicide. While some of the results in the initial stages of the analysis appear to contradict the established literature concerning the relevance of immigration and unemployment in predicting suicide, more refined breakdowns which allow for the separate investigation of male and female suicide propensities, generally support the social integration and economic anomie theories. It is concluded that the 15-34 male cohort is highly sensitive to changes in their economic prospects and in their immigration experience and therefore, have higher suicide rates than women in the same age group.

  5. Identidad mexicana e interés político: Predictores de bienestar social y anomia Identidad mexicana e interés político: Predictores de bienestar social y anomia

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    Claudia Yañez Velasco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the hypothesis that perceived differences in Mexican identity and political interest condition social well-being and the perception of anomie. The three dimensions of Tajfel’s social identity theory was adopted to measure Mexican identity, as well as the five dimensions of Keyes’s model for social well-being. A sample of 211 subjects of voting age from the State of Colima, Mexico, filled out a battery of three questionnaires and sociodemographic data. Results show that individuals with a high level of Mexican identity and political interest perceive high levels of social well-being and low level of anomie compared with those who scored low. Correlations were positive for social well-being and negative for anomie, with respect to identity and political interest. The factor of identity affirmation and identification predicted better social integration and actualization, components of social well-being.  Este estudio pone a prueba el supuesto de que las diferencias percibidas en la identidad mexicana y en el interés en la política condicionan la percepción del bienestar social y de la anomia social. Se adoptó la teoría de la identidad social de Tajfel de tres dimensiones para medir la identidad mexicana y el modelo de cinco dimensiones de Keyes para el bienestar social. Una muestra de 211 participantes en edad de votar del estado de Colima, México, contestó una batería de tres cuestionarios y datos sociodemográficos. Los resultados muestran que los individuos con un alto nivel de identidad mexicana y de interés por la política, comparados con los que tienen bajo nivel, perciben mayores niveles de bienestar social y menor nivel de anomia. Las correlaciones de la identidad y el interés por la política fueron positivas para el bienestar social y negativas para la anomia, respectivamente. El factor afirmación e identificación con la identidad predijo mejor la integración y actualización social, componentes del

  6. The Iconic Essence of Sovereignty

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    Giuseppe CASCIONE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to investigate the relation between the dawn of the National State in the early Renaissance and the concepts of crisis/apocalypse on one side and visible power on the other. The hypothesis is that without representation there is no State at all. Furthermore we will suggest that the role of the visibility of the state is related to its capability to be the “cement of society”, that is to say to face the risk of the anomy. This study is based on the research of one of the most important Italian philosophers, Massimo Cacciari and on the work of the well-known German historian Ernst Hartvig Kantorowicz, and in particular of his masterpiece, The King’s Two Bodies.

  7. A lei e a anomia nas torcidas organizadas de futebol

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    Henrique Figueiredo Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows, from an analysis based on the psychoanalytic metapsychology, a reflection upon the law and the state of anomie that has characterized the relationships in the organized rooters when these turn the public space for leisure activities into a field of social tension. It is understood that the movement of the fan clubs represents the character in this social scenario which is guided by relationships that arise from the transgression of the rules and the disbelief in the constituted power. In this context, the rooters¿ acts can be considered as anomic and at the same time they can be an indicator of a desire of totalitarianism that the subject has. The finding of violent acts and the frailty of social ties indicates the homogenization of the singularities. The result is the denial of the otherness, the emptying of the subjective representations and the inconsistency of the representatives of the law nowadays.

  8. Editorial - Letter from the Editors

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    Wilhelm Heitmeyer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to announce a number of additions to the Journal’s Advisory Board. We warmly welcome Julia Eckert (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Halle/Saale, Barbara Krahé (University of Potsdam, Gary LaFree (University of Maryland, and Loïc Wacquant (University of California, Berkeley. We are sure their expertise will provide valuable inputs for the journal’s future work and interdisciplinary approach.This time—as advertised in the spring issue—the focus section is on the topic of anomie/anomia. We would like to thank the guest editors, Steven F. Messner (University of Albany, New York and Helmut Thome (Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg for the very fruitful and productive collaboration, and the impressive collection of papers they have put together.

  9. Primary socialization theory: comments on racism, sexism, generational neglect, abuse, and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A

    1999-06-01

    This article asks whether primary socialization theory adequately deals with the most distressed and disadvantaged members of society, whether for most of them the family, school, and peers are the primary sources of socialization. Children who are subjected to the effects of racism, sexism, physical and mental abuse, inferior dangerous schools, and abandonment to foster care from birth may find other sources of primary socialization which can be either negative and positive. "Nihilism" and "anomie" are used to describe such children's position in their societies, and the article asks if those without benefit of the three primary sources of socialization can find ways to create new and positive norms, or whether they are doomed to lives of hopelessness and deviance. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.

  10. Main features of narrow sociological theories explaining mental disorders

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    Opalić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.

  11. Ukraine: On the border between old and new in uncertain times

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    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides an overview of the demographic situation in Ukraine, including explanations for the decline to very low fertility and changes in family policy. Drawing on official statistics, survey data, and focus group interviews, the analysis shows that the country's decline to lowest-low fertility is primarily due to the postponement of or the reduction in second births, as opposed to the postponement of first births. The chapter includes a discussion on the link between low fertility and changing marriage patterns, contraceptive prevalence, and abortion. The author then reviews the evidence for the leading explanations of fertility decline in Ukraine, including economic uncertainty, social anomie, the Second Demographic Transition, and unequal gender relations. In addition, the author proposes unexplored factors that may lead to fertility limitation, such as the increasing difficulty of combining work and childrearing, insufficient housing, changes in intergenerational support, and the deterioration of health lifestyles and marital relations.

  12. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

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    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  13. Siðfræði og fagmennska í heimi fáránleikans: Um siðrof og útlaga í kvikmynd Sams Peckinpahs The Wild Bunch

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    Þórólfur Þórlíndsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sam Peckinpah’s movie The Wild Bunch is a multilevel drama about an aging group of outlaws, trying to exist in a rapidly changing world. This paper analysis the movie from different sociological perspectives on three levels. First, it is argued that the movie provides an interesting example and an elaboration of Durkheim’s macrolevel theory of anomie. Second, at the micro level the movie describes the face to face interaction between gangmembers in terms of a symbolic interactionism in the tradition of Mead and Goffman. Third, at the individual level the gangmembers behave in many ways as existential heroes. These different levels of social science analysis come together to form a single coherent story line in Peckinpah’s complex portrayal of the Wild Bunch.

  14. Wife's employment status and marital duration in a population filing for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R P; Maneker, J S

    1987-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2% random sample of all couples who filed for divorce/dissolution in California in each of the 6 years, 1966-1971, in order to examine the relationship between wife's employment status and marital duration to separation. Using exchange theory, anomie theory, and role conflict as basic theoretical perspectives, the elaboration analysis of the zero order relationship is discussed vis a vis the findings that housewives are likely to be married longer before separation than employed wives, except when they marry very young. The analysis shows the enhancement of our zero order relationship for housewives marrying in their 20's, having an education of high school or above, and having been previously married. Furthermore, a causal linkage is posited between wife's employment status, presence of children, and marital duration to separation, which shows the zero order relationship to be non-spurious through the interpretation that occurred when controlling on presence of children.

  15. El Behemoth colombiano: teoría del Estado, violencia y paz

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    Jorge Andrés Hernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The building of the modern state in Europe was part of an historic process that reacted to the violence of the Wars of Religion (16th to 17th centuries and established the bases of peace and order for modern life in the West. This article reviews the theoretical bases of the theory of the state in terms of a Hobbesian dualism, symbolized by the figures of Leviathan (peace, order and Behemoth (violence, anomie, in order to examine the historic failure in Colombia to construct a modern state. In effect, Colombia has been unable to construct an impersonal entity capable of subduing its multiple armed competitors and creating the conditions for peace and order.

  16. The effect of the media on suicide: the Great Depression.

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    Stack, S

    1992-01-01

    Previous work on the media and suicide has neglected the mood of the audience in its models. The present study tests the thesis from symbolic interaction theory that the degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories is assumed to be high in the Great Depression given widespread unemployment, a condition thought to promote suicidogenic mood such as anomie. A taxonomy of stories is developed using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicide and publicized stories finds, however, little supporting evidence. Only stories concerning political leaders were associated with suicide. Stories concerning other categories of victims, such as villains, entertainers, and foreigners, were not associated with suicide. Possibly the potential impact was offset by other factors such as the absence of television to echo for the messages carried by the newspapers and radio and heightened political integration.

  17. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology.

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    Messner, Steven F

    2015-06-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives-Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory-that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally.

  18. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

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    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  19. Malcolm X: Rasismus, islám, politika a násilí

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    Karel Černý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ever changing life, attitudes, rhetorics and identities of one of the most influential and controversial Afro-American leaders of the second half of the 20th century, Malxolm X. It claims that the most important, however not single, determinant of his life experience had been American racism, namely segregation in the South and especially discrimination in the North. The paper than focuses on changing adaptation strategies toward the racism, especially in terms of attitudes toward religion, politics and violence. It uses R. K. Merton theory of adaptation (anomie to contrast the various life stages of Malcolm X that are characteristic with radical discontinuities and as such create very flexible, however dramatic, life course of Malcolm X that is in this respect significantly different from the other Afro-American leaders of the 20th century.

  20. ANOMIA, ANORMALITÀ E PATOLOGIA: ALCUNE NOTE SULLA RELAZIONE TRA FILOSOFIA, SCIENZE UMANE E PSICHIATRIA

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    Delio Salottolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to analyse the relationship between philosophy, psychiatry and, in wider terms, among human sciences. The key issue is here identified as the mechanism that produces the relationship between physiology (normality and pathology in medical and the human sciences. The path that we will follow is divided into three stages: first, we will analyse the confusion between fact and value (i.e.; between the quantitative and qualitative dimension in the human phenomenon; second, we will approach the connection between the birth of the human sciences and the emergence of the device normal/pathological (Comte and the principle Broussais; Durkheim and the notion of anomie in relation to the division of labour and suicide; finally, we will touch upon the ultimate question about psychiatry: is it a science of “man” (Binswanger or a knowledge/power based device that determines the structure of modernity (Foucault?

  1. Understanding Suicide in Socially Vulnerable Contexts: Psychological Autopsy in a Small Town in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Hernández, Ana-María; Macías-García, Luis-Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In Mexico, suicides are increasing in certain latitudes where local rates have grown to levels of alert; suicide is also the second most common cause of death for the group aged 15 to 19. The psychological autopsy method was utilized to uncover and analyze common factors in all of the registered suicides within 2011 and 2012 in a small town of the state of Guanajuato, located in the center of Mexico. A total of nine decedents were analyzed, and 22 interviews were conducted. The most salient factors were as follows: poverty, financial stress, substance abuse, low levels of education, conflictive relationships, and a poor handling of emotions. The concepts of social exclusion and vulnerability were employed to analyze suicides as symptoms of a much deeper problem of this country, suggesting that anomie and social malady are nowadays important suicidal factors, mostly for children and young people. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. What Explains Criminal Violence in Mexico City? A Test of Two Theories of Crime

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    Carlos Vilalta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are competing theories of what drives crime in cities and neighbourhoods. Two widely cited theoretical approaches focused on social disorganization and institutional anomie propose different explanations for the causes and dynamics of criminality. Yet these theories are seldom empirically tested, much less acknowledged, outside of North America and Western Europe. This article considers their applicability in Mexico’s capital, a sprawling metropolis of more than 20 million people. The authors administer spatial and general statistical tests to explain the geographical patterns of crime rates across multiple forms of criminality. The assessment demonstrates that both theories accurately predict the spatial distribution of crime. The article concludes with a host of policy conclusions, emphasizing social crime prevention over more traditional law and order measures. and consolidating families, parents and childcare.

  3. Penangulangan Pelanggaran Hukum yang Dilakukan Geng Motor oleh Kepolisian di Wilayah Bandung

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    Nandang Sambas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At first, motorbike gang was considered as hobbyist-based-community created to express solidarity and creativity among its members. Recent growing number of violence cases  involving motorbike gang members in West Java, especially in Bandung, has posed us with enough evidences to cathegorize their activity as law violation acts which threatening public safety. From social crime perspective, any law violations were considered as delinquency acts. Considering that majority of gang members are teenagers, or children/underage, significant factor to be attended seriously is family as the first source of norms and socialization.Weakness ties among members of family, anomie, and mass media strong influence are threatening young members of family in this situation.   A collaboration between police institution and family and other social group representative such as religious leaders on every aspect was the key to overcome the problem of motorbike rascals.

  4. A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Peter; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 ( N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and principles, but simultaneously distrust scientific institutions. This science confidence gap is strongly associated with level of education: it is larger among the less educated than among the more educated. We investigate explanations for these educational differences. Whereas hypotheses deduced from reflexive-modernization theory do not pass the test, those derived from theorizing on the role of anomie are corroborated. The less educated are more anomic (they have more modernity-induced cultural discontents), which not only underlies their distrust in scientific institutions, but also fuels their trust in scientific methods and principles. This explains why this science confidence gap is most pronounced among the less educated.

  5. Magnetic dynamic effects in TbMn1-x(Ga/ScxO3 samples (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6.

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    García J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of strongly doped TbMnO3 with non-magnetic ions, such as Ga and Sc, has been studied focused in the intermediate region (0.4≤x≤0.6 where long range ferromagnetic ordering was reported for La-based compounds. All samples are single phase and show a perovskite structure with orthorhombic unit cell, space group Pbnm. The Tb-based compounds do not show long range magnetic order but magnetic anomies are noticeable at low temperature. These anomalies show magnetic irreversibility and dynamic effects typical of magnetic glassy systems. These features have been studied in detail using ac magnetic susceptibility and the analysis shows the largest magnetic correlations for x=0.5 in both type of substitutions.

  6. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia.

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    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-05-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim's work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  7. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

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    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors.

  8. Des maux pour le taire

    OpenAIRE

    Dussy, Dorothée; Caisne, Léonore Le

    2011-01-01

    Cette enquête ethnographique effectuée dans une association parisienne d’entraide aux victimes d’inceste montre que les enfants sexuellement abusés par un familier doivent se construire sur une double approche de la réalité sociale : d’un côté un discours dominant qui prône l’interdit de l’inceste et le respect des valeurs ordinaires, de l’autre l’expérience quotidienne des viols perpétrés par un de ceux qui transmettent ces valeurs. Grâce à un annonciateur, l’inceste perd son caractère anomi...

  9. [Tarentism and its ethnographic fictions: the epistemology of the other's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    Tarantism is a cultural syndrome caused by a symbolic spider bite that was treated in Southern Italy by means of a musical and religious ritual. At the frontiers of theories of insanity this "disease" is the source of a rich and centuries-old scientific literature. This article proposes an epistemological analysis of the medical paradigms that have built the scientific representations of this phenomenon and that make it an anthropological mediation of cultural alterity of the Apulian territory and Southern Italy in general. Geographical or social determinism, popular irrationality, simulation and imitation appear as recurrent categories sounding the psychology of a "meridional soul" explained, till the studies of the 20th century about the south-European immigrants' diseases, in terms such as social anomy and mental alienation.

  10. Teoría moral y anomia

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    Riba, Jordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available From the distinction between the concept of anomie of Durkheim and Guyau, is exposed as Guyau taking that concept describes the need of the moral theory to take a turn in his conception. For Guyau the moral stops configured as a universal law, to become an individualistic conception of morality. For Guyau the process is not only inevitable, also it is desirable.

    A partir de la distinción entre la concepción de anomia de Durkheim y Guyau, en este texto se expone como Guyau tomando dicho concepto describe la necesidad que tiene la teoría moral de dar un giro en su concepción. Para Guyau la moral deja de configurarse como ley universal, para convertirse en una concepción individualista de la moral. Para Guyau el proceso no solo es inevitable sino deseable.

  11. A healthy mistrust: how worldview relates to attitudes about breast cancer screening in a cross-sectional survey of low-income women

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    Shariff-Marco Salma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perceived racial discrimination is one factor which may discourage ethnic minorities from using healthcare. However, existing research only partially explains why some persons do accept health promotion messages and use preventive care, while others do not. This analysis explores 1 the psychosocial characteristics of those, within disadvantaged groups, who identify their previous experiences as racially discriminatory, 2 the extent to which perceived racism is associated with broader perspectives on societal racism and powerlessness, and 3 how these views relate to disadvantaged groups' expectation of mistreatment in healthcare, feelings of mistrust, and motivation to use care. Methods Using survey data from 576 African-American women, we explored the prevalence and predictors of beliefs and experiences related to social disengagement, racial discrimination, desired and actual racial concordance with medical providers, and fear of medical research. We then used both sociodemographic characteristics, and experiences and attitudes about disadvantage, to model respondents' scores on an index of personal motivation to receive breast cancer screening, measuring screening knowledge, rejection of fatalistic explanatory models of cancer, and belief in early detection, and in collaborative models of patient-provider responsibility. Results Age was associated with lower motivation to screen, as were depressive symptoms, anomie, and fear of medical research. Motivation was low among those more comfortable with African-American providers, regardless of current provider race. However, greater awareness of societal racism positively predicted motivation, as did talking to others when experiencing discrimination. Talking was most useful for women with depressive symptoms. Conclusion Supporting the Durkheimian concepts of both anomic and altruistic suicide, both disengagement (depression, anomie, vulnerability to victimization, and

  12. Selfish cells in altruistic cell society - a theoretical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, M

    1993-09-01

    In multicellular organisms, internal evolution of individual cells is strictly forbidden and 'evolutional' DNA replication should be performed only by the sexual reproduction system. Wholistic negative control system called 'homeostasis' serves all service to germ line cells. All somatic cells are altruistic to the germ line cells. However, in malignant tumors, it seems that individual cells replicate and behave 'selfishly' and evolve against the internal microenvironment. Tumor cells only express the occult selfishness which is programmed in normal cells a priori. This phenomenon is based on the failure of identical DNA replication, and results in 'autonomy' and 'anomie' of cellular society as shown in tumor cells. Genetic programs of normal cells connote this cellular autonomy and anomie introduced by the deletion of regulators on structure genes. It is rather paradoxical that the somatic cells get their freedom from wholistic negative regulation programmed internally. However, this is not a true paradox, since multicellular organisms have clearly been evolved from 'monads' in which cells proliferate without wholistic regulation. Somatic cells revolt against germ cell DNA, called 'selfish replicator' by Dawkins. It is an inevitable destiny that the 'selfishness' coded in genome should be revenged by itself. Selfish replicator in germ cell line should be revolted by its selfishness in the expansion of somatic cells, since they have an orthogenesis to get more selfishness in order to increase their genome. Tumor heterogeneity and progression can be fully explained by this self-contradictory process which produces heterogeneous gene copies different from the original clone in the tumor, although 'selfish' gene replication is the final target of being. Furthermore, we have to discard the concept of clonality of tumor cells since genetic instability is a fundamental feature of tumors. Finally, tumor cells and proto-oncogenes can be considered as the ultimate parasite

  13. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

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    Halldorsson Vidar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. Method We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11031 Icelandic high school students. Results Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this

  14. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

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    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil. Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10% until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker; one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead (Encyrtidae and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo pedaços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera e os

  15. Represión estatal y paraestatal en Latinoamérica

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    Peter WALDMANN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, el autor analiza el problema de la violencia política desde la perspectiva de la violencia estatal y paraestatal. Pone de manifiesto las contradicciones existentes entre la función teórica del Estado de garantizar el orden público y la seguridad de los ciudadanos y su reciente actuación en numerosos países latinoamericanos, que lo han convertido en fuente de anomia política y social. Analiza en especial los casos de Brasil y Argentina.ABSTRACT: In this article, the author deals with the problem of political violence, from the point of view of state and para-state violence. He highligths the contradictions between theoretical function of State (the guarantee of public orden and the security of citizen and recent performances in several Latinamerican countries, that has transformed the state into the source of political and social anomy. He focus specially upon the cases of Brasil and Argentina.

  16. Violência e projetos de vida em conflitos pela posse da terra

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    José dos Reis Santos Filho

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apoiados em referenciais empíricos retirados das lutas pela posse da terra, sugerimos que, como instrumento, a violência parece ser caracterizada pelo fato de ser uma forma especial de lidar com a questão da anomia. Isso admitido, propomos que os mecanismos de produção e de reprodução da violência são mecanismos de produção e de reprodução da heteronomia da vontade. É o que nos coloca a importância de uma discussão sobre os projetos de vida. Palavras-chave: Violência. Conflitos pela terra. Projetos de vida. Imaginário social. ABSTRACT: In this text, based on empirical refferences taken from the struggles - fights for the property of land, we suggest that violence, as far as instrument, seems to be characterized by the fact that it is a special form of dealing with the question of anomy. Having admitted it, we propose that the mecanisms of production and reproduction of violence are the same mecanisms of production and reproduction of heteronomy of will. This is what brings out the discussion about life plans. Keywords: Violence. Land conflicts. Live project. Social imaginary.

  17. 'Islands' and 'doctor's tool': the ethical significance of isolation and subordination in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J

    2009-05-01

    Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in offering insights into how ethical problems and decision-making occur in healthcare. In this article, the findings of a qualitative study of the ethical problems and decision-making of UK community pharmacists are presented, and it is argued that the identified themes of pharmacists' relative isolation from others and their subordination to doctors are ethically significant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 community pharmacists in England, UK. Analysis of interviews revealed that isolation involved separation of pharmacists from their peers, other healthcare professionals, patients and customers. Such isolation is argued to be inimical to ethical practice - impeding ethical discourse as understood by Habermas, resulting in a form of anomie that inhibits the transmission of professional values, leading to a lack of proximity between pharmacist and patient or customer that may impede ethical relationships and resulting, psychologically, in less ethical concern for those who are less close. Pharmacists' subordination to doctors not only precipitated some ethical problems but also allowed some pharmacists to shift ethical responsibility to a prescribing doctor, as in the case of emergency hormonal contraception. The emergence of atrocity stories further supports a culture of subordination that may cause ethical problems. The study has implications for community pharmacy practice in terms of supervision issues, developments such as prescribing responsibilities and how ethical values can be taught and communicated. The potential for isolation and subordination in other healthcare professions, and resultant ethical problems, may also need to be addressed and researched.

  18. 'Legalized' forms of corruption in Serbia: Anomical state of social entropy

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    Zindović Ilija B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research will be phenomena of 'legalized' form of corruption. The name we gave to all those forms of social behavior that anomical escape incrimination, are not defined precisely by laws, a cause of increasing social anomie, and ultimately lead to destruction, entropy and disintegration of society. The study will include a spatial framework of the Republic of Serbia, during the time interval since 2000. onwards, with a look in the 90's of the last century, and follows a period of transition from socialism, and post-socialism, to this wild and unrestrained form of capitalism. Methods that are used in the study were: a sociological method (observation, comparative method, Legal (dogmatic-normative, method of the target interpretation and the logical method of generalization and concretization. The study aims to highlight the manifestations of corruption that have for various reasons are not criminalized, and thus indicate the harmfulness social-anomical conditions that are directly related to the entropy of society in which we live. After that follows the proposal of measures to remove these harmful emergent phenomena in the border area of sociology and law.

  19. Halbwachs and Durkheim: a test of two theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, R

    1990-06-01

    The social integration hypothesis forms the basis of this study. It was first asserted by Durkheim in late nineteenth-century France and many of his assumptions are based on a social disorganizational model. This model tended to equate social change with the breakdown of social control and many of Durkheim's notions about anomie are derived from this view of industrial society. Halbwachs, on the other hand, proposed a social psychological theory of suicide. His model specifies more clearly the conditions under which lack of social integration may induce suicide. This study shows that among a population in transition, the Alaska Natives, the suicide rate was explained by the Halbwachsian model at least as well as the Durkheimian one and sometimes better. The Durkheimian model is shown to reflect a Cartesian dualism, which accounts only for that which is observable, thus making for biased studies of suicide. Moreover, psychopathological research confirms the Halbwachsian model. These findings restore the social isolation theory, once long neglected, to its rightful place among theories of suicide and opens up an important field for researchers seeking to understand high rates of suicide.

  20. Social pathologies, false developments and the heteronomy of the social: Social theory and the negative side of recognition

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    Souza Luiz Gustavo da Cunha de

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore a tension between two concepts designed to expose social discomforts in Axel Honneth’s mature work, namely social pathologies and anomie. Particular emphasis will be given to how they contribute or obstruct Honneth’s apprehension of social tensions. In the first session of this exposition I will show that Honneth’s interpretation of social pathologies is based on a conception of society as an organic whole (I. While this interpretation represents a slight change regarding Honneth’s understanding of social pathologies in Das Recht der Freiheit, it does not change the fact that in his work subsequent to that book the concept of false developments has not been properly theorized. Accordingly, social discomforts related to deviations from expected patterns of a normative reconstruction remain largely ignored. This calls for a perspective more fully able to grasp the heteronomy of social life (II. As a result, in Honneth’s mature work there seems to be a tension between the aims of a normative reconstruction and those of social critique, mainly due to an inability of the author to combine both elements of his social theory. In its final section (III, the paper will address that tension in order to critically contribute to Honneth’s attempt to link normative reconstruction, social analysis and criticism.

  1. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events.

  2. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

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    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  3. A psycho-economic model of ecstasy consumption and related consequences: a multi-site study with community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Scheier, Lawrence M; Inciardi, James A; Copeland, Jan; Cottler, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    Becker and Murphy's (1988) theory of rational behavior suggests that economic factors play an influential role in the decision leading to drug consumption and possibly dependence. Psychological models, on the other hand, emphasize internal regulatory cues that motivate drug use and play a contributory role in dependence. Until now, the confluence of both economic and psychological models has not been tested empirically. The present study used latent-variable structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the influence of both economic (social anomie, unit price, and time spent acquiring drugs) and psychological risk factors (motivation, depression, and sexual risk behaviors) on self-reported ecstasy use. Data were obtained from 612 recreational ecstasy users in the United States and Australia participating in a NIDA-funded epidemiological study examining trends in ecstasy use. The sample was mainly white (61%), male (58%), and young (mean age = 23 yrs [5.25]). All of the hypothesized latent constructs were statistically reliable and correlated in the expected direction. A saturated SEM indicated that monetary and opportunity cost, but not income, significantly predicted ecstasy use. Among the psychological measures, motivational cues were the strongest predictor of both use and dependence. Inclusion of gender, age, race, education, and site variables did not appreciably alter the final model parameters. The implications of incorporating the role of economic factors in shaping a more refined understanding of addiction are discussed. Suggestions for future research and study limitations are also noted.

  4. Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine ("meth") in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth's pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption.

  5. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  6. Hyubris as a factor of individual criminal

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    V. V. Surkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminal personality for thousands of years is the object of philosophical research. For philosophical anthropology, in particular, it is important to understand which components of human nature can be regarded as criminal. The term “hubris” that appears in ancient Greek culture, today received its second wind. It is widely used (especially in the West to refer to the human outlook, which provokes too arrogant, defiant behavior, which is a public danger. The term “hubris” is often used in criticism of certain politicians. However, we propose to expand the scope of its application also in other spheres of public life. Іn the history of criminology there are many examples of people with hubris, especially among dangerous criminals. Therefore hubris can be considered as criminogenic factor that requires research and limitations of the society. In another case, there is a situation, by analogy with the term “intoxication of power”, can be called “intoxication of impunity”. This thesis is confirmed by authoritative theories developed in criminology, sociology, psychology too. It is also consistent with some modern philosophical views on the nature of the criminal personality. Analysis of factors that stimulate the emergence and growth of hubris, suggest that most are present in a mass society. It generates anomie (loss of values that щаеут manifests as hubris that can act as criminogenic factor. Therefore, hubris reducing requires changes in the organization of social life.

  7. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  8. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

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    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  9. Feijão com arroz e arroz com feijão: o Brasil no prato dos brasileiros

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    Lívia Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo oferecer um panorama dos hábitos alimentares brasileiros no universo doméstico a partir do ponto de vista da população. Ele encontra-se baseado em uma pesquisa empírica, que utilizou métodos qualitativos e quantitativos, a partir de uma amostra domiciliar probabilística. Os resultados apresentados aqui se concentram no sistema de refeições e são discutidos à luz de algumas das teses sobre as tendências da alimentação contemporânea. Entre estas se destacam a da individualização das refeições, a da gastro-anomia e da homogeneização do gosto alimentar.The objective of this article is to offer an overall view of eating habits in Brazilian homes from the point of view of the population. Empirical research made use of qualitative and quantitative methods based on a probabilistic home sample. The results presented here concentrate on the system of meals and are discussed in the light of various theses concerning the trends of contemporary alimentation. These trends include individualized meals, gastro-anomie and homogenized taste.

  10. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

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    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  11. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

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    Shoko Yoneyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating 'non-western' research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I and II, and discusses 1 hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2 group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students' way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

  12. The role of community, family, peer, and school factors in group bullying: implications for school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael J; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L

    2015-07-01

    Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland population school survey (N = 7084, response rate: 83.5%, 50.8% girls). Parental support and time spent with parents were protective against group bullying behavior while worsening relationships with teachers and disliking school increased the likelihood of such behavior. Knowing kids in the area increased the likelihood of group bullying while intergenerational closure was a protective factor. Normlessness was consistently positively related to group bullying. We found no indication of higher-level relationships across the bullying models. Parental support was protective against victimization. Disliking school, intergenerational closure, and anomie/normlessness were strongly and negatively related to victimization. We found some indication of multilevel relationships for victimization. Findings support efforts to increase family and community connection, closure, and support as a part of school-based intervention. These factors become more important as young people participate in or experience greater odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  14. FROM JUSTUM BELLUM TO GENERAL MOBILIZATION

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    Wojciech Buchner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know, contemporary mass democracy imposes political correctness standards. The issue of war belongs to such problems. Within the framework of democratic correctness, this common phenomenon in history cannot be discussed as an unavoidable question for any society. Nevertheless, war constitutes a constant element of universal history, therefore the promotion of evidently pacifist attitudes further leads to weakening the spirit of bravery and justifiable defence and – consequently – to a moralist interpretation of war as evil in itself. Such an attitude envolves refutation of classical doctrine of formal (or just war and moves it into the abyss of anomy and wildness. To sum up, contemporary pacifist education leads to acceptance of the opinion that war exists beyond of civilisation and therefore no restriction can be imposed thereon. In this perspective, the classic enemy (hostis is not a formal enemy anymore but manifests itself morally as the essence of eviland aesthetically repulsive, i.e. as en enemy of entire mankind – the one that should be annihilated. In other words, there imerges a shy tendency to blur the difference between the enemy and the criminal. Contemporary understanding of war deprives honours and rightsto which the formal enemy is entitled and which resulted from the former doctrine of just war. The present paper id devoted to the criticism of such tendencies.

  15. K. Schmitt’s Theory of Partisan: Socio - Political Eventuality of Partisan

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    Mihail Petrovich Ostromenskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eventual socio-political conditions of the appearance of a partisan are considered. It is shown that the appearance of the partisan becomes possible when the socio-political uncertainty in the state and social anomie in society caused serious set into question the legitimacy of the sovereign. In such circumstances, falling value of public institutions, the rule of law and the rules of the routine, but the role of the individual and adopt independent decisions, in each case, increases. And increasing the area of independent ad hoc decisions. Such conditions arise in the occupied territory, especially in a situation of the continuing war. Besides, here indigenous people without taking any illegal actions, from the point of view of both clashing sovereigns, it is struck in the rights. All this makes a real opportunity to show the political subjectivity of the citizen, even with low social status. The behavior of the occupied population can follow three models: expectations of the solution of the conflict between sovereigns and the subsequent acceptance of its results as due - absolute majority population, the active help to the occupying sovereign for the purpose of the statement new political - the collaborator, active opposition of the occupying authority for the purpose of return former political - the partisan.

  16. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  17. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  18. The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: a report from the 'post-war' zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M G

    1995-12-01

    Observers of the Soviet health and demographic scene have noted that many of the phenomena (particularly mortality) were unprecedented in 'peace time.' In fact, the Cold War (or Third World War) was 'war time,' although not in the conventional military sense (it was ideological, political and economic warfare). The health crisis in the former Soviet Union is partly the result of that lost conflict by the Soviet side due to its inability to match the West in defense outlays and to provide for the needs of the civilian sector. Health conditions began to deteriorate in the late sixties, and were exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Empire in late 1991. These were reflected in increasing mortality and morbidity, decreasing natality, a deteriorating health service, and an environment ruined by the heedless drive toward industrialization and militarization. This resulted in a 'systemic' breakdown of the Soviet system, not only its health care structure. The situation of the former Soviet Union is that of a country that has suffered a humiliating national defeat with all the consequences of a 'post-war' situation, including inflation, anomie and social polarization. The health crisis is likely to get worse, and will not be resolved until a viable political, economic and social order is established. Today's deteriorating health and demographic situation will create 'echo' problems in the decade to come.

  19. A rhetoric of retribution and redemption: Burke's terms for order in the drama of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela D

    2011-01-01

    Law consists of a series of stories, narratives that embody the values and integrity of a culture. We define crimes, and label the individuals who commit them, along a continuum that moves from the merely unacceptable to the monstrous. One of the most heinous crimes in American society is considered to be child sexual abuse. The sexual abuser of children is firmly established in the public imagination as a modern-day bogeyman, and approaches to prevention and punishment reflect this artificially accelerated panic. Although public policies and correctional measures ostensibly are geared at preventing the crime, they reflect a fundamental misunderstanding as to the motivation of many offenders and the way in which child sexual abuse is perceived as a source of social anomie. This paper uses Kenneth Burke's interpretative framework to examine the social and legal perceptions and treatment of child sexual abusers. First discussed are Burke's conceptions of identity and orientation, which form the basis of human motivation and thus can illuminate the source of offenders' impulses. Next, Burke's "terms for order" are used to show the ways in which the dominant hierarchy compels us to scapegoat and sacrifice in the quest for social redemption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The radicalized self: the impact on the self of the contested nature of the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; James, Susan

    2003-10-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a relatively new disease that is difficult to diagnose. It is also a contested disease immersed in dispute about whether it is a physical or psychiatric reality. Sufferers often claim to experience not only the physical challenges of the disease, and these can be extensive, but also, initially, the anomie of suffering from a condition whose very reality is debated both in the medical and in the wider communities. Theories of self in illness emphasize how people who are diagnosed as chronically ill work hard as they seek to maintain previous, or to develop supernormal, selves. Such goals are cast in a critical light by Foucault's notion of the technologies of self in the context of circulating neo-liberal discourses. As people with CFS, lacking an uncontested medical diagnosis, search for meaningful self-identities, they resist previously available discourses to take up an alternative discourse, one that we call radicalized selves. This paper raises questions about the constraints and liberties, power and powerlessness associated with a clear and undisputed medical diagnosis. It suggests a model of the self in chronic illness that considers not only changes in body and biography but also the availability of an uncontested diagnosis.

  1. A Possible Answer of the European Union to Hybrid Threats

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    Cîrdei Ionuţ Alin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is marked by a certain state of anomy, which in reality does not conceal a state of chaos, but an attempt to restore and redesign spheres of influence, creating a new world order involving both state actors: the US, Russia, China India, supra-states actors: EU, NATO, etc or non-state actors. The European Union is confronted with a series of internal and external challenges that affect the state of security. Challenges are very diverse, difficult to anticipate and counteract, and can be attributed, on the one hand, to the cyclical evolution of society and, on the other hand, to intentional interventions using unconventional methods and means of hybrid type, which are aimed at destabilizing one of the most powerful supra-state structures, enjoying significant economic and political strength, which has a large population and can influence the evolution of events globally. Lately, EU countries have begun to tackle the most diverse issues, such as migration, terrorist threat, radicalization of a part of the population, supporting direct or indirect jihadist organizations, organizing attacks within the union, developing nationalism, separatism, ethnic or religious intolerance, etc.

  2. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

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    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  3. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-01-01

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  4. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  5. La política del fuego: El desplazamiento contemporáneo del paradigma geopolítico

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    Marder, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper theoretizes the transition from a global regime of geopolitics (that is to say, the politics of the earth to a pyropolitical regime, or the politics of fire. Based in the political philosophy of Carl Schmitt, the thesis is that the certainty, stability, and order rooted in the earth are now being displaced by the anomie of fire, as the symbol and the concrete sphere of the political today.Este artículo teoriza la transición del régimen global geopolítico (es decir, la política de la tierra a régimen piropolítico, o la política del fuego. En base a filosofía política de Carl Schmitt, la tesis es que la certidumbre, estabilidad y orden arraigados en la tierra están desplazados por la anomia del fuego, como un símbolo y dominio concreto de lo político hoy.

  6. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  7. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  8. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

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    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  9. O campo de detecção de normas e desvios

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    Antônio Carlos Luz Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma alternativa de desenvolvimento para a teoria da anomia de Robert K. Merton, uma hipótese sobre a dinâmica do contexto social em que surgem comportamentos desviantes a normas é elaborada. Com base em conceitos de Merton, Simmel, Bourdieu e os semióticos, analisa-se: a posição do indivíduo (classificado ou não de desviante em uma estrutura que privilegia determinados sujeitos; e b como se dá esse privilégio. A hipótese de trabalho: do quanto mais capitais (econômico, social e cultural o indivíduo dispuser, menores serão suas chances de ter uma ação detectadaem um campo de detecção de normas e desvios. From an alternative development of Robert K. Merton’s anomie theory, the article Detection fi eld of social norms and social deviance discusses the dynamicssocial contexts in which behaviors deviate from social norms. From Merton, Simmel, Bourdieu and the semiotics, the article focuses on (a the position of the individual (classifi ed or not as deviant in a structure that privileges certain individuals and (b how this privilege happens. The hypothesis: the more are the capitals (economic, social, cultural someone shows, the less are the chances of having the action detected as deviant in a field of detection of norms and deviance.

  10. Poisoned social climate, collective responsibility, and the abuse at Abu Ghraib--Or, the establishment of "rule that is lack of rule".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrovic, Stjepan G; Romero, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The authors draw upon the experiences of one of the co-authors as an expert witness in sociology for mitigation at three of the courts-martial pertaining to the abuse at Abu Ghraib that were held at Ft. Hood, Texas in the year 2005 (for Javal Davis, Sabrina Harman, and Lynndie England). In addition, this paper is based upon the thousands of pages of affidavits, testimony, and U.S. Government reports concerning Abu Ghraib. These internal government reports, as well as the Levin-McCain report, point to collective responsibility and the responsibility of individuals high in the chain of command for establishing unlawful techniques. We review the shortcomings of a purely psychological approach for understanding the abuse, and turn to Durkheim's original understanding of anomie as a state of social derangement or rule by lack of rule to introduce the ideas of the social origins of and social responsibility for the abuse. We conclude with sociological suggestions for reforming some of the legal, medical, psychiatric, and other professional complicity in the abuse at Abu Ghraib. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. El conflicto interno colombiano. Identidad, solidaridad y conflicto social

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    Parales, Carlos J.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The article draws links between the concepts of identity, solidarity and social conflict. It argues that, since feelings of identification favor social cohesion, when the construction of national identity does not achieve positive expression it fails to produce solidarity. In Colombia the ambivalent and forced character of the Independence movement resulted, among other things, in an imperfect construction of national identity and led to turbulent history of violence and segregation. The consequence has been difficult social bonds, hostile forms of social contact, and the development of what has been described as one of the most impressive contemporary examples of anomie. Based on Durkheim's sociology, the article suggests that the conflict in Colombia is basically a moral problem and must be treated as such, as this is the only way to see in this conflict an opportunity for social change.

    Este artículo esboza posibles relaciones entre los conceptos de identidad nacional, solidaridad y conflicto social, apoyándose en la sociología de Durkheim. Se argumenta que, dado que la identificación favorece la cohesión social, cuando la conformación de identidad nacional no logra expresiones constructivas no consigue producir solidaridad. En Colombia el carácter forzado y ambivalente del movimiento independentista resultó, entre otras consecuencias, en una construcción problemática de la identidad nacional y ha provocado una historia turbulenta de violencia y segregación. Las consecuencias se manifiestan en la alteración de los vínculos sociales y el desarrollo de lo que se ha calificado como uno de los ejemplos contemporáneos más dramáticos de anomia. El artículo sugiere que el conflicto colombiano es básicamente un problema moral.

  12. A concepção durkheimiana de regulação moral da economia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benevides Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para Durkheim, como a moral torna possível a vida social, é inverossímil pensar qualquer aspecto da sociedade que dela prescinda. A partir de tal referencial, mesmo nunca tendo tido o fenômeno econômico como objeto central de suas investigações, o sociólogo desenvolve reflexões sobre os economistas e, principalmente, sobre a vida econômica de fi ns do século XIX e início do século XX. Nosso trabalho sistematiza o pensamento econômico de Durkheim e discute alcances e limites de sua proposta para superar o estado de anomia em que a economia se encontrava. Como mostraremos, ele defendia a necessidade de submeter a economia a uma regulação moral. For Durkheim, as morals make social life possible, it is implausible to consider any aspect of society that dispenses of morality. Based on that reference, TheDurkenheimian Concept of Moral Regulation of the Economy demonstrates that, even without ever having discussed economics as the central theme ofhis investigations, the sociologist actually develops thoughts about economists and, especially, about the economic life of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Our work systematises Durkheim’s economic thought and discusses the scope and limits of his proposal to overcome the state of anomie in which the economyfound itself. As we show, he defends the need to subject the economy to moral regulation.

  13. Sociologia do desvio e interacionismo Sociology of deviance and interactionism

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    Rita de Cássia Pereira Lima

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é essencialmente teórico e tem como objetivo apresentar uma análise histórica não exaustiva da sociologia do desvio, privilegiando as teorias interacionistas. Inicialmente, após um breve relato sobre a aparição da sociologia do desvio em Chicago, serão comentadas três tendências que buscam analisar as causas do desvio: o funcionalismo, a anomia e o culturalismo. Em seguida, o interacionismo surge como uma proposta de rompimento com o enfoque causal. A especificidade da teoria interacionista, particularmente a "Labelling Theory" de H. Becker, encontra-se na ação coletiva e na ênfase no processo social através do qual um indivíduo ou grupo é considerado desviante pelos demais. Para finalizar, serão mencionadas algumas tendências mais recentes, por exemplo, a fenomenologia e a etnometodologia, acrescidas de algumas críticas dirigidas ao conjunto dessas teorias, especialmente por Pierre Bourdieu.This is essentially a theoretical article and it aims to present a non-exhaustive analysis of the sociology of deviance, emphasizing interactionist theories. A brief account of the emergence of the sociology of deviance in Chicago is followed by a discussion on three tendencies that are involved in analyzing the causes of deviance: functionalism, anomie and culturalism. Next, interactionism arises as a means to break up with the causal approach. The specificity of the interactionist theory, especially H. Becker's Labelling Theory, can be seen in collective action and in the emphasis on the social process through which an individual or a group is considered deviant by the others. Finally, a few of the more recent tendencies are mentioned, such as phenomenology and ethnomethodology, and the criticism directed at these theories, mainly by Pierre Bourdieu, are discussed.

  14. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Madigan, Margaret A; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L; Gold, Mark S

    The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x 2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x 2 = 40.78, p theory. Stronger spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are directly associated with remission from abused drugs except crack. Much like the value of having a sponsor, for clients who abuse drugs, regular spiritual practice, particularly weekly attendance at the religious services of their choice is associated with significantly higher remission. These results demonstrate the clinically significant role of spirituality and the social bonds it creates in drug treatment programs.

  15. Anomic Crime in Post-Welfarist Societies: Cult of the Individual, Integration Patterns and Delinquency

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    Sabine Frerichs

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-Fordist economies come along with post-welfarist societies marked by intensified cultural individualism and increased structural inequalities. These conditions are commonly held to be conducive to relative deprivation and, thereby, anomic crime. At the same time, post-welfarist societies develop a new “balance of power” between institutions providing for welfare regulation, such as the family, the state and the (labour market—and also the penal system. These institutions are generally expected to improve social integration, ensure conformity and thus reduce anomic crime. Combining both perspectives, we analyse the effects of moral individualism, social inequality, and different integration strategies on crime rates in contemporary societies through the lenses of anomie theory. To test our hypotheses, we draw on time-series cross-section data compiled from different data sources (OECD, UN, WHO, WDI for twenty developed countries in the period 1970–2004, and run multiple regressions that control for country-specific effects. Although we find some evidence that the mismatch between cultural ideal (individual inclusion and structural reality (stratified exclusion increases the anomic pressure, whereas conservative (family-based, social-democratic (state-based and liberal (market-based integration strategies to a certain extent prove effective in controlling the incidence of crime, the results are not very robust. Moreover, reservations have to be made regarding the effects of “market” income inequality as well as familialist, unionist and liberalist employment policies that are shown to have reversed effects in our sample: the former reducing, the latter occasionally increasing anomic crime.

  16. Eastern European Transformation and Youth Attitudes toward Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Haußmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This cross-national examination of the motives behind adolescent approval of violence in major cities in Germany and four Eastern European transformation societies (Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Slovenia draws on Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT, which leads us to expect higher instrumental motivation for violence among adolescents in the transforming societies. Differences in institutional structure and cultural orientations between Germany and the Eastern European societies are assessed using data from ILO and ESS. Analysis of the different motives for violence is based on data collected by the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN in Kraków, Volgograd, Ljubljana, Plzen, and Hamburg. Comparability and cross-cultural interpretability of the violence
    attitude measure is assessed by applying confirmatory factor analyses in multi-group comparisons. A lack of sufficient data meant that specific assumed linkages as implied by IAT could not be established, but the results for a specific instrumental/utilitarian motive for violence and for institutional structure and cultural orientations point to the utility of applying insights from IAT to understanding the dynamics of violence within the Eastern European context of transformation.
    We find empirical indications that specific features of the family mediate the “Eastern effect” on the instrumental/utilitarian motive. Further research is needed to discover whether economic dominance affects motives for youth violence indirectly via the socialization provided by non-economic institutions rather than directly via cultural orientations.

  17. An opportunity for positive change. We have the history, experience, and will to preserve a Catholic presence in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J M

    1993-09-01

    The charitable acts of women religious in response to the needs of the communities in which they settled is one of the great chapters in the history of the Church in America. But in the past two decades providers have had to contend with extraordinary changes in the healthcare environment. The Catholic healthcare mission was rooted in concern for the poor. Should Catholic healthcare providers withdraw from this field in which they have had such a significant presence and have contributed so much, or be driven from healthcare by the fiscal consequences of fidelity to mission? Instead, through its reform proposal, the Catholic Health Association has recommended that Catholic providers become advocates of change. However, even if change, such as universal access to healthcare, is achieved, we shall still have a society in which there will be many poor people. The challenge will be to see that healthcare for the poor does not become poor healthcare. Although the changing urban environment presents enormous challenges to providers, the Catholic healthcare ministry is a significant presence in urban areas. Widespread poverty accompanied by behavioral problems and social breakdowns are significant factors affecting healthcare and healthcare costs. Drug addiction; AIDS; teenage pregnancy; homelessness; the deterioration of the family; and generations of unemployment, anomie, abuse, and violence, which are often most acute in concentrated neighborhoods of poverty, challenge the ability of Catholic hospitals to meet their community's needs. Catholic providers today have a real opportunity to bring about positive changes in healthcare. They have the history, experience, and will to preserve a Catholic presence in the provision of healthcare.

  18. Suicide and the Great Recession of 2007-2009: the role of economic factors in the 50 U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A; Nugent, Colleen N

    2014-09-01

    After several decades of decline, U.S. suicide rates have risen since 2005, a trend driven largely by increases among those aged 45-64 that began in 1999. A prominent explanation for this pattern relates to deteriorating economic conditions, especially the sharp rise in unemployment associated with the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We pool data from 1997 to 2010 on the 50 U.S. states to examine the role of economic factors in producing the recent rise in suicide rates. Unlike prior studies, we examine trends in the total suicide rate and in the rate disaggregated by sex, age group and time period and include a number of important confounding factors in a multivariate analysis. We find a strong positive association between unemployment rates and total suicide rates over time within states. The association appears stronger in states that had higher female labor force participation rates over the period, suggesting that the Great Recession may generate greater levels of anomie in this context. Once we consider contextual factors such as female labor force participation, we find that rising unemployment had a similar adverse effect on male and female suicide rates. A positive effect of unemployment on temporal variation in middle-aged suicide exists but not for other age groups. Other economic characteristics, such as percent of manufacturing jobs and per capita income, are not associated with temporal variation in suicide rates within states but are associated with variation between states in suicide rates. The findings suggest that the following may be important components of effective prevention strategies: 1) specifically targeting employers and workplaces as important stakeholders in the prevention of suicide, 2) disseminating information about health risks tied to un/employment, and 3) linking the unemployed to mental health resources. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shuvobrata; Sarkar, Chirabrata; Saha, Prosanta; Gotyal, Bheemanna S.; Satpathy, Subrata; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K.

    2018-01-01

    Jute (Corchorus sp.) is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4). The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee), hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker) and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber. PMID:29354143

  20. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  1. Religious Racism. Islamophobia and Antisemitism in Italian Society

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    Alfredo Alietti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Racism and racial prejudice, considered a relic of obsolete and outdated social systems, is emerging in the depths of ultra-modern Western societies with different characteristics from the past but with a surprising and worrying virulence. These waves of prejudice and racism testify to the many fears that fill the horizons of advanced societies, undermining not only their internal reliability, but also just their democratic settings. This paper presents a critical review of Islamophobia as a racial prejudice, showing that two main definitions are at work: Islamophobia as xeno-racism or linked to the so-called clash of civilizations. Then, it presents the outcomes coming from a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey led among a representative sample of the Italian population (n = 1,523 on Antisemitic and Islamophobic attitudes. The cogency and structure of anti-Muslim public discourse and connected mass attitudes, revealed by our investigation, confirm the emergency of these two relevant dimensions of Islamophobia, which claim for a more accurate definition of Islamophobia. Moreover, the distribution of anti-Semitic and Islamophobic attitudes illustrate an interesting overlapping of Islamophobia and Antisemitism which claims that racism is multi-targeted and that there is not so much options between Antisemitism and Islamophobia. Finally, we use three main variables—anomie, ethnocentrism, and authoritarianism—as predictors of Islamophobia and Antisemitism. We tested the strength of these three predictors with the aid of path technique based on multiple regression analysis, which helps to determine the direct and indirect impacts of certain independent variables on dependent variables in a hypothetical causal system.

  2. Corruption, regionalization and local governance

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    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is old almost as human societies and it was developed simultaneously with enlargement of social and political power, bureaucracy and involvement of the state into market transactions. Specific conditions that are characteristic of Serbian society and that have favorably influenced the growth of corruption are: dissolution/break up of Yugoslavia war in surroundings, economic sanctions and NATO bombing. Besides these basic causes of corruption in Serbia are state control over the economy, lack of the rule of law, and breakdown of social values, that is, anomy and poverty. The lack of the rule of law and the state control of economy, which often occur together, are older conditions, while distorted social values, that is, moral crisis and poverty are newer. Subordination of judicial system to the executive authorities enabled different sorts of bribe and corruption to be tolerated. Therefore, the corruption has spread and became contemporary method of conducting business and almost a common thing, regardless of the party composition of the authorities. This thesis is confirmed by the empirical data: 17.9% of citizens claim that all local officials and corrupted and 48.4% claim that majority of them are. On the other side, only 27.5% of citizens claim that local party officials (all of them or majority accept bribe, and 31.1% claim that only some do. Therefore, we are faced with higher interest in political engagement, because it is becoming a highly profitable occupation and posts in local government are highly appreciated because corruption profit is calculated in advance.

  3. Alchohol Consumption Practices in the Koryak Community

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    Lyudmila N. Khakhovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of alcohol consumption practices within the Koryak ethno-cultural community. The aim of the article is to understand how the reasons for alcohol consumption are explained within the framework of the community. The analysis is based on the ideas of Durkheim’s social theory. The author of the article claims that the practice of consuming alcohol is essentially connected with the more archaic practice of mushroom consumption since both have a grounding in the Koryak perception of the world. The analysed models of behaviour stem from appropriate Koryak epistemology and ontology, which themselves are based on the notion of the ‘other world’ and communication with supernatural entities (spirits. The isomorphism of consuming alcohol and amanita intoxication reflects the inner core of this connection: the Koryak believe that an entity enters the human body and controls their actions. The transition from one type of intoxication to another is accompanied by drastic transformation of the materiality of the consumed product, which, in turn, leads towards social transformations. Such social changes are qualified as anomie by the author of the article. The visual materiality of the amanita mushroom dictated its symbolic anthropomorphism and creation of special rules for the treatment (amanita codex. The physical amorphousness of vodka does not imply the same intellectual work. The author claims that this factor was one of the reasons why the Koryak do not have social regulations about vodka consumption – which leads to mass alcoholism. It is possible that indigenous communities have difficulties in working out the required social regulations because of the complexities surrounding the non-utilitarian treatment of the unusual materiality of vodka.

  4. SOCIAL ATTITUDES TO DRUGS ABUSE AMONG YOUTH AND DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION

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    Y. N. Nakhimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The formation of responsibility for one’s health in the youth environment is one of the tasks of the institution of education that determines the process of socialization. The future of sustainable development of country is determined, among other things, by the formation of negative social attitudes towards drug use.The aim of the publication is to study the specifics of the social orientation among young people on drug use and to justify the need for prevention in the educational environment.Methodology and research methods. Methodological basis of work involves classical theories of social installation; anomies; cultural conflict; subcultures; stigmatizations; social control; social space. The analysis and synthesis of scientific publications and data of the government statistics, including results of a number of social researches of 2010–2015 conducted in the Tyumen region are used. Sociological methods, including poll, questioning and the formalized interviews are applied at an experimental investigation phase. Data processing is carried out in technique of the factorial and classification analysis.Results and scientific novelty. Drug abuse among young people is a result of the contradiction between youth attitudes and social norms. It is shown that the prevention of drug abuse in Russia is institutionally ineffective. The social attitudes and motives connected with drug abuse among young people aged 18–30 years are revealed. It is established that acceptance of drug abuse experience is not defined by a gender, social and/or material status. The main types of the attitude to drug abuse experience are designated: 1 complete negation of a possibility of drug abuse; 2 refusal of drug abuse, but indifference or loyal attitude to drug abuse by others; 3 readiness for periodic drug usage; 4 steady stereotype of regular use of narcotic substances.The necessity of flexible forms of influence on youth for formation of sustainable

  5. Student voluntarism in transition.

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    Garcia, S A; Clark, C; Walfish, S

    1979-01-01

    The university student volunteer as a social change agent is in a period of transition. There is no returning to the idealism and activism of the 1960s if this and future generations of students continue to see self-preservation and individual advancement as their only viable option here in America. In view of the changing nature of today's students, the conventional definitions of volunteers, such as Shultz's (1972) altruist, average, and pseudo-volunteer, must be reconsidered. Does the acceptance of minimal pay or demand for academic credit preclude one's being a true altruist? Further, is altruism a necessary or sufficient condition of voluntarism? While we must attempt to answer these questions, the purpose here was to suggest viable first steps in reviving and enhancing student voluntarism. Some of the most salient points are: (1) Student volunteers provide critically needed services to the community, (2) Students are increasingly demanding tangible personal and educational gains for services through voluntarism, (3) Faculty support is vital to student voluntarism and they should be encouraged to actively design their classes to integrate classroom theory and practice through volunteering, and (4) The community agencies served should be active participants in the faculty, student, agency triad, and not merely passive recipients of services. The future of student voluntarism must be viewed in the larger context of changes occurring in the society-at-large, such as cynicism, mistrust of authority figures and leaders, and a move away from altruism and toward symbiosis and/or individualism. There is widespread disillusionment with "band-aid" approaches to solving enormous social problems, i.e., trying to help the few while some of society's most fundamental structures guarantee the perpetuation of poverty, crime, and general anomie. The rekindling of the ideology of cooperative altruism will take ingenuity and tireless effort. Meanwhile, if community psychology

  6. Opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

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    Fisher, H; Montgomery, P; Gardner, F E M

    2008-04-16

    Youth gangs have long been studied in the United States and interest elsewhere is increasing. Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency. One theory of gang involvement, drawing on anomie and strain theories, proposes that the gang provides a means of fulfilling the economic needs of youth excluded from legitimate labour markets. Opportunities provision is a gang prevention strategy based on this theory and the principle that providing youth with educational and employment opportunities may reduce gang involvement. Common techniques within opportunities provision include tutoring, remedial education, job training, and job placement. To determine the effectiveness of opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people aged 7 to 16. Electronic searches were conducted of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions that have opportunities provision as the majority component, delivered to children and youths aged 7 to 16 not involved in a gang, compared to any other or no intervention. Searches yielded 2,696 unduplicated citations. 2,676 were excluded based on title and abstract. Two were excluded based on personal communication with study authors. Full-text reports for 18 citations were retrieved. 16 were excluded because they were not evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, did not include gang-related outcomes, did not include opportunities provision intervention components, or presented preliminary findings for outcomes reported in another citation. The remaining two

  7. Mobile communication and new sense of places: a critique of spatialization in cyberculture Mobile communication and new sense of places: a critique of spatialization in cyberculture

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    André Lemos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying idea of this paper can be expressed as follows: informational mobile technologies have enabled new means of communication and sociability based on what I call "informational territories". What is at stake here is to question some visions about the relationship between informational technologies and place, territory, community and mobility. I will argue that, under the label of "locative media", new mobile technologies are creating new forms of territorialization (control, surveillance, tracking and new meanings of space, place, and territory, contradicting the theory of "non-place" or "no sense of place". Moreover, this impels us to argue the ideas of anomie and isolation with the emergence of new forms of sociability and community created by location-based services. Comunicação móvel e o novo sentido dos lugares: crítica da espacialização na cibercultura — A ideia básica deste artigo pode ser colocada da seguinte forma: tecnologias informacionais móveis têm permitindo novas formas de comunicação e sociabilidade com base naquilo que chamo de "territórios informacionais". O que está em jogo aqui é uma nova relação entre as tecnologias informacionais e as dimensões do local, do território, da comunidade e da mobilidade. Vamos mostrar como as novas tecnologias móveis, sob o rótulo de "mídias locativas", criam novas formas de territorialização (controle, vigilância, monitoramento e, contra as tese de "não-lugar" ou de um "não sentido dos lugares", o que estamos vendo são novas significações no espaço público urbano. Além disso, discutiremos as ideias de anomia e de isolamento com o surgimento de formas de sociabilidade e de vínculo comunitário criadas pelos serviços baseados em localização (LBS.

  8. Algunas puntualizaciones psicoanalíticas sobre Durkheim Some psychoanalytical views about Durkheim

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    Osvaldo Umérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Es el objetivo del siguiente trabajo realizar una lectura psicoanalítica de los aportes de Emile Durkheim al entendimiento de la crisis de los lazos sociales producto de la "sociedad industrial", centrándonos en las nociones de "anomia" y "mal de lo infinito"que dicho autor utilizara para dar cuenta del descontento del hombre en la sociedad de tales características. Sostenemos la vigencia de su pensamiento en el acercamiento a lo actual y realizamos un retorno a dicho autor mediante conceptualizaciones freudianas y lacanianas. Desde Freud, se aborda la perspectiva propuesta en relación al malestar en la cultura y la imposibilidad del hombre para llevar a cabo el programa del principio del placer. Desde Lacan, se trabaja la noción de Superyó en tanto imperativo de goce , la resignificación del concepto de castración y la cuestión de la femeneidad. Esta última trabajada por los tres autores mencionados como excepción a la ley universal.The aim of the following paper is to make a psychoanalytical approach to the contributions of Emile Durkheim to the understanding of the social relationship crisis produced by the "industrial society", highlighting the notions of "anomy" and "infinite evil" which that author used to show the discontent of the man in a society with those characteristics. His standing thought is supported as a way of approaching the present time and a return to the ideas of the author is made through concepts from Freud and Lacan. From Freud, the perspective proposed in connection to the cultural malaise is studied as well as the impossibility of the man to carry out the pleasure principle programme. From Lacan, the notion of the Superego as an imperative of enjoyment, the reappraisal of the concept of castration and the femineity matter are considered. This last issue has been elaborated by the three authors mentioned as an exception to the universal law.

  9. Do schools differ in suicide risk? the influence of school and neighbourhood on attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and self-harm among secondary school pupils

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    Young Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of suicide and poor mental health are high in environments (neighbourhoods and institutions where individuals have only weak social ties, feel socially disconnected and experience anomie - a mismatch between individual and community norms and values. Young people spend much of their time within the school environment, but the influence of school context (school connectedness, ethos and contextual factors such as school size or denomination on suicide-risk is understudied. Our aim is to explore if school context is associated with rates of attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and self-harm at age 19, adjusting for confounders. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 1698 young people surveyed when aged 11, (primary school, 15 (secondary school and in early adulthood (age 19. Participants provided data about attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and deliberate self-harm at 19. In addition, data were collected about mental health at age 11, social background (gender, religion, etc., and at age 15, perception of local area (e.g. neighbourhood cohesion, safety/civility and facilities, school connectedness (school engagement, involvement, etc. and school context (size, denomination, etc.. A dummy variable was created indicating a religious 'mismatch', where pupils held a different faith from their school denomination. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression. Results After adjustment for confounders, pupils attempted suicide, suicide-risk and self-harm were all more likely among pupils with low school engagement (15-18% increase in odds for each SD change in engagement. While holding Catholic religious beliefs was protective, attending a Catholic school was a risk factor for suicidal behaviours. This pattern was explained by religious 'mismatch': pupils of a different religion from their school were approximately 2-4 times more likely to attempt suicide, be a suicide-risk or self

  10. Dificultades de integración social en personas depresivas con pensamientos de suicidio Social integration difficulties in depressive people with suicidal thoughts

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    Pilar Montesó-Curtó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: el suicidio es un tema de reflexión para las ciencias médicas pero también para las ciencias sociales. Durkheim analiza el suicidio y describe el estado de anomia -sin normas-, en el cual la ciudadanía, como resultado de un cambio rápido, pierde su conexión con la sociedad y su fe en las reglas sociales y en las instituciones, llevando al individuo a la desesperación y al suicidio. Objetivo: identificar las dificultades de integración social en personas depresivas con pensamientos de suicidio. Metodología: se realiza un estudio cualitativo que forma parte de una investigación más amplia sobre depresión. Antes de realizar la entrevista administramos un cuestionario con datos sociodemográficos, datos sobre depresión y causas identificadas, así como también el test de ansiedad-depresión de Goldberg. Posteriormente se realiza una entrevista en profundidad que la hemos denominado historia de vida. Se realizan entrevistas a 66 personas diagnosticadas de depresión, 52 mujeres y 14 hombres previo consentimiento. De éstas se analizan las que han tenido ideas o intentos de suicidio. Resultados: en muchos de los entrevistados que han pensado o han intentado el suicidio lo que les ha impedido hacerlo es la familia y los hijos. Conclusión: el apoyo social es identificado como el principal factor que ha impedido el suicidio.Rationale: suicide is a subject of investigation for the medical sciences but also social sciences. Durkheim examines suicide and describes the state of anomie, without rules, in which citizenship as a result of rapid change, loses its connection with society and his belief in social rules and institutions, leading to individual despair and suicide. Objective: identify the social integration difficulties in depressive people with suicidal thoughts. Methodology: we performed a qualitative study is part of a broader research on depression. Before the interview administered a questionnaire with demographic

  11. Public health and peace.

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    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  12. Aslı Erdoğan'ın Anlatılarında Ontolojik Sorunlar Ontological Problems in Aslı Erdoğan's Narratives

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    Mehmet ÖZGER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of existence in Aslı Erdoğan's narratives will be examined in this article. Aslı Erdoğan is one of the leading female autor in the last term Turkish Literature. Having written sort stories, novelsand essays the autor became famous with her artistic creativity. It canbe talked about two interwoven adventures in Aslı Erdoğan’s Works.The adventures in the outside world are accompanied by the heroes’adventures of an inner worlds. Heroes appear to be almost all alone, nothold, competing with backgrounds and themselves, living in a constantfeeling of emptiness and nothingness, who are looking to a meaningtoward lack and devastation in their lives. In this context, it seems thatexistential concepts and trajectory are in the forefront rather than plotin which speeches and interviews gained density. The circumstancesand details which shape human existence and attitude toward life areemphasized. The main problem of the narrative heroes is the alienationand the other existential problems that we see in narrative areconditions that become visible with other existential alienationproblems. It is seen that heroes are alienated particularly againstthemselves, environment and society. In this respect in the alienation ofnarrative, as a type of alienation themes like individual anomie andaccordingly, solitude, nothingness / space, escape / exile, death andsuicide and so on stand out. This narrative themes are important inrevealing the psychological world of the heroes as well as to reveal thepsychology of the author. Bu yazıda Aslı Erdoğan’ın anlatılarında varoluş sorunsalı incelenecektir. Aslı Erdoğan son dönem Türk edebiyatının önemli kadın yazarlarından biridir. Öykü, roman, deneme türlerinde eserler kaleme alan sanatçı, sanatsal yaratıcılık yeteneğiyle adından söz ettirmeyi başarmıştır. Aslı Erdoğan’ın eserlerinde iç içe geçmiş iki serüvenden bahsedilebilir. Kahramanların dış dünyadaki ser

  13. Cultura de la ilegalidad en Medellín y su asociación con diversas formas de violencia/ Culture of illegality in Medellin and its association with various forms of violence

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    Luis Fernando Duque

    2013-05-01

    iniquity perception. After living in a violent neighborhood, anomie is the principal risk factor to most of violence studied forms. Having a vigilant mother is a negatively associated factor to most of studied violent aggressive forms (associated to 80-90% armed assaults and 50% to unarmed robberies. Conclusion: There is a very high illegality culture in Medellin and metropolitan area, which seems to be product of iniquity perception, and appears to be associated to most of aggressions studied, and is lower only to association with living in a violent neighborhood

  14. Técnicas extractivas y preparativas en Paleontología: Aspectos ambientales y de seguridad laboral

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    Daniel L. Melendi

    2009-06-01

    y daño que afectan la salud así como de factores de riesgo y de probables conductas disfuncionales que los propician. Este trabajo, además de un breve análisis de los aspectos técnicos del trabajo paleontológico, presenta información de contexto, introduce en la problemática de los riesgos, expone los marcos normativos y desarrolla una interpretación de las posibles causas que explicarían el incumplimiento de lo establecido en materia de seguridad laboral. Propone también posibles estrategias destinadas a mitigar, corregir y revertir este problema.Extractive and preparation techniques in Paleontology. Environmental aspects and labor safety. The objective of this paper is to analyze the working conditions in which the paleontologic work is developed, especially in Paleopalynology and Paleovertebrat ology. This analysis is also valid for other academic and scientific activities. During fieldwork and in the paleontologic research a wide range of processes are applied, which proceed from the fields of physics and chemistry. They are characterized by different degrees of complexity and present different types of risks for the people who apply them, for other people, for physical objects and for the environment. For the applications of all these technical activities, some aspects must be taken into account that are not perceived as scientific matter and consequently do not receive attention: the safety of working conditions. This situation determines a state of precarious conditions of the labor environment and certain degree of stress, which potentiates the generation of accidents and damages and is hurting the legislation and the codes of professional ethics. The violation and absence of application of these rules are occurring frequently. The origin of this behavior may be due to the lack of knowledge and interest, and a certain degree of collective anomie that characterizes our society. In our labor environment -even without existing statistics- the cases

  15. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development.

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    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2008-01-01

    on a robust mix of the temporal and the spiritual, with vibrant indigenous biomedical and related disciplines, for example, Ayurveda, Yoga, etc. It also has a burgeoning corpus of modern biomedical knowledge in active conversation with the rest of the world. It should be especially careful that, while it does not negate the fruits of economic development and scientific/biomedical advance that seem to beckon it in this century, it does not also forget the values that have added meaning and purpose to life; values that the ancients bequeathed it, drawn from their experiential knowledge down the centuries.The means that the developed have could combine with the recipes to make them meaningful that the developing have. That is the challenge ahead for mankind as it gropes its way out of poverty, disease, despair, alienation, anomie, and the ubiquitous all-devouring lifestyle stresses, and takes halting steps towards well-being and the glory of human development.