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Sample records for anomalocardia brasiliana gmelin

  1. Presence of enteric viruses, bioaccumulation and stability in Anomalocardia brasiliana clams (Gmelin, 1791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Dominot, Ana Ferreira Ávila; Moresco, Vanessa; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2018-02-02

    Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders and may accumulate human pathogens in their tissues. Many studies demonstrated human diseases associated with bivalve consumption, especially oysters. Anomalocardia brasiliana clams are distributed along the Brazilian coastal area and are an exotic ingredient for some typical dishes in Brazil. Even though there are several reports describing the contamination of oysters and mussels with human pathogens, there is a lack of studies reporting contamination of A. brasiliana with human pathogens. An evaluation of natural microbiological contamination in A. brasiliana samples over a period of 18months (November 2014 to April 2016) showed that the bacteria indices were in accordance with Brazilian regulations (E. colitime period. NoV GI was the most adsorbed virus after 24h. HAV concentration was time, reaching its highest values after 24h (times (0, 1, 1.5, 3 and 5mins), viral infectivity was evaluated using ICC-et-RT-qPCR. The temperature inside the DT remained time and after 5min of cooking the HAdV reached a decay of 90% (1 log 10 ). The results showed a real warn to the consumers that can be exposed to infectious human viruses if they eat these clams improperly cooked. HAV was the most detected virus in these animals, which may lead to outbreaks. A. brasiliana exhibited distinct behavior in NoV GI bioaccumulation and persistence, pointing to the need for further studies about the cellular ligands used by these viruses to become attached to these clams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791: a bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

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    Cinthya Cristina Bulhões Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe. Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted.

  3. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791): A bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted. PMID:21637701

  4. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  5. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10 -3 ). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BF S do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  6. Distribution and density of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in the estuarine region of Northeastern Brazil

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    A. M. L. Rodrigues Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the density and distribution of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in beaches in the estuarine region of the semiarid in Rio Grande do Norte State, Barra and Pernambuquinho (04°56.978’S and 37°08.961’W and 04°56.792’S and 37°09.375’W, respectively. Samples were collected monthly during 37 months using five transects (300 m long and 400 m apart laid perpendicularly to the beach line toward the sea. Seven collection points, 50 m apart, were set in each transect, and shellfish and sediment samples were collected. Temperature and salinity were measured in each transect. The results showed a temperature variation of average values of 3 °C; the greatest variation (33.2 °C was observed in May of 2009. The lowest average salinity values were observed between April and June of 2009 (5, 8.7, and 7.8, respectively. This fact was due to an atypical rainfall in the region, which resulted in a large freshwater inflow into the estuary; the average salinity values were about 40 in the remaining months. The highest precipitation values were observed in April/09, April/10, and April/11; the highest precipitation occurred in April/09 (316.3 mm. The lower average densities of A. brasiliana were observed in April and May/09 when compared to the other months; the lowest value was observed in April/09 (26 ind/m2. The highest densities occurred between November/10 and July/11, with values ranging from 70 to 322 ind/m2. The highest inflow of young individuals (lengths from 2 to 5 mm was observed between April and June of 2010 and on September/10 while the highest frequency of adults (from 20 to 25 mm occurred between December of 2010 and April of 2011. Hence, the results of this study show that in the months with the greatest rainfall, salinity and the average density of A. brasiliana showed the lowest values.

  7. Reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, J R; Boehs, G

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana, typical of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. For this purpose, 20 specimens were collected biweekly between August 2005 and August 2006 on an intertidal bank (14º 48' 23" S and 39º 02' 47" W). The animals were measured on the anteroposterior axis (length), examined macroscopically and removed from the shell and fixed in Davidson's solution. Subsequently, the tissues were impregnated in paraffin, cut into 7 mm sections and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The slides were examined under a light microscope. The water temperature at the site ranged from 24 to 30.5 ºC (mean: 27.4 ºC; SD ± 1.9), salinity from zero to 23 (mean: 13.7; SD ± 7.5) and rainfall from 28.3 mm to 248.8 mm monthly (yearly mean: 130 mm). The sample (n = 478) showed a sex ratio (M: F) of 1: 1.2 (p < 0.05) and no cases of hermaphroditism. There was no sexual dimorphism. Males and females showed reproductive synchrony. The reproductive cycle was continuous, with releases of gametes mainly in spring, summer and autumn. These results are similar to those found in other regions, but there was no reproductive rest period as reported for populations in higher latitudes.

  8. Análise populacional de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, na Praia do Saco da Ribeira, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo

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    Y Schaeffer-Novelli

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Monthly quantitative sampling of the beach benthic macro fauna was made from June 1972 through December 1974. Determinations of the distribution index, length |dry weight correlation and vertical distribution pattern was also made.

  9. Seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of Anomalocardia flexuosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae in an estuarine intertidal plain

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    Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767 evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil. Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C. Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm. Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0–1,129 g m−2 differed seasons (rainy and dry, with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231.44 g m−2; and lowest values in the late dry season (57.34 ± 97 g m−2. The lowest occurred during the late rainy (319 ± 259 ind m−2 and early dry (496 ± 607 ind m−2 seasons. Extreme environmental situations (e.g., river flow, salinity and water temperature at the end of each season also affected density ranges (late dry: 0–5,798 ind m−2; late rainy: 0–1,170 ind m−2. A. flexuosa in the Goiana estuary presented a dominance of juvenile individuals (shell length < 20 mm, with high biomass main the recruitment period. Average shell length, density and biomass values suggest overfishing of the stock unit. A. flexuosa is an important food and income resource along its whole distribution range. The species was previously also known as Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

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    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  11. Antibiotic oxylipins from Alternanthera brasiliana and its endophytic bacteria.

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    Trapp, Marília Almeida; Kai, Marco; Mithöfer, Axel; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2015-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alternanthera brasiliana stem extracts resulted in the isolation of an antibiotically active fraction. Five human pathogenic bacteria were used to guide the fractionation process for the isolation of antimicrobial compounds. Finally, 17 linoleate oxylipins were identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Five of the isolated compounds present in A. brasiliana tissues were also detected to be synthesized by endophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that were isolated from A. brasiliana. It is speculated that the antibiotic oxylipins from A. brasiliana might derive from bacteria and be involved in an ecological relationship between this plant and its endophytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healing efficacy of methanol extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze in aged wound model.

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    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Begum, Shameem Ara; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Borah, Rumi Saikia

    2012-09-01

    The methanol extract of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Family: Amaranthaceae) leaf was investigated for its wound healing effect by excision wound model (in vivo) in aged Sprague Dawley rats. In excision wound model, compared to the control group, percent contraction of wound was significantly (P brasiliana-treated group (5% w/w ointment). The collagen, elastin, and hydroxyproline contents of the granulation tissue of A. brasiliana-treated group increased significantly (P brasiliana possesses significant wound healing potential in aged animal wound model.

  13. Healing efficacy of methanol extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze in aged wound model

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Begum, Shameem Ara; Sarma, Dilip Kumar; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Borah, Rumi Saikia

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Family: Amaranthaceae) leaf was investigated for its wound healing effect by excision wound model (in vivo) in aged Sprague Dawley rats. In excision wound model, compared to the control group, percent contraction of wound was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in A. brasiliana-treated group (5% w/w ointment). The collagen, elastin, and hydroxyproline contents of the granulation tissue of A. brasiliana-treated group increased significantly ...

  14. Avaliação do efeito antimicrobiano de óleos essenciais sobre micro-organismos patogênicos em vôngole (Anomalocardia brasiliana)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Juliana Cantalino dos

    2013-01-01

    84 f. Os óleos essenciais têm se apresentado como uma alternativa eficaz para a conservação de alimentos devido ao seu poder antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais disponíveis no comércio da marca Laszlo Aromalândia (São Paulo- Brasil), como o de alho (Allium sativum), cravo-da-índia (Eugenia caryophyllata), orégano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum) e limão siciliano (Citrus limonum medica) sobre cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Esc...

  15. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get ...

  16. Morfo-anatomia das folhas de Alternanthera brasiliana e Alternanthera dentata (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Danielle F.; Zanon, Ricardo B.; Zanetti, Gilberto Dolejal; Manfron, Melânia Palermo; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir na diferenciação entre as especies Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze e Alternanthera dentata (Moench) Stuchlik (Amaranthaceae). As folhas de A. brasiliana e A. dentata apresentam características macroscópicas diferenciais relevantes no limbo (venação, forma, cor e transparência) e no pecíolo em seção transversal. Microscopicamente A. dentata exibe uma cutícula mais tênue e epiderme hipostomática e não anfiestomática como em A. brasiliana. Os trico...

  17. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

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    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  18. Flavonol robinobiosides and rutinosides from Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae) and their effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Brochado,Claudia de O.; Almeida,Ana P. de; Barreto,Beatriz P.; Costa,Leandro P.; Ribeiro,Luciene S.; Pereira,Rachel L. da C.; Koatz,Vera L. Gonçalves; Costa,Sonia S.

    2003-01-01

    The extract of the medicinal species Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze afforded six di- and triglycosyl kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Their structures were elucidated based on the ¹H- and 13C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this genus. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside significantly inhibited the human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. O extrato da espécie medicinal Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze forneceu seis derivados di- e triglicosi...

  19. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Biavatti, MW; Bellaver, MH; Volpato, L; Costa, C; Bellaver, C

    2003-01-01

    The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control); basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control); basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed); basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed) and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybe...

  20. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

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    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  1. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  2. Effects of an in situ diesel oil spill on oxidative stress in the clam Anomalocardia flexuosa.

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    Sardi, Adriana E; Renaud, Paul E; Morais, Gisele C; Martins, César C; da Cunha Lana, Paulo; Camus, Lionel

    2017-11-01

    Intensive exploitation and transport of oil and derivatives are increasing the risk of coastal contamination by either dramatic disasters or diffuse sources. Tools for monitoring diffuse contamination, such as diesel oil that leaks from marine vessels are much needed. We experimentally tested the efficiency of antioxidant biomarkers as indicators of chronic exposure to diesel oil in a mudflat from the subtropical Bay of Paranaguá, in southern Brazil. We examined the effects of three successive diesel oil spills, with two weeks of recovery time between exposures, on the edible clam Anomalocardia flexuosa. Previous studies have highlighted its potential as a bioindicator species for diesel oil contamination in subtropical and tropical ecosystems. Endpoints measured in gill and digestive gland homogenates included the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPx, GST and levels of lipid peroxides. PAHs concentration in sediments and soft tissue were also quantified. GST and SOD were the most responsive biomarkers to the exposure. There were significant but non-cumulative departures from control levels in organisms from treated samples, which were, in all cases, more common 48 h after each experimental spill. Biomarker responses were more evident in the digestive gland than in gills. This work validated the short-term responsiveness of biomarkers as measures of repeated pulsed in situ exposure to low concentrations of diesel oil. For their routine implementation into monitoring programs for tropical estuaries our general recommendations are 1) to include several reference sites, 2) to analyze biomarker data using a logarithmic-scale and 3) to interpret deviations from "normal" activity as multiplicative interval differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Alternanthera brasiliana (L) Kuntze on healing of dermal burn wound.

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    Baru, Chandana C; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem A; Buragohain, Bhaben; Roy, Jayanti Datta; Pathak, Debesh C; Sarma, Dilip K; Gupta, Asheesh K; Bora, Rumi S

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing activity of methanol extract of Alternanthera brasiliana [5% (w/w) ointment] was evaluated in experimental burn wound model in rats. Healing potential was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of anti-oxidants like catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, protein, vitamin C and hydroxyproline, along with histopathological examination on 8th day post wounding. The statistical data indicated that there was significant increase in wound contraction along with augmented level of antioxidants in granulation tissues in A. brasiliana treated group. Histopathological assessment of the granulation tissue revealed formation of epidermis with keratin layer and deposition of collagen fibers after treatment with the plant extract.

  4. Photodynamic inactivation of yeast and bacteria by extracts of Alternanthera brasiliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Nathalia L; de Lourenco, Caroline C; Siqueira, Carlos A T; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Lapinski, Tadia F; Gasparetto, Adriana; Khouri, Sonia; Zamuner, Stella R; Munin, Egberto; Salvador, Marcos Jose

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Alternathera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae) extracts as photosensitizing agents in photodynamic antimicrobial therapies (PACT) against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida dubliniensis. The crude hexane and ethanol extracts were obtained from A. brasiliana whole plant and showed absortion from 650 to 700 nm. Also, singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) production (type II photosensitization reaction) was examined, and the results show that 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran photodegradation was greatly enhanced in the presence of the A. brasiliana extracts. One plate in each assay was irradiated while the other was not irradiated, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was obtained, and data analyzed by the Tukey test. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined by chromatographic and spectrometric techniques; steroids, triterpenes, and flavonoids were identified. Laser irradiation alone at 685 nm using diode laser, output power of 35 mW, and energy of 28 J/cm2, or non-irradiated crude extracts in sub-inhibitory concentration did not reduce the number of CFU/mL significantly, whereas irradiated hexane and ethanol extracts, in sub-inhibitory concentrations, inhibited the growth of these microorganisms. The photoactivation of hexane and ethanol extracts of A. brasiliana, in sub-inhibitory concentrations, using red laser radiation at 685 nm had an antimicrobial effect.

  5. Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz using in vivo and in vitro model.

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    Barua, C C; Talukdar, A; Begum, S A; Sarma, D K; Fathak, D C; Barua, A G; Bora, R S

    2009-12-01

    Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz was studied by excision and incision wound model (in vivo) in Sprague Dawley rats and by Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model (In vitro) in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. In excision wound model, compared to the control group, per cent contraction of wound was significantly higher in A. brasiliana (5% w/w ointment) treated group. In incision wound model, tensile strength of the healing tissue after treatment with A. brasiliana was found to be significantly higher compared to the control group indicating better wound healing activity of the test plant. These findings were also confirmed by histopathological examination. The extract also promoted angiogenesis as evidenced by CAM model. The results suggested that methanolic extract of A. brasiliana possess significant wound healing potential in normal wound.

  6. Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

    2012-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wo...

  7. Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of the Alternanthera brasiliana aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, Elen Luiza Pelisoli; Mendel, Monique Theissen; Fracasso, Rafael; Knobloch, Jéssica Gil; Teixeira, Paula Winckler; Kehl, Laís; Maluf, Rage Weidner; Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Ardenghi, Patrícia; Suyenaga, Edna Sayuri

    2012-11-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amarantaceae) is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. To investigate the potential anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, and locomotor effect of the infusions in preclinical models. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by a carrageenan-induced pleurisy test in Wistar rats (200 and 400 mg/kg, n = 6-7). Analgesic activity was evaluated by the number of abdominal contractions induced by 0.6% acetic acid administered to Swiss mice (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, n = 10). Effects on the central nervous system (CNS) were evaluated in Wistar rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, n = 10) using open field and plus maze models. Possible anti-inflammatory activity was indicated by the significant reduction of 19.8% for 200 mg/kg (p brasiliana has a potential pharmacological effect on inflammation and pain.

  8. Flavonol robinobiosides and rutinosides from Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae and their effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochado Claudia de O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The extract of the medicinal species Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze afforded six di- and triglycosyl kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Their structures were elucidated based on the ¹H- and 13C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this genus. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside significantly inhibited the human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

  9. Effect of Alternanthera brasiliana in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shivashankar P.; Purushotham K.; Mangala Lahkar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract with limited therapeutic options. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Alternanthera brasiliana in acetic acid-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in albino rats. Methods: A total of 36 animals were included in the study. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 ): group I - control (normal saline), group II-AA+ normal saline, g...

  10. Betalains and phenolic compounds of leaves and stems of Alternanthera brasiliana and Alternanthera tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deladino, L; Alvarez, I; De Ancos, B; Sánchez-Moreno, C; Molina-García, A D; Schneider Teixeira, A

    2017-07-01

    Betacyanins and phenolic compounds from acetonitrile:acidified water extracts of Alternanthera brasiliana and Alternanthera tenella were characterized and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array and electrospray mass spectrometry detection. Four betacyanins (amaranthine, isoamaranthine, betanin and isobetanin) were tentatively identified and quantified. Twenty eight phenolic compounds of four different families (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones and flavonols) were separated and characterized on the basis of their accurate MS and MS/MS information out of which ten compounds were confirmed by authentic standards. These plant species could be considered as an especially rich source of natural bioactive compounds and potential food colorants. A. brasiliana showed the highest betacyanin and polyphenols content (89μg/g and 35,243μg/g, respectively). Among polyphenols, flavonols were the more abundant (kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-rutinoside and kaempferol-rhamnosyl-rhamnosyl-glycoside). Meanwhile, A. tenella showed a different polyphenols profile with flavones as major compounds (glucopyranosil-vitexin and vitexin). As a novelty, pentosyl-vitexin and pentosyl-isovitexin were detected for the first time in Alternanthera plants. Both A. brasiliana and A. tenella leaves showed high total polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant activity (FRAP). These results provide an analytical base concerning the phenolic and betalains composition and the antioxidant properties of two members of the promising Alternanthera gender, for subsequent applications, such as functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulluterina karachiensis sp.n. (Cestoda: Anaplocephalidae) from the Wild Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZI, Rafia Rehana

    2002-01-01

    A new species, Pulluterina karachiensis, is described from the common pigeon Columba livia Gmelin in Karachi. The new species is characterized by possessing small suckers; a longer neck; fewer testes, smaller in size, and the comparatively smaller size of ova. This is the second species of the genus from Pakistan and third in the literature.

  12. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) complex - 2. the eastern forms (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, G.; van Rooijen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Southeast Asian, Indonesian and Philippine forms of the polytypic Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) are reviewed using multivariate analyses. Several distinct phenetic clusters are discerned. Geographically, these clusters are separated by important biogeographic boundaries, such as the Isthmus

  13. Spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone of sheltered beaches in southeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane P. de Arruda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone was examined monthly from August 1995 through July 1997, in Enseada, Barra Velha and Araçá beaches in southeastern of Brazil. One study sector was selected in Enseada and Barra Velha, and two sectors in Araçá (Araçá I and Araçá II. The sectors were 10 m wide and equivalent in length to the width of the intertidal zone. Each sector was divided into three horizontal levels: lower, middle and upper, where the samples were taken with a cylinder corer with a base area of 0.16 m². In order to characterize the intertidal environment in these areas, some environmental variables were analyzed. In general, the mollusks were distributed in the sectors as follows: Enseada - Olivella minuta (Link, 1807 in the lower level and Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 in the upper level; Araçá I - O. minuta in the lower level, Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791 in the middle levels; Araçá II - Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 in the lower level, O. minuta in the lower and middle levels, and A. brasiliana and Corbula caribaea Orbigny, 1842 in the middle level; Barra Velha - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794, Lucina pectinata (Gmelin, 1791 and Tellina versicolor De Kay, 1843 in the lower level, and A. brasiliana and Macoma constricta (Brugüìere, 1792 in the upper level. The intertidal zone of the study sectors could be divided into two biological zones: the upper zone, where T. plebeius, A. brasiliana and M. constricta were more abundant; and the lower zone, where O. minuta, C. atratum, T. lineata, T. versicolor, C. caribaea, T. divisus and L. pectinata were abundant.

  14. Estudo mineral das espécies vegetais Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze e Bouchea fluminensis (Vell) Mold.

    OpenAIRE

    Delaporte, R.H.; Guzen, K.P.; Takemura, O.S.; Mello, J.C.P de

    2005-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana e Bouchea fluminensis são plantas encontradas amplamente na América do Sul, sendo utilizada pela população pelas suas propriedades analgésicas e antiinflamatórias. O trabalho objetivou determinar o teor de cinzas totais e os elementos minerais em ambas espécies. O teor de cinzas totais das folhas de A. brasiliana e B. fluminensis foi de 13,23% ± 0,47 e 8,28% ± 0,07, respectivamente. Em relação à presença de macro e micronutrientes nas folhas observou-se uma maior conc...

  15. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies of callus culture extracts from Alternanthera brasiliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, A F; Barbosa, N C; Esquibel, M A; Souza, M M; Cechinel-Filho, V

    1999-10-01

    This work describes the establishment of callus cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana, a Brazilian medicinal plant used to treat several ailments. In addition the two extracts, exhibiting best yields, were chemically analysed and evaluated as antinociceptive agents in two classical models of pain in mice: the writhing test and the formalin test. The results show that the highest biomass accumulation was observed in callus grown in media with higher concentrations of growth regulator of 2,4-D. Both extracts studied exhibited antinociceptive effects in mice, being more effective than the plant extracts. The pharmacological action seems to be related to the presence of steroids and/or terpenes.

  16. Antioxidant activities and triterpenoids isolated from Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, D F; Zanon, R B; Dos Santos, M; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L

    2013-01-01

    The species Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in Brazil's eastern beaches and certain Amazonian regions. Crude ethanolic (70%) extract, fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic) and the mixture isolated were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Total phenolic contents varied from 29.0 to 56.6 mg/g (dry fraction). The scavenging capacity of the extract, fractions and mixture isolated was characterised by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. Only ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a modest scavenging capacity (SC50 = 163.00 μg/mL and SC% = 64.29% at 250 μg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. Crude extract, dichloromethane and butanolic fractions presented a very weak scavenging capacity (SC% ≤ 40% at 250 μg/mL). A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents could not be observed. The fractionation and purification of dichloromethane fraction evidenced the presence of a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and spinasterol, which was identified by NMR methods and compared with literature data. Results of this study demonstrated for the first time the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliana.

  17. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Zhang

    Full Text Available Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported.Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth, Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth, Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir.The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  18. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported. Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth), Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth), Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality) and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter) were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir. The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  19. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Mattos, Jacó Joaquim [Aquaculture Pathology Research Center – NEPAQ, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Lüchmann, Karim Hahn [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – LBBM, Fishery Engineering Department, Santa Catarina State University, Laguna (Brazil); Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique [Laboratory of Marine Mollusks – LMM, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou [Laboratory of Marine Organic Chemistry – LABQOM, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso, E-mail: afonso.bainy@ufsc.br [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L{sup −1} PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at

  20. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Lüchmann, Karim Hahn; Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L −1 PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at salinity 10

  1. La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva, des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva (Rhodophycées ; Gélidiales) a été étudiée pendant une année, depuis septembre 2000 jusqu'à août 2001, sur la côte de Monastir (Est de la Tunisie). Les résultats globaux obtenus montrent que le poids humide maximum (environ 37 g/individu) a été atteint en ...

  2. Detection of a chemical cue from the host seaweed Laurencia dendroidea by the associated mollusc Aplysia brasiliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nocchi

    Full Text Available Chemical cues from sessile hosts can attract mobile and associated organisms and they are also impotant to maintain associations and overall biodiversity, but the identity and molecular structures of these chemicals have been little explored in the marine environment. Secondary metabolites are recognized as possible chemical mediators in the association between species of Laurencia and Aplysia, but the identity of the compounds has not been established. Here, for the first time, we experimentally verify that the sesquiterpene (+-elatol, a compound produced by the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea, is a chemical cue attracting the associated sea hare Aplysia brasiliana. In addition to revealing the nature of the chemical mediation between these two species, we provide evidence of a chemical cue that allows young individuals of A. brasiliana to live in association with L. dendroidea. This study highlights the importance of chemical cues in Laurencia-Aplysia association.

  3. Inside-out flowers of Lacandonia brasiliana (Triuridaceae provide new insights into fundamental aspects of floral patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Rudall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. A recently described Brazilian species, Lacandonia brasiliana, shares with its longer established putative sister species from Mexico, L. schismatica, inverted floral patterning (carpels surrounding stamens that is almost unique among angiosperms. We present a detailed ontogenetic study of L. brasiliana for comparison with other members of the tribe Triurideae (Triuridaceae to explore the possible evolutionary origins of “inside-out” flowers. Methods. Wild-source populations of L. brasiliana were compared morphologically and ontogenetically with related species of Triurideae, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results. Relatively few morphological differences separate flowers of L. brasiliana and L. schismatica. Both species have tepals with late-developing subapical appendages. In both species, the three central (almost sessile anthers develop precociously with respect to the carpels; the anthers remain closed, and fertilization is achieved via pollen-tube growth from germinating pollen grains of the same cleistogamous flower. Carpels are initiated on fascicles. Conclusions. The close similarity between the two Lacandonia species makes it unlikely that they arose independently from two separate homeotic transformation events; they could either represent sister species or two populations of a single disjunct species. Our study underlines the problematic generic and species boundaries within Triurideae. We present an evolutionary scenario of character evolution in Triuridaceae. The inside-out Lacandonia flower could have resulted from a stabilized homeotic transformation; this hypothesis is not in conflict with constrasting theories of the origin of the Triuridaceae flower, which coincided with a shift to unisexuality. The unisexual yet highly plastic flowers that are typical of Triuridaceae could have pre-adapted the origin of the extraordinary Lacandonia morphology.

  4. Caracteres morfo-anatômicos da folha e do caule de Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Márcia do Rocio; Debur, Maria do Carmo

    2004-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae is a Brazilian perennial herb employed as analgesic and anti-inflammatory in the traditional medicine. This work has analysed the morpho-anatomy of the leaf and stem, in order to supply knowledge to the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained according to usual microtechniques. The leaves are simple, entire, decussate, oval-lanceolate and purple, presenting uniseriate epidermis, plu...

  5. Influence of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze on Altered Antioxidant Enzyme Profile during Cutaneous Wound Healing in Immunocompromised Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Chandana Choudhury; Ara Begum, Shameem; Talukdar, Archana; Datta Roy, Jayanti; Buragohain, Bhaben; Chandra Pathak, Debesh; Kumar Sarma, Dilip; Saikia Bora, Rumi; Gupta, Asheesh

    2012-01-01

    Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) is a herbaceous plant used against inflammation, cough, and diarrhea in Brazilian popular medicine. In our preliminary study, promising wound healing activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (MEAB) was observed in normal excision and incision wound models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity along with the antioxidant enzyme profile during cutaneous excision immunocompromised wound after topical application of 5% w/w ointment of MEAB in rats. Immunocompromised state was induced by pretreatment with hydrocortisone (HC) at 40 mg/kg body weight (i.m.) in male rats. Following one-week pretreatment with HC, wounds were created. The vehicle, 5% (w/w) ointment of MEAB, or standard drug (Himax) was applied topically twice daily. Healing potential was evaluated by the rate of wound contraction, estimation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants like catalase, SOD, GSH, protein, vitamin C, and hydroxyproline content, which was supported by histopathological study on the 8th day following wounding. There was significant increase in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters in the extract-reated group as compared to control group. Histopathological study revealed collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, and development of basement membrane in A. brasiliana group. The results of the present investigation revealed significant wound healing activity of MEAB.

  6. Estudo mineral das espécies vegetais Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze e Bouchea fluminensis (Vell Mold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Delaporte

    Full Text Available Alternanthera brasiliana e Bouchea fluminensis são plantas encontradas amplamente na América do Sul, sendo utilizada pela população pelas suas propriedades analgésicas e antiinflamatórias. O trabalho objetivou determinar o teor de cinzas totais e os elementos minerais em ambas espécies. O teor de cinzas totais das folhas de A. brasiliana e B. fluminensis foi de 13,23% ± 0,47 e 8,28% ± 0,07, respectivamente. Em relação à presença de macro e micronutrientes nas folhas observou-se uma maior concentração de nitrogênio (3,13% e manganês (0,296% para A. brasiliana e de cálcio (3,08% e ferro (0,256% para B. fluminensis. Os dados obtidos, cinzas totais, macro e microelementos, contribuem significativamente no controle de qualidade e padronização de ambas drogas vegetais, além de dar suporte ao uso como suplemento nutricional.

  7. Preliminary evidences of circadian fan activity rhythm in Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Aguzzi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The fan activity rhythm of Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 and its entrainment capability to light were studied. Animals were tested under constant darkness (DD followed by two consecutive 24 h light-darkness regimes: a first 11 h light period (LD and a second 9 h light period, with its phase inverted (DL. An infrared analogical video-camera took shots each 30 s. A number of pictures with open fan were counted every 15 min. In DD a weak free-running periodicity in the circadian range was found, thus reinforcing the matching of the 24 h period under study in both photoperiod regimes. A nocturnal activity was characterised with a consistent anticipation to lightOFF (i.e. entrainment. Moreover, this phase of entrainment differed between DL and LD. The presence of endogenous activity rhythm with a variable phase angle of entrainment is a distinctive feature of circadian pacemakers.

  8. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  9. Toxicity against Drosophila melanogaster and antiedematogenic and antimicrobial activities of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Pereira, Raimundo Luiz Silva; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Franco, Jeferson Luis; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Rocha, Maria Ivaneide; Dos Santos, Joycy Francely Sampaio

    2017-06-08

    Bioactive phytocompounds are studied by several bioactivities demonstrated, as their cytotoxic effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical profile, the toxic effect using the Drosophila melanogaster animal model and the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EEAB) ethanol extract. The phytochemical profile was performed using HPLC. The cytotoxic effect was evaluated in vivo using D. melanogaster. The anti-inflammatory effect was determined by neurogenic and antiedematogenic assays, and the antimicrobial activity was assayed using a microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the EEAB alone and in association with antibiotics. The main compound identified on the EEAB was luteolin (1.93%). Its cytotoxic effect was demonstrated after 24 h in the concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/mL. The extract demonstrated an antiedematogenic effect, with a reduction of the edema between 35.57 and 64.17%. The MIC of the extract was ≥1.024 μg/mL, thus being considered clinically irrelevant. However, when the EEAB was associated with gentamicin, a synergism against all bacterial strains assayed was observed: Staphylococcus aureus (SA10), Escherichia coli (EC06) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA24). Due to these results, the EEAB demonstrated a low toxicity in vivo and anti-inflammatory and synergistic activities. These are promising results, mainly against microbial pathogens, and the compounds identified can be a source of carbon backbones for the discovery and creation of new drugs.

  10. Aspectos ultraestruturais do espermatozóide de Natica marochiensish (Gmelin (MOllusca, Gastropoda do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructural aspects of the spermatozoon of Natica marochiensish (Gmelin (Mollusca, Gastropoda of the North littoral of Brazil

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    Edilson Matos

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa of Natica marochienssish (Gmelin, 1791 is described by light and electron microscopy. The spermatozoon is of the primitive type with head contains a conical acrosomal complex with an acrosomal vesicle of dense matrix having a basis occupied by the subacrosomal space. The middle piece shows the centriolar complex surrounded by mitochondria and the tail contains the axoneme with a 9+2.

  11. In vitro anthelmintic activity and chemical composition of methanol extracts and fractions of Croton paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana against Eisenia fetida

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    Andrea Leticia Cáceres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extracts and the acid and basic fractions of Croton paraguayensis (C. paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana (V. brasiliana against Eisenia fetida. Methods: A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed to assess the presence of groups of secondary metabolites. The plants were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extracts. A differential pH extraction was performed to isolate basic compounds like alkaloids. The methanolic extracts and the fractions obtained were tested for anthelmintic activity against Eisenia fetida, using albendazole as positive control. Results: The phytochemical test demonstrated the presence of alkaloids in the crude extracts and alkaline fractions, along with flavonoids, coumarins, steroids/triterpenes and tannins. The anthelmintic activity of the extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana showed a statistically significant decrease of the times for paralysis and death compared to albendazole. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana contain compounds that possess anthelmintic activity. The isolation of the substances responsible for the biological effect described could result in the development of new drugs to treat helminth diseases.

  12. Produção de mudas de penicilina (Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze via estaquia

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    V. Tracz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A penicilina (Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, pertence à família Amaranthaceae e tem sido reconhecida por suas propriedades anti-inflamatória, analgésica, e antiviral. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de ácido indolbutírico (AIB mais adequada para a indução do enraizamento de estacas da penicilina. Foram selecionados ramos herbáceos de plantas matrizes, coletadas em novembro de 2010, para confecção de estacas com 6 cm de comprimento e 2 folhas apicais. As estacas foram desinfestadas através de solução de hipoclorito de sódio (0,5% por 15 minutos. Em seguida, as estacas da penicilina tiveram suas bases imersas por 10 segundos em soluções de AIB nas concentrações de 0, 250, 500, 750 ou 1000 mg L-1, e foram plantadas em tubetes, sob irrigação em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 80 estacas por tratamento. Após 30 dias não foram observados resultados com diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos utilizados quanto ao enraizamento, crescimento das raízes, mortalidade, massa fresca e seca. No entanto, houve aumento do número de raízes das estacas tratadas nas concentrações mais altas de AIB (750 e 1000 mg L-1 quando comparadas ao controle e aos demais tratamentos. As porcentagens de enraizamento foram acima de 94% para essa espécie, podendo concluir que a propagação via estaquia é viável sem o uso de reguladores para induzir a formação de raízes dessa espécie, a qual pode ser considerada de fácil enraizamento.

  13. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity of methanol extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (Amaranthaceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Chandana C; Begum, Shameem A; Barua, Acheenta G; Borah, Rumi S; Lahkar, Mangala

    2013-06-01

    Anxiety related disorders are the most common mental illnesses and major cause of disability in man. Anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (MEAB) was evaluated using hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration test (LDE) in mice. Its locomotor activity was studied using actophotometer and anticonvulsant effect was studied using maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Single oral administration of MEAB at different doses (100, 300 and 600 mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the HB test; rearing, assisted rearing and number of square traveled in the OF test; entries and time spent in open arm in the EPM test; time spent in lighted box, and numbers of crossings and transfer latency time in the LDE test. There was significant reduction in the time spent in close arm in the EPM test and time spent in dark box in LDE test. In the actophotometer, the activity count was reduced in MEAB and diazepam treated group than control group. All the three doses of the extract significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (chemoshock convulsion). However, the extract did not show any appreciable effect in electroshock convulsion model. The results of the present study suggest promising anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity of MEAB which might be accredited to different phytoconstituents like alkaloids, steroids and triterpenes present in the methanol extract of A. brasiliana.

  14. Health promoting properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in fortification of maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods

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    Attaugwu, R.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the chemical and antioxidant properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in iron and zinc fortification of maizebambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods. A. brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces were freshly harvested, dried at 50oC for 48 hours and analyzed for the relevant chemical components and antioxidant activities. The vitamin A content was 6996 and 745.6 μgRE/kg while the vitamin C was 238.26 and 294.78 mg/kg respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa calyces contained 509.5 mg/kg and 5234.72 mg/kg of alkaloids, 1545 mg/kg and 384 mg/kg of anthocyanins, 767.3 and 235.83 mg/kg of carotenoids, 14,702.8 and 26,428.3 mg/kg of phenols, 1043.5 and 897.63 mg/kg steroids and 462.0 mg/kg and 1006.5 mg/kg of flavonoids respectively. A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa extracts had concentration-dependent DPPH activity with IC50 of 1.76 mg/ml and 5.745 mg/ml, nitric oxide scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.675 mg/ml and 3.976 mg/ml while the ferric reducing power had an absorbance range of 0.5 – 0.982 and 0.959 – 0.986 respectively. The study revealed that A.brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces contain components that will impact positively on the health of the infants when used to formulate complementary foods.

  15. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  16. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE BIOLOGY OF TUBEROLACHNUS SALIGNUS (GMELIN (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE ON (SALIX ALBA

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    Nıhal ÖZDER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development time, survivoship and reproduction of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin( Lachninae: Lachnini were studied on Salix alba at fi ve constant temperatures (17.5°C, 20°C, 22.5°C, 25°C and 27.5°C . The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 17.00 days at 17.5°C to 12.21 days at 25°C on Salix alba. The total percentage of survivorship of immature stages varied from 50% and 70% 17.5°C -20°C on S. alba. The largest r m valueoccurred with 0.2540 at 20°C on S. alba. The mean generation time of the population ranged from 13.595 days at 22.5°C to 19.60 days at 17.5°C on S. alba. The optimal temperature for Tuberolachnus salignus was 20°C.

  17. Nomina nova in Platyhelminthes pro Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882 (non [Gmelin, 1801]; non Dunker, 1843), and Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 (non Andrews, 1922).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Jahn J

    2016-08-19

    Two genus-group names of flat-worms-Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882-are junior homonyms that are preoccupied by fossil diapsid reptile genera-Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922, and Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843-and an extant teleost fish genus-Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] ex La Cépède, 1800. These are replaced by nomina nova (Pharyngodytes nom. nov.; Graffiellus nom. nov.). Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] is an objective senior synonym of Macrorhyncus Dumeríl, 1805 ex La Cépède, 1800 (syn. nov.), and a senior homonym of Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843, and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882.

  18. Serum biochemistry of an, atlantic Yellow-Nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789 Bioquímica do soro sangüíneo de um albatroz Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789

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    P. Baldassin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Colheu-se uma amostra de sangue de um albatroz Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789, recolhido pela Polícia do Meio Ambiente de Ubatuba, SP, para análises da bioquímica do soro. O objetivo dessas análises foi o de apontar possíveis alterações dos parâmetros bioquímicos, visando facilitar futuras casas para reabilitação de aves. Nenhuma anormalidade foi encontrada e o animal morreu após três dias da captura.

  19. Redescription of Naobranchia variabilis Brian, 1924 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae), parasitic on the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin in Algerian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Fazia; Kechemir-Issad, Nadia; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-06-01

    Adults of both sexes of Naobranchia variabilis Brian, 1924 (Lernaeopodidae) are described based on material collected from the gill filaments of Balistes capriscus Gmelin, caught off the coast of Algeria. This is the second species of Naobranchia Hesse, 1863 to be found in the Mediterranean and the host record is new. Morphological comparisons are made with existing descriptions of N. variabilis and it is inferred, from small variations between material from different hosts and different localities, that N. variabilis may represent a species complex. The corrugated lobes on the head of Naobranchia females are interpreted as novel structures involved with temporary attachment during feeding.

  20. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  1. A synoptic review of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcak, Daniel; Oros, Mikulas; Hanzelova, Vladimira; Scholz, Tomas

    2017-08-16

    Tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), common parasites of cyprinid fishes, are reviewed and taxonomic status of 42 nominal taxa that have been placed in the genus during its long history is clarified. The following seven species occurring in the Palaearctic Region are recognised as valid: C. laticeps (Pallas, 1781), C. auriculatus (Kulakovskaya, 1961), C. balticus (Szidat, 1941) comb. n. (syn. Khawia baltica Szidat, 1941), C. brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953, C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919, C. syrdarjensis Skrjabin, 1913, and newly described Caryophyllaeus chondrostomi sp. n. (= C. laticeps morphotype 4 of Bazsalovicsová et al., 2014) from common nase, Chondrostoma nasus (Linnaeus), found in Austria and Slovakia. The new species differs by the paramuscular or cortical position of preovarian vitelline follicles, a large, robust body (up to 64 mm long), conspicuously long vas deferens, flabellate scolex with small wrinkles on the anterior margin, and anteriormost testes located in a relatively short distance from the anterior extremity. Caryophyllaeus kashmirenses Mehra, 1930 and Caryophyllaeus prussicus (Szidat, 1937) comb. n. are considered to be species inquirendae, C. truncatus von Siebold in Baird, 1853 and C. tuba von Siebold in Baird, 1853 are nomina nuda. Data on the morphology, host spectra, distribution and known life-cycles of valid species are provided. Phylogenetic interrelations of four species of the genus including its type species and newly described C. chondrostomi were assessed based on an analysis of sequences of lsrDNA and cox1. A key to identification of all valid species of Caryophyllaeus is also provided.

  2. Anatomical evidence for the occurrence of Lymnaea (Galba) palustris (O.F. Müller, 1774) and L. (Galba) corvus (Gmelin, 1778) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Kessel, van C.M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on the Lymnaea (Galba) palustris complex in The Netherlands. Investigations on the genitalia proved that in The Netherlands two species are present, viz. L. palustris (O. F. Müller, 1774) and L. corvus (Gmelin, 1778), which can not in all cases be distinguished by shell characters.

  3. Conhecimento tradicional das marisqueiras de Barra Grande, área de proteção ambiental do delta do Rio Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

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    Simone Tupinambá Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Na comunidade de Barra Grande localizada no litoral do Piauí, as mulheres dos pescadores, conhecidas localmente como marisqueiras, extraem do manguezal vários tipos de moluscos para comercialização e em maior escala para a subsistência. Dados sobre a atividade de mariscagem, conceitos de conservação e aspectos socioeconômicos do contexto em que ocorre a atividade de cata dos moluscos, foram revelados após a aplicação de protocolos estruturados e semiestruturados. O molusco bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, popularmente denominado de marisco, é caracterizado por ser um importante recurso para a subsistência, sendo o mais coletado pela comunidade, seguido da Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842, o sururu, explorado para a comercialização por ter o maior valor de mercado. O conhecimento das marisqueiras sobre A. brasiliana foi comparado com literatura especializada, muitas vezes mostrando-se em harmonia com esta. Demonstra-se assim que o conhecimento tradicional deve ser valorizado para delineamento de programas de gestão de recursos pesqueiros da região. Quanto aos modos de pensar, foi revelado que 82,81% das marisqueiras praticam manejo para a conservação da A. brasiliana ao coletar apenas os indivíduos de maior tamanho, e 80,86% consideram que não existe poluição nos pontos de coletas. O surgimento de uma Associação exclusiva e cooperativa para as marisqueiras é necessário para a valorização do trabalho por elas desenvolvido, visto que há uma média estimada de 351 kg de carne sendo extraídos mensalmente.En la comunidad de Barra Grande, situada en la costa del estado de Piaui, las esposas de los pescadores, localmente llamadas de "marisqueiras", extraen de los manglares diversos tipos de moluscos para su comercialización, haciendo de esta actividad en una fuente de subsistencia. Informaciones detalladas y sistemáticas sobre la actividad de cosecha de mariscos, del contexto en el que se desarrolla la

  4. Characters of the leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae Caracteres morfo-anatômicos da folha e do caule de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera brasiliana (L. O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae is a Brazilian perennial herb employed as analgesic and anti-inflammatory in the traditional medicine. This work has analysed the morpho-anatomy of the leaf and stem, in order to supply knowledge to the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained according to usual microtechniques. The leaves are simple, entire, decussate, oval-lanceolate and purple, presenting uniseriate epidermis, pluricellular non-glandular trichomes coated by papillose cuticle, anomocytic and diacytic stomata on both surfaces; the mesophyll is dorsiventral, with collateral vascular bundles and druses. The stem, in secondary growth, has the dermal system similar to the leaf; the angular collenchyma alternates with the chlorenchyma; it occurs druses and a cambial variant, consisting of concentrical arcs of extra-cambia outside the first cambium and aligned vascular bundles in the pith.Alternanthera brasiliana (L. O. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, é herbácea perene de origem brasileira, empregada como analgésico e antiinflamatório na medicina tradicional. Este trabalho analisou a morfo-anatomia de folha e caule, a fim de fornecer subsídios à identificação da planta medicinal. O material foi fixado, seccionado à mão livre e corado de acordo com técnicas usuais. As folhas são simples, inteiras, decussadas, oval-lanceoladas e púrpuras, e apresentam epiderme unisseriada, tricomas tectores pluricelulares revestidos por cutícula papilosa, estômatos anomocíticos e diacíticos em ambas as faces; o mesofilo é dorsiventral, com feixes vasculares colaterais e drusas. O caule, em estrutura secundária, tem o sistema de revestimento similar ao da folha; o colênquima é angular em alternância com o clorênquima, ocorrem drusas e uma organização cambial variante, consistindo de arcos cambiais extranumerários concêntricos ao primeiro câmbio vascular e feixes vasculares

  5. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

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    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  6. Developmental effects of additional ultraviolet a radiation, growth regulators and tyrosine in Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze cultured in vitro

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    Nina Cláudia Barboza Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze were treated with different growth regulators (Kinetin and 2,4-D, tyrosine and Ultraviolet A radiation (UV-A; 320 - 400 nm to investigate their effects on development and pigment production. Nodal segments of plantlets grown from seeds were inoculated in all tested media and different light conditions. After eight weeks, this material was used to evaluate biomass, chlorophyll and betacyanin production. The Murashige and Skoog (MS + kinetin medium resulted in development of approximately four shoots/explant. This medium plus white light was the best combination for micropropagation with the highest rooting percentage and betacyanin production. Plantlets grown under UV-A illumination reduced biomass accumulation and worse Chlorophyll a / Chlorophyll b ratio. Addition of 2,4-D resulted in inhibition of pigment production and growth of plantlets.Culturas de tecidos de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze foram tratadas com diferentes reguladores de crescimento (Cinetina e 2,4-D, tirosina e com ultravioleta longo (UV-A; 320 -400 nm adicional com o intuito de observar seus efeitos no desenvolvimento e produção de pigmentos. Segmentos nodais de plantas crescidas a partir de sementes foram inoculados nos meios de cultura testados e mantidos sob os diferentes tipos de iluminação. Após 8 semanas este material foi utilizado para avaliação da produção de biomassa, clorofilas e betacianinas. O meio de Murashige and Skoog (MS + cinetina proporcionou plântulas com até 4 brotos/explante. Este meio iluminado com luz branca (tipo luz do dia foi a combinação mais adequada para micropropagação, pois apresenta maior porcentagem de enraizamento e maior produção de betacianinas. Plântulas crescidas sob iluminação com ultravioleta adicional tiveram diminuídas tanto a produção de biomassa quanto a relação Clor a/ Clor b. A adição de 2,4-D ao meio de cultura resultou na inibição da produ

  7. Structural studies of the 'Aplysia Brasiliana' and 'Dermochelis Coriacea' myoglobins by optical and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa Filho, O.

    1984-01-01

    The myoglobins of 'Applysia Brasiliana' (MbApB) and of the sea turtle 'Dermochelis Coriacea' (MbT) are studied with special attention devoted to the acid-alkalyne transition (AAT), the interaction with transition metals and temperature induced conformational changes in order to characterize structural differences in these proteins. The AAT of MbApB has a pK = 7.2 obtained from the EPR spectra of Fe 3+ at g (perpendicular) = 5.83 and a pK = 7.5 obtained from optical absorption (lambda = 590 nm). The EPR Spectrum of Fe 3+ at alkalyne pH shows a rhombic distortion of the ion crystal field which is in agreement with the absence in this protein of the distal histidine residue. The ESR lines associated with the low spin configuration are considerably broadened. This effect can be explained by fluctuations on the heme position relative to the symmetry axis. MbApB forms complexes with both Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ only one binding site is obtained for both metals in the protein. This site probably has common ligands for mN 2+ and Cu 2+ as the binding is competitive, suggesting also the at the Cu 2+ complex is more stable than the Mn 2+ one (K sub(A) sup(M) sub(n 2+ )) = (11,5 + - 0,8).10 3 M -1 . (Author) [pt

  8. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Augustine, Bibin Baby; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Barua, Chandana; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB) and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.

  9. Óleos essenciais das folhas de Vernonia Remotiflora e Vernonia Brasiliana: composição química e atividade biológica

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Ana Isabel V.; Torres,Maria Conceição M.; Pessoa,Otília Deusdênia L.; Menezes,Jane Eire S. A. de; Costa,Sônia Maria O.; Nogueira,Vanessa Lúcia R.; Melo,Vânia Maria Maciel; Souza,Elnatan B. de; Cavalcante,Maria Gilvânia B.; Albuquerque,Maria Rose Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained by hidrodistillation, from leaves of two Vernonia species (V. remotiflora and V. brasiliana), was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS. Both essential oils were predominantly constituted by sesquiterpenes (92.0 - 93.4%). The main constituents of the oil from V. brasilana were (E)-caryophyllene (36.7%), germacrene D (35.5%), and α-humulene (11.7%), while (E)-caryophyllene (42.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (20.0%) were the major ones in the oi...

  10. Thiol oxidation of hemolymph proteins in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana as markers of oxidative damage induced by urban sewage exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Dolores, Euler S; Mattos, Jacó J; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C; Bícego, Márcia C; Dos Reis, Isis M M; Zacchi, Flávia L; Othero, Bárbara N M; Bastolla, Camila L V; Mello, Danielle F; Fraga, Ana Paula M; Wendt, Nestor; Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Razzera, Guilherme; Dafre, Alcir L; de Melo, Cláudio M R; Bianchini, Adalto; Marques, Maria R F; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2017-07-01

    Urban sewage is a concerning issue worldwide, threatening both wildlife and human health. The present study investigated protein oxidation in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) exposed to seawater from Balneário Camboriú, an important tourist destination in Brazil that is affected by urban sewage. Oysters were exposed for 24 h to seawater collected close to the Camboriú River (CAM1) or 1 km away (CAM2). Seawater from an aquaculture laboratory was used as a reference. Local sewage input was marked by higher levels of coliforms, nitrogen, and phosphorus in seawater, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and fecal steroid in sediments at CAM1. Exposure of oysters to CAM1 caused marked bioaccumulation of LABs and decreased PAH and PCB concentrations after exposure to both CAM1 and CAM2. Protein thiol oxidation in gills, digestive gland, and hemolymph was evaluated. Lower levels of reduced protein thiols were detected in hemolymph from CAM1, and actin, segon, and dominin were identified as targets of protein thiol oxidation. Dominin susceptibility to oxidation was confirmed in vitro by exposure to peroxides and hypochlorous acid, and 2 cysteine residues were identified as potential sites of oxidation. Overall, these data indicate that urban sewage contamination in local waters has a toxic potential and that protein thiol oxidation in hemolymph could be a useful biomarker of oxidative stress in bivalves exposed to contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1833-1845. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) using different systems to induce metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R C; Silva, F C; Gomes, C H M; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability--that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.

  12. AÇÃO ANTI-HELMÍNTICA DO EXTRATO HIDROALCOÓLICO DE Alternanthera sessilis e Alternathera brasiliana EM OVINOS

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    Claudia Faccio Demarco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato hidroalcoólico de plantas de Alternanthera sessilis e Alternanthera brasiliana em ovinos naturalmente infectados. Para o experimento foram utilizados 30 ovinos e estes foram distribuídos em 3 grupos:  grupo 1: controle, que recebeu 10 mL de água, grupo 2: com 10 mL de solução com concentração de 500 mg/L de extrato de A. brasiliana e grupo 3: com 10 mL de solução com concentração de 500 mg/L de A. sessilis. Os animais receberam o tratamento por via oral durante os dias 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 e as coletas de fezes para avaliar a carga parasitária foram realizadas nos dias 2, 3, 4, 5, e 7. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa na redução de ovos por grama de fezes, bem como na porcentagem de redução de OPG. Conclui-se que nas condições deste trabalho, os extratos não apresentaram ação anti-helmíntica em ovinos.

  13. Solving the 170-Year-Old Mystery About Red-Violet and Blue Transient Intermediates in the Gmelin Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yin; Toubaei, Abouzar; Kong, Xianqi; Wu, Gang

    2015-11-23

    The Gmelin reaction between nitroprusside and sulfides in aqueous solution is known to produce two transient intermediates with distinct colors: an initial red-violet intermediate that subsequently converts into a blue intermediate. In this work, we use a combination of multinuclear ((17) O, (15) N, (13) C) NMR, UV/Vis, IR spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical computation to show unequivocally that the red-violet intermediate is [Fe(CN)5 N(O)S](4-) and the blue intermediate is [Fe(CN)5 N(O)SS)](4-) . While the formation of [Fe(CN)5 N(O)S](4-) has long been postulated in the literature, this study provides the most direct proof of its structure. In contrast, [Fe(CN)5 N(O)SS)](4-) represents the first example of any metal coordination complex containing a perthionitro ligand. The new reaction pathways found in this study not only provide clues for the mode of action of nitroprusside for its pharmacological activity, but also have broader implications to the biological role of H2 S, potential reactions between H2 S and nitric oxide donor compounds, and the possible biological function of polysulfides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

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    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  15. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Hickey, Anthony; Mountfort, Douglas; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting.

  16. Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers

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    Wallace Richard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791, is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174 of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ≤ 1e-05 to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the

  17. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

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    Martina Venturini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the population size of Genoa Nervi and the presence of the species in surrounding areas were investigated. In 2002 the population size was estimated in 115/286 individuals by distance sampling method, while, by direct observation, it varied from 80 individuals (2004 to 114 individuals (2003. The sampling by hair tubes in surrounding areas confirmed the presence of a group of grey squirrels in Bogliasco and excluded a further dispersal of the species. Riassunto In Liguria, la popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis ha avuto origine dall'introduzione di 5 coppie nei parchi urbani di Genova Nervi nel 1966. Un primo studio condotto nel 1996 ha localizzato, tramite interviste, un secondo nucleo a 3 km di distanza, in località Bogliasco. Il presente studio, condotto nel 2001-2004, è stato finalizzato alla valutazione della consistenza della popolazione nei parchi di Nervi, mediante il metodo distance sampling e osservazioni dirette, e all'accertamento della presenza della specie nelle aree circostanti mediante l'utilizzo di hair tube. La stima della popolazione con il metodo distance sampling è risultata di 115/286 individui nel 2002, mentre quella ottenuta mediante osservazioni dirette è variata da 80 individui nel 2004 a 114 individui nel 2003. Gli accertamenti compiuti nelle aree circostanti i parchi di Nervi hanno consentito di confermare la presenza di un nucleo di scoiattoli a Bogliasco e di escludere un'ulteriore espansione della specie.

  18. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

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    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  19. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

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    Rafael M. Ximenes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2 exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2, an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition.

  20. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A(2) Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M; Rabello, Marcelo M; Araújo, Renata M; Silveira, Edilberto R; Fagundes, Fábio H R; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B S; Buzzo, Simone C; Soares, Veronica C G; Toyama, Daniela de O; Gaeta, Henrique H; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Monteiro, Helena S A; Toyama, Marcos H

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA(2) from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA(2) tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA(2) administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA(2)s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA(2) inhibition.

  1. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M.; Rabello, Marcelo M.; Araújo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Buzzo, Simone C.; Soares, Veronica C. G.; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition. PMID:22899963

  2. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

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    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  3. Diversidad genética de levaduras aisladas a partir de uvas de Vitis vinifera ssp. Sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi en el área Euroasiática

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    Cordero-Bueso Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sylvestris(Gmelin Hegi is recognized as the dioecious parental generation of today's cultivars. Climatic change and the arrival in Europe of pathogens and pests have led it to be included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1997. At best of our knowledge, no studies on microbial populations of grape-berry surfaces have been done. The present work has been focused on the study of yeast occurrence and diversity on grape-berries collected from wild vines. Final outputs have allowed: ito obtain precise information about yeast communities; ii to provide an objective framework for the classification of the broadest range of species according to their extinction risk; iii to select attractive yeast strains for their biotechnological potential, offering new opportunities to winemakers. Sampling plan was performed in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In all, 3180 yeast colonies were isolated and identified as belonging to 50 species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and ITS region sequencing. Isolates of S. cerevisiaewere also analysed by SSR-PCR obtaining 163 different genotypes. This study highlights the biodiversity potential of pristine environments that still represent a fascinating source to face common problems in winemaking.

  4. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    PFA. Nóbrega

    Full Text Available Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records.

  5. A review of plant protection against the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin and molecular methods to monitor the insecticide resistance alleles

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    Matjaž Hladnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin is one of the most important olive pests worldwide. Most plant protection measures are based on insecticides, especially organophosphates, pyrethroids, and recently a spinosad. Insecticides are used as cover sprays or in more environmentally friendly methods in which insecticides are used in combination with attractants and pheromones as bait sprays or for mass trapping. However, due to negative impacts of insecticides to environment, new plant protection methods are constantly developing with the aim to lower the consumption of insecticides or even to eliminate them by biological control with entomopathogenic organisms, sterile insect technique (SIT, or transgenic method RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal. However, these methods need to be improved in order to guarantee adequate protection. Alternative methods than those traditionally used are required due to long term usage causing the development of resistance to the insecticides, ultimately lowering their effectiveness. Molecular methods for monitoring the frequencies of resistant alleles and the current status of resistance alleles in olive growing countries are reviewed here.

  6. External morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre comb. nov., with taxonomic notes on Siderone (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae

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    Fernando Maia Silva Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The external morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin, [1790] and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 comb. nov. from southern Brazil are described. Additionally, morphology of the adults and sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase, subunit I, were analyzed in order to evaluate the taxonomy of Siderone galanthis Hübner, [1823]. Immatures were collected on Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae in Curitiba, Paraná, and Balneário Barra do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and reared at the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, based on observations through stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to camera lucida; results are compared and discussed and immature stages of some other species of Charaxinae. The results indicates that the morphology of the immature stages of the studied species differ greatly from other Anaeini, representing a distinct lineage of leafwings butterflies. Morphology and molecular evidence indicate that S. nemesis mexicana Dottax and Pierre, 2009 and S. nemesis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 are conspecific with S. galanthis (Cramer, 1775; additionally, S. thebais C. Felder and R. Felder 1862, S. nemesis var. confluens Staudinger, 1887, S. nemesis f. leonora Bargmann, 1928 and S. nemesis f. exacta Bargmann, 1929 are synonymized with S. galanthis galanthis (Cramer, 1775.

  7. A new species of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) parasitic in the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin (Osteichthyes: Balistidae) off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe B; Vieira, Fabiano M; Luque, José L

    2014-03-01

    Cucullanus brevicaudatus n. sp. (Cucullanidae) is described from the intestine of Balistes capriscus Gmelin (Balistidae) off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from its congeners in the small body length, the shape of the gubernaculum, the particular size and morphology of the tail in both males and females, the arrangement of the caudal papillae, the narrow oesophageal base, and the eggs with rugged shells. In addition, the combination of some features, i.e. number of caudal papillae, spicule length, oesophagus/body length ratio, host family and geographical distribution, can help to easily distinguish the new species from other cucullanids. Considering these features, C. brevicaudatus differs from the species assigned to Dichelyne Törnquist, 1931 which exhibit morphological proximity with Cucullanus Müller, 1777. Regarding the life-cycle of cucullanid nematodes, available evidence suggests that some species are primarily heteroxenous using invertebrates (i.e. crustaceans, polychaetes) as intermediate hosts, but in other a histotrophic phase in the definitive host replaces the intermediate host.

  8. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano de espécies de Hortia (Rutaceae) : H. oreadica, H. brasiliana e H. superba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2008-01-01

    O estudo fitoquímico de Hortia descrito neste trabalho visa contribuir com a quimiossistemática da família Rutaceae e também com a melhor classificação do gênero dentro da mesma. O estudo das espécies H. oreadica, H. brasiliana e H. superba levou ao isolamento de 15 substâncias, sendo, derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico ácido 3-fenil-[2,6-dimetoxi-(3,4-O:5,6)-2,2- dimetilpirano]propiônico (01), 3-fenil-[2-metoxi-(3,4-O:5,6)-2,2- dimetilpirano]propionato de metila (02), 3-fenil-[2,6-dimetoxi-(3...

  9. Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel D; Karel, William J; Mace, Christopher E; Bartram, Brian L; Hare, Matthew P

    2014-05-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) is an economically and ecologically valuable marine bivalve occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. This study builds upon previous research that identified two divergent populations of eastern oysters in the western Gulf of Mexico. Allelic and genotypic patterns from 11 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic structure and migration between the previously described oyster populations in Texas. The main findings are as follows: (1) there are two distinct populations (F ST = 0.392, P < 0.001) of oysters that overlap in the Corpus Christi/Aransas Bay estuarine complex in Texas, (2) the distribution of genotypes among individuals in the contact zone suggests limited hybridization between populations, (3) the variables of salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and depth are not correlated with allele frequencies on reefs in the contact zone or when analyzed across Texas, and (4) there is little evidence of directional selection acting on the loci assayed here, although patterns at four markers suggested the influence of balancing selection based on outlier analyses. These results are consistent with long-term historical isolation between populations, followed by secondary contact. Recent hydrological changes in the area of secondary contact may be promoting migration in areas that were previously inhospitable to eastern oysters, and observed differences in the timing of spawning may limit hybridization between populations. Comparison of these findings with the results of an earlier study of oysters in Texas suggests that the secondary contact zone has shifted approximately 27 km north, in as little as a 23-year span.

  10. Parásitos metazoos de Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes en Chile central: especificidad, prevalencia y variaciones entre localidades Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA HINOJOSA-SÁEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los parásitos metazoos en 65 ejemplares del pato jergón grande Anas geórgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes, capturados entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2004, en seis localidades de la zona centro-sur de Chile. Se evaluó si existía correlación entre el valor del índice de especificidad STD (Statistical Taxonomic Distinctiveness, para cada taxón determinado a nivel de especie, con sus respectivas prevalencias e intensidades. Además, se evaluó la significancia estadística de las variaciones entre localidades en la prevalencia e intensidad de ectoparásitos y endoparásitos, en la abundancia total de parásitos y en la riqueza de las infracomunidades. Finalmente, se evaluó si el peso corporal y el sexo de los hospedadores eran relevantes para entender las variaciones de la abundancia de cada taxon, la abundancia total y la riqueza en las infracomunidades. En el 81.5 % de los ejemplares examinados se encontraron 1,653 parásitos, pertenecientes a un total de 11 taxa, a saber, los ectoparásitos del orden Phthiraptera Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763, Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818 y Trinoton querquedulae (Linneus, 1758, y los endoparásitos Digenea Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923 Dubois, 1968, Notocotylus imbricatus (Loss, 1893, Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum Price, 1931, Echinostoma sp. Rudolphi, 1809, Echinoparyphium sp. Dietz, 1909, el Nematoda Porrocaecum sp. Railliet & Henry, 1912 y los Cestoda Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolfhuegel, 1938 y Fuhrmanacanthus propeteres (Fuhrmann, 1907 Spasskii, 1966. La correlación entre el índice de especificidad STD y la prevalencia de los taxa parasitarios resultó ser negativa y significativa, no así la correlación con la intensidad. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia o riqueza de los parásitos entre sexos de las aves, pero sí en la riqueza de especies y en la abundancia total entre sitios. Con excepción de los

  11. Fatty acid composition from the marine red algae Pterocladiella capillacea (S. G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand 1997 and Osmundaria obtusiloba (C. Agardh R. E. Norris 1991 and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL B. DE ALENCAR

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fatty acids from the marine red algae Pterocladiella capillacea (S. G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand 1997 and Osmundaria obtusiloba (C. Agardh R. E. Norris 1991. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS identified nine fatty acids in the two species. The major fatty acids of P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba were palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of fatty acids was moderate ranging from 25.90% to 29.97%. Fatty acids from P. capillacea (31.18% had a moderate ferrous ions chelating activity (FIC, while in O. obtusiloba (17.17%, was weak. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of fatty acids from P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba was low. As for β-carotene bleaching (BCB, P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba showed a good activity. This is the first report of the antioxidant activities of fatty acids from the marine red algae P. capillacea and O. obtusiloba.

  12. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  13. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S.P. Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE, Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance. Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks, mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7, Callinectes exasperatus (0.73 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46. The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation.Nós analisamos a apropriação e o uso dos recursos pesqueiros pelas mulheres que moram no Estuário do Rio Mamanguape, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foi usada uma combinação de métodos qualitativos (entrevistas e observações diretas e quantitativos (valor de uso e concordância de uso principal corrigido. Foram entrevistadas 30 mulheres e registrado o uso de 41 espécies (peixes - 30, crustáceos - 08 e moluscos - 03, principalmente para consumo local e venda. As espécies com maior valor de uso foram Genidens genidens (0,7, Callinectes exasperatus (0,73 e Anomalocardia brasiliana (0,46. A diversidade de recursos explorados demonstra a importância do manguezal para as famílias do ERM, e os dados coletados podem servir de base para a formulação de políticas públicas que promovam a participação igualitária de mulheres na pesca, e na conservação ambiental.

  14. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  15. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The experimental cages set up for this work was as follows: Cage I contained only wild flies, Cage II contained only laboratory reared flies donated by. Dr. Nikos .... Multiple factorial design and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the .... statistics. We thank the Turkish Government Planning.

  16. A produção de vôngole e seu potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos a base de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Monique dos Santos Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dificuldade em suprir a demanda de proteína de origem animal de excelente valor biológico para a população humana é uma das maiores preocupações do nosso século. De acordo com a FAO, a atividade pesqueira (pesca extrativa e aquicultura, será uma das principais atividades responsáveis pela segurança alimentar do planeta, com previsões de produção de proteína de origem animal para a próxima década maior do que o setor de animais de abate (carnes bovinas, suínas e aves. A utilização de recursos pesqueiros subutilizados com potencial para explotação poderá assegurar a manutenção da oferta primária de matéria prima no mercado interno local e/ou regional, e inibir oscilação de preços, como a prática da mariscagem. Neste contexto, o presente artigo de revisão tem por objetivo evidenciar o potencial da Anomalocardia brasiliana para explotação e processamento contribuindo para o fortalecimento desta cadeia produtiva no segmento artesanal e diversificação de produtos no mercado brasileiro.The production of clams and its potential for development of new products based on fish Abstract: The difficulty in supplying the animal protein demand of great biological value for the human population is a major concern of our century. According to the FAO, the fishery (extractive fishing and aquaculture, will be one of the main activities responsible for food safety in the world, with animal protein production forecasts for the next decade longer than the slaughter of animals sector (beef, pork and poultry. The use of fishing resources with underutilized potential for exploitation can ensure the maintenance of primary supply of raw materials on-site domestic and / or regional, and inhibit movement of prices, as the practice of shellfish. In this context, the present review aims to highlight the potential of Anomalocardia brasiliana to exploitation and processing contributing to the strengthening of this production chain in the

  17. COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E DE MINERAIS DE MARISCOS CRUS E COZIDOS DA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN CENTESIMAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE RAW AND COOKED SHELLFISHES OF THE NATAL-RN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia de Fátima Campos PEDROSA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição centesimal e os teores de zinco, cobre e ferro de cinco tipos de mariscos crus e cozidos: Camarão (Penaeus brasiliensis, Caranguejo (Ucides cordatus, Lagosta (Panulirus argus, Ostra (Crassostrea rhizophorae e Mexilhão (Anomalocardia brasiliana, crus e cozidos, provenientes da cidade de Natal/RN. As amostras da parte comestível de cada alimento foram adquiridas em peixaria do cais do porto. Os mariscos foram considerados fontes expressivas de proteínas e minerais, enquanto as quantidades de lipídeos e calorias foram baixas. Observou-se na maioria das amostras teores de proteínas e de cinzas aumentados após a cocção. A concentração de zinco foi variada, apresentando-se a ostra como a maior fonte dentre as espécies estudadas. Os maiores teores de ferro e cobre foram verificados no mexilhão e na ostra. A cocção provocou perdas de 50% de cobre no mexilhão e praticamente não alterou as concentrações do referido nutriente no caranguejo. Esperamos que estes resultados contribuam para bancos de dados que auxiliarão na melhor estimativa de consumo de nutrientes em inquéritos dietéticos.The aim of this study was to analyse the centesimal composition as well as zinc, copper and iron contents of the five species from raw and cooked shellfishes: shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis, crab (Ucides cordatus, lobster (Panulirus argus, oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae and mussel (Anomalocardia brasiliana. The edible samples were collected in the fish market of the Natal city. Shellfishes were considered an expressive source of the proteins and minerals, while quantities of lipids and calories were low. After the cooking process protein and ash concentration increased in most of shellfishes. Zinc analysis showed variable concentration in the species. Oyster was the food with the highest zinc values. Mussel was considered the best source of iron and copper but around 50% of the copper detected was

  18. Parasites of three commercially exploited bivalve mollusc species of the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river (Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehs, Guisla; Villalba, Antonio; Ceuta, Liliane Oliveira; Luz, Joaldo Rocha

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the parasites found in three commercially exploited bivalve molluscs (Mytella guyanensis, Anomalocardia brasiliana and Iphigenia brasiliana) of an estuarine region of Ilhéus, south of Bahia, Brazil (14 degrees 48'23''S; 39 degrees 02'47''W). Samples of 20 individuals of each species were collected fortnightly from August 2005 to August 2006. A total of 1480 individuals was collected and processed by standard histologic techniques; the histologic sections were stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscope. The water temperature in the study area varied from 24 to 30.5 degrees C and the salinity from 0 to 23ppt. Remarkable differences were found in the parasitic community between the three mollusc species involved in the study, which occupied different habitats in the estuarine region of the Cachoeira river. The following parasites were found: intracellular rickettsia-like colonies in digestive epithelia; intracellular gregarine Nematopsis sp. in gills, mantle, gonad, digestive gland and foot muscle; sporocysts of a Bucephalidae trematode in gonads, mantle, gills, digestive gland and foot; unidentified digenetic metacercariae in digestive gland and gonad; metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in connective tissue in the digestive gland and in gonad; and an unidentified metazoan in mantle and intestinal lumen. No significant temporal variation in the prevalence of any parasite was detected, which could be due to the narrow temperature range of the region and the absence of patterns of salinity and rainfall variation through the year. The infestation by sporocyst was the only pathological threat detected for the studied populations because of its potential for host castration. The low infection intensity and/or prevalence of the other parasites and the lack of obvious lesions suggest that there is no other serious pathological risk for the studied mollusc populations.

  19. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Desafios à cogestão: os impactos da Via Expressa Sul sobre o extrativismo na RESEX Marinha do Pirajubaé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lima Spínola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the case of the environmental impacts generated by the installation of the Southern Expressway, an enterprise of the State Government of Santa Catarina, on the extraction of berbigão (cockles; Anomalocardia brasiliana in the Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX, in the Portuguese acronym Pirajubaé, in Florianópolis (SC. The project caused significant impacts on the marine environment of this RESEX, including the loss of about half of the cockle bank, and hence on extractive practices and their management. The socio-environmental changes resulting from the construction of the Southern Expressway led to a situation of deregulation in the use of fisheries resources, resulting in use conflicts and establishing a situation of open access to resources in the area. In the case of Pirajubaé, when interests of dominant social groups in conflict with the goals of the RESEX were imposed, its institutional arrangement proved unable to secure the rights of the local users or gatherers on the use of natural resources in its territory, which should be the main objective of this kind of Conservation Unit. This leads us to question the effectiveness of the RESEX as an institutional arrangement to ensure shared management and conservation of natural resources in a given territory.

  1. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  2. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND METHODS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF PELED (СOREGONUS PELED GMELIN (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peled as a food product, raw material for processing and analyze traditional methods of its technological processing. Findings. The paper contains an analysis of the chemical composition of peled meat and its difference compared to other fish of pond aquaculture of Ukraine. According to the parameters of the biochemical composition of the meat of peled reared in the conditions of pond aquaculture, including: contents of fats, proteins, and moisture, belongs to the category of fish from medium to high fat content with medium protein content as well as to fish of increased nutritional value and assimilability based on water-protein, fat-protein, and water-fat balance, and based on amino-acid composition in percent, according to Score standard. Unlike cyprinids — objects of pond aquaculture, general indices of the biochemical composition and peculiarities of anatomical structure of peled as a coregonid representative, contribute to the formation of organoleptic features of native origin that are inherent to gourmet types of the products of traditional processing. It was found that unlike other coregonids, the biochemical indices of peled meat, which define the type and directions of its processing and its regime, first of all, the content of fat, protein, and moisture аre relatively stable for different age groups under conditions of pond aquaculture and they change less during the biological cycle. Main product requirements to the methods of technological processing of peled are summarized, namely: drying, smoking, salting. Full technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods taking into account biochemical peculiarities of raw material and requirements for the finished product are presented and analyzed. Practical value. The summarized information is useful for further development of domestic aquaculture and processing. Different indices of biochemical composition and high output indices of peled meat compared to main objects of pond aquaculture of Ukraine as well as with other fish species are shown. Special attention is given to the analysis of technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods, first of all, using traditional equipment taking into account rational regimes of the processing of raw materials and semi-products, which contribute to the formation of trade features of the finished gourmet product. The detailed analysis will contribute to the awareness of the importance of the formation of high quality properties of fish raw material for its further processing by the manufacturers of aquaculture products.

  3. Coccidiosis of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica Gmelin, 1789) in Kano State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Balarabe R; Simon, Malang K; Agbede, Rowland IS; Arzai, Auwalu H

    Pigeon coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria spp., a protozoan parasite which limits productivity by causing severe illness. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the coccidiosis of pigeons in some parts of Nigeria, there is no published data from Kano State. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons (72 females and 72 males) were analysed for Eimeria oocysts in 2007 from 12 Local Government Areas of Kano State over the period of six months including the dry (February–April) and wet (June–August) seasons. The pigeons were divided into three groups according to age: squabs (0–4 weeks), squeakers (5–8 weeks) and youngsters (9+ weeks); each group including 48 pigeons. The results of these studies revealed an overall prevalence of 19.44%. The prevalence was higher in females (20.83%) than males (18.06%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, squabs had the highest prevalence (27.08%) followed by squeakers (20.83%), and youngsters (10.42%) (p<0.05). Infection with Eimeria spp. oocysts was higher during the wet season (8.96%) than dry season (5.98%) (p<0.05). This study provides basic information on the first detection of coccidiosis of pigeons in Kano State, Nigeria which has an implication on the sustainable pigeon production for human protein reguirement.

  4. Rare earths, zirconium and hafnium distribution in coastal areas: The example of Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M G; Cammarata, I; Cammarata, M; Censi, V

    2017-10-01

    The Zr, Hf, Y and lanthanide (REE) distribution in biological tissues of Sabella spallanzanii and Styela plicata species collected from two harbours from the northern Sicily is studied for providing information regarding the Zr, Hf and REE uptake from the environment. Previous studies determined the fractionation of dissolved REE scavenged on binding sites onto biological surfaces. By comparing the recognised shale-normalised REE patterns of studied samples with evidence from reference data, the observed behaviour of these elements in biological tissues of Sabella spallanzanii and Styela plicata is interpreted to result from the preferential uptake of intermediate REE onto carboxylic sites. Moreover, the relationship observed between the Fe content and Zr/Hf ratio suggests that preferential Hf accumulation occurs via siderophore-like binding sites. Features of the REE bioaccumulation factors (BAF), in addition to the absolute La, Ce and Sm contents and Zr-Hf fractionation, allow definition of the different origins of studied elements in the investigated localities. Higher BAF values for La and Ce associated with larger REE contents and lower Zr/Hf values strongly suggest that the environmental REE distribution in the Termini Imerese harbour is influenced by the delivery of particles from industrial sources and power plants. On the contrary, the REE contents of biological tissues collected in the Cala tourist harbour are affected by the dust dissolution from automotive traffic. These results suggest that the geochemical behaviour of REE and Zr/Hf signature can be used in environmental studies of biological tissues for reconstructing the nature of anthropogenic contaminations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Passeriformes: Sturnidae in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Naing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum, in Southeast Asia has been unclear.  The origins of the few reported sightings, where commented upon, have often been listed as ‘uncertain’ or ‘unknown’ with the implication that some, maybe all, are escaped captivity birds.  The current paper brings together data on distribution, date of observation, and number of individuals to illustrate a pattern that clearly supports the view that records from Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore should be treated as ‘winter vagrants’.  With one exception, they are all of five birds or less and have been observed from October to March.  The paper includes the first authenticate record from Myanmar, which is the 1115th wild bird species listed for the country.  However, the status of a single record from Cambodia is treated with caution since it represents a considerable range extension and was observed on 01 April, which is relatively late in the season.  For these reasons, it is here listed as ‘origin uncertain’ until further data are available.  

  6. [Distribution of Littoraia melanostoma Gray (Littorinidae) and Nerita lineata Gmelin (Neritadae) in rehabilitated mangroves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong; Lu, Changyi; Li, Rong; Weng, Jin; Xu, Yuyu

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was made in April and July 2005 on the abundance and biomass of Littoraia melanostoma ( Littorinidae) and Nerita lineata (Neritadae) in the rehabilitated mangrove forests with different mangrove species and stand ages at the Jiulongjiang Estuary of Fujian Province. The results showed that Nerita lineata was more abundant in mature stands, and had greater biomass and density in Kandelia candel stand than in Aegiceras corniculatum stand. A. corniculatum stand had greater density and biomass of L. melanostoma than K. candel stand, when the two stands had similar ages. In A. corniculatum stands, the biomass of L. melanostoma increased with the age of younger stands; while in K. candel stands, it decreased with the development of the forests. Different habitation patterns of the two snails in different mangrove stands indicated that N. lineate had a strong inhabitation preference for mature K. candel forest, while L. melanostoma was apt to inhabit in younger A. corniculatum forests.

  7. A synoptic review of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barčák, D.; Oros, M.; Hanzelová, V.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, AUG 16 (2017), č. článku 027. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tapeworms * freshwater fish * Cyprinidae * systematics * identification key * phylogenetic relationships * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  8. Biochemical composition of the lamellibranchs Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) and Sanguinolaria diphos (Gmelin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    quantities in the estuary while Sanguinolaria diphos is found in small numbers. At Porto Novo, both M. casta and S. diphos are taken as food, especially by the poor. To study the nutritive value, the water, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents of M...

  9. 126 La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    richesses en protéines, glucides, lipides, sels minéraux, etc. C'est pour cela que ces plantes sont utilisées dans plusieurs domaines tels que l'agriculture ..... spécimens les plus lourds sont rencontrés à la fin de la saison printanière. Au début de l'été, ce sont les thalles les plus longs qui prédominent. Ceci peut être expliqué.

  10. Biology and toxicity of the pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (GMELIN, 1789) from the Gulf of Suez

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, A. A.; Sabrah, M. M.; Zaky, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Some biological aspects of the pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus were studied and correlated with the toxicity of the fish. A sample of 176 fish with total lengths ranging from 18.5 to 78.5 cm were collected from commercial catches at the Attaka fishing harbor between October 2002 and June 2003. Length weight regression parameters for males, females and all individuals were estimated. Modal progression analysis output indicates ten distinct age groups. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy's...

  11. Spatial distribution pattern and sequential sampling plans for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin (Dip: Tephritidae in olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arbab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of adult and larvae Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae, a key pest of olive, was studied in olive orchards. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on olive and the second was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating B. oleae populations. The Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s patchiness regression models were used to analyze the data. Our results document that Iwao’s patchiness provided a better description between variance and mean density. Taylor’s b and Iwao’s β were both significantly more than 1, indicating that adults and larvae had aggregated spatial distribution. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 2.17 and 4.76 for adult and larvae, respectively. Iwao’s a for larvae was significantly less than 0, indicating that the basic distribution component of B. oleae is the individual insect. Optimal sample sizes for fixed precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 were estimated with Iwao’s patchiness coefficients. The optimum sample size for adult and larvae fluctuated throughout the seasons and depended upon the fly density and desired level of precision. For adult, this generally ranged from 2 to 11 and 7 to 15 traps to achieve precision levels of 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. With respect to optimum sample size, the developed fixed-precision sequential sampling plans was suitable for estimating flies density at a precision level of D=0.25. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on pest management decisions of B. oleae.

  12. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  13. Aproveitamento industrial de marisco na produção de lingüiça Shellfish industrial utilization to produce sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as condições do processamento e a aceitabilidade da lingüiça de vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana, além de avaliar a estabilidade do produto congelado sob os aspectos químico, físico-químico, microbiológico e sensorial. O produto final obedeceu a seguinte formulação: 48% vongole, 5% proteína texturizada de soja, 15% água, 25% gordura suína, 3% albumina, 2% pré-mistura (sais de cura e NaCl, 1,5% condimentos e 0,5% urucum. O produto congelado ficou armazenado à temperatura de -18ºC durante três meses; periodicamente foi avaliado quanto ao pH, umidade, proteínas, lipídios, NBV, índice de peróxidos, reação de Kreiss, quanto à presença de microrganismos patogênicos e toxigênicos e quanto à aparência, aroma, sabor, textura. Os resultados apontaram que a lingüiça de vongole teve uma boa aceitação, com IA entre 78-87% para todos os atributos avaliados, especialmente em relação ao sabor e textura. As amostras foram avaliadas como sabor ideal de marisco e sabor ideal de condimentos por 66,67% e 73,33% dos provadores, respectivamente. Os resultados com o teste de atitude de intenção de compra mostraram que 46,67% dos consumidores tinham intenção provável ou certa de compra do produto. Os resultados da avaliação microbiológica, físico-química, química e sensorial da lingüiça de vongole, indicaram que o produto manteve-se estável, durante 90 dias de armazenamento a temperatura de -18ºC.It was studied the process and the acceptibility of the vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana sausage, beyond to evaluate the stability of the frozen product as to chemical, physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. The vongole sausage had the following formulation: 48% vongole, 5% soy protein, 15% water, 25% swine fat, 3% albumin, 2% blend of cure salts and NaCl, 1.5% flavouring, 0.5% colouring. The final product was stored during three months at -18ºC, and the shelf life study included pH, moisture

  14. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  15. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  16. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  17. Monitoring ecotoxicological and Environmental Testing Using with Biosurfactants Evaluation of Zone Water Quality Port | Monitoramento de testes ecotoxicológicos e ambientais Usando com biossurfactantes avaliação do porto de qualidade da água da zona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Gabriela Sobral dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants can be used in environmental pollution control systems for oil spill and its derivatives, since they increase the bioavailability of contaminants by reducing the surface tension of water. The mollusk Anomalocardia brasiliana is a species that inhabits areas with little suspended material. The aim was to test the tolerance concentration and the median lethal concentration (LC50 for a period of 96h through survival. The experiment was conducted at UFRPE, and the biosurfactant produced the root Candida lipolytica, having an industrial waste as a source of carbon, plus mineral medium. The animals were not fed for 24 hr prior to the experiment. It was performed six treatments (1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80 and 1: 160 in three replicates, with the density of 2.5 individual / Litre and subjected to constant aeration at a temperature of 26 ± 0 5 ° C and salinity 26. It follows that the treatments 1 (1:10 and 2 (1:20 gave a survival 76.18%, however treatments 3 (95.23% and 4 (95 83% were higher and treating with 5 to 100%. The LC50 estimated for the biosurfactant tested was 0.222 or 1: 4.5. The compound is lethal to the test organism used in dilutions being suggested further experiments with dilutions from 1: 05 to 1:20, to better estimate of LC50 for the same species. Thus, a better understanding of the lethal concentration in organisms representing different trophic levels brings positive results to optimize the procedures in environmental monitoring in port areas.

  18. Violenza e repressione durante la dittatura civile-militare brasiliana: l’eredità dell’autoritarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Bettamio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Belief in the “enemy within” guided the national security for the Brazilian civil-military dictatorship, which was substantiated by high authoritarian legality. Together, these factors contributed to the consolidation of a highly centralized and violent system of information and repression, which had the DOI-CODI as its main character since 1970. The role of this institutional body, how this activity served to institutionalize the practice of police violence during the dictatorial period and how it lives up to the present are the points that we address in this article. Finally, we point out aspects of transitional justice that today are fundamental to combat the authoritarian legacies of that time in Brazil.

  19. Study on the radiation sensitivity of pathogenic Vibrionaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and after inoculation into oysters (Cassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelli, D.S.; Jakabi, M.; Del Mastro, N.; Rodrigues de Moraes, I.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on various biotypes and serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (different biotypes and serotypes from group O1 and one strain from group O139); V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides; Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, S. typhymurium, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli O157:H7. In vivo tests were also conducted in oysters allowed to self-contaminate with V. cholerae and S. enteritidis cultures in sea water tanks through the natural feeding process of the mollusks. Bacterial populations irradiated (0.5-3.0 kGy) in pure culture in liquid broth or in oysters varied from 10 6 to 10 1 0 colony forming units per mL or gram (CFU/g or mL), respectively. The decrease in viable cells through the radiation dose range applied varied from 4 to 10 log 10 . The lowest radiation resistance was found in Vibrio spp. Aeromonas hydrophilia, and E. coli O157:H7, whereas S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium proved to be the most resistant species tested. A dose of 1.5 kGy was determined to be appropriate for elimination of up to 10 10 of bacteria tested except Salmonella spp. particularly, S. enteritidis, which required 3.0 kGy for complete elimination. Radiation doses of up to 3.0 kGy were not lethal to oysters. (author)

  20. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH• radicals scavenging (38% for 4 mg of lyophilized; beta-Carotene-Linoleic assay (12% for 4 mg of lyophilized; O2•- radicals scavenging (IC50 0.36 mg/mL; OH• radicals scavenging (IC50 2.11 mg/mL and iron quelation ability (IC50 0.37 mg/mL. Thus, antioxidant properties of this natural product seem to be related to its ability to scavenge free species. In previous reports of our group, cinnamic and phenolic acids were proposed as at least partially responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract, but the necessity for the presence of other components was also shown. Then, the antioxidant properties of the extract could be envisioned as the result of the additive and/or synergic effect between phenolic constituents and the other antioxidant components, such as minerals, carotenes and ascorbic acid.

  1. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  2. PENGELOLAAN PENANGKARAN DAN KUALITAS SUARA CUCAK RAWA (Pycnonotus zeylanicus Gmelin, 1789 DI MEGA BIRD AND ORCHID FARM, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Ayu Lestari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is population of straw headed bulbul (Pcynonotus zeylanicus in the nature has decreased sharply.The effort should be done is ex-situ conservation by means of captive breeding of straw headed bulbul. The aim of the research was to identify captivation technique, success indicator, song training techniques and distribution sound quality of straw headed bulbul. This research was conducted in Mega Bird and Orchid Farm, Bogor from March to April 2014. Descriptive and quantitative data analysis was applied in this research. The results showed that straw headed bulbul has three types of cage, they are cage for growing periode, ge of reproduction, and cage of incubator. Foods given to the bird were banana, papaya, voer and cricket. The types of diseases recorded were diarrhea, white-colored feces, green-colored feces, flu, and paralyzed feet. The criteria and success rate in captivating were consist of medium-scaled egg hatching rate (68.69%, high breed rate (77.38%, and low mortality(10.34%. Distribution song quality of straw headed bulbul was varies. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that breeding management for success breeding of straw headed bulbul comprised of such aspects as cage system management, feed management, health and care management, result utilization management,  and song quality management. Keywords: captive breeding, management, straw headed bulbul

  3. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 μg L -1 Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate transport that also suggest low energy demand for P-gp function

  4. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon fraction. Some bacterial protein is seemingly unavailable though and lower protein absorption efficiencies result. Thus gut retention time is shortened and more food passed through the gut. Growth remains equivalent. Substratum digestion is of paramount importance for Psammechinus feeding on either fresh or rotting weed, cf. the 'classical' microbe-stripping detritivore of Fenchel.

  5. Biologic propensities and phytochemical profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae): an underutilized native medicinal food plant from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Vangueria madagascariensis (VM), consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, (∙) OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α -amylase. Active extracts against α -glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r = 0.88) with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning (∙) OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α -tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  6. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  7. COMPARATIVE-MORPHOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CESTODA ERINACEOLEPIS ERINACEI (GMELIN, 1789 GULYAEV ET IRZHAVSKY COMB.N

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    S. V. Irzhavsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the historical background of the tribe and clan. We consider a diagnosis of the genus. Given distribution of the species, its definitive and intermediate hosts, life cycle, the localization of the cestode in the host's body. Given morphometric description of the kind.

  8. Observations of a nest of the Plumbeous Kite, Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788 (Falconiformes: Accipitridae in southern Brazil

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    Fábio André Facco Jacomassa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Between August and December 2005 and September and December 2006, 80h of observations were observed on a nest of Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea, located on the edge of a fragment in the town of Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brazil. During this period data were obtained on the behavior of copulation, parental care, nest maintenance and feeding. In early August 2005 and October 2006, copulations were observed that lasted on average 9.5s. The parents took turns incubating. In early November, the presence of nestlings was confirmed (one in each breeding season, and this time the parents fed the chicks with small insects (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and carried out the maintenance of the nest. The nestlings that were developing into young birds were fed with larger insects (Odonata, Lepidoptera – Myelobia smerintha and Orthoptera – Tropidacris collaris. The parents inhibited the approach of potential predators. Besides the food items supplied to the pups, they consumed fruits of Batinga Eugenia rostrifolia and a Piaya cayana carcass. The incubation period observed in this study agrees with that period already described in the literature for other regions. Finally, the data obtained allow inference of the reproductive season of this species in southern Brazil and also expand the knowledge about their diet to fruits and animal carcasses.

  9. Protection of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, Gmelin, 1790 population: the Gaztelugatxe Marine Reserve (Basque Country, northern Spain

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    Ángel Borja

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are expected to play a prominent role in the conservation of marine resources and fisheries management. In the Basque Country (northern Spain the small Marine Reserve of Gaztelugatxe (158 ha was established in 1998. One of the aspects taken into account in protecting this area was the overexploitation of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes. Now, after five years of protection, differences in density, biomass, size and weight of the goose barnacle are investigated inside the protected area (Aketze and Gaztelugatxe locations and outside of it, at the nearest locations (Izaro and Ogoño which have been continuously exploited. This contribution demonstrates that the reserve could be an efficient tool in preserving the goose barnacle populations in the area. Hence, density, biomass and allometric coefficients are higher in the protected areas. These locations are also associated with higher percentages of juveniles, together with a high number of large-sized individuals.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS ЩА REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF CASPIAN SEAL (PHOCA CASPICA, GMELIN, 1788 IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC PRESSING

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    V. V. Volodina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. To study the morpho-functional state of reproductive organs of different-age specimens of the Caspian seal. Methods. We have analyzed the organs of the reproductive system of 26 females and 19 males of the Caspian seal, 29 of which are sexually mature specimens and 18 specimens are not sexually mature. The biological material was sampled during specialized research expeditions to the pre-winter herds in October-November 2012, 2014, 2015. The treatment of samples was carried out in accordance with the standard histology techniques.  Results. In organs of the reproductive system of investigated fishes scientists have revealed various pathologies. Sexually maturity of males in testicles had the next violations: hyalinosis of the vessel walls: the absence of the layer of spermatogone: pyknosis of kernels of sperm. Pathologies in tests of immature males were not essential. Sexually maturity females had the signs of glandular endometrial hyperplasia. It is noted the signs of sclerous-cystous ovaries. In the uterus of immature females were revealed pathological changes due to inflammatory reaction; in the feeding substance of the ovaries it was discovered a significant number of interstitial glands. Such violations were registered by a number of authors under chronic intoxication (ecotoxicity. Main conclusions. Immature individuals have not expressed pathological changes, which are less expressed than in older age groups. Increased elimination of germ cells is a result of the damaging effects on the reproductive system of animals. Arduous duty of functioning may cause of the violation of the reproductive potential of the population,that on the background of ecological problem can lead to further reduction in the number of Caspian seal.

  11. Reproductive biology of the limpet Nacella (P. deaurata (Gmelin, 1791 in Bahía Lapataia (Beagle Channel

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    Elba Morriconi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of a Nacella (P. deaurata population that inhabits the lower intertidal zone in Lapa-taia Bay (54°52´S; 68°29´W was studied. Monthly samples were collected, and specimens were measured and weighed, fixing the gonads in Bouin´s fluid for histological analyses. The gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined as a percentage of the ratio between gonadal and foot wet weight. Taking into account the presence and abundance of different cellular types, gonadal stages were established for males and females. The analyses of the variation of the gonadal stage percentages showed the first mature males and females in July. In 1989, mature females maintained a percentage higher than 30% until January. Spawning began in September and was massive in November. In 1990, the maximum percentage of mature females was found in September with all the specimens spawned in October. Nevertheless, the majority of the population was mature again in November. The male sexual cycle in 1989 showed the highest percentage of mature individuals in August, being high until October and slightly diminishing in November. The highest percentage of evacuated males was observed in November-December. In 1990, the cycle was similar to the one shown by the females, but without recovery in November. The GSI variability in males and females, and the adequate use of the GSI in determining the annual reproductive cycle were discussed. The biotic and environmental conditions that may act as a trigger for the spawning have been analyzed.

  12. Age, growth and longevity of the gray triggerfish, Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788, from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast

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    Roberto Ávila Bernardes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Age, growth and longevity of gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus from the coast near São Paulo were estimated from first dorsal spine sections of 1,800 fish. The translucent zone was formed during winter (June, July and August and the reproductive period (December, January, February. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were: FL = 514.9 [1 - e -0.2625 (t + 0.0391] for males, and FL = 504.6 [1 - e-0.2748 (t -0.0304] for females. The longevity estimated was 11 years old for males and females. The instantaneous mortality rates estimated were 0.26 for males and 0.27 for females. The weight-length relationships for both sexes of gray triggerfish together were Wt = 0.000004 FL3.299.

  13. Abundance of domestic dove (Columbia livia domestica Gmelin, 1789 in Santiago de Tolú, Sucre, Colombia

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    Jaime De La Ossa V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determination of the population abundance and diet resources of C. livia domestica and in Santiago de Tolú city, Sucre, Colombia. Materials and methods. The work was carried out during 6 months: January-March and September-November of 2015, in dry season and rains season, between the 06:00 and the 08:00 hours, 4 fixed point sampling was used with timed counts; likewise, measurements were taken for the noise levels found in the study area. Results. The total population was 185 individuals, with a total density of 7.71 ind/ha (5.9-9.0. significant difference was obtained (p<0.01 among the 4 studied populations, it was observed that the main feeding source is residuals of human food deposited as urban waste, when comparing the volumes of available waste and the density in each place it is observed that direct relationship exists. Significant populational differences are not determined among the two seasons studied. The levels sound oscillated among 40.3-72.1dB. The calculated density was lower when compared to other studies but higher than the density that has been established as harmful for this species in urban populations. Conclusions. C. livia domestica it is recognized like a species considered urban plague, because it transmits diverse zoonotics diseases, it affects infrastructure and it contaminates foods by means of its excrements, the registration of its density, becomes a high-priority necessity for the public health.

  14. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

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    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  15. Effects of cadmium exposure on critical temperatures of aerobic metabolism in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwe, Rita [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Great Basin College, Pahrump Valley Center, Elko, NV (United States); Beniash, Elia [Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sokolova, Inna M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd exposure on thermal tolerance of oysters were studied. • Temperature rise (20–36 °C) led to transition to partial anaerobiosis at critical temperature T{sub c}II. • Exposure to Cd reduced thermal tolerance indicated by a downward shift of T{sub c}II. • Cellular energy status was maintained but oxidative stress occurred at extreme temperatures. • Onset of anaerobiosis is a sensitive biomarker of temperature- and Cd-induced energetic stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and elevated temperatures are common stressors in estuarine and coastal environments. Elevated temperature can sensitize estuarine organisms to the toxicity of metals such as Cd and vice versa, but the physiological mechanisms of temperature–Cd interactions are not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that interactive effects of elevated temperature and Cd stress involve Cd-induced reduction of the aerobic scope of an organism thereby narrowing the thermal tolerance window of oysters. We determined the effects of prolonged Cd exposure (50 μg Cd l{sup −1} for 30 days) on the upper critical temperature of aerobic metabolism (assessed by accumulation of anaerobic end products L-alanine, succinate and acetate), cellular energy status (assessed by the tissue levels of adenylates, phosphagen/aphosphagen and glycogen and lipid reserves) and oxidative damage during acute temperature rise (20–36 °C) in the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. The upper critical temperature (T{sub c}II) was shifted to lower values (from 28 to 24 °C) in Cd-exposed oysters in spring and was lower in both control and Cd-exposed groups in winter (24 and <20 °C, respectively). This indicates a reduction of thermal tolerance of Cd-exposed oysters associated with a decrease of the aerobic scope of the organism and early transition to partial anaerobiosis. Acute warming had no negative effects on tissue energy reserves or parameters of cellular energy status of oysters (except a decrease in adenylate content at the extreme temperature of 36 °C) but led to an increase in oxidative lesions of proteins at extreme temperatures. These data show that transition to partial anaerobiosis (indicated by the accumulation of anaerobic end products) is the most sensitive biomarker of temperature-induced transition to energetically non-sustainable state in oysters, whereas disturbances in the cellular energy status (i.e. decline in adenylate and phosphagen levels) and oxidative stress ensue at considerably higher temperatures, nearing the lethal range. This study indicates that long-term exposure of oysters to environmentally relevant levels of Cd may increase their sensitivity to elevated temperatures during seasonal warming and/or the global climate change in polluted estuaries.

  16. Influência de estruturas brasilianas na sismicidade desencadeada por reservatório na Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Guilherme Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Inaugurada em 2006, a Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé possui a mais alta barragem do país, com 210 m, que vem sendo monitorada pelo Observatório Sismológico da Universidade de Brasília desde o começo do enchimento de seu reservatório. Apresentando sismicidade causada pelo aumento da tensão crustal logo após o início do represamento, a Sismicidade Desencadeada por Reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé permanece como um importante objeto de estudo para o entendimento deste fenômeno. O presente trabalho se propôs a estudar a sismicidade registrada de janeiro a maio de 2006, assim como a caracterizar a geologia ao redor da Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé com o intuito de identificar e descrever as estruturas que permitam melhor compreender os eventos sísmicos. A orientação espacial dos eventos sísmicos obtidos pela análise das polaridades e da forma de onda condiz com aquelas dos lineamentos de relevo. As estruturas encontradas podem ser associadas a uma maior, de direção principal NE/SW, com dezenas de quilômetros, que seria responsável pela captura dos rios Jequitinhonha e Araçuaí, interpretada neste trabalho como uma estrutura relacionada a uma fase tardia do Evento Brasiliano. O diagrama de solução do mecanismo focal gerado utilizando um método de inversão da forma de onda no domínio do tempo indica que a direção dos possíveis planos de falhas está correlacionada ao principal direcionamento das estruturas rúpteis na área de trabalho.

  17. Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory implantation at the Rio Grande do Norte Federal University: the dating of the Serrinha Granitoid (RN) and the correlate Brasiliana extensional deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Maria Helena F.; Sa, Emanuel F. Jardim de; Souza, Zorano S.; Mendes, Franklin S.; Ramalho, Karlos A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The article describes the activities developed by the Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory at the Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, a Brazilian university, where there were the preoccupation of establishing strategies for a geochronological development. It relates the Rubidium-Strontium (Rb/Sr) and Samarium-Neodymium (Sm/Nd) methods, describing the analysis realized in these methodologies. Afterward, it presents the geological and petrographic situation of the Granitoide de Serrinha, located at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil and its geochronological data

  18. “A Janela” e l'ambiguità del reale: invenzione e memoria nel racconto della scrittrice brasiliana Lygia Fagundes Telles

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    Luigia De Crescenzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at analysing the role of the window in “A Janela”, a short story written by Lygia Fagundes Telles published for the first time in the collection O Jardim Selvagem (1965 and then republished in Antes do Baile Verde (1977. In this short story an old man returns to a room only to see the window that reminds him of his son who is dead. His reminiscences, revealed through a dialogue with the woman who lives in the room, modify the narrative structure: the transition from the present to the past discloses an introspection that makes the narration ambiguous and leads the woman – and also the reader – to suspect that the man is insane. In this way the text results in a Chinese box structure: “A Janela” contains its miniature, that is, the window which, by causing reminiscences of the man, turns out to be a sort of emblem of that “creative process” that, through the intersection of memory and fiction, defines Lygia Fagundes Telles' literary works. Starting from the analysis of metaphorical and symbolical meanings ascribed to the window as “subject-object” of the narration, this essay will also place emphasis on the combination of memory and fiction as one of the main stylistic mark of the writer's works in order to interpret “A Janela” as a sort of mise en abîme of the whole literary production of Lygia Fagundes Telles'.

  19. Historical notes on the Quagga [Equus quagga Gmelin, 1788; Mammalia, Perissodactyla], comprising some remarks on Buffon-editions published in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijn, P.

    1966-01-01

    As our knowledge of extinct mammals is rather poor, is seems worthwhile to publish the following notes on the Quagga. Mr. Haga was so kind as to call my attention to the 6 volumes of bound watercolour-drawings in the Print Room at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam known as the Gordon-Atlas. It consists

  20. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, Adele L.H., E-mail: Adele.Whyte@vuw.ac.nz [Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Centre for Marine Environmental and Economic Research, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Raumati Hook, G. [Institute for Maeori Research and Development, Whangaparaoa (New Zealand); Greening, Gail E. [ESR Kenepuru Science Centre, PO Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Gibbs-Smith, Emma [Te Tii (Waitangi) Marae, Te Karuwha Parade, Pahia (New Zealand); Gardner, Jonathan P.A. [Centre for Marine Environmental and Economic Research, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  1. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species ( Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/ W ( W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  2. The morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature of Cystophyllum trinode (Forsskål) J. Agardh and Cystoseira myrica (S. G. Gmelin) C. Agardh (Fucales: Cystoseiraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papanfuss, George F.; Jensen, James B.

    1967-01-01

    In the early part of 1962 Dr. R. F. Scagel and the senior author collected at several localities in East Africa (from Malindi, Kenya, southward as far as Mozambique Island, Mozambique) a member of the Fucales which the present authors determined as a species of Cystophyllum (fig. 1). On the basis of

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reintroduction of the highly endangered mollusk Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 in an MPA: A novel approach to achieve high survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Anis; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Espinosa, Free

    2018-03-01

    Patella ferruginea is the most endangered marine invertebrate of western Mediterranean rocky shores. After a study of one of its most important populations in the Zembra Archipelago National Park (Tunisia), a new protocol for the translocation of the species (size: 4-8 cm) was adopted. The first translocation was made in June 2014 in the same archipelago, where 94 specimens were moved from Zembretta to Zembra Island and marked (62 protected by cages, 20 with no cages and 60 as controls). The second translocation was performed in August 2014 (110 specimens) from Zembra to La Galite Island (185 km away). High mortality was registered during transport. The remaining individuals (39) were marked and placed in cages on the rocky shores of Galite Island, then monitored until November 2015. Growth and survival rates were measured in both translocated and control populations. The highest mortality rates were observed during the initial three days after translocation, especially for individuals with no cage protection. After a 697-day survey on Zembra Island, survival rates of 58%, 25% and 85% were observed for cage, no-cage and control populations, respectively. After a 457-day survey on La Galite Island, the survival rate was 18%. Limpets>6 cm in size had the highest survival rate among Zembra-translocated populations, whereas translocated limpets of 4-6 cm in size showed the highest survival rate in La Galite. The growth rates for both translocated populations were higher than the rate observed for controls. Our translocation experiment shows the importance of cage protection and initial limpet size for survival.

  5. The occurrence of Saxifraga rosacea Moench subsp. sponhemica (C.C.Gmelin) D.A.Webb on scree slopes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábková, Lenka

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2000), s. 47-52 ISSN 1212-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Saxifraga rosacea * scree slopes * glacial relict Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  7. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  8. Conservation status of Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1789 (Gruiformes: Otididae in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas, eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Sagar Baral

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis is one of the most critically threatened birds of the world. The species has restricted distribution within the Indian subcontinent extending southeast to parts of Cambodia and Vietnam. The population of the species is being monitored in Nepal since 1982. The most recent study on the species shows a precipitous decline in its population, even for a species mainly confined to protected areas. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and adjoining areas had been omitted in previous surveys mainly because the area was considered not to hold any significant number of the species. Opportunistic surveys in April and May 2011 indicated that there is a comeback of this species in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and the adjoining riverine grasslands. As many as 12 pairs were estimated. Further systematic surveys are recommended to find out the total population of the species.

  9. Análise da estrutura quali-quantitativa zoobentônica do mesolitoral da baía de todos os santos (BA e relações com a contaminação química dos sedimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lima Lázaro

    2015-12-01

    ções estatisticamente similares. O aporte de matéria orgânica é tido como o principal elemento responsável por estes resultados. Laeonereis acuta (poliqueta, Anomalocardia brasiliana e Neritina virginea (moluscos foram as espécies que mais contribuíram para a expressão da estrutura qualitativa e quantitativa das comunidades bentônicas do mesolitoral da BTS. Uma análise global da diversidade zoobentônica revelou que apenas em Salinas da Margarida há indícios de instabilidade no equilíbrio ecológico, consequência da grande dominância do pequeno molusco gastrópode Neritina virginea, favorecido pelas condições nutricionais e ambientais locais. Os bivalves comestíveis Lucina pectinata (lambreta e Anomalocardia brasiliana (papa-fumo ou chumbinho foram os principais alvos de mariscagem, nas estações da BTS. A integração dos parâmetros ecológicos das comunidades, elementos traço nos sedimentos e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água sugere uma redução da riqueza de espécies dessas comunidades no mesolitoral, bem como a redução do número de indivíduos do filo Annelida, em decorrência do aumento da concentração de elementos traço. O filo Annelida se revelou, dentre a biodiversidade estudada, como o mais susceptível à contaminação química ambiental.

  10. Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory implantation at the Rio Grande do Norte Federal University: the dating of the Serrinha Granitoid (RN) and the correlate Brasiliana extensional deformation; Implantacao do Laboratorio Intermediario de Geocronologia na UFRN: a datacao do granitoide de Serrinha (RN) e da deformacao extensional brasiliana correlata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Maria Helena F.; Sa, Emanuel F. Jardim de; Souza, Zorano S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Mendes, Franklin S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Ramalho, Karlos A.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The article describes the activities developed by the Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory at the Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, a Brazilian university, where there were the preoccupation of establishing strategies for a geochronological development. It relates the Rubidium-Strontium (Rb/Sr) and Samarium-Neodymium (Sm/Nd) methods, describing the analysis realized in these methodologies. Afterward, it presents the geological and petrographic situation of the Granitoide de Serrinha, located at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil and its geochronological data 8 refs., 2 figs.

  11. THE PESTICIDAL POTENTIAL OF Alternanthera bransiliana (L.) O. KUNTZE IN SOLVING PEST PROBLEM IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Fayinminnu , Olajumoke Oke; Shiro, Olawale Oreoluwa

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Ibadan, Nigeria between March and May 2013, to evaluate the pesticidal potential of Alternanthera brasiliana on Hymenia recurvalis pest of Amaranthus cruentus.

  12. Resumos dos Trabalhos Apresentados em Painéis no Workshop Baía de Guanabara, IGEO/UFRJ - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    26 / 2003 componentes biominerais tais como moluscos marinhos, foraminíferos e ostracodes e elementos continentais polínicos e da malacofauna dulçaqüícola. Tomando por base que bioclastos são partículas biominerais maiores que 2 mm foram efetuadas análises em sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara com a finalidade de verificar as variações quantitativas e as propriedades tafonômicas da malacofauna. O material estudado cedido pelo MicroCentro/ DEGEO/UFRJ compreende 2690 indivíduos. A malacofauna é composta pelas espécies Anomalocardia brasiliana Gmelin 1791 e Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835. A. brasiliana, um biválvio comum de praias e manguezais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, desenvolve populações numerosas em lagoas hipersalinas como a Lagoa de Araruama. O microgastrópode Heleobia australis atinge no máximo 7 mm, e apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica na faixa atlântica do Hemisfério Sul desde o Estado do Rio de Janeiro até a Argentina. A espécie domina habitats onde as condições físicas são variáveis, e caracteriza-se pelo endemismo em ecossistemas continentais aquáticos oligotróficos de todos os tamanhos, em lagoas costeiras e estuários, onde a densidade populacional alcança a média de 11 indivíduos por cm 2. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro registra-se a ocorrência da espécie na Lagoa Iriri e Lagoa Itapebussus, Município de Rio das Ostras em associação com fanerógamas aquáticas. Na Lagoa Salgada constitui níveis de biodetritos intercalados a esteiras algais e estromatólitos. Na Baía de Guanabara foram quantificados 2634 exemplares de H. australis que apresentou a maior freqüência no intervalo de 15 cm a 73 cm com 72%, predominam a 20 cm de profundidade com 31% dos espécimes e desaparecem totalmente aos 60 cm e 160 cm. As feições bioestratinômicas avaliadas nos bioclastos apontaram que 18% estão fragmentados, 15% evidenciam bioerosão e o índice de abrasão é 82%. Os maiores níveis de fragmentação ocorrem

  13. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  14. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  15. Geology of the Curimatau medium region (Paraiba State, Brazil) and the emplacement of the Dona Ines granite associated to the Brasiliano transcurrent shear zones; Geologia da Regiao do Medio Curimatau (PB) e o alojamento do granito de Dona Ines associado a zonas de cisalhamento transcorrentes brasilianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Sergio Vieira Freire

    1996-12-31

    In an area of about 700 Km{sup 2} located in the northeast of Paraiba State and having as main point the town of Dona Ines, a geologic/structural mapping, a gravimetric survey and radiometric dating using the Rb/Sr method in whole rock and Sm.Nd model ages were undertaken in order to study and to understand the geology of this portion of terrain, the emplacement of the Dona Ines granitoids and its relationship with the enclosing rocks and the deformation acting at the time of the intrusion. The age of the pluton of Dona Ines was determined by the Rb/Sr whole rock method as 560 {+-} 20 Ma (end of Brasiliano Cycle in the region). Sm.Nd model ages in granitoids of Araras, Belem and Dona Ines have revealed paleoproterozoic ages for their crustal sources, as indicated by the negative {epsilon}{sub nd} of this rock 128 refs., 95 figs., 6 tabs., 7 maps

  16. La scuola tra gli xacriabá: tra sviluppo economico e innovazione didattica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Lenzi Grillini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available “Comunitaria, interculturale, bilingue, specifica e differenziata”, secondo il documento ministeriale “Diretrizes para a politica nacional de educação escolar indígena”sono queste le caratteristiche fondamentali che devono contraddistinguere ogni scuola indigena brasiliana.

  17. Effects of UV-B-induced DNA damage and photoinhibition on growth of temperate marine red macrophytes : Habitat-related differences in UV-B tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, WH; Eggert, A; Buma, AGJ; Breeman, AM

    The sensitivity to UV-B radiation (UVBR: 280-315 nm) was tested for littoral (Palmaria palmata [L] O Kuntze, Chondrus crispus Stackhouse) and sublittoral (Phyllophora pseudoceranoides S. G. Gmelin, Rhodymenia pseudopalmata [Lamouroux] Silva, Phycodrys rubens [L.] Batt, Polyneura hilliae [Greville

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 59 (2012), Survivability of probiotics in symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt, Abstract PDF. Xue Han, Lanwei Zhang, MR Guo. Vol 7, No 14 (2008), Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) immature stages at four temperatures in the laboratory, Abstract PDF. H Genç, JL Nation.

  19. ECOTYPIC VARIATION IN PHYLLOPHORA PSEUDOCERANOIDES (RHODOPHYTA) ENSURES WINTER REPRODUCTION THROUGHOUT ITS GEOGRAPHIC RANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, FJ; BREEMAN, AM

    Responses to temperature and daylength were determined in laboratory culture for isolates of the red alga Phyllophora pseudoceranoides (Gmelin) Newroth et A.R.A. Taylor from Nova Scotia, Iceland, Roscoff (France), and Helgoland (Germany). All isolates grew from 3 degrees to 25 degrees C and survived

  20. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  1. Ghasemi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Perennial Stems, Leaves. Internal. Anti-calculus, anti-septic, kidney problems, urine tube infection and laxative (for baby). 5. Allium akaka Gmelin. Aliaceae or ..... Tragopogon graminifolius. DC. Asteraceae. Haplook. Shang. Salsify. H. Annual Root, Flowers. Internal/. External. Emollient, sore throat and wound healing. 111.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hofmeyr, Margaretha D. Vol 41, No 2 (2006) - Articles Tick infestations in the Namaqualand speckled padloper, Homopus signatus signatus (Gmelin, 1789) Abstract · Vol 41, No 2 (2006) - Articles Sexual disparity in activity patterns and time budgets of angulate tortoises (Chersina angulata) on Dassen Island, South Africa

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of the domestic pigeons ( Columba livia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths of the domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica gmelin, 1789 aves:columbidae) in Zaria, northern Nigeria. ... Ascaridia columbae which was the most prevalent nematode was recovered in 9 out of the 12 months of the year. Single infection was more common (37.5%) than double 24 (10%) and ...

  4. A significant and unappreciated intertidal mytiloidean genus: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brachidontes puniceus (Gmelin 1791) occurs on all the islands of the Cape Verde Archipelago and along the West African coast from Mauritania to Ghana. The species is morphologically, in terms of its acutely heteromyarian form, strong byssal attachment, stout ligament, thickened shell ornamented with obliquely radial ...

  5. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined on herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to find out the Aphidoidea species feeding on herbaceous and shrub plants of Bartýn province. As a result, total of 28 aphid species belonging to 14 genus and 4 tribes of the super family Aphidoidea were determined. Of these determined species, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis farinosa J. F. Gmelin, Aphis ...

  6. Remedial Investigation Addendum Report Data Item A009. Volume 1: Report Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Bullhead * ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur) Brown Bullhead PERCIFORMES Percichthyidae Morone americana (Gmelin) White Perch Centrarchidae Lepomnis...Bullhead PERCIFORMES Centrarchidae Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) P umpkinseed Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur) Black Crappie W006931 OT.080/5 z 0’ N ý - efi

  7. Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) chicks attributed to West Nile virus prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis Coquillett...

  8. Science World Journal - Vol 3, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths of the domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica gmelin, 1789 aves:columbidae) in Zaria, northern Nigeria. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K.L Adang, S.L Oniye, O.J Ajanusi, A.U Ezealor, P.A Abdu.

  9. 1243-IJBCS-Article-Toussaint Lougbegnon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    alimentaire du phacochère commun, Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin, 1788) au Sud du Bénin. Christophe K. ADJIN 1, Toussaint O. LOUGBEGNON 1,3*, Jean T. Claude CODJIA 1 et Guy Apollinaire MENSAH 2. 1Laboratoire Aménagement des Forêts et de Biogéographie (LAF-Bio), Faculté des Sciences agronomiques,.

  10. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detarium senegalense JF Gmelin (Caesalpiniaceae), commonly known as tallow tree, is used traditionally for the treatment of bronchitis, pneumonia, internal complaints and skin diseases in Tropical Africa. The seed is used as a soup thickener in Eastern Nigeria. Analysis of the petroleum ether extract of the seeds with ...

  11. Germination and Seedling Emergence of Scirpus-Lacustris L and Scirpus-Maritimus L with Special Reference to the Restoration of Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination and seedling emergence of Scirpus lacustris L. ssp. lacustris (S.l. lacustris), S. lacustris L. ssp. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmelin) Syme (S.l. tabernaemontani) and Scirpus maritimus L. were investigated in order to assess their ability to establish from seed in former tidal waters, where

  12. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  13. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa; Freitas, Sâmya de; Braga, Patrícia; Forim, Moacir; Silva, M. da; Fernandes, João; Vieira, Paulo; Venâncio, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*)-acetoxy-7...

  14. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae) AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Felix, Monteiro Afif; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC...

  15. La simbologia identitaria nei motivi dell’esordio poetico di Giuseppe Ungaretti

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccarelli, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Dalla nascita ad Alessandria d’Egitto, passando per l’incontro con l’Italia, la Terra Promessa dei suoi genitori, sino alle feconde esperienze parigina e brasiliana, Ungaretti traspone nei suoi versi la percepita condizione di esule deraciné alla continua ricerca di una sistemazione identitaria che continua a non trovare soluzione. Il contributo intende indagare le tappe dell’itinerario poetico ungarettiano rivolto alla ricerca e alla definizione di una simile dimensione, rilevando come le ma...

  16. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  17. Cytogenetic biomarkers for the assessment of the influence of pollution on natural fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, I V; Moiseenko, T I; Sergienko, L L; Chitaeva, E A

    2012-11-01

    Cytogenetic analysis methods were used to study the developing embryos of the following four Coregonidae species: Coregonus peled (Gmelin), Coregonus lavaretus (Gmelin), Coregonus nasus (Pallas) and Coregonus muksun (Pallas). Spawners of these species were selected from rivers and lakes of the Tyumen region (Russia) with different levels of pollution. The variability of the chromosomal aberration rate was analyzed during a monitoring period of more than 20 years. The level of chromosomal mutability in the embryonic cells of these fishes was found to have steadily increased during the observation period (1989-2011). The higher frequency of chromosomal mutations at different stages of embryogenesis in broad whitefish, C. nasus (Pallas), was noted in comparison with other species. The possible use of chromosomal mutation frequency as an indicator (biomarker) to characterize the state of a population is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  19. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  20. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  1. Parasitoidism of Chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Couri

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert larvae are known as parasites of birds, with coprophagous, semi-hematophagous or hematophagous habits. Biological data of the larvae of the fifty described species are still scarcely known. Here we describe some aspects of the parasitism of a species of Philornis on Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin (Trochilidae and record two species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera parasitoids, Conura annulifera (Walker, 1864 and Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787, reared from Philornis puparia.

  2. SUBANTARCTIC LIMPET POPULATIONS TODAY AND HUMAN IMPACT ABOUT 1,400 YEARS AGO

    OpenAIRE

    Thatje,Sven; Ríos,Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Age, growth and length frequency data of the subantarctic intertidal limpets Nacella (Patinigera) magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata (gmelin, 1791) were investigated at Bahía Laredo in the eastern part of the Straits of Magellan (South america). data were obtained from (i) recent populations and (ii) from shells of the same species, excavated from an indian tribe kitchen midden nearby. Conventional 14C age determination showed the shells of both limpet-species from this midden to b...

  3. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan)'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    OpenAIRE

    DURUCAN, Furkan; TURNA, İsmail İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan). At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus), Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin) Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret), Heterokontophyta (Cyst...

  4. A new species of Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooijen, J.; Vogel, G.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the colubrid snake genus Dendrelaphis Boulenger, 1890, Dendrelaphis underwoodi, new species is described herein. Dendrelaphis underwoodi is endemic to Java, Indonesia. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the differences between D. underwoodi and the congeneric taxa D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921), D. formosus (Boie, 1827), D. humayuni Tiwara & Biswas, 1973, D. kopsteini Vogel & Van Rooijen, 2007, and D. pictus (Gmelin, 1789) demonstrate that D. underwoodi constitutes a disti...

  5. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Shafay, Shimaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  6. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

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    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  7. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarkson, C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Biomedical Science 60, 89?91. Alves, T.M., Nagem, T.J., de Carvalho, L.H., Krettli, A.U., Zani, C.L., 1997. Antiplasmodial triterpenes from Vernonia brasiliana. Planta Medica 63, 554?555. Arnold, T.H., Prentice, C.A., Hawker, L.C., Snyman, E... of Ethnopharmacology 56, 1?13. Clarkson, C., Campbell, W.E., Smith, P., 2003. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of abietane and totarane diterpenes isolated from Harpagophy- tum procumbens (Devil?s Claw). Planta Medica 8, 720?724. Decosterd, L.A., Hoffmann, E., Kyburz...

  8. COZINHEIRO IMPERIAL - Ou a nova arte do cozimento e do copeiro em todos os seus ramos

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    Daniela Pereira de Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Cozinheiro Imperial Ou Nova Arte Do Cozinheiro E Do Copeiro Em Todos Os Seus Ramos é uma referencia tanto na culinária como na bibliografia brasileira, por tratar-se do primeiro livro de receitas editado no Brasil. De autor anônimo, foi reeditado em 1996 pela Best Seller. A Universidade de São Paulo digitalizou os originais, que hoje são parte de sua Coleção Brasiliana. Pela importância cultural do material, ele é destacado nesta edição de RRV. Palavras chave: Gastronomia. Cultura Brasileira. Cozinheiro Imperial. 

  9. Estudo químico de plantas do gênero Hortia, do fungo Guignardia citricarpa e avaliação de seus potenciais efeitos biológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2011-01-01

    O estudo químico de plantas do gênero Hortia descrito neste trabalho visou contribuir com a quimiossistemática da família Rutaceae e também com o posicionamento correto do gênero dentro da mesma. O estudo das espécies H. oreadica Groppo, Kallunki e Pirani, H. brasiliana Vand. ex DC. e H. superba Ducke levou ao isolamento de 21 substâncias: dez limonoides, três derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, cinco alcaloides (dois furoquinolínicos, um 2-quinolona e dois indoloquinazolínicos) e três cumarin...

  10. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  11. Studies on Cercariae from Kuwait Bay. XI. Description and surface topography of Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae

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    Abdul-Salam J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new echinostome cercaria, Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n., from the prosobranch gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin from Kuwait Bay is described. The new cercaria is characterized by 23 collar spines and primary excretory tubules with distinct diverticula. The cercaria encysts in the snail host and is similar to those of Acanthoparyphium sp. The surface topography of the redia, cercaria and metacercarial cyst wall is studied by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first echinostome cercaria to be recorded in a gastropod from the Arabian Gulf region.

  12. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina First record of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae in Chilean swallow nests Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.Chilean swallows Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis nest in the central area in Chile and Southwest in Argentina. In winter, they migrate to Bolivia, Paraguay and Southeast of Brazil. A nest box population of Chilean swallows was established in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. After the breeding season, we collected all nests, treated them with ethyl acetate, and inspected all the nest material for hematophagous arthropods. We found adult fleas, which were fixed, cleared, diaphanized, dehydrated, and mounted in a clove derivative for observation under a microscope. We identified males and females of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. In Argentina, this flea is only known for Sierra de la Ventana

  13. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan)'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    OpenAIRE

    DURUCAN, Furkan; TURNA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Özet: Bu araştırma Antalya batı kıyılarında dağılım gösteren ekonomik olabilecek deniz alglerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla 5 istasyonda (Lara, Faselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan) mevsimsel örneklemelerle yürütülmüştür. Çalışma sonunda Rhodopyhta'dan Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus), Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin) Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, Porphyr...

  14. Preliminary results on accumulation and loss of artificial radionuclides in marine benthic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.L. dos; Santos Gouvea, R.C.; Gusmao Pedrini, A.

    1978-01-01

    The acummulation and the loss of artificial radionuclides in three species of marine benthic algae of the state of Rio de Janeiro were studied under laboratory conditions, so that a selection of biological indicators for radioctive contamination of the marine environment could be made. Medium concentration factors were calculated, the most significant figures being those obtained for the algae Pterocladia Capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet et Thuret (132+-40) p/ sub(131) I and Sargassum vulgares J. Agardh (19+-5) p/ 51 Cr [pt

  15. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana ARAMBURÚ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.

  16. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-07-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).

  17. Morphoanatomical studies of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, M; Di Sapio, O; Gattuso, S; Pereyra, E Li

    2004-02-01

    The genus Uncaria Schreber (Rubiaceae) includes species that are widely distributed in tropical areas. The inner bark of the stems and leaves of two native species of South America, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC., and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin, "cat's claw" are used in either folk medicine or in procuring phytotherapeutic drugs. These species contain about sixty active substances which are being tested widely for possible medicinal value. The following applications are considered: peptic ulcer, rheumatism, tumours, antiinflammatory effect, inflammation, diabetes and as general tonic. Currently, Uncaria tomentosa is in demand as tea, tablets or capsules in more than 30 countries outside Perú, as well as inside the country. Pharmacognosy studies are required to determine the comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features for identification and quality control purposes. Several microscopic parameters, including phloem fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, starch granules, trichomes, and foliar architecture should be considered. The aim of our work is to analyse comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features which might provide assistance in the identification, analysis and standardization of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin stem bark and leaves in order to obtain phytotherapeutic drugs, and of the crude drug as well.

  18. Native and exotic oysters in Brazil: Comparative tolerance to hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Anthony; Figueira, Etelvina; Pecora, Iracy L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Environmental hypercapnia in shallow coastal marine ecosystems can be exacerbated by increasing levels of atmospheric CO 2 . In these ecosystems organisms are expected to become increasingly subjected to pCO 2 levels several times higher than those inhabiting ocean waters (e.g.: 10,000µatm), but still our current understanding on different species capacity to respond to such levels of hypercapnia is limited. Oysters are among the most important foundation species inhabiting these coastal ecosystems, although natural oyster banks are increasingly threatened worldwide. In the present study we studied the effects of hypercapnia on two important oyster species, the pacific oyster C. gigas and the mangrove oyster C. brasiliana, to bring new insights on different species response mechanisms towards three hypercapnic levels (ca. 1,000; 4,000; 10,000 µatm), by study of a set of biomarkers related to metabolic potential (electron transport system - ETS), antioxidant capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH), cellular damage (LPO) and energetic fitness (GLY), in two life stages (juvenile and adult) after 28 days of exposure. Results showed marked differences between each species tolerance capacity to hypercapnia, with contrasting metabolic readjustment strategies (ETS), different antioxidant response capacities (SOD, CAT, GSH), which generally allowed to prevent increased cellular damage (LPO) and energetic impairment (GLY) in both species. Juveniles were more responsive to hypercapnia stress in both congeners, and are likely to be most sensitive to extreme hypercapnia in the environment. Juvenile C. gigas presented more pronounced biochemical alterations at intermediate hypercapnia (4,000µatm) than C. brasiliana. Adult C. gigas showed biochemical alterations mostly in response to high hypercapnia (10,000µatm), while adult C. brasiliana were less responsive to this environmental stressor, despite presenting decreased metabolic potential. Our data bring new insights on the biochemical

  19. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC 31.25 µg mL-1, indolequinazoline (15.62 µg mL-1 and furoquinoline (31.25 µg mL-1 alkaloids, and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives (62.50 µg mL-1, on the growth of M. tuberculosis. These results are promising in relation to the search for biologically active natural products and could be useful in the development of effective new drugs against mycobacteria.

  20. Resenha do livro: 'Catálogo dos folhetos da Coleção Barbosa Machado. Anais da Biblioteca Nacional'

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    Erasmo D'Almeida Magalhães

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto As investigações e trabalhos levados a cabo por Rosemaire Horch, responsável pela publicação de Sermões impressos dos autos da fé (Rio de Janeiro, 1960 e dos primorosos Catálogos da Brasiliana da Coleção Barbosa Machado (Rio de Janeiro, 1967 e dos Vilancicos da Coleção Barbosa Machado (Rio de Janeiro, 1969, tem revelado a importância da função da bibliotecária que não se atem tão somente a problemas de ordem técnica secundária, mas antes, torna a biblioteca um organismo vivo e dinâmico.

  1. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  2. Equinodermes do Brasil: IV. Sobre seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea da região ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ

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    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a descrição, distribuição, dados ecológicos, chaves para classificação e fotografias de seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea pertencentes às famílias Ophiolepididae, Amphiuridae, Ophiacanthidae , Ophiomyxidae e Amphilepididae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea. Os animais foram coletados das dragagens efetuadas pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ em fevereiro e julho de 1969. Os gêneros Ophiornastus, Ophioleptoplax e Amphilepis são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul Ocidental.Description, distribution and ecological observations are presented for the following six new Ophiuroidea species: Ophiomastus satelitae sp. n., Ophiomusium anaelisae sp. n., Amphioplus mathildae sp. n., Ophiaoantha brasiliensis sp. n., Ophioleptoplax brasiliana sp. n. and Amphilepis teodorae sp. n.. The species were collected in front of Ilha Grande (RJ, from 50-500 m depth.

  3. A new species of Atanatolica Mosely 1936 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne M; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-04-16

    The Neotropical genus Atanatolica includes 17 species distributed from Costa Rica to Brazil, but only two, A. brasiliana and A. flinti, have been recorded from Brazil, both occurring in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States. A new species, Atanatolica bonita n. sp., is described and illustrated based on males and females from the Atlantic Forest in Bahia State in northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by the following characters: Apicomesal and apicolateral processes of segment X of same length, long and digitate; and second article of each inferior appendage well developed, long, and thumb-shaped. Notes on demographic changes and correlations with seasonal variation and precipitation are also given.

  4. Survival of Saplings in Recovery of Riparian Vegetation of Pandeiros River (MG

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    Nathalle Cristine Alencar Fagundes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study monitored the survival of saplings planted according to different recovery models in a riparian forest of the Pandeiros river (Januária, MG. The models consisted of planting the saplings in lines of 2 or 4 m with presence (T2S and T4S, respectively or absence of direct seeding (T2 and T4, respectively. We planted 16,259 saplings of 17 botanical families, 32 genera and 33 species. The saplings, in general, presented a survival rate after one year of 34.4% (±1.8. The species with highest survival rates were Jacaranda brasiliana, with 85.0% (±13.5 of survival, Anadenanthera colubrina, with 70.1% (±7.0, and Triplaris gardneriana, with 69.3% (±9.1. Survival did not vary between the models tested, probably due to the short evaluation period (12 months.

  5. Determinação de atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas de uso popular como antiflamatório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caetano

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of “babaçu” (Orbignya martiana, “cardo santo” (Argemone mexicana, “mentrasto” (Ageratum conyzoides, “cavalinha” (Equisetum yeamalis and “terramicina” (Alternanthera brasiliana, used by Brazilian population as antiinflamatory medicine, were studied on Staphylococcus aureus. The freezer dried hydroalcoholic extracts solutions were tested for 7 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which two of those are methicillin resistant (MRSA. The diffusion method on agar-agar, using holes technique, with tetracycline chlorydrate as standard. “Babaçu”, “cardo santo” and “terramicina” showed antimicrobial activity, within of those “terramicina” inhibited 6 strains, presenting zone inhibition of 22 mm compared to standard antibiotic (34 mm, except the seventh strain which was also tetracycline resistant.

  6. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

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    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  7. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Brazilian red macroalgae organic extracts

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    Levi P. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 36.5 million people worldwide, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition is currently considered the main therapeutic strategy against it. Seaweed biodiversity in Brazil represents one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds for applications in phytotherapy. Accordingly, this study aimed to carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux, Ochtodes secundiramea (Montagne M.A. Howe, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand (Rhodophyta in order to determine the AChE effects from their extracts. As a matter of fact, the O. secundiramea extract showed 48% acetylcholinesterase inhibition at 400 μg/ml. The chemical composition of the bioactive fraction was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS; this fraction is solely composed of halogenated monoterpenes, therefore allowing assignment of acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity to them.

  9. Settling the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for the Wandering Albatross by neotypification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schodde, Richard; Tennyson, Alan J D; Groth, Jeff G; Lai, Jonas; Scofield, Paul; Steinheimer, Frank D

    2017-02-21

    On-going conflict in use of the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for different taxa of the great albatrosses (Wandering Albatross complex) is resolved by neotypification, fixing the name to the large subantarctic form formerly often known as D. chionoptera Salvin, 1896. Application of all scientific names in the complex is reviewed, an annotated synonymy for the large subantarctic form is provided, available names for smaller, temperate-zone forms are listed, and unavailable and otherwise invalid names referable to the complex are identified. Syntypes of D. chionoptera and D. spadicea J.F. Gmelin, 1789 are lectotypified as well, fixing their names as synonyms of D. exulans to prevent possible disturbance to in-use names for the smaller, temperate-zone forms.

  10. Experimental transfer of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878) from white-winged doves to mourning doves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, J A; Frohlich, R K; Forrester, D J

    1985-07-01

    Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878) from white-winged doves, Zenaida asiatica (L.), were transferred experimentally to young mourning doves, Zenaida macroura (L.). Twenty-three of 25 mourning doves developed infections with isolates of T. gallinae from 25 white-winged doves. In addition, eight of eight rock doves (Columba livia Gmelin) were infected with duplicate isolates. All infected recipient birds harbored avirulent isolates except for one mourning dove which died from extensive oral lesions. However, repeated attempts using this isolate of T. gallinae to produce lesions in additional recipients were unsuccessful. Despite the findings of this study, it was suggested that future dove management strategies consider the possibility of disease outbreaks involving white-winged doves and susceptible populations of mourning doves.

  11. Redescription of Electrotaenia malopteruri (Fritsch, 1886) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), a parasite of Malapterurus electricus (Siluriformes: Malapteruridae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Ibraheem, Mohammed Hasan

    2004-02-01

    The proteocephalidean cestode Electrotaenia malopteruri (Fritsch, 1886) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), the type- and only species of Electrotaenia Nybelin, 1942 and specific to the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus Gmelin (Siluriformes: Malapteruridae), is redescribed on the basis of freshly collected material from the River Nile in Egypt. The validity of Electrotaenia is confirmed and some unique characters of this genus, observed in extensive material from different host specimens from Egypt, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Nigeria are first reported or described in detail. Such details include the internal morphology of a rostellum-like apical organ which is disc-shaped with a flat or slightly concave apex, the structure of the ovary which is follicular to reticulate, the structure of the cirrus-sac, the presence of a medio-dorsal band of muscle fibres, and the morphology of the vagina and eggs.

  12. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

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    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  13. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  14. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

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    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  15. Decouverte de deux nouveaux gisements de poissons fossiles messiniens dans le bassin de Nijar-Carboneras (Andalousie Orientale: Signification paleoecologique et implications paleogeographiques

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    Gaudant, J.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new fossil fish-Iocalities are reported from the Messinian of the Nijar-Carboneras basin (South Spain. That of Cortijo Ruil, South-West of Nijar, seems to take part in the evaporitic Messinian. It yields a marine, poorly diversified, fish-fauna which characterizes a shallow deposit sedimented relatively near the sea-shore. However, the occurrence of a Myctophid: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage and of a Gonostomatid: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin demonstrates that the Nijar-Carboneras basin was widely open to the sea, the depth of which probably sensibly exceeded 2.000 m. The post-evaporitic locality of Rambla de las Colmenas, westward of Gafares, has provided the species Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz, which characterizes the lagoonal Messinian environments of the Mediterranean area.Se han encontrado dos nuevos yacimientos de peces fósiles en el Mesiniense de la cuenca de Nijar-Carboneras (España meridional. El yacimiento del Cortijo Ruil, al Oeste de Nijar, parece pertenecer al Mesiniense evaporítico. Contiene una ictiofauna marina relativamente poco diversificada que caracteriza un depósito poco profundo, próximo a la orilla. De todos modos, la presencia de un Myctophidae: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage y de un Gonostomatidae: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin indica que la cuenca de Nijar se abria ampliamente a un mar cuya profundidad debía superar considerablemente los 2.000 m. El yacimiento postevaporítico de la Rambla de las Colmenas, al Oeste de Gafares, ha suministrado la especie Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz que caracteriza los ambientes lagunares del Mesiniense del área mediterránea.

  16. Effects of habitat complexity on the structure of macrobenthic association in a Spartina altemiflora marsh

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    Maurea Nicoletti Flynn

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and seasonal variability of macrobenthic associations in four different patches on a Sportillo alterniflora bed at Arrozal Point, Cananéia, São Paulo State are described and compared. In the local intertidal marsh, densities of S. oltemifloro plants appear in sparsely or denscly arranged patches, both in tall and short forms. The infaunal polychaetes Copitella copitata, Isolda pulchella, Laconereis acuta accounted for 44.0% of the total individuals while epifaunal forms such as Helcobia australis, Littorina ollngulifera, Tholozidium rhombofrotalis and Sphoeromopsis mourei were the second most abundant components with 39.5%. Classilication analyses of sampling time in the same sampling patch indicated that species groups were formed basically by spatial similarity and peak densities of macrofauna and secondarily by temporal patterns. Temporal variations were evident with higher number of species in eolder months (winter and spring. Species diversity and evenness did not show clear seasonal pattcrns, although they were sigmlicantly different in sampling patchcs and time. Heleobia australis, Littorina agulifera and Anomalocardia brasilienses were dominant in tall sparse S. alterniflora with density pcaks occurring in winter/spring pcriods. Tholozodium rhombofrontalis and Sphoeromopsis mourei; were dominant in short sparse S. olterniflora with density peaks in summer. In tall, densely distributed S. altemiflora plants the higher densities occurred in winter and the dominant spccies were Nereis oligohoalina, Isolda pulchella and Copitella capitata. The species H. australis, L ongulifera and A. brasiliensis predominated in the short S. alterniflora plants denscly distributed, with faunistic peaks recorded in spring. The results suggcst that differenccs in form and aggregation of S. alternifloraimpart changes in the structure of macrobenthic fauna associated to this vegetation.A estrutura e variação temporal de associações macrobent

  17. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

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    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  18. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  19. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

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    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  1. Bitter plants used as substitute of Cinchona spp. (quina) in Brazilian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Gustavo P; Somavilla, Nádia S; Fagg, Christopher W; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-10-07

    Bitter tasting plant species are used as tonics and have been previously used to treat intermittent fevers in Brazil, the principal symptom of malaria. Many of these species were named quina and were used as substitutes of Cinchona spp., the source of quinine. To present data on these bitter species named quina and to discuss their potential as sources of bioactive substances. Data about the plants were obtained from a survey of the literature and documents written by early naturalists and clinical doctors living in the 18th and 19th centuries in Brazil. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 29 species were recorded. The largest number of species belonged to the Rubiaceae family (14), being Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil) DC. the most representative. Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae), Hortia brasiliana Vand. ex DC. (Rutaceae) and Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Solanaceae) were also frequently mentioned in the historical bibliography. Pharmacological studies have shown the presence of bitter bioactive substances useful to treat digestive disorders and/or with antimalarial activities, in all of the recorded botanic families. This study shows that several bitter species named quina were used in the past as substitute of Cinchona spp. and studying these plants can lead to the development of new products. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New limonoids from Hortia oreadica and unexpected coumarin from H. superba using chromatography over cleaning Sephadex with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Vanessa G P; de Freitas, Sâmya D L; Braga, Patrícia A C; Forim, Moacir Rossi; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Venâncio, Tiago

    2014-08-12

    Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*)-acetoxy-7(R*)-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen) was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  3. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a produced water disposal area in the Potiguar Basin, Brazilian equatorial margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Oliveira, Fábio Francisco; de Souza, João Maximino; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Ângela; de Fátima Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria; Francioni, Eleine

    2016-09-01

    The Potiguar Basin has oil and gas production fields offshore and onshore. All treated produced water (PW) from these fields is discharged through submarine outfalls. Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are minor constituents of PW, their input into the marine ecosystem is environmentally critical due to potential ecological hazards. A 2-year monitoring program was conducted in the vicinity of the outfalls to evaluate PAH bioaccumulation in marine life from PW discharges. The study was performed using transplanted bivalves Crassostrea brasiliana and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to measure PAH concentrations via bioaccumulation and in seawater. The bioaccumulation of PAH in transplanted bivalves reached up to 1105 ng g(-1) in the vicinity of the monitored outfall. Significantly lower PAH concentrations were found in the reference area in comparison to the studied area around the outfalls. Time-integrated PAH concentrations in seawater ranged from 38 to 0.3 ng L(-1) near the outfalls and from 10 ng L(-1) to not detected in the reference area. Both measurement techniques were found to be effective for determining a gradient of descending PAH concentrations from the outfalls. In addition, this study also evaluated the bioavailability of PAH for local marine biota and provided information about the influence of PW discharges on the water quality of marine ecosystems.

  4. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

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    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  5. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  6. Imagens do Brasil

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    Renato Ortiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available "Retratos do Brasil", "interpretação do Brasil", "pensamento brasileiro", "teoria do Brasil", todos esses termos remetem a uma unidade fundamental: um determinado país. Existe uma longa tradição que se dedica à sua compreensão, à sua decodificação; de fato, há inclusive um plêiade de autores que fazem parte deste panteão (Rocha Pita, Varnhagen, Sílvio Romero, Nina Rodrigues, Euclydes da Cunha, Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, Gilberto Freyre, Cai Prado Jr., Darcy Ribeiro, apenas para citar alguns deles. Todo debate sobre identidade nacional pressupõe algumas categorias de análise, sendo nação e cultura duas dentre as mais importantes. O presente artigo pretende abordar qual o sentido deste debate no mundo contemporâneo. Em que medida as transformações ocorridas nas últimas décadas incidem sobre a imagem que temos de nós mesmos, isto é, as representações simbólicas construídas em torno da tradição brasiliana são impactadas por tais eventos? Qual o seu legado intelectual?

  7. Detection of Perkinsus marinus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia by proteomic analysis

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    Thiago Ramos Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the presence of the pathogen Perkinsus marinus, notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Èpizooties = OIE in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia via proteomic analysis. We analyzed Crassostrea brasiliana from a long-line cultivation system and C. rhizophorae from an adjacent mangrove in Porto do Campo, Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. The collections (n = 100 were performed in October 2012. In the laboratory, the oysters were measured and opened to remove the meat, which was steeped in dry ice. For extraction of proteins, adaptation of a protocol used for mussels was used, after which separation in the first dimension was taken by isoelectric focusing (IEF. The peptides were transferred to a Mass Spectrometer. The obtained spectra were analyzed with the ProteinLynx Global Server 4.2 software tool and also by MASCOT (Matrix Science and compared to the databases of the SWISSPROT and NCBI, respectively. The identification was evidenced by beta-tubulin, Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983 and protein homology code in the database NCBI = gi | 294889481. This is the first record of P. marinus in Bahia and the fourth in Brazil.

  8. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  9. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  10. Molecular taxonomy of cupped oysters (Crassostrea, Saccostrea, and Striostrea) in Thailand based on COI, 16S, and 18S rDNA polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, S; Khamnamtong, B; Puanglarp, N; Jarayabhand, P; Yoosukh, W; Menasveta, P

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity of oysters Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), C. iredalei (Faustino, 1932), Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778), S. forskali (Gmelin, 1791), and Striostrea (Parastriostrea) mytiloides (Lamarck, 1819) (Ostreoida, Mollusca) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of 16S ribosomal DNA with AcsI, AluI, DdeI, DraI, RsaI, and TaqI, 18S ribosomal DNA with HinfI, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I with AcsI, DdeI and MboI. A total of 54 composite haplotypes were observed. Species-diagnostic markers were specifically found in C. belcheri, C. iredalei, and S. cucullata, but not in S. forskali and Striostrea mytiloides, which shared common composite haplotypes. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from genetic distances between pairs of composite haplotypes and species indicated large genetic differences between Crassostrea and Saccostrea (including Striostrea mytiloides), but closer relationships were observed within each genus. Four groups of unidentified oysters (Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. groups 1, 2, and 3) were also genetically analyzed. Fixed RFLP markers were found in Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2, but not in Saccostrea sp. groups 1 and 3. Phylogenetic and genetic heterogeneity analyses indicated that Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2 should be considered as newly unidentified oyster species in Thailand.

  11. A historical note on the iodine-sulphuric acid reaction of amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aterman, K

    1976-10-22

    The historical development of the iodine-sulphuric acid reaction for amyloid is described. The reaction dates back to 1814 when Colin and Gaultier de Claubry, and independently Stromeyer, introduced the iodine reaction for starch. A variant of the acidified iodine reaction appears to have been used for printing paper by Gmelin in 1829, and in 1838 Schleiden used the iodine-sulphuric acid test on plants to demonstrate what he considered to be a transformation of the plant material into starch. Shortly afterwards Payen (1839) defined "cellulose", and the iodine-sulphuric acid reaction became a standard procedure used by botanists to demonstrate this plant component. In 1853 Virchow used Harting's (1847) procedure to demonstrate the reaction of Purkynĕ's corpora amylacea to this test, on the assumption that they might be cellulose derivatives, and applied it to what appeared to be similar corpuscles in a "waxy" spleen. The first histochemical reaction for amyloidosis had thus been introduced into pathology, and continued to exert from that time on an important influence on amyloid research, whose impact is felt to the present day.

  12. Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and its relevance for drainage connections from India to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Buffetaut, Eric; Naksri, Wilailuck; Lauprasert, Komsorn; Claude, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The genus Gavialis comprises a single living but endangered species, G. gangeticus, as well as fossil species recorded in the Miocene to Pleistocene deposits of the Indian subcontinent. The genus is also represented in the Pleistocene deposits of Java by the species G. bengawanicus, which was recently recognized to be valid. Surprisingly, no detailed report of the genus exists between these two provinces and the recent evolutionary history of Gavialis is not understood. We report new material consisting of skull and mandibular remains of Gavialis from the Early Pleistocene of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand. The Gavialis material described herein is attributed to Gavialis cf. bengawanicus and sheds new light on the occurrence of the genus in mainland SE Asia. Comparison of this new material with other species referred to the genus Gavialis led us to preliminary restrict the content of the genus to three species, namely G. gangeticus Gmelin, G. bengawanicus Dubois and G. lewisi Lull. The occurrence of G. cf. bengawanicus in Thailand allows us to propose a scenario for the dispersal of Gavialis from Indo-Pakistan to Indonesia, thus bridging a geographical gap between these two provinces. Dispersal by sea appears a less likely possibility than dispersal through fluvial drainages.

  13. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

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    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  14. Effect of Rhodophyta extracts on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis and microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Ja; Shin, Nyeon Hak; Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, Eun Tae; Lee, Su Kyoung; Lee, Sung Sill

    2018-01-01

    Due to the threat of global warming, the livestock industry is increasingly interested in exploring how feed additives may reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of Rhodophyta supplemented bovine diets on in vitro rumen fermentation and rumen microbial diversity. Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors. Rumen fluid:buffer (1:2; 15 mL) solution was incubated for up to 72 h in six treatments: a control (timothy hay only), along with substrates containing 5% extracts from five Rhodophyta species ( Grateloupia lanceolata [Okamura] Kawaguchi, Hypnea japonica Tanaka, Pterocladia capillacea [Gmelin] Bornet, Chondria crassicaulis Harvey, or Gelidium amansii [Lam.] Lamouroux). Compared with control, Rhodophyta extracts increased cumulative gas production after 24 and 72 h (p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0047). The extracts reduced methane emission at 12 and 24 h (pRhodophyta extracts improved acetate concentration at 12 and 24 h (p = 0.0766 and p = 0.0132), as well as acetate/propionate (A/P) ratio at 6 and 12 h (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0278). Rhodophyta extracts are a viable additive that can improve ruminant growth performance (higher total gas production, lower A/P ratio) and methane abatement (less ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and more F. succinogenes .

  15. Reconstruction of the charophyte community of Lake Shinji by oospore collection

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    Komuro T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV aids in maintaining a clear stable state in shallow lakes. However, charophytes are more effective in increasing transparency compared to angiosperms. Lake Shinji was more transparent prior to the beginning of herbicide use for rice weed control in the mid-1950s, because its bottom was covered by SAV up to 3 m depth. Although Chara braunii C.C. Gmelin and Nitella hyaline (De Candolle C. Agardh were recorded in the 1960s, there are no reports on SAV in the 1950s. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to show that the SAV of Lake Shinji was mostly composed of charophytes prior to the 1950s, by conducting a seed analysis. We obtained charophyte oospores from the sediment, but seeds of angiosperms were not identified. In addition to C. braunii that was previously recorded in Lake Shinji, we also found two newly identified species, Chara corallina Willdenow  and Chara fibrosa C. Agardh ex Bruzelius. Overall, this study indicates that seed analysis is helpful in reconstructing the former flora of Lake Shinji.

  16. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  17. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  18. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

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    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  19. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y.; Rendon, Pedro A.; Sivinski, John

    2006-01-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  20. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  1. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  2. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-03-04

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum . S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale . In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre , A. mollis , D. pentaphyllum , C. varia , R. angustifolius , C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens -induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  3. Changes in the impact and control of an invasive alien: the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Great Britain, as determined from regional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Brenda A; Broome, Alice C

    2013-03-01

    The grey squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, was introduced into sites in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland from the United States and Canada between 1876 and 1929. Soon after its introduction there were reports of damage to trees by seasonal bark stripping activity. Surveys in state and private forests since 1954 have monitored their distribution and impacts. Two surveys also gathered information on control efforts used to minimise damage. Grey squirrel population range has expanded significantly in Britain over the last 50 years and continues to do so. Survey results show high variability between years in damage recorded, consistent with the understanding that damage is triggered by high numbers of juveniles entering the population following a good breeding season. Results also show high variability between tree species in levels of damage recorded, but that thin-barked tree species are most at risk of damage from grey squirrels. Further, results show that the economic cost of damage can be high and that control measures will be ineffective if not appropriately targeted. The findings support suggestions that grey squirrels in mainland Europe should be eradicated to prevent future population expansion and any accompanying impacts on commercial timber crops. Copyright © Crown copyright 2013. Reproduced with permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Brenda A; Ferryman, Mark; Peace, Andrew; Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell; Cowan, David

    2013-03-01

    The grey squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, is an invasive alien species introduced into Great Britain in the late nineteenth century and into Northern Italy during the early twentieth century. Grey squirrels have displaced the native European red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris L., throughout much of Great Britain and have a significant impact on trees and woodlands through bark-stripping activity. In Britain, eradication is no longer an option at a regional scale, but fertility control offers a non-lethal approach to reducing negative impacts. The cholesterol mimic DiazaCon™ has been successfully used to inhibit reproduction in some species. These studies aimed to evaluate whether DiazaCon™ is effective in inhibiting reproduction in grey squirrels. DiazaCon™ reduced serum cholesterol levels in female grey squirrels at a range of doses. The period of effect increased with increasing dose. Reproduction rate was not significantly different between treatment and control groups owing to a lack of breeding in controls. DiazaCon™ has potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels enough and for a sufficient period to reduce fertility in female grey squirrels. Information on baseline physiology and blood chemistry of grey squirrels is required to inform interpretation of the level of significance of the effect. Copyright © Crown copyright 2012. Reproduced with permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  6. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  7. Geography and Timing of Cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New York State from 1992 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, JoAnne; Lukacik, Gary; Kramer, Laura D; Backenson, P Bryon; Sherwood, James A; Howard, John J

    2016-04-01

    In New York State (NYS), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was first reported in a human in 1971, in horses in 1970, and in pheasants in 1952. Following work for the interval from 1970 to 1991, we identified cases in vertebrates from 1992 to 2012, through a passive surveillance system involving veterinarians in clinical practice, county health departments, and the Departments of Agriculture and Markets, Environmental Conservation, and Health, of the State of New York. During an 11-year hiatus, from 1992 to 2002, no case in any vertebrate was observed. In a re-emergence, from 2003 to 2012, disease occurred in 12 counties, including 7 counties where disease had never been documented. Vertebrate cases included 4 cases in humans and 77 nonhuman occurrences; in 58 horses, Equus ferus caballus L.; 2 deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann; 6 dogs, Canis familiaris; 10 birds; and 1 flock of pheasants, Phasianus colchicus L. These were the first reported cases in NYS in white-tailed deer, the domestic dog, and in five species of birds: American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm; American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis L.; bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus L.; blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata (L.); and red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin. One crow was dually infected with EEE virus and West Nile virus. The northern, southern, and southeastern borders of the state were newly affected. The geographic area, time periods, and vertebrate species with risk of EEE disease expanded from 1992 to 2012.

  8. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation

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    FMG Las-Casas

    Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  9. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  10. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

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    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  11. New records, distribution and status of six seabird species in Brazil

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    Rafael Antunes Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution records of poorly-known species are currently the most explored theme in the Brazilian seabird literature. If properly evaluated, this kind of information can improve our knowledge on distribution, migration and status of occurrence of these species. In this note we present new records for six species of poorly-known seabirds in the Brazilian coast, reviewing distribution records and defining their status of occurrence in the country. We consider Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789 a pseudo-vagrant in Brazil and define its status as a scarce seasonal visitor from southern South America. We present the first records of Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758 for Trindade Island, and of Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and determined that the former is a vagrant in eastern Brazil and the latter a vagrant across the country. Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a vagrant in southernmost Brazil. We were unable to determine if records of Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758 for Brazil and southern South America refer to vagrancy or pseudo-vagrancy. Additionally, we verified the occurrence of breeding individuals of Anous minutus Boie, 1844 on Martin Vaz Island and confirmed that there is no evidence of breeding on neighboring Trindade Island.

  12. Electivities and resource use by an assemblage of lizards endemic to the dunes of the São Francisco River, northeastern Brazil

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    Pedro L.B. Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the pattern of resource use by one assemblage of lizards inhabiting a desert-like dune field in the Brazilian Caatinga. We evaluated food and microhabitat availability and phases of lizard activity, as well as use of, and electivities for, food and microhabitats. Six of the seven most abundant species are endemic to the dunes, and their diets under-represented arthropods possessing chemical defenses. The two fossorial gymnophthalmids were similar in presenting no electivities for microhabitat but differed in diet, electivities for food and phase of activity. The five species of epigeous lizards include one group presenting positive electivities for protected and shaded microhabitats (Procellosaurinus erythrocercus, Briba brasiliana, and Tropidurus psammonastes and another presenting negative electivities for such microhabitats (Eurolophosaurus divaricatus and Cnemidophorus spec. nov.. The tropidurid T. psammonastes presented the earliest activity in the morning, the strongest positive electivities for protected and shaded areas and negative electivity for exposed areas, and was the only species to present high positive electivity for ants. The only other tropidurid in the area, E. divaricatus, also ate ants but presented positive electivity for flowers. The medium-sized teiid Cnemidophorus spec. nov. showed the highest negative electivity for shaded areas, high positive electivity for open areas, and high negative electivity for protected areas. This pattern leads to use of microhabitat that is similar to that of E. divaricatus, which has a very different diet, and different from that of T. psammonastes, whose diet is comparable in the consumption of insect larvae and large-sized items. We discuss the evolution of the detected patterns of resource electivities.Este estudo descreve o padrão de uso de recursos por uma assembléia de lagartos de um campo de dunas da Caatinga. Avaliamos a disponibilidade de recursos e as fases

  13. Composição florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea em uma floresta estacional decidual em afloramento calcário (Fazenda São José, São Domingos, GO, bacia do rio Paranã Floristic composition and structure of the tree community in a deciduous forest on a limestone outcrop in São Domingos, Goiás, Paranã river basin, Brazil

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    Luciana Álvares da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do rio Paranã (Goiás e Tocantins com 5.940.382ha, tem alta diversidade de fitofisionomias, incluindo a floresta estacional decidual sobre afloramento calcário, que ainda não foi estudada nesta região. Este trabalho objetivou o levantamento quantitativo da vegetação arbórea de uma floresta estacional decidual sobre afloramento calcário (13°49'34''S e 46º 41'55''W; 478m de altitude na fazenda São José, São Domingos, GO. Foram demarcadas cinco linhas a intervalos de 100m, onde foram aleatoriamente alocadas 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 × 20m (1,0 ha. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP igual ou maior que 5cm, onde foram medidos o DAP e a altura, e identificadas as espécies. Foram amostrados 588 indivíduos (536 vivos e 52 mortos ainda em pé, pertencentes a 36 espécies, 31 gêneros e 21 famílias, com índice de Shannon 2,99 e Equabilidade 0,83. As principais espécies em valor de importância (VI, foram: Tabebuia impetiginosa (43,81, Aspidosperma pyrifolium (35,64, Luetzelburgia sp. (21,77, Commiphora leptophloeos (18,79, Myracrodruon urundeuva (15,79, Pseudobombax tomentosum (13,42, Combretum duarteanum (13,04, Luehea divaricata (12,24, Cabralea canjerana (11,99, Ficus pertusa (11,82, Jacaranda brasiliana (11,68 e Aspidosperma sp. (10,57 que juntas somaram 73,5% do VI total, enquanto as 24 espécies restantes somaram 26,5%. Esta floresta é similar, em termos de diversidade, a outras áreas de afloramentos na região.The Paranã river basin (States of Goiás and Tocantins, Brazil, with 5,940,382 ha, has many different plant physiognomies, including the deciduous forest on limestone outcrops which has not yet been studied in this region. In this paper we present the structure of the tree community of a deciduous forest on a limestone outcrop (13º49'34'' S; 46º 41'55'' W in São Domingos municipality, Goiás State, Brazil. Twenty-five plots of 20m × 20m (400m² were

  14. Comunidade arbórea de uma floresta estacional decídua sobre afloramento calcário na Bacia do rio Paraná Arboreal community of a seasonal deciduous forest on limestone outcrop in São Domingos - Goiás, Parana river Basin, Brazil

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    Luciana Álvares da Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do rio Paraná (GO e TO, com 5.940.382 ha, tem alta diversidade de fitofisionomias, com sua flora pouco conhecida. As atividades de extração de madeira e implantação de pastagem contribuíram decisivamente para a remoção da vegetação. Este estudo foi conduzido em uma floresta estacional decídua sobre afloramento calcário (aproximadamente 13º41'16"S e 46º44'20"W e 462 m de altitude - fazenda Canadá (São Domingos-GO. Foram demarcadas cinco linhas paralelas, a intervalos de 100 m, onde foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 25 parcelas de 20 x 20 m (total de 1 ha. Em cada parcela foram amostradas todas as árvores com diâmetro do caule a 1,3 m de altura do solo (DAP > 5 cm, nos quais foi medido o DAP, estimada a altura máxima e identificada a espécie. Foram amostrados 924 indivíduos de 48 espécies, 38 gêneros e 24 famílias e obtidos o índice de Shannon-Wienner de 2,99 nats/ind. e a equabilidade de 0,77. As espécies que apresentaram maior valor de importância (VI foram Myracrodruon urundeuva (36,09, Pseudobombax tomentosum (34,75, Dilodendron bipinnatum (26,61, Combretum duarteanum (22,19, Jacaranda brasiliana (21,57, Commiphora leptophloeos (19,18, Astronium fraxinifolium (13,84, Tabebuia impetiginosa (13,79, Pseudobombax longiflorum (11,64 e Machaerium scleroxylon (10,00, que juntas somaram 69,9% do VI total. A diversidade foi próxima à encontrada em outros trabalhos em floresta estacional decídua sobre solo e afloramento na região.The Parana River basin - an area of 5,940,382 ha located in Brazil- has a highly diverse phytophysiognomy and scarce flora information. Wood extraction and pasture activities have decisively contributed to the removal of vegetation in this area. This study was carried out in a seasonal deciduous forest on limestone outcrop (approximately 13º41'16" S and 46º44'20" W on Canada Farm (São Domingos-GO. Twenty -five plots of 20 m x 20m (1 ha were randomly allocated on parallel lines 100 m

  15. Molecular phylogenetics of the Brazilian giant bromeliads (Alcantarea, Bromeliaceae): implications for morphological evolution and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versieux, Leonardo M; Barbará, Thelma; Wanderley, Maria das Graças Lapa; Calvente, Alice; Fay, Michael F; Lexer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The genus Alcantarea comprises near 30 species endemic to rocky outcrops from eastern Brazil. Most species are ornamental and several are threatened due to habitat loss and over collection. In this paper we examine the phylogenetics of Alcantarea and its relationship with the Brazilian members of Vriesea, a genus of which Alcantarea has been treated as a subgenus. We discuss the morphological evolution of the stamen position and its implication for pollination and the occurrence of Alcantarea in the Espinhaço mountain range rocky savanna-like habitat vegetation. DNA sequence data derived from two plastid markers (trnK-rps16, trnC-petN) and from a low copy nuclear gene (Floricaula/Leafy) together with 20 nuclear microsatellite loci were the data source to perform analyses and construct phylogenetic and Neighbor Joining trees for the genus. Alcantarea is well supported as monophyletic in both Bayesian and parsimony analyses, but sections of Vriesea, represented by the eastern Brazilian species, appear paraphyletic. Microsatellites delimit geographically isolated species groups. Nevertheless individuals belonging to a single species may appear related to distinct clusters of species, suggesting that hybridization and/or homoplasy and/or incomplete lineage sorting are also influencing the analysis based on such markers and may be the reasons for some unexpected results. Alcantarea brasiliana is hypothesized as putative hybrid between A. imperialis and A. geniculata. Spreading stamens, a morphological floral characteristic assumed to be related to Chiropterophily, apparently evolved multiple times within the genus, and invasion of rocky savanna-like habitat vegetation by Atlantic rainforest ancestors seems to have occurred multiple times as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

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    M. Macedo

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais no Brasil e em especial no Estado de Mato Grosso vem sendo registrado em suas comunidades rurais e tradicionais. Este trabalho visa identificar plantas com potencial dermatológico utilizada pelas comunidades: quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais e tradicionais dos municípios de Barão de Melgaço, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Poconé e Santo Antônio de Leverger. Fez-se a coleta de material botânico fértil e levantamento sobre o uso desses vegetais com a população local. Este material encontra-se identificado e depositado em Coleção de Referência de Plantas Medicinais no UFMT, Herbário Central. Registraram-se 36 espécies utilizadas no tratamento de doenças como afecções, feridas e úlceras, erisipelas, herpes labial e verrugas. Destacam-se espécies como: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alatal. Roxb., entre outras. Estes vegetais são freqüentemente usados na forma de banhos e chás. O órgão vegetal mais utilizado foi as folhas, seguido de cascas do caule, frutos, óleo, raiz, planta inteira, seiva e sementes. O avanço da fronteira agropecuária nesse Estado é constante preocupação dos botânicos e das comunidades que ao longo das décadas usufruem desse potencial medicinal.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM.

  18. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

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    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  19. Abundância sazonal de aves migratórias na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil Seasonal abundance of migratory birds in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area, Alagoas, Brazil

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    Susanna A. S. Cabral

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Todos os anos milhares de aves limícolas e migratórias invernam ao longo da costa da América do Sul, entre setembro e abril, onde adquirem massa corpórea e realizam mudas para retornar aos sítios de reprodução. Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil, através da contagem direta, objetivando o acompanhamento das flutuações sazonais da avifauna migrante. Foram registradas cinco espécies da família Charadriidae: Vanellus chilensis (Wagler, 1827; Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758; Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825; Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 e Charadrius wilsonia (Ord, 1814 e cinco espécies da família Scolopacidae: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758; Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin, 1789; Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 e Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764. Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius semipalmatus, Charadrius collaris, Arenaria interpres, Calidris pusilla e Calidris alba foram consideradas constantes (presentes em mais de 50% das observações. Charadrius semipalmatus e Calidris alba apresentaram os maiores índices de freqüência de ocorrência nos meses de novembro e dezembro e, março e setembro, respectivamente. A correlação de Spearman demonstra uma forte dependência na migração destas espécies. A fidelidade dessas aves a APA de Piaçabuçu observada nessa pesquisa indica ser a área um sítio de invernada, reforçando sua importância para a conservação das espécies migratórias que utilizam o local.Every year, thousands of limicola and migratory birds winter on the South American coast, between September and April, where they acquire body mass and undergo moulting before returning to their reproduction sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area located in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by direct counting, aiming to follow upon the birds' seasonal

  20. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

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    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  1. Management of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes fishery in the Berlengas Nature Reserve (Portugal: evaluation of bag and size limit regulation measures

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    David Jacinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1790 is an important shellfish resource in Portugal. Due to the social-economic importance of barnacle harvesting, a management plan aimed at achieving a controlled and sustainable activity (including temporal and spatial closures, rotational harvesting, a limited number of harvesting licenses, bag and size limits for catches and catch reporting was implemented in 2000 at the Berlengas Nature Reserve (RNB in central Portugal. We evaluated the bag and size limits imposed by the management plan, performing observations on harvesting activity and asking licensed harvesters and RNB staff about these measures. Both inquiries and observations suggest that licensed harvesters are not following the bag and size limits imposed. Mean amounts captured in RNB varied from 14 to 24 kg per harvester/day, but 25% of the observations corresponded to higher catches per individual than the total amount allowed (20 kg. Only half of the sampled amounts (taken in autumn 2005 and 2006 were in agreement with the size limit regulation and 50% of the total biomass comprised individuals of maximal rostro-carinal length (RC ≥ 25 mm. For most harvesters, size limit is the most difficult management rule to fulfil. Both harvesters and RNB staff agree that surveillance is scarce and is a major problem of this fishing activity. In order to achieve a more sustainable use of this resource, we propose the implementation of a more effective surveillance and monitoring plan, the definition of a unique landing site, the maintenance of the bag limit (20 kg and a reduction of the size limit (50% of total biomass comprising individuals ≥ 22 mm RC.

  2. Methanol extracts from Cystoseira tamariscifolia and Cystoseira nodicaulis are able to inhibit cholinesterases and protect a human dopaminergic cell line from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Silvestre, Laura; Rocha, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Maria João; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2016-09-01

    Context Marine macroalgae contain several bioactive molecules that may be developed as functional foods, but information about their neuroprotective potential is scarce. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the in vitro antioxidant and neuroprotective features of marine algae from the southern coast of Portugal and to assess the total content of different types of bioactives. Materials and methods Methanol extracts from 21 macroalgal species from the southern Portugal were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Active extracts were further evaluated for inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and tyrosinase (TYRO), and for their ability to attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The total contents of different phenolic groups were determined for the most active extracts. Results Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss (Sargassaceae) had the highest antiradical activity (92%, 1 mg/mL). Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts (Sargassaceae) (75%) and Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing (Sargassaceae) (70%) had the highest iron-chelating activity at 10 mg/mL. Cystoseira baccata (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva (Sargassaceae) was more active towards copper (66%, 10 mg/mL). Cystoseira tamariscifolia had the highest AChE inhibitory capacity (85%, 10 mg/mL). Cystoseira tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis were also active against BuChE and TYRO, and were able to protect SH-SY5Y cells against oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cystoseira tamariscifolia had the highest content of all the groups of phenolics, and was particularly enriched in hydroxycinnamic acids (106 mg CAE/g DW). Discussion and conclusion Results indicate that C. tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis are important sources of nutraceutical compounds and may be considered functional foods that could improve cognitive functions.

  3. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

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    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A

    2016-05-01

    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

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    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  5. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  6. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) for West Nile virus.

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    Doyle, Michael S; Swope, Bethany N; Hogsette, Jerome A; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Savage, Harry M; Nasci, Roger S

    2011-05-01

    In 2006-2007, stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), were suspected of being enzootic vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) during a die-off of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) (Pelecanidae) in Montana, USA. WNV-positive stable flies were observed feeding en masse on incapacitated, WNV-positive pelicans, arousing suspicions that the flies could have been involved in WNV transmission among pelicans, and perhaps to livestock and humans. We assessed biological transmission by infecting stable flies intrathoracically with WNV and testing them at 2-d intervals over 20 d. Infectious WNV was detected in fly bodies in decreasing amounts over time for only the first 6 d postinfection, an indication that WNV did not replicate within fly tissues and that stable flies cannot biologically transmit WNV. We assessed mechanical transmission using a novel technique. Specifically, we fed WNV-infected blood to individual flies by using a cotton swab (i.e., artificial donor), and at intervals of 1 min-24 h, we allowed flies to refeed on a different swab saturated with WNV-negative blood (i.e., artificial recipient). Flies mechanically transmitted viable WNV from donor to recipient swabs for up to 6 h postinfection, with the majority of the transmission events occurring within the first hour. Flies mechanically transmitted WNV RNA to recipient swabs for up to 24 h, mostly within the first 6 h. Given its predilection to feed multiple times when disturbed, these findings support the possibility that the stable fly could mechanically transmit WNV.

  7. Pruning the Pearlsides: Reconciling morphology and molecules in mesopelagic fishes (Maurolicus: Sternoptychidae)

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    Rees, D. J.; Byrkjedal, I.; Sutton, T. T.

    2017-03-01

    The genus Maurolicus comprises extremely abundant vertically-migrating fishes that have considerable biomass in a number of regions worldwide. The genus was generally considered monotypic, with a single species, M. muelleri (Gmelin, 1789), inhabiting all world oceans. Based on differences in combinations of a limited number of morphometric characters, 15 separate species have been proposed, mostly associated with different ocean basins and seamounts. However, due to similarities in external morphology and overlap in ranges of morphometric characteristics, there remains a need for further validation of these species. Here, we present results of a multi-gene analysis, together with morphological data, for five putative Maurolicus species from multiple locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. Sampling encompasses described species from the North and South Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, south-east Indian Ocean and the western South Pacific. Mitochondrial (16S and COI) and nuclear (ITS-2) gene sequences for 120 specimens were used in Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference analyses as well as creation of haplotype networks. Morphological character analyses were based on data from 279 adult individuals. Several clear groupings emerge, conflicting with previously recognised species: (1) a 'northern' clade comprising Maurolicus muelleri and M. amethystinopunctatus, (2) a 'southern' clade comprising M. australis, M. walvisensis (also M. japonicus) and (3) eastern Equatorial and western North Atlantic M. weitzmani. The southern clade taxa are genetically indistinguishable and not well defined morphologically and present a clear case for synonymisation as M. australis. Synonymisation is also proposed for M. muelleri and M. amethystinopunctatus, with limited morphological variation likely to reflect physical and biological differences experienced north / south of the sub-polar front. Maurolicus weitzmani is clearly differentiated from all other Maurolicus species on

  8. Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Macroinvertebrates on the Intertidal Zone of Rajamangala Beach, Trang Province, Thailand

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    Khwanta Tantikamton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study on species diversity and spatial distribution of macro-invertebrates on the intertidal zone of Rajamangala beach, Trang province, Thailand aims to investigate species, numbers and spatial distribution changes of polychaetes, mollusks and crabs along the 2 km beach. Four sampling stations from an adjacent of the estuary to the end at the beach, located near a hill, were examined. Each station was divided into four lines: highest tide, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m in distance from the high tide line. Quadrate sampling method was applied for sample collection in monsoon and dry seasons with three replicates in a season. The results showed that 23 polychaete, 23 mollusk and 19 crab species were found. The highest polychaete diversity was recorded at the lowest tide line. At 200 m and 300 m from the highest tide line, there was the highest diversity of mollusk species, whereas at 100 m from the highest tide line, the diversity of crab species was highest. Lumbrineris punctata McIntosh, 1885 and Scoloplos spp. were dominated polychaete species of the 200 m and 300 m whereas Glycera spp. were frequently found at the 100 m from the highest tide line. For mollusk species, high densities of Nassarius spp., Pilucina sp. and Donax incarnatus Gmelin, 1791 were found. Crab species found on the beach were in Infraorder Brachyura (15 species and Anomura (four species. The most abundant species was Dotilla myctiroides (Milne-Edwards, 1852 followed by Scopimera proxima Kemp, 1919. The species diversity of all sampling stations had similar distribution, but from the highest tide line to the lowest tide line, a different pattern of macroinvertebrate species distribution was found.

  9. Effect of Rhodophyta extracts on ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis and microbial populations

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    Shin Ja Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Due to the threat of global warming, the livestock industry is increasingly interested in exploring how feed additives may reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of Rhodophyta supplemented bovine diets on in vitro rumen fermentation and rumen microbial diversity. Methods Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors. Rumen fluid:buffer (1:2; 15 mL solution was incubated for up to 72 h in six treatments: a control (timothy hay only, along with substrates containing 5% extracts from five Rhodophyta species (Grateloupia lanceolata [Okamura] Kawaguchi, Hypnea japonica Tanaka, Pterocladia capillacea [Gmelin] Bornet, Chondria crassicaulis Harvey, or Gelidium amansii [Lam.] Lamouroux. Results Compared with control, Rhodophyta extracts increased cumulative gas production after 24 and 72 h (p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0047. The extracts reduced methane emission at 12 and 24 h (p<0.05. In particular, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that at 24 h, ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased at 24 h (p = 0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001, while Fibrobacter succinogenes (F. succinogenes increased (p = 0.0004. Additionally, Rhodophyta extracts improved acetate concentration at 12 and 24 h (p = 0.0766 and p = 0.0132, as well as acetate/propionate (A/P ratio at 6 and 12 h (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0278. Conclusion Rhodophyta extracts are a viable additive that can improve ruminant growth performance (higher total gas production, lower A/P ratio and methane abatement (less ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and more F. succinogenes.

  10. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps

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    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  11. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  12. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence.

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    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  13. Eradicating the grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis from urban areas: an innovative decision-making approach based on lessons learnt in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Morgia, Valentina; Paoloni, Daniele; Genovesi, Piero

    2017-02-01

    Eradication of invasive alien species supports the recovery of native biodiversity. A new European Union Regulation introduces obligations to eradicate the most harmful invasive species. However, eradications of charismatic mammals may encounter strong opposition. Considering the case study of the eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788) in central Italy, we developed a structured decision-making technique based on a Bayesian decision network model and explicitly considering the plurality of environmental values of invasive species management to reduce potential social conflicts. The model identified priority areas for management activities. These areas corresponded to the core of the grey squirrel range, but they also included peripheral zones, where rapid eradication is fundamental to prevent the spread of squirrels. However, when the model was expanded to integrate the attitude of citizens towards the project, the intervention strategy slightly changed. In some areas, the citizens' support was limited, and this resulted in a reduced overall utility of intervention. The suggested approach extends the scientific basis for management decisions, evaluated in terms of technical efficiency, feasibility and social impact. Here, the Bayesian decision network model analysed the potential technical and social consequences of management actions, and it responded to the need for transparency in the decision-making process, but it can easily be extended to consider further issues that are common in many mammal eradication programmes. Owing to its flexibility and comprehensiveness, it provides an innovative example of how to plan rapid eradication or control activities, as required by the new EU Regulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

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    Ilyas Potamitis

    Full Text Available Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann, Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  15. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

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    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the

  16. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

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    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  17. Thorium. Suppl. Vol. A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, H.W.; Moebius, S.; Muenzel, H.; Ritcey, G.M.; Molnar, R.; Pouskouleli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The present volume ''Thorium'' Suppl. Vol. A2 of the Gmelin Handbook covers the history of thorium and the preparation of its scientifically and technologically important isotopes, as well as the nuclear properties (including fission properties) of all its isotopes. The thorium isotopes range from 212 Th to 236 Th. The different types of production of all of these isotopes have been described and, in the following chapter, the decay data and fission characteristics. On the other hand, chemical isolation procedures have been outlined only for the more important isotopes 227 Th to 234 Th. Special emphasis, however, was devoted to 232 Th, the only naturally occurring very long-lived isotope. Despite some other applications the specific importance of 232 Th comes from the fact that its neutron capture reaction product 233 U is a fissile nuclide, which makes 232 Th an important isotope in nuclear technology, especially for the so-called ''Thorium High Temperature Reactor'' (THTR). The other longer-lived isotopes are either used in the laboratory for tracer studies (e.g. 234 Th) or for the production of nuclides for isotope batteries (e.g. 230 Th), whereas 233 Th is the nuclide measured for the neutron activation determination of thorium. In the chapters for the isolation and purification of thorium isotopes only those extraction and other separation procedures were mentioned which are relevant to the given process. Detailed information on these topics has been given in specific volumes of this Handbook, e.g. Volume D2 for ''Extraction of Thorium''. The literature is covered to the end of 1984. In some cases, more recent data have been considered. (orig./RB)

  18. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  19. Human harvesting of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819, on the central coast of Portugal

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    Marc Rius

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819, has traditionally been removed from the shore by humans in coastal areas to supplement diet, for commerce or for bait. On exposed rocky shores of the central coast of Portugal, humans are an important intertidal predator, especially of mussels and of the pedunculate barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1789. Four rocky shore sites near Cabo Raso with different levels of accessibility were compared in terms of harvesting pressure, substratum cover, density and size structure of M. galloprovincialis. Sampling surveys were conducted from March to September 2002. For substratum cover determinations a 50 cm x 50 cm square was used, while density and size structure were estimated based on scrapings performed on a 10 cm x 10 cm area. A log-linear model was used to evaluate human harvesting according to several factors. Significant differences in the harvesting intensity were related to accessibility, type of day (weekday, weekend or holiday, period of the day, weather and tidal amplitude. The differences relative to zone were not significant. The least accessible site (0.30 person day-1 showed the highest values of substratum cover, and a negative correlation was found between number of harvesters and substratum cover by mussels. Size distribution also varied considerably according to site. The major difference that was noticed was that less accessible sites showed a higher number of large individuals than more accessible areas. Density in the most accessible location showed a clear decline, above all after summer holidays. Over the study period, in the more accessible sites biomass decreased while in the other locations it increased. Long-term studies are necessary to determine the real magnitude and effects of human disturbances in intertidal communities.

  20. Breve Panorama das Tendências Contemporâneas da Ficção Científica Brasileira

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    Rodolfo Rorato Londero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente é possível reconhecer na produção brasileira de ficção científica três grandes tendências: 1 a história alternativa, incluindo a recentíssima febre steampunk; 2 a ficção cyberpunk; e 3 a ficção borderline (obras na fronteira entre a ficção científica e a ficção mainstream. As três tendências surgiram durante a Segunda Onda da Ficção Científica Brasileira, período que abrange o início dos anos 1980, sendo cada uma representada pelos autores Gerson Lodi-Ribeiro, Fausto Fawcett e Braulio Tavares, respectivamente. Além de comentar algumas obras recém-publicadas de novos e antigos autores inseridos nas três tendências – as histórias alternativas de Gerson Lodi-Ribeiro (Xochiquetzal, 2009 e de Roberto de Sousa Causo (Selva Brasil, 2010; as ficções cyberpunks de Fábio Fernandes (Os dias da peste, 2009 e de Richard Diegues (Cyber Brasiliana, 2010; e a ficção borderline de Luiz Bras (Paraíso líquido, 2010 –, o objetivo é relacioná-las ao pós-modernismo, demonstrando que este movimento artístico-cultural é o determinante em comum da atual produção: sendo assim, a história alternativa se aproxima da poética do pós-modernismo que Linda Hutcheon denomina “metaficção historiográfica”; a ficção cyberpunk, segundo Fredric Jameson, é a expressão literária máxima não apenas do pós-modernismo, mas também do capitalismo tardio; e a ficção borderline representa o enfraquecimento da distinção entre alta cultura e cultura de massa, também creditada ao pós-modernismo.

  1. TAXONOMÍA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DIATOMEAS EPILÍTICAS REGISTRADAS POR PRIMERA VEZ EN COLOMBIA. I

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    SILVIA ESTELA SALA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en el marco del proyecto para elaborar un índice de calidad biológica para ríos de zonas bajas y de piedemonte del país basado en comunidades biológicas acuáticas, desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología del Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, cuyo objetivo es evaluar la calidad ecológica de los ríos de tierras bajas y de piedemonte dentro del área de influencia de Ecopetrol, a través de la implementación de un índice de calidad biológica utilizando diatomeas. Las 165 muestras analizadas hasta el momento provienen de muestras de perifiton de 83 sistemas lóticos de distintas regiones del país, de donde también se obtuvo información sobre temperatura del agua, pH, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto. El material fue estudiado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Aquí reunimos 11 taxones de los cuales Achnanthidium macrocephalum(Hustedt Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch y N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter Lange-Bertalot se mencionan por primera vez para Colombia. Este es el primer registro del género Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga y por primera vez se describe e ilustra el género Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot para el país. Además, analizamos la ultraestructura de Nitzschia dissipata(Kützing Grunow, ya mencionada para el país pero solo analizada con MO. A pesar de ser esta especie considerada cosmopolita citada en las floras de diferentes regiones del mundo, ha sido frecuentemente mal identificada, por lo que este análisis nos permitió confirmar la identidad de los materiales colombianos.

  2. Oxidative stress in gills of limpets from the Beagle Channel: comparison with limpets from the Antarctic

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    Gabriela Malanga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the oxidative profile of gills of two limpet species (Nacella (Patinigera magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera deaurata (Gmelin, 1971 exposed to different environmental conditions. Due to the tidal characteristics of the Beagle Channel, N. magellanica are exposed to air twice daily for 3 to 5 hours each time, whereas N. deaurata are exposed to air for 3 hours only during spring tides. The different regime of exposure includes extreme temperatures under 0ºC during winter and more than 20°C in summer for N. magellanica, whereas N. deaurata are usually covered by more than 0.3 m of water at 4°C in winter and 11°C in summer. No significant differences were found between the two molluscs regarding the oxygen uptake, the content of ?-tocopherol and ?-carotene and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation in gills was estimated as the content of lipid radicals, assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. Lipid radical content and total iron content were respectively 80.6 and 62% lower in N. magellanica than in N. deaurata. A typical EPR spectrum of ascorbyl radical in gills from both limpets was observed. Both the ascorbyl radical content and the ascorbyl radical content/ascorbate content ratio were significantly lower in N. magellanica than in N. deaurata. In the Antarctic Nacella concinna inhabits all levels of the littoral zone. Limpets at the highest level in the intertidal showed significantly increased activities of both catalase and superoxide dismutase as compared to their intertidal and subtidal relatives. Thus, it seems that Antarctic high intertidal conditions, involving regular exposure to air and presumably also thermal stress on sunny days during the Antarctic summer, cause a necessity for N. concinna to ward off higher oxygen radical species production by increasing its antioxidant defence. Taken as a whole, the data presented here indicate

  3. Genetic signature analysis of Perkinsus marinus in Mexico suggests possible translocation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Améndola-Pimenta, Monica; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2017-08-02

    The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten r

  4. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of

  5. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento ou decréscimo das populações de aves aquáticas tem sido usado como indicador da qualidade de água e conseqüentemente da qualidade ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de inventariar e monitorar a avifauna aquática da maior lagoa da região do sistema cárstico de Lagoa Santa, região central de Minas Gerais, dentro da 'Área de Proteção Ambiental Carste de Lagoa Santa' (APA LS, a Lagoa do Sumidouro. A Lagoa ocupa uma área de aproximadamente 253 h na época de maior cheia e apresenta um perímetro de cerca de 12.072 m. Durante o período de junho de 1999 a dezembro de 2002 foram estimadas a riqueza e a abundância das aves aquáticas presentes na Lagoa. Foram registradas 27 espécies de aves aquáticas, distribuídas em 12 famílias. Das 27 espécies registradas, 12 foram consideradas residentes ou prováveis residentes e oito visitantes. Sete espécies não apresentaram nenhum padrão distinto de presença sazonal. A família mais bem representada foi Ardeidae com seis espécies perfazendo 23% do total de espécies. Em seguida, a família Anatidae com cinco espécies (15% e Scolopacidae sendo representada por três espécies (11% do total. Uma das espécies Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 é considerada ameaçada de extinção no Estado de Minas Gerais, enquanto outras duas Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 e Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 são consideradas raras. Não houve diferença significativa entre a riqueza de espécies estimada para as três estações ('chuvosa', 'seca' e 'transição'. A diversidade de espécies mostrou-se significativamente diferente entre as três estações, sendo a estação chuvosa com a maior diversidade. A presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção e local de parada de espécies migratórias faz com que a região da APA Carste de Lagoa Santa seja considerada uma área de extrema importância referente aos aspectos biológicos.Increases and decreases of waterfowl population have

  6. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Leonti, Marco; Arnason, John Thor; Ferrier, Jonathan; Rapinski, Michel; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pereira, João Filipe Costa Alves; Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Feguri; Lopes, Célia Regina Araújo Soares; da Silva, Dennis Rodrigues; Pacini, Aloir; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2015-09-15

    The use of medicinal plants for treatment, cure and prevention of diseases has been described by many people since time immemorial. Because of this use, commercial and scientific interests have emerged, making it necessary to realize ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants species, which is important for subsequent chemical and pharmacological bioprospections. This study aimed at surveying, identifying, cataloging and documenting the medicinal plants species used in the Valley of Juruena, Northwestern Mato Grosso, Legal Amazon Brazil for the treatment of various human diseases, as well as assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting potential. Informants were interviewed using semi-structured form to capture information on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological data of medicinal plants such as vernacular name, uses, geographic origin, habit, form of preparation and part used. Results were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (Ur) and informant consensus factor (ICF), for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. Three hundred and thirty two (332) plants species belonging to 90 families were reported for medicinal purposes and totaling 3973 use-reports were reported by 365 (92.9%) of the people interviewed. Asteraceae (32.2%), Fabaceae (26.7%) and Lamiaceae (24.4%) families were the most represented, with majority being species native (64.45%) to Brazil. Leaves (64.5%) were the part of the plant most used and infusion (45.7%) was the most utilized form. Gastrointestinal disorders followed by respiratory complaints topped the list of use-reports. The native or naturalized plants with the highest use reports in the order of decreasing absolute frequency per each emic-category are Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapfc (104), Mentha pulegium L. (94), Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verl. (97), Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze (71), Baccharis crispa Spreng (57), Phyllanthus niruri L. (48), Gossypium

  7. Recurring extensional and strike-slip tectonics after the Neoproterozoic collisional events in the southern Mantiqueira province

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    Renato P. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern South America, a series of fault-bounded sedimentary basins that crop out from Southern Uruguay to Southeastern Brazil were formed after the main collisional deformation of the Brasiliano Orogeny and record the tectonic events that affected the region from the Middle Ediacaran onwards. We address the problem of discerning the basin-forming tectonics from the later deformational events through paleostress analysis of more than 600 fault-slip data, mainly from the Camaquã Basin (Southern Brazil, sorted by stratigraphic level and cross-cutting relationships of superposed striations, and integrated with available stratigraphic and geochronological data. Our results show that the Camaquã Basin was formed by at least two distinct extensional events, and that rapid paleostress changes took place in the region a few tens of million years after the major collision (c.a. 630 Ma, probably due to the interplay between local active extensional tectonics and the distal effects of the continued amalgamation of plates and terranes at the margins of the still-forming Gondwana Plate. Preliminary paleostress data from the Castro Basin and published data from the Itajaí Basin suggest that these events had a regional nature.No Leste da América do Sul, um conjunto de bacias sedimentares que afloram do sul do Uruguai ao sudeste do Brasil formou-se após os eventos colisionais da Orogenia Brasiliana, registrando os eventos tectônicos que afetaram a região a partir do Mesoediacarano. O problema da distinção entre a tectônica formadora das bacias e os eventos deformacionais posteriores é aqui abordado através da análise de paleotensões de mais de 600 dados de falhas com estrias, obtidos principalmente na Bacia Camaquã (Sul do Brasil, que foram classificados por nível estratigráfico e relações de corte entre estrias sobrepostas, e intergrados a dados estratigráficos e geocronológicos disponíveis. Nossos resultados revelam que a Bacia Camaqu

  8. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced

  9. Estación Biológica Senda Darwin: Investigación ecológica de largo plazo en la interfase ciencia-sociedad Senda Darwin Biological Station: Long-term ecological research at the interface between science and society

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    MARTÍN R CARMONA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La Estación Biológica Senda Darwin (EBSD constituye un centro de investigación inmerso en el paisaje rural del norte de la Isla de Chiloé (42º S, donde fragmentos del bosque siempreverde original coexisten con praderas de uso ganadero, turberas de Sphagnum, matorrales sucesionales, plantaciones de Eucalyptus y otras formaciones de origen antropogénico. Desde 1994 hemos realizado estudios de largo plazo centrados en algunas especies de plantas (e.g., Pilgerodendron uviferum D. Don y animales (e.g., Aphrastura spinicauda Gmelin, Dromiciops gliroides [Thomas] catalogados como amenazados o escasamente conocidos y en ecosistemas nativos de importancia regional y global (e.g., turberas de Sphagnum, bosque Valdiviano y Nordpatagónico. Las investigaciones han considerado las respuestas de las especies y de los ecosistemas frente al cambio antropogénico del paisaje y cambio climático, así como los efectos de diferentes formas de manejo. Este escenario es semejante al de otras regiones de Chile y Latinoamérica lo que da generalidad a nuestros resultados y modelos. En este período, investigadores asociados a la EBSD han producido más de un centenar de publicaciones en revistas nacionales e internacionales y 30 tesis de pre y postgrado. Entendiendo el papel clave de los seres humanos en los procesos ecológicos de la zona rural, la EBSD ha desarrollado un programa de educación ecológica y vinculación del avance científico con la sociedad local y nacional. La integración de la EBSD a la naciente red de Sitios de Estudios Socio-Ecológicos de Largo Plazo en Chile consolidará y fortalecerá la investigación básica y aplicada que realizamos para proyectarla hacia la siguiente década.Senda Darwin Biological Station (SDBS is a field research center immersed in the rural landscape of northern Chiloé island (42º S, where remnant patches of the original evergreen forests coexist with open pastures, secondary successional shrublands, Sphagnum

  10. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    central California through Oregon. Outcrops at Salmon Creek, northeast of Steinbeck Ranch and also in the central part of the outcrop area, contain Aulacofusus? recurva (Gabb) and Turcica brevis Stewart, which are both restricted to the Pliocene, as well as Lirabuccinum portolaensis (Arnold) known from the early Pliocene of central and northern California and into the late Pliocene in southern California. These data suggest an overall pattern of older rocks and deeper water to the south and west, and younger rocks and shallower water to the east and north. Outcrops to the southwest, south of the Bloomfield fault, are not well dated but presumably are older than the late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992). Fossils in this part of the section are rare and are not useful in determining a precise age or environment of deposition for the lower part of the Wilson Grove Formation. However, sedimentary sequences and structures in the rocks here are useful and suggest probable outer shelf and slope water depths. Lituyapecten turneri (Arnold) which occurs in this part of the section has previously been restricted to the Pliocene, but its occurrence below the Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) indicates a revised late Miocene age for this taxon. Three possibly new gastropods (Mollusca) are reported here: Calyptraea (Trochita) n. sp. and Nucella sp., aff. N. lamellosa (Gmelin), both from the Bloomfield Quarry area, and Acanthinucella? n. sp. from the River Road area. These species are not described here because this venue is deemed insufficient for the description of new taxa.

  11. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  12. Supporting Our Valued Adolescents (SOVA), a Social Media Website for Adolescents with Depression and/or Anxiety: Technological Feasibility, Usability, and Acceptability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Hua, Jing; Long, Cassandra; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-02-26

    .7), or a "C-grade," which correlated to an acceptable range. The participants reported to have liked the "easy-to-understand format" and "positive, helpful atmosphere," but they also reported a desire for greater social interaction. Iterative recruitment resulted in incremental improvements to the site. The SOVA site met feasibility goals of recruiting almost 100 users and establishing acceptable usability. Subsequent interventions are planned to increase site engagement and to evaluate efficacy in increasing uptake of primary care-recommended depression and/or anxiety treatment. ©Ana Radovic, Theresa Gmelin, Jing Hua, Cassandra Long, Bradley D Stein, Elizabeth Miller. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 26.02.2018.

  13. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

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    Marco Masseti

    2003-10-01

    L., 1758 Dama dama (L., 1758 Cervus elaphus L., 1758 Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758 Rupicapra pyrenaica Bonaparte, 1845 Rupicapra rupicapra (L., 1758 Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Capra ibex L., 1758 Ovis orientalis Gmelin, 1774

  14. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2004 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ

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    2004-01-01

    Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 27 / 2004Autor: Rubem Porto Júnior Orientador: Joel Gomes Valença Título: Petrogênese das rochas do maciço da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro - RJ No de páginas: 231 Resumo: O Maciço da Pedra Branca (MPB tem toda sua área ("150km2nos limites da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. É formado por um conjunto derochas gnáissicas e graníticas de composições, idades e estilos estrutu-rais distintos, geradas e/ou retrabalhadas durante a Orogênese Brasiliana(Neoproterozóico-Cambriano/Ordoviciano. Geotectonicamente estáinserido no Terreno Oriental do segmento central da Faixa Ribeira,correspondendo à parte do Complexo Costeiro. Trabalhos de campo,em variadas escalas, análise petrográfica, análise litogeoquímica eisotópica, além de modelagem petrogenética, permitiram que fosse tra-çado o contexto em que sua evolução petrotectônica ocorreu. As ro-chas do MPB podem ser descritas da seguinte forma: a conjunto degnaisses metassedimentares que representam a existência pretérita deuma bacia de margem passiva de idade não estabelecida; b ortognaissescalcialcalinos, de composição diorítica a granodiorítica, característicaspré-colisionais, idades de até 792 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND792 de4,0, que correspondem ao estabelecimento de um arco de ilhas oceâni-co, aqui denominado de Arco Guanabara; c ortognaisses calcialcalinos,de composição granodiorítica a granítica, características sin-colisionais,idades de até 578 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND578 -4,2, quecorrespondem a um magmatismo relacionado à colisão do ArcoGuanabara com um terreno, arco (Arco Magmático Rio Negro? oubacia a oeste-noroeste; d rochas magmáticas básicas a intermediárias(gabros, dioritos, tonalitos e granodioritos, de idades absolutas desco-nhecidas; e granitos (sensu stricto pós-colisionais, calcialcalinos,posicionados sob a forma de diques e soleiras, cujos resultados U-PBem zircão forneceram idades de 520 e 480 Ma. Quatro fases geométri-cas de

  15. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Teses Defendidas 2000 - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ

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    2000-01-01

    átero Ferrífero; - 604 +- 19 Ma a 567 +- 11 Ma associado a fácies xisto verde e desenvolvido em diques metabasíticos e nas rochas metassedimentares das Bacias São João del Rei, Carandaí e Andrelândia durante a Orogenia Brasiliana. Após as mudanças associadas ao terceiro evento metamórfico (entre 2.131 +- 4 e 2.121 +- 7 desenvolveram-se novas transformações mineralógicas, representadas principalmente pela substituição de hornblenda magmática e actinolita metamórfica por biotita e de plagioclásio por microclina, que foram interpretadas como relacionadas a um evento metassomático potássico. Essas transformações necessitariam da adição de potássio ao sistema, o qual estaria associado aos corpos pegmatíticos e/ou diques e apófises do Granitóide Ritápolis, cuja idade 207Pb/206 Pb (evaporação de zircão varia entre 2.122 +- 6 e 2.121 +- 7 Ma. Nome: Reneu Rodrigues da Silva Orientador: Claudio Bettini Título: Explorator: protótipo de sistema holístico em exploração de petróleo Resumo: O processo de explorar petróleo pode ser representado por um único sistema computacional que integra os subprocessos de planejamento (geológico e econômico, operações (levantamentos sísmicos e perfuração de poços e controle exploratório (qualidade e desempenho. Para uma empresa de petróleo, um sistema dessa natureza, 39 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 23 / 2000 de concepção holística, pode melhorar significativamente a qualidade das decisões e por conseguinte aumentar o valor econômico dos resultados exploratórios, porque todas informações pertinentes estão interconectadas e disponíveis no mesmo sistema. Para demonstrar a viabilidade dessa tese, um protótipo, chamado de Explorator, foi desenvolvido em Excel (com a linguagem de programação Visual Basic*, com base no conceito de play petrolífero representado por mapas de fatores geológicos (geração, migração, reservatório, capeadora e geometria de trapa e campos de

  16. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2003 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências, UFRJ

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    2003-01-01

    distribuem-se em duas categorias: 1 pegmatitos simples, homogêneos, formados dentro dos granitóides parentais, e 2 pegmatitos complexos ou de profundidade intermediária, formados fora dos corpos granitóides parentais, que apresentam uma mineralogia acessória ampla, com minerais de metais raros, e outros que atestam a ocorrência de metassomatismo no seu processo final de formação. A pegmatitogênese da região se deu em um período que varia entre 160 e 200 Ma, a partir da colocação da Suíte Rio Negro (640 a 600 Ma até o Ordoviciano Médio. Sob o ponto de vista tectônico, toda a área de trabalho pode ser dividida em dois blocos crustais. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos, que sofreu uma anatexia crustal ampla e dentro do qual se situam os corpos magmáticos brasilianos; é considerado a Zona Central do Orógeno Brasiliano. O Bloco de Cabo Frio, considerado como a Zona Marginal do mesmo orógeno, é destituído de granitóides brasilianos, e expõe em vastas áreas o embasamento Paleoproterozóico, com suas estruturas pré-brasilianas preservadas na orla litorânea. Contém raros pegmatitos, do tipo simples, que ocorrem isoladamente, formados pela anatexia local das encaixantes. Pela interpretação de todos os dados 187 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 26 / 2003 disponíveis, os dois blocos tiveram uma evolução em comum, mas se diferenciam sobretudo pelo grau de anatexia que teriam sofrido durante a Orogênse Brasiliana e pela conseqüente ausência de granitogênese no Bloco de Cabo Frio. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos foi aquele onde os processos de transformação crustal se deram de forma mais intensa. Autor: Diniz Tamantini Ribeiro Orientador: Fernando Roberto Mendes Pires Título: Enriquecimento supergênico de formações ferríferas bandadas: estruturas de colapso e desordem - 123 p. Resumo Processos supergênicos em Formações Ferríferas Bandadas (FFB atuam segundo importante dissolução, transporte de material e simultânea desordem das