WorldWideScience

Sample records for anomalocardia brasiliana gmelin

  1. Presence of enteric viruses, bioaccumulation and stability in Anomalocardia brasiliana clams (Gmelin, 1791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Dominot, Ana Ferreira Ávila; Moresco, Vanessa; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2018-02-02

    Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders and may accumulate human pathogens in their tissues. Many studies demonstrated human diseases associated with bivalve consumption, especially oysters. Anomalocardia brasiliana clams are distributed along the Brazilian coastal area and are an exotic ingredient for some typical dishes in Brazil. Even though there are several reports describing the contamination of oysters and mussels with human pathogens, there is a lack of studies reporting contamination of A. brasiliana with human pathogens. An evaluation of natural microbiological contamination in A. brasiliana samples over a period of 18months (November 2014 to April 2016) showed that the bacteria indices were in accordance with Brazilian regulations (E. colitime period. NoV GI was the most adsorbed virus after 24h. HAV concentration was time, reaching its highest values after 24h (times (0, 1, 1.5, 3 and 5mins), viral infectivity was evaluated using ICC-et-RT-qPCR. The temperature inside the DT remained time and after 5min of cooking the HAdV reached a decay of 90% (1 log 10 ). The results showed a real warn to the consumers that can be exposed to infectious human viruses if they eat these clams improperly cooked. HAV was the most detected virus in these animals, which may lead to outbreaks. A. brasiliana exhibited distinct behavior in NoV GI bioaccumulation and persistence, pointing to the need for further studies about the cellular ligands used by these viruses to become attached to these clams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791: a bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Cristina Bulhões Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe. Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted.

  3. Caracterização molecular de Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos isolados do molusco bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana (GMELIN, 1791).

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Ellen Camelo Batista

    2013-01-01

    A espécie Anomalocardia brasiliana é encontrada em abundância nas praias da costa brasileira e bastante apreciada na culinária nordestina. Neste estudo, objetivou-se a caracterização molecular de enterotoxinas e do gene de resistência mecA de Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativos isolados de amostras da carne de A. brasiliana na região metropolitana do Recife, Brasil. Isolados de amostras in natura (n=9), coletados no balneário de Mangue Seco, Igarassu-PE, foram identificados como Staphyloc...

  4. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10 -3 ). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BF S do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  5. Bioaccumulation and elimination of {sup 60} Co and {sup 137} Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of {sup 60} Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity; Bioacumulacao e eliminacao de {sup 60}Co e {sup 137}Cs por anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilizacao de {sup 60}Co retido em sedimento marinho por atividade microbiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, L M

    1984-05-01

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize {sup 60} Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of {sup 60} Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10{sup -3}). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize {sup 60} Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For {sup 137} Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of {sup 60} Co, the soft tissues concentrated more {sup 137} Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of {sup 60} Co or {sup 137} Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained {sup 60} Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for {sup 137} Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of {sup 60} Co and {sup 137} Cs BF{sub S} do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by {sup 60} Co or {sup 137} Cs should be monitored. (author).

  6. Environmental influence on population dynamics of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Coleman, Ross A.; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how species respond to the environment in terms of population attributes (e.g. abundance, growth, mortality, fecundity, and productivity) is essential to protect ecologically and economically important species. Nevertheless, responses of macrobenthic populations to environmental features are overlooked due to the need of consecutive samplings and time-consuming measurements. We examined the population dynamics of the filter-feeding bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana on a tidal flat over the course of one year to investigate the hypothesis that, as accepted for macrobenthic communities, populations inhabiting environments with low hydrodynamic conditions such as tidal flat should have higher attributes than populations inhabiting more energetic habitats (i.e. areas more influenced by wave energy such as reflective and intermediate beaches). This would be expected because the harsh conditions of more energetic habitats force organisms to divert more energy towards maintenance, resulting in lower population attributes. We found that A. brasiliana showed moderate growth and secondary production at the study area. Moreover the recruitment period was restricted to a few months. A comparison with previous studies showed that, contrary to expected, A. brasiliana populations from areas with low hydrodynamic conditions have lower abundance, growth, recruitment and turnover rate. It is likely that morphodynamic characteristics recorded in these environments, such as larger periods of air exposure and lower water circulation, may affect food conditions for filter-feeding species and increase competition. In addition, these characteristics may negatively affect macrobenthic species by enhancing eutrophication processes and anoxia. Overall, our results suggest that models accepted and applied at the macrobenthic community level might not be directly extended to A. brasiliana populations.

  7. Distribution and density of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in the estuarine region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. L. Rodrigues Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the density and distribution of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in beaches in the estuarine region of the semiarid in Rio Grande do Norte State, Barra and Pernambuquinho (04°56.978’S and 37°08.961’W and 04°56.792’S and 37°09.375’W, respectively. Samples were collected monthly during 37 months using five transects (300 m long and 400 m apart laid perpendicularly to the beach line toward the sea. Seven collection points, 50 m apart, were set in each transect, and shellfish and sediment samples were collected. Temperature and salinity were measured in each transect. The results showed a temperature variation of average values of 3 °C; the greatest variation (33.2 °C was observed in May of 2009. The lowest average salinity values were observed between April and June of 2009 (5, 8.7, and 7.8, respectively. This fact was due to an atypical rainfall in the region, which resulted in a large freshwater inflow into the estuary; the average salinity values were about 40 in the remaining months. The highest precipitation values were observed in April/09, April/10, and April/11; the highest precipitation occurred in April/09 (316.3 mm. The lower average densities of A. brasiliana were observed in April and May/09 when compared to the other months; the lowest value was observed in April/09 (26 ind/m2. The highest densities occurred between November/10 and July/11, with values ranging from 70 to 322 ind/m2. The highest inflow of young individuals (lengths from 2 to 5 mm was observed between April and June of 2010 and on September/10 while the highest frequency of adults (from 20 to 25 mm occurred between December of 2010 and April of 2011. Hence, the results of this study show that in the months with the greatest rainfall, salinity and the average density of A. brasiliana showed the lowest values.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and detection of the mecA gene besides enterotoxin-encoding genes among coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from clam meat of Anomalocardia brasiliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Ferreira, Ewerton Lucena; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Wagner Luis Mendes; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Lima-Filho, José Vitor

    2013-12-01

    The marine clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is a candidate as a sentinel animal to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish-harvesting areas of Brazil's northeastern region. The aim of the present study was to search enterotoxin-encoding genes plus the mecA gene among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates from shellfish meats of A. brasiliana. The specimen clam (n=48; 40 clams per sample) was collected during low tide in the bay area of Mangue Seco from April through June 2009, and random samples of chilled and frozen shelled clam meat (n=33; 250 g per sample) were obtained from retail shops from January through March 2012. Seventy-nine CNS isolates were identified, including Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii spp. urealyticus, S. sciuri, and S. lentus. A high percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin (58.5%), penicillin (51.2%), and tetracycline (43.9%), and the fluoroquinolones levofloxacin (39%) and ciprofloxacin (34.1%) were recorded from those environmental samples. Isolates from retail shops were particularly resistant to oxacillin (55.3%) and penicillin (36.8%). All CNS resistant to oxacillin and/or cefoxitin were positive for the presence of the mecA gene, but phenotypically susceptible to vancomycin. Also, the enterotoxin-encoding genes seg and seh were detected through multiplex-polymerase chain reaction in 77.7% and 88.8% of the isolates from environmental samples, versus 90.5% and 100% of the isolates from retail shops, respectively. The data reveal the risk to public health due to consuming raw or undercooked shellfish containing enterotoxigenic plus methicillin-resistant CNS.

  9. A pesca e o manejo do berbigão (Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae na Reserva Extrativista Marinha do Pirajubaé, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Extractive Reserve of Pirajubaé (MER is located in the urban area of Florianópolis city (capital of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil, and has the bivalve known as “berbigão” (Anomalocardia brasiliana as its main fishing resource. Based on 100 daily surveys carried out during 2005, this paper describes the berbigão fishery and presents the history of its management. A hand dredge (“gancho” was used by 22 men and four women to catch the berbigão. The fishery is conducted predominantly in the morning and under water depths between 20 and 50 cm. On average, each fisherman swept 469.2 m2 with the dredge and caught 270.5 kilograms of live clams per fishing day, summing up 888.6 t landed in the RESEX along 2005. More than 97% of the individuals in the catch exceeded the minimum legal size (20 mm total length. However, both individual size and total biomass of the stock reduced significantly over time. Most of the catch was processed (i.e. cooked and unshelled and sold to very few buyers. Current management measures include: a maximum number of authorized fisherman; b days of the week and times of the day when the fishery is allowed; c minimum distance between the iron bars in the ganchos’ basket; d minimum legal size; e space-time rotation of fishing areas and, f reporting of daily production data. In spite of the large volume of scientific and traditional knowledge available and the existence of management rules discussed and approved on a participatory system, both the berbigão sustainability and the RESEX as a whole are threatened by administrative, social, economic, environmental and bureaucratic pressures. Neutralize such threats is a key challenge to be faced in this important federal conservation area of Southern Brazil.

  10. Análise populacional de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, na Praia do Saco da Ribeira, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Schaeffer-Novelli

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Monthly quantitative sampling of the beach benthic macro fauna was made from June 1972 through December 1974. Determinations of the distribution index, length |dry weight correlation and vertical distribution pattern was also made.

  11. Seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of Anomalocardia flexuosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae in an estuarine intertidal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767 evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil. Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C. Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm. Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0–1,129 g m−2 differed seasons (rainy and dry, with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231.44 g m−2; and lowest values in the late dry season (57.34 ± 97 g m−2. The lowest occurred during the late rainy (319 ± 259 ind m−2 and early dry (496 ± 607 ind m−2 seasons. Extreme environmental situations (e.g., river flow, salinity and water temperature at the end of each season also affected density ranges (late dry: 0–5,798 ind m−2; late rainy: 0–1,170 ind m−2. A. flexuosa in the Goiana estuary presented a dominance of juvenile individuals (shell length < 20 mm, with high biomass main the recruitment period. Average shell length, density and biomass values suggest overfishing of the stock unit. A. flexuosa is an important food and income resource along its whole distribution range. The species was previously also known as Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  13. Sensitivity of oysters (Crassostrea Brasiliana) to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiolo Marchese, S.R.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1997-01-01

    Various foods including oysters, crabs and shrimps have been shown to be possible transmitters of Vibrio ssp. Irradiation of sea-foods is being considered an alternative to intervention measures in Public Health against food borne diseases. The aim of this work was to establish, the radiation resistance of the oysters Crassostrea brasiliana. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5, 3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves as a function of time showed that 100% of the oysters irradiated with doses of 3 kGy survived at least 6 days. 100% those irradiated with 6 kGy survived 3 days. The obtained results are auspicious considering that a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in the diminishing of the microbial load on oysters. (author)

  14. Flavonol robinobiosides and rutinosides from Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae) and their effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Brochado,Claudia de O.; Almeida,Ana P. de; Barreto,Beatriz P.; Costa,Leandro P.; Ribeiro,Luciene S.; Pereira,Rachel L. da C.; Koatz,Vera L. Gonçalves; Costa,Sonia S.

    2003-01-01

    The extract of the medicinal species Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze afforded six di- and triglycosyl kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Their structures were elucidated based on the ¹H- and 13C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this genus. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside significantly inhibited the human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. O extrato da espécie medicinal Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze forneceu seis derivados di- e triglicosi...

  15. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  16. Chemical constituents from three medicinal plants: Piper renitens, Siparuna guianensis and Alternanthera brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir A. Facundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq. Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.

  17. Flavonol robinobiosides and rutinosides from Alternanthera brasiliana (Amaranthaceae and their effects on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochado Claudia de O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The extract of the medicinal species Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze afforded six di- and triglycosyl kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Their structures were elucidated based on the ¹H- and 13C-NMR data and are reported here for the first time in this genus. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside significantly inhibited the human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

  18. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Lüchmann, Karim Hahn; Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L"−"1 PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at salinity

  19. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Mattos, Jacó Joaquim [Aquaculture Pathology Research Center – NEPAQ, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Lüchmann, Karim Hahn [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – LBBM, Fishery Engineering Department, Santa Catarina State University, Laguna (Brazil); Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique [Laboratory of Marine Mollusks – LMM, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou [Laboratory of Marine Organic Chemistry – LABQOM, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso, E-mail: afonso.bainy@ufsc.br [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L{sup −1} PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at

  20. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana).; Radiossensibilidade de Salmonella spp e Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporadas artificialmente por ostras (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-07-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ({sup 60}Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  1. Pulluterina karachiensis sp.n. (Cestoda: Anaplocephalidae) from the Wild Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZI, Rafia Rehana

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Pulluterina karachiensis, is described from the common pigeon Columba livia Gmelin in Karachi. The new species is characterized by possessing small suckers; a longer neck; fewer testes, smaller in size, and the comparatively smaller size of ova. This is the second species of the genus from Pakistan and third in the literature.

  2. Digestive Gland from Aplysia depilans Gmelin: Leads for Inflammation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia P. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of marine organisms for human nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes has revealed important chemical prototypes for the discovery of new drugs, stimulating compounds isolation and syntheses of new related compounds with biomedical application. Nowadays, it is well known that inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases and the interest in the search for marine natural products with anti-inflammatory potential has been increasing. The genus Aplysia belongs to the class Gastropoda, having a wide geographical distribution and including several species, commonly known as sea hares. Aplysia depilans Gmelin is usually found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to the French coast. In these marine organisms, most of the digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the digestive gland. This work aimed to explore the chemical composition and bioactivity of the methanol extract from A. depilans digestive gland. Therefore, fatty acids and carotenoids were determined by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Twenty-two fatty acids and eight carotenoids were identified for the first time in this species. The A. depilans digestive gland revealed to be essentially composed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and xanthophylls. Regarding the anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, it was observed that this matrix has capacity to reduce nitric oxide (NO and L-citrulline levels, which suggests that its compounds may act by interference with inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taking into account the results obtained, A. depilans digestive gland may be a good source of nutraceuticals, due to their richness in health beneficial nutrients, such as carotenoids and long-chain PUFA.

  3. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, Martina; Franzetti, Barbara; Genovesi, Piero; Marsan, Andrea; Spanò, Silvio

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy) In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi) in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the populatio...

  4. Changes in the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) during different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini, Maike Taís Maziero; Montanhini Neto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature and period of postharvest storage on the microbiological quality and shelf life of raw mangrove oysters, Crassostrea brasiliana. A total of 150 dozen oysters were collected directly from the points of extraction or cultivation in southern Brazil, and in the laboratory, they were stored raw at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 1, 4, 8, 11, and 15 days. On each of these days, the oysters were subjected to microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophilic count, total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. None of the tested samples under any storage condition showed contamination levels above those allowed by Brazilian legislation for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and there was no change (P > 0.05) in the counts of these microorganisms due to the temperature and/or period of oyster storage. Counts of enterococci and total coliforms showed a tendency to increase (P mangrove oysters remain in safe microbiological conditions for consumption up to 8 days after harvesting, regardless of temperature, and their shelf life may be extended to 15 days if they are stored at temperatures not exceeding 15°C.

  5. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  6. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Zhang

    Full Text Available Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported.Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth, Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth, Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir.The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  7. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2013-01-01

    Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii) forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported. Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth), Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth), Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality) and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter) were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir. The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity and chemical composition of methanol extracts and fractions of Croton paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana against Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leticia Cáceres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extracts and the acid and basic fractions of Croton paraguayensis (C. paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana (V. brasiliana against Eisenia fetida. Methods: A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed to assess the presence of groups of secondary metabolites. The plants were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extracts. A differential pH extraction was performed to isolate basic compounds like alkaloids. The methanolic extracts and the fractions obtained were tested for anthelmintic activity against Eisenia fetida, using albendazole as positive control. Results: The phytochemical test demonstrated the presence of alkaloids in the crude extracts and alkaline fractions, along with flavonoids, coumarins, steroids/triterpenes and tannins. The anthelmintic activity of the extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana showed a statistically significant decrease of the times for paralysis and death compared to albendazole. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana contain compounds that possess anthelmintic activity. The isolation of the substances responsible for the biological effect described could result in the development of new drugs to treat helminth diseases.

  9. Health promoting properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in fortification of maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaugwu, R.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the chemical and antioxidant properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in iron and zinc fortification of maizebambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods. A. brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces were freshly harvested, dried at 50oC for 48 hours and analyzed for the relevant chemical components and antioxidant activities. The vitamin A content was 6996 and 745.6 μgRE/kg while the vitamin C was 238.26 and 294.78 mg/kg respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa calyces contained 509.5 mg/kg and 5234.72 mg/kg of alkaloids, 1545 mg/kg and 384 mg/kg of anthocyanins, 767.3 and 235.83 mg/kg of carotenoids, 14,702.8 and 26,428.3 mg/kg of phenols, 1043.5 and 897.63 mg/kg steroids and 462.0 mg/kg and 1006.5 mg/kg of flavonoids respectively. A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa extracts had concentration-dependent DPPH activity with IC50 of 1.76 mg/ml and 5.745 mg/ml, nitric oxide scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.675 mg/ml and 3.976 mg/ml while the ferric reducing power had an absorbance range of 0.5 – 0.982 and 0.959 – 0.986 respectively. The study revealed that A.brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces contain components that will impact positively on the health of the infants when used to formulate complementary foods.

  10. Preliminary evidences of circadian fan activity rhythm in Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Aguzzi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The fan activity rhythm of Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 and its entrainment capability to light were studied. Animals were tested under constant darkness (DD followed by two consecutive 24 h light-darkness regimes: a first 11 h light period (LD and a second 9 h light period, with its phase inverted (DL. An infrared analogical video-camera took shots each 30 s. A number of pictures with open fan were counted every 15 min. In DD a weak free-running periodicity in the circadian range was found, thus reinforcing the matching of the 24 h period under study in both photoperiod regimes. A nocturnal activity was characterised with a consistent anticipation to lightOFF (i.e. entrainment. Moreover, this phase of entrainment differed between DL and LD. The presence of endogenous activity rhythm with a variable phase angle of entrainment is a distinctive feature of circadian pacemakers.

  11. The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. (author)

  12. Haemoproteus iwa n. sp. in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) from Hawaii: parasite morphology and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new species of Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) captured on Tern Island-French Frigate Shoals and Laysan Island in Hawaii. Parasite prevalence on Laysan Island (35%) was not significantly different than that of Tern Island (36%). On Laysan, prevalence was highest in juveniles (52%), followed by adult males (29%) and adult females (19%). Prevalence on Tern was 36% both for adult females and juveniles, and 28% for adult males. Parasitemia was low (mean parasites/10,000 red blood cell). Parasitized red cells had significantly greater areas than unparasitized cells. We named this parasite Haemoproteus iwa after the Hawaiian name for frigatebirds (iwa). This is the first documentation of a hemoparasite from tropical pelagic seabirds in Hawaii and the first description of an endemic hemoparasite in the archipelago.

  13. Structural studies of the 'Aplysia Brasiliana' and 'Dermochelis Coriacea' myoglobins by optical and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa Filho, O.

    1984-01-01

    The myoglobins of 'Applysia Brasiliana' (MbApB) and of the sea turtle 'Dermochelis Coriacea' (MbT) are studied with special attention devoted to the acid-alkalyne transition (AAT), the interaction with transition metals and temperature induced conformational changes in order to characterize structural differences in these proteins. The AAT of MbApB has a pK = 7.2 obtained from the EPR spectra of Fe 3+ at g (perpendicular) = 5.83 and a pK = 7.5 obtained from optical absorption (lambda = 590 nm). The EPR Spectrum of Fe 3+ at alkalyne pH shows a rhombic distortion of the ion crystal field which is in agreement with the absence in this protein of the distal histidine residue. The ESR lines associated with the low spin configuration are considerably broadened. This effect can be explained by fluctuations on the heme position relative to the symmetry axis. MbApB forms complexes with both Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ only one binding site is obtained for both metals in the protein. This site probably has common ligands for mN 2+ and Cu 2+ as the binding is competitive, suggesting also the at the Cu 2+ complex is more stable than the Mn 2+ one (K sub(A) sup(M) sub(n 2+ )) = (11,5 + - 0,8).10 3 M -1 . (Author) [pt

  14. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  15. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE BIOLOGY OF TUBEROLACHNUS SALIGNUS (GMELIN (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE ON (SALIX ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nıhal ÖZDER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development time, survivoship and reproduction of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin( Lachninae: Lachnini were studied on Salix alba at fi ve constant temperatures (17.5°C, 20°C, 22.5°C, 25°C and 27.5°C . The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 17.00 days at 17.5°C to 12.21 days at 25°C on Salix alba. The total percentage of survivorship of immature stages varied from 50% and 70% 17.5°C -20°C on S. alba. The largest r m valueoccurred with 0.2540 at 20°C on S. alba. The mean generation time of the population ranged from 13.595 days at 22.5°C to 19.60 days at 17.5°C on S. alba. The optimal temperature for Tuberolachnus salignus was 20°C.

  16. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  17. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  18. Conhecimento tradicional das marisqueiras de Barra Grande, área de proteção ambiental do delta do Rio Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Tupinambá Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Na comunidade de Barra Grande localizada no litoral do Piauí, as mulheres dos pescadores, conhecidas localmente como marisqueiras, extraem do manguezal vários tipos de moluscos para comercialização e em maior escala para a subsistência. Dados sobre a atividade de mariscagem, conceitos de conservação e aspectos socioeconômicos do contexto em que ocorre a atividade de cata dos moluscos, foram revelados após a aplicação de protocolos estruturados e semiestruturados. O molusco bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, popularmente denominado de marisco, é caracterizado por ser um importante recurso para a subsistência, sendo o mais coletado pela comunidade, seguido da Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842, o sururu, explorado para a comercialização por ter o maior valor de mercado. O conhecimento das marisqueiras sobre A. brasiliana foi comparado com literatura especializada, muitas vezes mostrando-se em harmonia com esta. Demonstra-se assim que o conhecimento tradicional deve ser valorizado para delineamento de programas de gestão de recursos pesqueiros da região. Quanto aos modos de pensar, foi revelado que 82,81% das marisqueiras praticam manejo para a conservação da A. brasiliana ao coletar apenas os indivíduos de maior tamanho, e 80,86% consideram que não existe poluição nos pontos de coletas. O surgimento de uma Associação exclusiva e cooperativa para as marisqueiras é necessário para a valorização do trabalho por elas desenvolvido, visto que há uma média estimada de 351 kg de carne sendo extraídos mensalmente.En la comunidad de Barra Grande, situada en la costa del estado de Piaui, las esposas de los pescadores, localmente llamadas de "marisqueiras", extraen de los manglares diversos tipos de moluscos para su comercialización, haciendo de esta actividad en una fuente de subsistencia. Informaciones detalladas y sistemáticas sobre la actividad de cosecha de mariscos, del contexto en el que se desarrolla la

  19. Thiol oxidation of hemolymph proteins in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana as markers of oxidative damage induced by urban sewage exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Dolores, Euler S; Mattos, Jacó J; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C; Bícego, Márcia C; Dos Reis, Isis M M; Zacchi, Flávia L; Othero, Bárbara N M; Bastolla, Camila L V; Mello, Danielle F; Fraga, Ana Paula M; Wendt, Nestor; Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Razzera, Guilherme; Dafre, Alcir L; de Melo, Cláudio M R; Bianchini, Adalto; Marques, Maria R F; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2017-07-01

    Urban sewage is a concerning issue worldwide, threatening both wildlife and human health. The present study investigated protein oxidation in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) exposed to seawater from Balneário Camboriú, an important tourist destination in Brazil that is affected by urban sewage. Oysters were exposed for 24 h to seawater collected close to the Camboriú River (CAM1) or 1 km away (CAM2). Seawater from an aquaculture laboratory was used as a reference. Local sewage input was marked by higher levels of coliforms, nitrogen, and phosphorus in seawater, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and fecal steroid in sediments at CAM1. Exposure of oysters to CAM1 caused marked bioaccumulation of LABs and decreased PAH and PCB concentrations after exposure to both CAM1 and CAM2. Protein thiol oxidation in gills, digestive gland, and hemolymph was evaluated. Lower levels of reduced protein thiols were detected in hemolymph from CAM1, and actin, segon, and dominin were identified as targets of protein thiol oxidation. Dominin susceptibility to oxidation was confirmed in vitro by exposure to peroxides and hypochlorous acid, and 2 cysteine residues were identified as potential sites of oxidation. Overall, these data indicate that urban sewage contamination in local waters has a toxic potential and that protein thiol oxidation in hemolymph could be a useful biomarker of oxidative stress in bivalves exposed to contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1833-1845. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  1. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  2. The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves: Icteridae), at 2,800 m asl in Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Pinto, C Miguel; Carrión, Juan Manuel; Jarrín-E, Rubén D; Poveda, Cristian; de Vries, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin, 1789, is a brood parasite of hundreds of small-bodied birds that is native to South American lowlands. Within the last 100 years this species has been expanding its range throughout the Caribbean, towards North America, but has rarely been seen above 2,000 m asl. Here, we present records of Shiny Cowbirds in Quito, a city located 2,800 m above sea level that harbors a bird community typical of the Andean valleys. We found two juvenile individuals parasitizing two different pairs of Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776). This report constitutes an altitudinal range expansion of reproductive populations of ca. 500m, which may have beenprompted by anthropogenic disturbance.

  3. Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joel D; Karel, William J; Mace, Christopher E; Bartram, Brian L; Hare, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) is an economically and ecologically valuable marine bivalve occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. This study builds upon previous research that identified two divergent populations of eastern oysters in the western Gulf of Mexico. Allelic and genotypic patterns from 11 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic structure and migration between the previously described oyster populations in Texas. The main findings are as follows: (1) there a...

  4. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  5. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  6. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Hickey, Anthony; Mountfort, Douglas; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting.

  7. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  8. Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Richard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791, is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174 of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ≤ 1e-05 to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the

  9. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Venturini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the population size of Genoa Nervi and the presence of the species in surrounding areas were investigated. In 2002 the population size was estimated in 115/286 individuals by distance sampling method, while, by direct observation, it varied from 80 individuals (2004 to 114 individuals (2003. The sampling by hair tubes in surrounding areas confirmed the presence of a group of grey squirrels in Bogliasco and excluded a further dispersal of the species. Riassunto In Liguria, la popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis ha avuto origine dall'introduzione di 5 coppie nei parchi urbani di Genova Nervi nel 1966. Un primo studio condotto nel 1996 ha localizzato, tramite interviste, un secondo nucleo a 3 km di distanza, in località Bogliasco. Il presente studio, condotto nel 2001-2004, è stato finalizzato alla valutazione della consistenza della popolazione nei parchi di Nervi, mediante il metodo distance sampling e osservazioni dirette, e all'accertamento della presenza della specie nelle aree circostanti mediante l'utilizzo di hair tube. La stima della popolazione con il metodo distance sampling è risultata di 115/286 individui nel 2002, mentre quella ottenuta mediante osservazioni dirette è variata da 80 individui nel 2004 a 114 individui nel 2003. Gli accertamenti compiuti nelle aree circostanti i parchi di Nervi hanno consentito di confermare la presenza di un nucleo di scoiattoli a Bogliasco e di escludere un'ulteriore espansione della specie.

  10. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  11. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  12. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  13. Spatial genetic features of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) in the Gulf of Mexico: northward movement of a secondary contact zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel D; Karel, William J; Mace, Christopher E; Bartram, Brian L; Hare, Matthew P

    2014-05-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) is an economically and ecologically valuable marine bivalve occurring in the Gulf of Mexico. This study builds upon previous research that identified two divergent populations of eastern oysters in the western Gulf of Mexico. Allelic and genotypic patterns from 11 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic structure and migration between the previously described oyster populations in Texas. The main findings are as follows: (1) there are two distinct populations (F ST = 0.392, P turbidity and depth are not correlated with allele frequencies on reefs in the contact zone or when analyzed across Texas, and (4) there is little evidence of directional selection acting on the loci assayed here, although patterns at four markers suggested the influence of balancing selection based on outlier analyses. These results are consistent with long-term historical isolation between populations, followed by secondary contact. Recent hydrological changes in the area of secondary contact may be promoting migration in areas that were previously inhospitable to eastern oysters, and observed differences in the timing of spawning may limit hybridization between populations. Comparison of these findings with the results of an earlier study of oysters in Texas suggests that the secondary contact zone has shifted approximately 27 km north, in as little as a 23-year span.

  14. Diversidad genética de levaduras aisladas a partir de uvas de Vitis vinifera ssp. Sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi en el área Euroasiática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero-Bueso Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sylvestris(Gmelin Hegi is recognized as the dioecious parental generation of today's cultivars. Climatic change and the arrival in Europe of pathogens and pests have led it to be included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1997. At best of our knowledge, no studies on microbial populations of grape-berry surfaces have been done. The present work has been focused on the study of yeast occurrence and diversity on grape-berries collected from wild vines. Final outputs have allowed: ito obtain precise information about yeast communities; ii to provide an objective framework for the classification of the broadest range of species according to their extinction risk; iii to select attractive yeast strains for their biotechnological potential, offering new opportunities to winemakers. Sampling plan was performed in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In all, 3180 yeast colonies were isolated and identified as belonging to 50 species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and ITS region sequencing. Isolates of S. cerevisiaewere also analysed by SSR-PCR obtaining 163 different genotypes. This study highlights the biodiversity potential of pristine environments that still represent a fascinating source to face common problems in winemaking.

  15. A review of plant protection against the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin and molecular methods to monitor the insecticide resistance alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Hladnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin is one of the most important olive pests worldwide. Most plant protection measures are based on insecticides, especially organophosphates, pyrethroids, and recently a spinosad. Insecticides are used as cover sprays or in more environmentally friendly methods in which insecticides are used in combination with attractants and pheromones as bait sprays or for mass trapping. However, due to negative impacts of insecticides to environment, new plant protection methods are constantly developing with the aim to lower the consumption of insecticides or even to eliminate them by biological control with entomopathogenic organisms, sterile insect technique (SIT, or transgenic method RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal. However, these methods need to be improved in order to guarantee adequate protection. Alternative methods than those traditionally used are required due to long term usage causing the development of resistance to the insecticides, ultimately lowering their effectiveness. Molecular methods for monitoring the frequencies of resistant alleles and the current status of resistance alleles in olive growing countries are reviewed here.

  16. Parásitos metazoos de Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes en Chile central: especificidad, prevalencia y variaciones entre localidades Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA HINOJOSA-SÁEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los parásitos metazoos en 65 ejemplares del pato jergón grande Anas geórgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes, capturados entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2004, en seis localidades de la zona centro-sur de Chile. Se evaluó si existía correlación entre el valor del índice de especificidad STD (Statistical Taxonomic Distinctiveness, para cada taxón determinado a nivel de especie, con sus respectivas prevalencias e intensidades. Además, se evaluó la significancia estadística de las variaciones entre localidades en la prevalencia e intensidad de ectoparásitos y endoparásitos, en la abundancia total de parásitos y en la riqueza de las infracomunidades. Finalmente, se evaluó si el peso corporal y el sexo de los hospedadores eran relevantes para entender las variaciones de la abundancia de cada taxon, la abundancia total y la riqueza en las infracomunidades. En el 81.5 % de los ejemplares examinados se encontraron 1,653 parásitos, pertenecientes a un total de 11 taxa, a saber, los ectoparásitos del orden Phthiraptera Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763, Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818 y Trinoton querquedulae (Linneus, 1758, y los endoparásitos Digenea Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923 Dubois, 1968, Notocotylus imbricatus (Loss, 1893, Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum Price, 1931, Echinostoma sp. Rudolphi, 1809, Echinoparyphium sp. Dietz, 1909, el Nematoda Porrocaecum sp. Railliet & Henry, 1912 y los Cestoda Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolfhuegel, 1938 y Fuhrmanacanthus propeteres (Fuhrmann, 1907 Spasskii, 1966. La correlación entre el índice de especificidad STD y la prevalencia de los taxa parasitarios resultó ser negativa y significativa, no así la correlación con la intensidad. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia o riqueza de los parásitos entre sexos de las aves, pero sí en la riqueza de especies y en la abundancia total entre sitios. Con excepción de los

  17. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  18. Geocronologia e aspectos estruturais e petrológicos do Pluton Bravo, Domínio Central da Província Borborema, Nordeste do Brasil: um granito transalcalino precoce no estágio pós-colisional da Orogênese Brasiliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysson de Almeida Lages

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O Pluton Bravo (no Estado da Paraíba constitui um stock elipsoidal formado por monzo/sienogranitos porfiríticos, enclaves dioritos e zonas híbridas. Está intrudido em gnaisses migmatíticos paleoproterozoicos do Domínio Central da Província Borborema. Os sienogranitos são metaluminosos a levemente peraluminosos, e exibem altas razões de K2O/Na2O > 1,5 e FeOt/(FeOt + MgO > 0,86. Os dioritos possuem alto conteúdo de Zr (> 1.134 ppm, TiO2 ~ 1,6% e Nb > (49 ppm. As razões (LaN/YbNN estão entre 14 e 19,4, e (Eu/Eu*N, entre 0,31 e 0,37. As rochas do Pluton Bravo são moderadamente fracionadas com picos em La, Zr e forte depressão em P, Ti e menor em Sr. Os dados plotam no campo discriminante de granitos pós-tectônicos/intraplaca. As estimativas de pressão (4,4 a 6,0 Kbar baseadas no conteúdo de Alt em anfibólio sugerem posicionamento do pluton na crosta superior a média. A temperatura do liquidus de acordo com o conteúdo de Zr e SiO2 oscilou entre 847 e 893°C, e a de cristalização, calculada pelo par anfibólio-plagioclásio, entre 581 e 785°C. Exibem idades-modelo TDM = 2,35 a 2,18 e εNd (580 Ma = -18,32 a -17,03. A idade U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb em zircão indica cristalização ao redor de 581 ± 2 Ma. A relação entre a idade de cristalização (~ 580 Ma, as características químicas de granito tipo-A, idades-modelo Sm-Nd maiores que 2,1 Ga e a associação com regime tectônico transcorrente contrastam com outros granitos similares, porém ligeiramente mais novos (~ 570 Ma, que ocorrem nos Domínios Central, Rio Grande do Norte e no leste da Nigéria. Isso sugere que a transição do regime compressional para direcional/componente extensional precedeu no caso deste corpo evidenciando o caráter episódico e diacrônico da Orogênese Brasiliana. Conclui-se que o Pluton Bravo constitui um bom exemplo de magmatismo pós-colisional transalcalino no Domínio Central, que, com outros exemplos no Domínio Rio Grande

  19. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  20. Utilization of detrital complexes by the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of bacteria and nonliving particulate organic matter of detrital complexes to the nutrition of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was investigated in the laboratory under normal feeding conditions. Results indicate the oysters were capable of assimilating crude fiber extracted from 14 C-Spartina alterniflora with an efficiency of approximately 3% and that enteric bacteria did not enhance this process. Less than 1% of an oyster's energetic demands could be met by direct utilization of this substrate, in the Choptank River subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay. The potential contribution of refractory organics to oysters in large salt marshes having crude fiber concentration greater than in the Choptank system, are discussed. The ability of the oyster to utilize 14 C and 15 N from cellulolytic marine bacteria, isolated from a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh, was also studied

  1. A produção de vôngole e seu potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos a base de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Monique dos Santos Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dificuldade em suprir a demanda de proteína de origem animal de excelente valor biológico para a população humana é uma das maiores preocupações do nosso século. De acordo com a FAO, a atividade pesqueira (pesca extrativa e aquicultura, será uma das principais atividades responsáveis pela segurança alimentar do planeta, com previsões de produção de proteína de origem animal para a próxima década maior do que o setor de animais de abate (carnes bovinas, suínas e aves. A utilização de recursos pesqueiros subutilizados com potencial para explotação poderá assegurar a manutenção da oferta primária de matéria prima no mercado interno local e/ou regional, e inibir oscilação de preços, como a prática da mariscagem. Neste contexto, o presente artigo de revisão tem por objetivo evidenciar o potencial da Anomalocardia brasiliana para explotação e processamento contribuindo para o fortalecimento desta cadeia produtiva no segmento artesanal e diversificação de produtos no mercado brasileiro.The production of clams and its potential for development of new products based on fish Abstract: The difficulty in supplying the animal protein demand of great biological value for the human population is a major concern of our century. According to the FAO, the fishery (extractive fishing and aquaculture, will be one of the main activities responsible for food safety in the world, with animal protein production forecasts for the next decade longer than the slaughter of animals sector (beef, pork and poultry. The use of fishing resources with underutilized potential for exploitation can ensure the maintenance of primary supply of raw materials on-site domestic and / or regional, and inhibit movement of prices, as the practice of shellfish. In this context, the present review aims to highlight the potential of Anomalocardia brasiliana to exploitation and processing contributing to the strengthening of this production chain in the

  2. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  3. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time on the south coast of São Paulo and it helps to define better the true microbial hazard in the aquatic environment and oysters.

  4. Transit and absorption of nuclear industry derivatives by marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, L.; Moraes, R.; Lopes, M.A.; Vicente, C.; Mauro, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A broard research program on radionuclides became necessary due to the construction of the Nuclear Power Plant at Angra dos Reis. As part of this program the research developped by the Marine Biology Departament, UFRJ, aimed at estimating the radiation doses to wich the population of the region might be exposed and to determine biological indicators to radioactive contamination. Up to the present moment, the bioacumulation factors (BFs) of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 131 I by ''clam'' (Anomalocardia brasiliana) and the biological half-life of cobalt and cesium in this animal were determined, as well as the B.F. of 85 Sr by ''snail'' (Strombus pugilis) and by ''barnacle'' (Megabalanus tintinnabulum). The remobilization of 60 Co by microbiological activity in marine sediment was also studied. These studies were made using the standard methodology for bioaccumulation and elimination in closed water systems. The results showed an important microbiological activity in the remobilization of elements in the sediment. Due to the low bioaccumulation factors obtained the studied organisms were not considered ideal biological indicators for radioactive pollution. However, their importance as edible animals in the Angra dos Reis region recommends their radiometry for routine radiological monitoring. Studies on other organisms and/or radionuclides are now in progress at the Marine Biology Departament (UFRJ). (author) [pt

  5. COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E DE MINERAIS DE MARISCOS CRUS E COZIDOS DA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDROSA Lucia de Fátima Campos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição centesimal e os teores de zinco, cobre e ferro de cinco tipos de mariscos crus e cozidos: Camarão (Penaeus brasiliensis, Caranguejo (Ucides cordatus, Lagosta (Panulirus argus, Ostra (Crassostrea rhizophorae e Mexilhão (Anomalocardia brasiliana, crus e cozidos, provenientes da cidade de Natal/RN. As amostras da parte comestível de cada alimento foram adquiridas em peixaria do cais do porto. Os mariscos foram considerados fontes expressivas de proteínas e minerais, enquanto as quantidades de lipídeos e calorias foram baixas. Observou-se na maioria das amostras teores de proteínas e de cinzas aumentados após a cocção. A concentração de zinco foi variada, apresentando-se a ostra como a maior fonte dentre as espécies estudadas. Os maiores teores de ferro e cobre foram verificados no mexilhão e na ostra. A cocção provocou perdas de 50% de cobre no mexilhão e praticamente não alterou as concentrações do referido nutriente no caranguejo. Esperamos que estes resultados contribuam para bancos de dados que auxiliarão na melhor estimativa de consumo de nutrientes em inquéritos dietéticos.

  6. Desafios à cogestão: os impactos da Via Expressa Sul sobre o extrativismo na RESEX Marinha do Pirajubaé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lima Spínola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the case of the environmental impacts generated by the installation of the Southern Expressway, an enterprise of the State Government of Santa Catarina, on the extraction of berbigão (cockles; Anomalocardia brasiliana in the Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX, in the Portuguese acronym Pirajubaé, in Florianópolis (SC. The project caused significant impacts on the marine environment of this RESEX, including the loss of about half of the cockle bank, and hence on extractive practices and their management. The socio-environmental changes resulting from the construction of the Southern Expressway led to a situation of deregulation in the use of fisheries resources, resulting in use conflicts and establishing a situation of open access to resources in the area. In the case of Pirajubaé, when interests of dominant social groups in conflict with the goals of the RESEX were imposed, its institutional arrangement proved unable to secure the rights of the local users or gatherers on the use of natural resources in its territory, which should be the main objective of this kind of Conservation Unit. This leads us to question the effectiveness of the RESEX as an institutional arrangement to ensure shared management and conservation of natural resources in a given territory.

  7. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical composition of the lamellibranchs Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) and Sanguinolaria diphos (Gmelin)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    quantities in the estuary while Sanguinolaria diphos is found in small numbers. At Porto Novo, both M. casta and S. diphos are taken as food, especially by the poor. To study the nutritive value, the water, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents of M...

  9. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  10. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  11. Coccidiosis of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica Gmelin, 1789) in Kano State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Balarabe R; Simon, Malang K; Agbede, Rowland IS; Arzai, Auwalu H

    Pigeon coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria spp., a protozoan parasite which limits productivity by causing severe illness. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the coccidiosis of pigeons in some parts of Nigeria, there is no published data from Kano State. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons (72 females and 72 males) were analysed for Eimeria oocysts in 2007 from 12 Local Government Areas of Kano State over the period of six months including the dry (February–April) and wet (June–August) seasons. The pigeons were divided into three groups according to age: squabs (0–4 weeks), squeakers (5–8 weeks) and youngsters (9+ weeks); each group including 48 pigeons. The results of these studies revealed an overall prevalence of 19.44%. The prevalence was higher in females (20.83%) than males (18.06%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, squabs had the highest prevalence (27.08%) followed by squeakers (20.83%), and youngsters (10.42%) (p<0.05). Infection with Eimeria spp. oocysts was higher during the wet season (8.96%) than dry season (5.98%) (p<0.05). This study provides basic information on the first detection of coccidiosis of pigeons in Kano State, Nigeria which has an implication on the sustainable pigeon production for human protein reguirement.

  12. Growth, morphometrics and nutrient content of farmed eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), in New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    When harvested, oysters represent a removal from the ecosystem of nutrients such as nitrogen (N)and carbon (C). A number of factors potentially affect nutrient content, but a quantitative understanding across the geographical range of the eastern oysters is lacking. This study wa...

  13. Euspermatozoon structure and euspermiogenesis in Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin, 1791 (Caenogastropoda : Potamididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintamas Suwanjarat

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural characteristics of euspermatogenesis and mature euspermatozoa of Cerithidea cingulata are described. Euspermatogonia possesses a large round concentric nucleus with one or two nucleoli. The spermatocyte is characterized by the abundant cytoplasmic organelles and eccentric nucleus with chromatin distributed throughout as small granules. In the early spermatid, euspermiogenesis begins with the condensation of nucleus, the granular nuclear chromatin changes to fibrillar, lamellar and finally a homogenous and highly electron dense nucleus. The cytoplasm of the early spermatid contains a well developed Golgi complex with many vesicles and a prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum located between the connection of the two daughter cells. Acrosome formation starts with proacrosomal vesicle which usually appears close to the well developed Golgi complex. This proacrosomal vesicle differentiates into a pre-attachment acrosome which then moves anteriorly towards the nucleus and finally attaches to the nuclear apex. The features of euspermiogenesis and of the mature eusperm observed in Cerithidea cingulata are similar to many of those in Cerithioideans. The mature acrosome composes of a tapering acrosomal cone, an axial rod and a basal plate. The middle piece of the mature eusperm comprises four equal and non-helical mitochondrial elements around the axonemal microtubules. A dense ring structure separates the middle piece from the glycogen piece. The glycogen piece is the proximal part of the tail which consists of an axoneme surrounded by nine tracts of dense glycogen granules, while the end piece of the tail lacks glycogen. Euspermatozoa and euspermatogenesis of Cerithidea cingulata, though showing some differences between species, do share a number of basic structure features which distinguish potamidid snails from other relatively close families.

  14. Mass rearing of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin), at ''Democritos''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsipis, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Production of more than 4.5 million olive fruit fly pupae within a 4-month period during the summer and autumn of 1973, at an approximate cost of US $ 1 per 1000 pupae, was made possible by introducing certain improvements in the formerly used rearing system. Replacement of the adult liquid diet by a solid one and less frequent changing of the water supply saved labour; better timing in the egg collection improved hatchability. Incubation of the eggs in 0.3% propionic acid followed by their surface sterilization drastically cut down or eliminated previous sporadically appearing microbial contaminations. Most important, a new larval diet (T), which is much easier to prepare and handle, has doubled pupal yield. A new caging and egging system under development provides a higher egg production and requires far less labour. Preliminary promising results on new larval diets and modifications in the various steps of the rearing procedure will hopefully contribute to achieving the much lower costs needed even in a moderate-scale mass-release programme. (author)

  15. 126 La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    richesses en protéines, glucides, lipides, sels minéraux, etc. C'est pour cela que ces plantes sont utilisées dans plusieurs domaines tels que l'agriculture ..... spécimens les plus lourds sont rencontrés à la fin de la saison printanière. Au début de l'été, ce sont les thalles les plus longs qui prédominent. Ceci peut être expliqué.

  16. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND METHODS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF PELED (СOREGONUS PELED GMELIN (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peled as a food product, raw material for processing and analyze traditional methods of its technological processing. Findings. The paper contains an analysis of the chemical composition of peled meat and its difference compared to other fish of pond aquaculture of Ukraine. According to the parameters of the biochemical composition of the meat of peled reared in the conditions of pond aquaculture, including: contents of fats, proteins, and moisture, belongs to the category of fish from medium to high fat content with medium protein content as well as to fish of increased nutritional value and assimilability based on water-protein, fat-protein, and water-fat balance, and based on amino-acid composition in percent, according to Score standard. Unlike cyprinids — objects of pond aquaculture, general indices of the biochemical composition and peculiarities of anatomical structure of peled as a coregonid representative, contribute to the formation of organoleptic features of native origin that are inherent to gourmet types of the products of traditional processing. It was found that unlike other coregonids, the biochemical indices of peled meat, which define the type and directions of its processing and its regime, first of all, the content of fat, protein, and moisture аre relatively stable for different age groups under conditions of pond aquaculture and they change less during the biological cycle. Main product requirements to the methods of technological processing of peled are summarized, namely: drying, smoking, salting. Full technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods taking into account biochemical peculiarities of raw material and requirements for the finished product are presented and analyzed. Practical value. The summarized information is useful for further development of domestic aquaculture and processing. Different indices of biochemical composition and high output indices of peled meat compared to main objects of pond aquaculture of Ukraine as well as with other fish species are shown. Special attention is given to the analysis of technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods, first of all, using traditional equipment taking into account rational regimes of the processing of raw materials and semi-products, which contribute to the formation of trade features of the finished gourmet product. The detailed analysis will contribute to the awareness of the importance of the formation of high quality properties of fish raw material for its further processing by the manufacturers of aquaculture products.

  17. A synoptic review of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barčák, D.; Oros, M.; Hanzelová, V.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, AUG 16 (2017), č. článku 027. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tapeworms * freshwater fish * Cyprinidae * systematics * identification key * phylogenetic relationships * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  18. Violenza e repressione durante la dittatura civile-militare brasiliana: l’eredità dell’autoritarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Bettamio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Belief in the “enemy within” guided the national security for the Brazilian civil-military dictatorship, which was substantiated by high authoritarian legality. Together, these factors contributed to the consolidation of a highly centralized and violent system of information and repression, which had the DOI-CODI as its main character since 1970. The role of this institutional body, how this activity served to institutionalize the practice of police violence during the dictatorial period and how it lives up to the present are the points that we address in this article. Finally, we point out aspects of transitional justice that today are fundamental to combat the authoritarian legacies of that time in Brazil.

  19. Study on the radiation sensitivity of pathogenic Vibrionaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and after inoculation into oysters (Cassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelli, D.S.; Jakabi, M.; Del Mastro, N.; Rodrigues de Moraes, I.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on various biotypes and serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (different biotypes and serotypes from group O1 and one strain from group O139); V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides; Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, S. typhymurium, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli O157:H7. In vivo tests were also conducted in oysters allowed to self-contaminate with V. cholerae and S. enteritidis cultures in sea water tanks through the natural feeding process of the mollusks. Bacterial populations irradiated (0.5-3.0 kGy) in pure culture in liquid broth or in oysters varied from 10 6 to 10 1 0 colony forming units per mL or gram (CFU/g or mL), respectively. The decrease in viable cells through the radiation dose range applied varied from 4 to 10 log 10 . The lowest radiation resistance was found in Vibrio spp. Aeromonas hydrophilia, and E. coli O157:H7, whereas S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium proved to be the most resistant species tested. A dose of 1.5 kGy was determined to be appropriate for elimination of up to 10 10 of bacteria tested except Salmonella spp. particularly, S. enteritidis, which required 3.0 kGy for complete elimination. Radiation doses of up to 3.0 kGy were not lethal to oysters. (author)

  20. Aproveitamento industrial de marisco na produção de lingüiça Shellfish industrial utilization to produce sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as condições do processamento e a aceitabilidade da lingüiça de vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana, além de avaliar a estabilidade do produto congelado sob os aspectos químico, físico-químico, microbiológico e sensorial. O produto final obedeceu a seguinte formulação: 48% vongole, 5% proteína texturizada de soja, 15% água, 25% gordura suína, 3% albumina, 2% pré-mistura (sais de cura e NaCl, 1,5% condimentos e 0,5% urucum. O produto congelado ficou armazenado à temperatura de -18ºC durante três meses; periodicamente foi avaliado quanto ao pH, umidade, proteínas, lipídios, NBV, índice de peróxidos, reação de Kreiss, quanto à presença de microrganismos patogênicos e toxigênicos e quanto à aparência, aroma, sabor, textura. Os resultados apontaram que a lingüiça de vongole teve uma boa aceitação, com IA entre 78-87% para todos os atributos avaliados, especialmente em relação ao sabor e textura. As amostras foram avaliadas como sabor ideal de marisco e sabor ideal de condimentos por 66,67% e 73,33% dos provadores, respectivamente. Os resultados com o teste de atitude de intenção de compra mostraram que 46,67% dos consumidores tinham intenção provável ou certa de compra do produto. Os resultados da avaliação microbiológica, físico-química, química e sensorial da lingüiça de vongole, indicaram que o produto manteve-se estável, durante 90 dias de armazenamento a temperatura de -18ºC.It was studied the process and the acceptibility of the vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana sausage, beyond to evaluate the stability of the frozen product as to chemical, physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. The vongole sausage had the following formulation: 48% vongole, 5% soy protein, 15% water, 25% swine fat, 3% albumin, 2% blend of cure salts and NaCl, 1.5% flavouring, 0.5% colouring. The final product was stored during three months at -18ºC, and the shelf life study included pH, moisture

  1. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  2. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  3. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  4. Monitoring ecotoxicological and Environmental Testing Using with Biosurfactants Evaluation of Zone Water Quality Port | Monitoramento de testes ecotoxicológicos e ambientais Usando com biossurfactantes avaliação do porto de qualidade da água da zona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Gabriela Sobral dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants can be used in environmental pollution control systems for oil spill and its derivatives, since they increase the bioavailability of contaminants by reducing the surface tension of water. The mollusk Anomalocardia brasiliana is a species that inhabits areas with little suspended material. The aim was to test the tolerance concentration and the median lethal concentration (LC50 for a period of 96h through survival. The experiment was conducted at UFRPE, and the biosurfactant produced the root Candida lipolytica, having an industrial waste as a source of carbon, plus mineral medium. The animals were not fed for 24 hr prior to the experiment. It was performed six treatments (1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80 and 1: 160 in three replicates, with the density of 2.5 individual / Litre and subjected to constant aeration at a temperature of 26 ± 0 5 ° C and salinity 26. It follows that the treatments 1 (1:10 and 2 (1:20 gave a survival 76.18%, however treatments 3 (95.23% and 4 (95 83% were higher and treating with 5 to 100%. The LC50 estimated for the biosurfactant tested was 0.222 or 1: 4.5. The compound is lethal to the test organism used in dilutions being suggested further experiments with dilutions from 1: 05 to 1:20, to better estimate of LC50 for the same species. Thus, a better understanding of the lethal concentration in organisms representing different trophic levels brings positive results to optimize the procedures in environmental monitoring in port areas.

  5. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH• radicals scavenging (38% for 4 mg of lyophilized; beta-Carotene-Linoleic assay (12% for 4 mg of lyophilized; O2•- radicals scavenging (IC50 0.36 mg/mL; OH• radicals scavenging (IC50 2.11 mg/mL and iron quelation ability (IC50 0.37 mg/mL. Thus, antioxidant properties of this natural product seem to be related to its ability to scavenge free species. In previous reports of our group, cinnamic and phenolic acids were proposed as at least partially responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract, but the necessity for the presence of other components was also shown. Then, the antioxidant properties of the extract could be envisioned as the result of the additive and/or synergic effect between phenolic constituents and the other antioxidant components, such as minerals, carotenes and ascorbic acid.

  6. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  7. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  8. Seasonal variation in mitochondrial responses to cadmium and temperature in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from different latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkasov, A.S. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Taylor, C. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Rd., Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States); Sokolova, I.M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant that can lead to impairment of cellular functions, energy misbalance and negatively impact survival in estuarine organisms including oysters. Like other marine bivalves, oysters can accumulate high Cd burdens in their tissues and are susceptible to the toxic effects of this metal. Presently, the factors that affect sensitivity to Cd toxicity and its variation in wild oyster populations are poorly understood. We analyzed geographical and seasonal variability of mitochondrial responses to elevated temperatures and Cd stress in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (subtropical Texas (TX), warm temperate North Carolina (NC) and cold temperate Washington (WA) areas). Seasonality had a strong effect on mitochondrial function in oysters from the two studied southern populations (TX and NC) but not in their northern (WA) counterparts, with decreased mitochondrial abundance and increased rates of mitochondrial proton leak in gill tissues of TX and NC oysters in summer. Compared to WA oysters, oysters from the two southern populations accumulated Cd faster in their tissues, and their mitochondria were more sensitive to Cd inhibition in resting and ADP-stimulated states at 20 and 28 {sup o}C. At 12 {sup o}C, inter-populational differences in Cd accumulation rates and sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to Cd were not significant. Within each of the three studied populations, sensitivity of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration to Cd inhibition increased with increasing temperatures (28 > 20 > 12 {sup o}C). This indicates that oysters from the two southern sites may be more vulnerable to Cd toxicity due to exposure to high environmental temperatures in summer, elevated rates of Cd accumulation and high intrinsic sensitivity of their mitochondria to Cd. This study suggests that data on sensitivity to pollutants obtained for one population of oysters should be extrapolated to other conspecific populations with caution and that regulatory standards for water pollution based on the studies from one geographical region may not be protective for other areas.

  9. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  10. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon fraction. Some bacterial protein is seemingly unavailable though and lower protein absorption efficiencies result. Thus gut retention time is shortened and more food passed through the gut. Growth remains equivalent. Substratum digestion is of paramount importance for Psammechinus feeding on either fresh or rotting weed, cf. the 'classical' microbe-stripping detritivore of Fenchel.

  11. Age, growth and longevity of the gray triggerfish, Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788, from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ávila Bernardes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Age, growth and longevity of gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus from the coast near São Paulo were estimated from first dorsal spine sections of 1,800 fish. The translucent zone was formed during winter (June, July and August and the reproductive period (December, January, February. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were: FL = 514.9 [1 - e -0.2625 (t + 0.0391] for males, and FL = 504.6 [1 - e-0.2748 (t -0.0304] for females. The longevity estimated was 11 years old for males and females. The instantaneous mortality rates estimated were 0.26 for males and 0.27 for females. The weight-length relationships for both sexes of gray triggerfish together were Wt = 0.000004 FL3.299.

  12. Effects of cadmium exposure on critical temperatures of aerobic metabolism in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwe, Rita; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd exposure on thermal tolerance of oysters were studied. • Temperature rise (20–36 °C) led to transition to partial anaerobiosis at critical temperature T_cII. • Exposure to Cd reduced thermal tolerance indicated by a downward shift of T_cII. • Cellular energy status was maintained but oxidative stress occurred at extreme temperatures. • Onset of anaerobiosis is a sensitive biomarker of temperature- and Cd-induced energetic stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and elevated temperatures are common stressors in estuarine and coastal environments. Elevated temperature can sensitize estuarine organisms to the toxicity of metals such as Cd and vice versa, but the physiological mechanisms of temperature–Cd interactions are not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that interactive effects of elevated temperature and Cd stress involve Cd-induced reduction of the aerobic scope of an organism thereby narrowing the thermal tolerance window of oysters. We determined the effects of prolonged Cd exposure (50 μg Cd l"−"1 for 30 days) on the upper critical temperature of aerobic metabolism (assessed by accumulation of anaerobic end products L-alanine, succinate and acetate), cellular energy status (assessed by the tissue levels of adenylates, phosphagen/aphosphagen and glycogen and lipid reserves) and oxidative damage during acute temperature rise (20–36 °C) in the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. The upper critical temperature (T_cII) was shifted to lower values (from 28 to 24 °C) in Cd-exposed oysters in spring and was lower in both control and Cd-exposed groups in winter (24 and <20 °C, respectively). This indicates a reduction of thermal tolerance of Cd-exposed oysters associated with a decrease of the aerobic scope of the organism and early transition to partial anaerobiosis. Acute warming had no negative effects on tissue energy reserves or parameters of cellular energy status of oysters (except a decrease in adenylate content at the extreme temperature of 36 °C) but led to an increase in oxidative lesions of proteins at extreme temperatures. These data show that transition to partial anaerobiosis (indicated by the accumulation of anaerobic end products) is the most sensitive biomarker of temperature-induced transition to energetically non-sustainable state in oysters, whereas disturbances in the cellular energy status (i.e. decline in adenylate and phosphagen levels) and oxidative stress ensue at considerably higher temperatures, nearing the lethal range. This study indicates that long-term exposure of oysters to environmentally relevant levels of Cd may increase their sensitivity to elevated temperatures during seasonal warming and/or the global climate change in polluted estuaries.

  13. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, Anna V. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu

    2008-06-02

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate transport that also suggest low energy demand for P-gp function.

  14. Effects of elevated temperature and cadmium exposure on stress protein response in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, A.V. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Taylor, C. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Rd., Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States); Sokolova, I.M. [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu

    2009-02-19

    Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) play a key role in cellular protection against environmental stress. Marine ectotherms such as eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are commonly exposed to multiple stressors including temperature and pollution by metals such as cadmium (Cd) in estuaries and coastal zones; however, the combined effects of these stressors on their cellular protection mechanisms are poorly understood. We acclimated C. virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (Washington, North Carolina and Texas) at a common temperature of 12 deg. C, and analyzed their expression of MTs and HSPs (cytosolic HSP69, HSC72-77, HSP90 and mitochondrial HSP60) in response to the combined acute temperature stress and long-term Cd exposure. Overall, HSP and MT induction patterns were similar in oysters from the three studied geographically distant populations. HSP69 and MTs were significantly up-regulated by Cd and temperature stress implying their important role in cellular stress protection. In contrast, HSC72-77, HSP60 and HSP90 were not consistently induced by either acute heat or Cd exposure. The induction temperature for MTs was higher than for HSP69 (>28 deg. C vs. 20 deg. C, respectively), and MTs were more strongly induced by Cd than by temperature stress (to up to 38-94-fold compared by 3.5-7.5-fold, respectively) consistent with their predominant role in metal detoxification. Notably, heat stress did not result in an additional increase in metallothionein expression in Cd-exposed oysters suggesting a capacity limitation during the combined exposure to Cd and temperature stress. Levels of HSP69 and in some cases, HSC72-77 and HSP90 were lower in Cd-exposed oysters as compared to their control counterparts during heat stress indicating that simultaneous exposure to these two stressors may have partially suppressed the cytoprotective upregulation of molecular chaperones. These limitations of stress protein response may contribute to the reduced thermotolerance of oysters from metal-polluted environments.

  15. Seasonal variation in mitochondrial responses to cadmium and temperature in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from different latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, A.S.; Taylor, C.; Sokolova, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant that can lead to impairment of cellular functions, energy misbalance and negatively impact survival in estuarine organisms including oysters. Like other marine bivalves, oysters can accumulate high Cd burdens in their tissues and are susceptible to the toxic effects of this metal. Presently, the factors that affect sensitivity to Cd toxicity and its variation in wild oyster populations are poorly understood. We analyzed geographical and seasonal variability of mitochondrial responses to elevated temperatures and Cd stress in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica from populations adapted to different thermal regimes (subtropical Texas (TX), warm temperate North Carolina (NC) and cold temperate Washington (WA) areas). Seasonality had a strong effect on mitochondrial function in oysters from the two studied southern populations (TX and NC) but not in their northern (WA) counterparts, with decreased mitochondrial abundance and increased rates of mitochondrial proton leak in gill tissues of TX and NC oysters in summer. Compared to WA oysters, oysters from the two southern populations accumulated Cd faster in their tissues, and their mitochondria were more sensitive to Cd inhibition in resting and ADP-stimulated states at 20 and 28 o C. At 12 o C, inter-populational differences in Cd accumulation rates and sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to Cd were not significant. Within each of the three studied populations, sensitivity of mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration to Cd inhibition increased with increasing temperatures (28 > 20 > 12 o C). This indicates that oysters from the two southern sites may be more vulnerable to Cd toxicity due to exposure to high environmental temperatures in summer, elevated rates of Cd accumulation and high intrinsic sensitivity of their mitochondria to Cd. This study suggests that data on sensitivity to pollutants obtained for one population of oysters should be extrapolated to other conspecific populations with caution and that regulatory standards for water pollution based on the studies from one geographical region may not be protective for other areas.

  16. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 μg L -1 Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate transport that also suggest low energy demand for P-gp function

  17. Phylogeography and Genetic Differentiation among Populations of the Moon Turban Snail Lunella granulata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Tan Jean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic variation and phylogeographic relationships among 10 populations of Lunella granulata from mainland China, Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan Island, and Japan using mitochondrial COI and 16S markers. A total of 45 haplotypes were obtained in 112 specimens, and relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.903 and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0046 were detected. Four major phylogenetic lineage clusters were revealed and were concordant with their geographic distribution, agreeing with the haplotype network. These results suggested that geographic barrier isolating effects were occurring among the populations. This hypothesis was also supported by a significant genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.709 and by a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA analysis. A mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots found a single significant population expansion. This expansion occurred on the coast of mainland China before 20–17 ka. Consequently, although the dispersal ability of the planktonic stage and the circulation of ocean currents generally promote genetic exchanges among populations, L. granulata has tended to maintain distinct genetic groups that reflect the respective geographic origins of the constituent lineages. Although the circulation of ocean currents, in principle, may still play a role in determining the genetic composition of populations, long-distance migration between regions is difficult even at the planktonic stage.

  18. First record of Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae in Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, 1788 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available From the groups causing myiasis, the genus Philornis Meinert, 1890 appears as the only representative of the family Muscidae, obligatorily associated with birds. Thus, the aim of this work was to report the occurrence of Philornis in Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae. Two parasitized nestlings of T. glaucopis were encountered in May of 2008, in an area with a high degree of degradation in the municipal district of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 11 larvae were located intradermically in the regions of the head and neck. The larvae were removed using tweezers and placed in a plastic container with sawdust, in order to await the emergence of the adult. Only seven larvae completed metamorphosis and reached the adult stage, being identified as Philornis glaucinis. This study presented the first record of P. glaucinis in the state of Rio de Janeiro and also the first occurrence of this parasite in nestlings of T. glaucopis.

  19. A Study on the Long-eared hedgehog, Hemiechinus auritus(Gmelin, 1770) (Mammalia: Insectivora) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; YİĞİT, Nuri; SÖZEN, Mustafa

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen specimens of Hemiechinus auritus collected in Turkey were examined for external, cranial, karyological and phallic characteristics along with postnatal development. The karyotype of H. auritus has 2n = 48 chromosomes, NFa = 92 and NF = 96. The X chromosome is a large metacentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric. There are two rows of spines on the dorsal of the glans penis. The pups were born with an average weight of 6.74 g, and they opened their eyes and ears 20 ...

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on histomorphology of some endocrine glands of the rain quail, Coturnix coromandelica (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, B.D.; Suryawanshi, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of single, whole-body 60 Co-gamma irradiation in different doses (250 rad to 15 k rad) on histology of thyroid, adrenal and pancreatic islets of the rain quail were studied. A low dose of 250 rad failed to evoke any change in histology of the glands studied. Doses of 500 rad and 1 k rad resulted in hypoactivity of thyroid but could not affect adrenal and pancreatic islets. Exposure to 1.5 k rad and higher doses caused hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid and hypertrophy of adrenal gland. Thyroid was injured by heavy irradiation. Doses up to 3 k rad did not bring about any change in islet cells, however, higher doses resulted in degenerative changes in islet cells. α-islets were affected by 7 and 15 k rad but necrotic changes in β-islets were observed only after exposure to 15 k rad. The results indicate that thyroid is the most sensitive and pancreatic islet, highly resistant to gamma radiation. (author). 20 refs., 4 figs

  1. Effects of cadmium exposure on critical temperatures of aerobic metabolism in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwe, Rita [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Great Basin College, Pahrump Valley Center, Elko, NV (United States); Beniash, Elia [Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sokolova, Inna M., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd exposure on thermal tolerance of oysters were studied. • Temperature rise (20–36 °C) led to transition to partial anaerobiosis at critical temperature T{sub c}II. • Exposure to Cd reduced thermal tolerance indicated by a downward shift of T{sub c}II. • Cellular energy status was maintained but oxidative stress occurred at extreme temperatures. • Onset of anaerobiosis is a sensitive biomarker of temperature- and Cd-induced energetic stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and elevated temperatures are common stressors in estuarine and coastal environments. Elevated temperature can sensitize estuarine organisms to the toxicity of metals such as Cd and vice versa, but the physiological mechanisms of temperature–Cd interactions are not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that interactive effects of elevated temperature and Cd stress involve Cd-induced reduction of the aerobic scope of an organism thereby narrowing the thermal tolerance window of oysters. We determined the effects of prolonged Cd exposure (50 μg Cd l{sup −1} for 30 days) on the upper critical temperature of aerobic metabolism (assessed by accumulation of anaerobic end products L-alanine, succinate and acetate), cellular energy status (assessed by the tissue levels of adenylates, phosphagen/aphosphagen and glycogen and lipid reserves) and oxidative damage during acute temperature rise (20–36 °C) in the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. The upper critical temperature (T{sub c}II) was shifted to lower values (from 28 to 24 °C) in Cd-exposed oysters in spring and was lower in both control and Cd-exposed groups in winter (24 and <20 °C, respectively). This indicates a reduction of thermal tolerance of Cd-exposed oysters associated with a decrease of the aerobic scope of the organism and early transition to partial anaerobiosis. Acute warming had no negative effects on tissue energy reserves or parameters of cellular energy status of oysters (except a decrease in adenylate content at the extreme temperature of 36 °C) but led to an increase in oxidative lesions of proteins at extreme temperatures. These data show that transition to partial anaerobiosis (indicated by the accumulation of anaerobic end products) is the most sensitive biomarker of temperature-induced transition to energetically non-sustainable state in oysters, whereas disturbances in the cellular energy status (i.e. decline in adenylate and phosphagen levels) and oxidative stress ensue at considerably higher temperatures, nearing the lethal range. This study indicates that long-term exposure of oysters to environmentally relevant levels of Cd may increase their sensitivity to elevated temperatures during seasonal warming and/or the global climate change in polluted estuaries.

  2. PENGELOLAAN PENANGKARAN DAN KUALITAS SUARA CUCAK RAWA (Pycnonotus zeylanicus Gmelin, 1789 DI MEGA BIRD AND ORCHID FARM, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Ayu Lestari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is population of straw headed bulbul (Pcynonotus zeylanicus in the nature has decreased sharply.The effort should be done is ex-situ conservation by means of captive breeding of straw headed bulbul. The aim of the research was to identify captivation technique, success indicator, song training techniques and distribution sound quality of straw headed bulbul. This research was conducted in Mega Bird and Orchid Farm, Bogor from March to April 2014. Descriptive and quantitative data analysis was applied in this research. The results showed that straw headed bulbul has three types of cage, they are cage for growing periode, ge of reproduction, and cage of incubator. Foods given to the bird were banana, papaya, voer and cricket. The types of diseases recorded were diarrhea, white-colored feces, green-colored feces, flu, and paralyzed feet. The criteria and success rate in captivating were consist of medium-scaled egg hatching rate (68.69%, high breed rate (77.38%, and low mortality(10.34%. Distribution song quality of straw headed bulbul was varies. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that breeding management for success breeding of straw headed bulbul comprised of such aspects as cage system management, feed management, health and care management, result utilization management,  and song quality management. Keywords: captive breeding, management, straw headed bulbul

  3. First record of Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae in Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, 1788 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the groups causing myiasis, the genus Philornis Meinert, 1890 appears as the only representative of the family Muscidae, obligatorily associated with birds. Thus, the aim of this work was to report the occurrence of Philornis in Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae. Two parasitized nestlings of T. glaucopis were encountered in May of 2008, in an area with a high degree of degradation in the municipal district of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 11 larvae were located intradermically in the regions of the head and neck. The larvae were removed using tweezers and placed in a plastic container with sawdust, in order to await the emergence of the adult. Only seven larvae completed metamorphosis and reached the adult stage, being identified as Philornis glaucinis. This study presented the first record of P. glaucinis in the state of Rio de Janeiro and also the first occurrence of this parasite in nestlings of T. glaucopis.

  4. Influência de estruturas brasilianas na sismicidade desencadeada por reservatório na Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Inaugurada em 2006, a Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé possui a mais alta barragem do país, com 210 m, que vem sendo monitorada pelo Observatório Sismológico da Universidade de Brasília desde o começo do enchimento de seu reservatório. Apresentando sismicidade causada pelo aumento da tensão crustal logo após o início do represamento, a Sismicidade Desencadeada por Reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé permanece como um importante objeto de estudo para o entendimento deste fenômeno. O presente trabalho se propôs a estudar a sismicidade registrada de janeiro a maio de 2006, assim como a caracterizar a geologia ao redor da Usina Hidrelétrica de Irapé com o intuito de identificar e descrever as estruturas que permitam melhor compreender os eventos sísmicos. A orientação espacial dos eventos sísmicos obtidos pela análise das polaridades e da forma de onda condiz com aquelas dos lineamentos de relevo. As estruturas encontradas podem ser associadas a uma maior, de direção principal NE/SW, com dezenas de quilômetros, que seria responsável pela captura dos rios Jequitinhonha e Araçuaí, interpretada neste trabalho como uma estrutura relacionada a uma fase tardia do Evento Brasiliano. O diagrama de solução do mecanismo focal gerado utilizando um método de inversão da forma de onda no domínio do tempo indica que a direção dos possíveis planos de falhas está correlacionada ao principal direcionamento das estruturas rúpteis na área de trabalho.

  5. Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory implantation at the Rio Grande do Norte Federal University: the dating of the Serrinha Granitoid (RN) and the correlate Brasiliana extensional deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Maria Helena F.; Sa, Emanuel F. Jardim de; Souza, Zorano S.; Mendes, Franklin S.; Ramalho, Karlos A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The article describes the activities developed by the Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory at the Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, a Brazilian university, where there were the preoccupation of establishing strategies for a geochronological development. It relates the Rubidium-Strontium (Rb/Sr) and Samarium-Neodymium (Sm/Nd) methods, describing the analysis realized in these methodologies. Afterward, it presents the geological and petrographic situation of the Granitoide de Serrinha, located at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil and its geochronological data

  6. Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory implantation at the Rio Grande do Norte Federal University: the dating of the Serrinha Granitoid (RN) and the correlate Brasiliana extensional deformation; Implantacao do Laboratorio Intermediario de Geocronologia na UFRN: a datacao do granitoide de Serrinha (RN) e da deformacao extensional brasiliana correlata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Maria Helena F.; Sa, Emanuel F. Jardim de; Souza, Zorano S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Mendes, Franklin S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Ramalho, Karlos A.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The article describes the activities developed by the Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory at the Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, a Brazilian university, where there were the preoccupation of establishing strategies for a geochronological development. It relates the Rubidium-Strontium (Rb/Sr) and Samarium-Neodymium (Sm/Nd) methods, describing the analysis realized in these methodologies. Afterward, it presents the geological and petrographic situation of the Granitoide de Serrinha, located at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil and its geochronological data 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  9. First record of the silver-cheeked toad fish Lagocephalus scleratus (Gmelin, 1789 (Actinopterygii: Tetraodontidae from Chennai coastal waters, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Silambarasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The silver-cheeked toad fish, Lagocephalus scleratus, was recorded for the first time on 25 September 2014. Two specimens of this fish species were collected from the by-catch landed by a commercial deep-sea trawler at Kasimedu Fishing Harbour, Chennai coast, Southeast India. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. The specimen was compared with earlier reports.

  10. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities.

  11. Reintroduction of the highly endangered mollusk Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 in an MPA: A novel approach to achieve high survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Anis; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Espinosa, Free

    2018-03-01

    Patella ferruginea is the most endangered marine invertebrate of western Mediterranean rocky shores. After a study of one of its most important populations in the Zembra Archipelago National Park (Tunisia), a new protocol for the translocation of the species (size: 4-8 cm) was adopted. The first translocation was made in June 2014 in the same archipelago, where 94 specimens were moved from Zembretta to Zembra Island and marked (62 protected by cages, 20 with no cages and 60 as controls). The second translocation was performed in August 2014 (110 specimens) from Zembra to La Galite Island (185 km away). High mortality was registered during transport. The remaining individuals (39) were marked and placed in cages on the rocky shores of Galite Island, then monitored until November 2015. Growth and survival rates were measured in both translocated and control populations. The highest mortality rates were observed during the initial three days after translocation, especially for individuals with no cage protection. After a 697-day survey on Zembra Island, survival rates of 58%, 25% and 85% were observed for cage, no-cage and control populations, respectively. After a 457-day survey on La Galite Island, the survival rate was 18%. Limpets>6 cm in size had the highest survival rate among Zembra-translocated populations, whereas translocated limpets of 4-6 cm in size showed the highest survival rate in La Galite. The growth rates for both translocated populations were higher than the rate observed for controls. Our translocation experiment shows the importance of cage protection and initial limpet size for survival.

  12. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  13. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species ( Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/ W ( W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  14. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Adele L.H.; Raumati Hook, G.; Greening, Gail E.; Gibbs-Smith, Emma; Gardner, Jonathan P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  15. Historical notes on the Quagga [Equus quagga Gmelin, 1788; Mammalia, Perissodactyla], comprising some remarks on Buffon-editions published in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijn, P.

    1966-01-01

    As our knowledge of extinct mammals is rather poor, is seems worthwhile to publish the following notes on the Quagga. Mr. Haga was so kind as to call my attention to the 6 volumes of bound watercolour-drawings in the Print Room at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam known as the Gordon-Atlas. It consists

  16. Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  18. Predicting the distribution of four species of raptors (Aves: Accipitridae) in southern Spain: statistical models work better than existing maps

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Javier; Seoane, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Aim To test the effectiveness of statistical models based on explanatory environmental variables vs. existing distribution information (maps and breeding atlas), for predicting the distribution of four species of raptors (family Accipitridae): common buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758), short-toed eagle Circaetus gallicus (Gmelin, 1788), booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788) and black kite Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783). Location Andalusia, southe...

  19. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of two key enzymes of hypoxia-sensing pathways in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin): Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkivska, Helen; Chung, J. Sook; Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolov, Eugene P.; Techa, Sirinart; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen homeostasis is crucial for development, survival and normal function of all metazoans. A family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is critical in mediating the adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. The HIF transcription factor consists of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-dependent α subunit; the abundance of the latter determines the activity of HIF and is regulated by a family of O2- and Fe2+-dependent enzymes prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Currently very little is known about the function of this important pathway and the molecular structure of its key players in hypoxia-tolerant intertidal mollusks including oysters, which are among the animal champions of anoxic and hypoxic tolerance and thus can serve as excellent models to study the role of HIF cascade in adaptations to oxygen deficiency. We have isolated transcripts of two key components of the oxygen sensing pathway - the oxygen-regulated HIF-α subunit and PHD - from an intertidal mollusk, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and determined the transcriptional responses of these two genes to anoxia, hypoxia and cadmium (Cd) stress. HIF-α and PHD homologs from eastern oysters C. virginica show significant sequence similarity and share key functional domains with the earlier described isoforms from vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows that genetic diversification of HIF and PHD isoforms occurred within the vertebrate lineage indicating functional diversification and specialization of the oxygen-sensing pathways in this group, which parallels situation observed for many other important genes. HIF-α and PHD homologs are broadly expressed at the mRNA level in different oyster tissues and show transcriptional responses to prolonged hypoxia in the gills consistent with their putative role in oxygen sensing and the adaptive response to hypoxia. Similarity in amino acid sequence, domain structure and transcriptional responses between HIF-α and PHD homologs from oysters and other invertebrate and vertebrate species implies the highly conserved functions of these genes throughout the evolutionary history of animals, in accordance with their critical role in oxygen sensing and homeostasis. PMID:21106446

  20. La rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (s.g. Gmelin) p.c. Silva, des cotes de Monastir : lumière sur quelques aspects hydro-biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Romdhane, M.S.; Ben Said, R.; El Abed, A.; M'Rabet, R.

    2007-01-01

    في هذه الدراسة تمت متابعة الطحلب الأحمر Gelidium spinosum على سواحل المنستير منذ سبتمبر 2000 إلى أوت 2001 و أبرزت النتائج المتحّصل عليها أن الوزن الأقصى تم تسجيله في ماي وهو حوالي 37غ أما الطول الأقصى (11 صم) فقد تم الحصول عليه في شهر جوان . و أما الكتلة الحيوية الأعلى فقد تم التحصل عليها في شهر ماي (حوالي 7 كغ/م2) . أما نسبة الخصوبة فتراوحت بين 0 و 100% . كل هذه النتائج بينت لنا أن الطحلب Gelidium spinosum هو نبتة معمرة لكن حضورها متميز أكثر في الربيع والصيف ....

  1. Resumos dos Trabalhos Apresentados em Painéis no Workshop Baía de Guanabara, IGEO/UFRJ - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    26 / 2003 componentes biominerais tais como moluscos marinhos, foraminíferos e ostracodes e elementos continentais polínicos e da malacofauna dulçaqüícola. Tomando por base que bioclastos são partículas biominerais maiores que 2 mm foram efetuadas análises em sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara com a finalidade de verificar as variações quantitativas e as propriedades tafonômicas da malacofauna. O material estudado cedido pelo MicroCentro/ DEGEO/UFRJ compreende 2690 indivíduos. A malacofauna é composta pelas espécies Anomalocardia brasiliana Gmelin 1791 e Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835. A. brasiliana, um biválvio comum de praias e manguezais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, desenvolve populações numerosas em lagoas hipersalinas como a Lagoa de Araruama. O microgastrópode Heleobia australis atinge no máximo 7 mm, e apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica na faixa atlântica do Hemisfério Sul desde o Estado do Rio de Janeiro até a Argentina. A espécie domina habitats onde as condições físicas são variáveis, e caracteriza-se pelo endemismo em ecossistemas continentais aquáticos oligotróficos de todos os tamanhos, em lagoas costeiras e estuários, onde a densidade populacional alcança a média de 11 indivíduos por cm 2. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro registra-se a ocorrência da espécie na Lagoa Iriri e Lagoa Itapebussus, Município de Rio das Ostras em associação com fanerógamas aquáticas. Na Lagoa Salgada constitui níveis de biodetritos intercalados a esteiras algais e estromatólitos. Na Baía de Guanabara foram quantificados 2634 exemplares de H. australis que apresentou a maior freqüência no intervalo de 15 cm a 73 cm com 72%, predominam a 20 cm de profundidade com 31% dos espécimes e desaparecem totalmente aos 60 cm e 160 cm. As feições bioestratinômicas avaliadas nos bioclastos apontaram que 18% estão fragmentados, 15% evidenciam bioerosão e o índice de abrasão é 82%. Os maiores níveis de fragmentação ocorrem

  2. Geology of the Curimatau medium region (Paraiba State, Brazil) and the emplacement of the Dona Ines granite associated to the Brasiliano transcurrent shear zones; Geologia da Regiao do Medio Curimatau (PB) e o alojamento do granito de Dona Ines associado a zonas de cisalhamento transcorrentes brasilianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Sergio Vieira Freire

    1996-12-31

    In an area of about 700 Km{sup 2} located in the northeast of Paraiba State and having as main point the town of Dona Ines, a geologic/structural mapping, a gravimetric survey and radiometric dating using the Rb/Sr method in whole rock and Sm.Nd model ages were undertaken in order to study and to understand the geology of this portion of terrain, the emplacement of the Dona Ines granitoids and its relationship with the enclosing rocks and the deformation acting at the time of the intrusion. The age of the pluton of Dona Ines was determined by the Rb/Sr whole rock method as 560 {+-} 20 Ma (end of Brasiliano Cycle in the region). Sm.Nd model ages in granitoids of Araras, Belem and Dona Ines have revealed paleoproterozoic ages for their crustal sources, as indicated by the negative {epsilon}{sub nd} of this rock 128 refs., 95 figs., 6 tabs., 7 maps

  3. Geology of the Curimatau medium region (Paraiba State, Brazil) and the emplacement of the Dona Ines granite associated to the Brasiliano transcurrent shear zones; Geologia da Regiao do Medio Curimatau (PB) e o alojamento do granito de Dona Ines associado a zonas de cisalhamento transcorrentes brasilianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Sergio Vieira Freire

    1997-12-31

    In an area of about 700 Km{sup 2} located in the northeast of Paraiba State and having as main point the town of Dona Ines, a geologic/structural mapping, a gravimetric survey and radiometric dating using the Rb/Sr method in whole rock and Sm.Nd model ages were undertaken in order to study and to understand the geology of this portion of terrain, the emplacement of the Dona Ines granitoids and its relationship with the enclosing rocks and the deformation acting at the time of the intrusion. The age of the pluton of Dona Ines was determined by the Rb/Sr whole rock method as 560 {+-} 20 Ma (end of Brasiliano Cycle in the region). Sm.Nd model ages in granitoids of Araras, Belem and Dona Ines have revealed paleoproterozoic ages for their crustal sources, as indicated by the negative {epsilon}{sub nd} of this rock 128 refs., 95 figs., 6 tabs., 7 maps

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maqsood

    (Duke et al., 1992), sinapic acid and sinapin (Schultz and. Gmelin, 1952), and ... serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were within normal levels ..... like asthma, skin disease and diabetes (Gill and Macleod, 1980; Maier et al., 1998).

  5. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  6. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  7. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  8. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Diego L. Carpintero; Rosana M. Aramburú

    2007-01-01

    Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang), chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin) (Furnaridae) («hornero») y de Passer domesticus (L.) (Ploceidae) («gorrión»), fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin) («golondrina doméstica»), Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra») e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert ...

  9. Germination and Seedling Emergence of Scirpus-Lacustris L and Scirpus-Maritimus L with Special Reference to the Restoration of Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination and seedling emergence of Scirpus lacustris L. ssp. lacustris (S.l. lacustris), S. lacustris L. ssp. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmelin) Syme (S.l. tabernaemontani) and Scirpus maritimus L. were investigated in order to assess their ability to establish from seed in former tidal waters, where

  10. Ghasemi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Perennial Stems, Leaves. Internal. Anti-calculus, anti-septic, kidney problems, urine tube infection and laxative (for baby). 5. Allium akaka Gmelin. Aliaceae or ..... Tragopogon graminifolius. DC. Asteraceae. Haplook. Shang. Salsify. H. Annual Root, Flowers. Internal/. External. Emollient, sore throat and wound healing. 111.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 10, No 4 (2014), Qualité physicochimique et bactériologique de trois ... Recherche des facteurs les plus influents sur le rendement et la qualité de l'agar- agar de la rhodophycée Gelidium spinosum (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva, Abstract PDF.

  12. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  13. Science World Journal - Vol 3, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths of the domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica gmelin, 1789 aves:columbidae) in Zaria, northern Nigeria. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K.L Adang, S.L Oniye, O.J Ajanusi, A.U Ezealor, P.A Abdu.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detarium senegalense JF Gmelin (Caesalpiniaceae), commonly known as tallow tree, is used traditionally for the treatment of bronchitis, pneumonia, internal complaints and skin diseases in Tropical Africa. The seed is used as a soup thickener in Eastern Nigeria. Analysis of the petroleum ether extract of the seeds with ...

  15. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  16. Morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of the genus Crassostrea Sacco, 1897 (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, S W; Absher, T M; Boehs, G

    2010-08-01

    In this study we describe the morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of Crassostrea genus. Two species, C. rhizophorae and C. brasiliana, are native to the Brazilian coast, and C. gigas is an introduced species. Samples of laboratory reared larvae, obtained through artificial fertilisation, were collected at intervals during the cultivation process for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Prodissoconch morphology was observed in relation to the presence, position, form and number of teeth in the three larval stages: D-shaped larva, umbo larva and pediveliger. Characteristic of D-shaped larvae of C. rhizophorae was the total absence of teeth in the provinculum area while C. brasiliana and C. gigas had two anterior and two posterior teeth in each valve. In the umbo larval phase, the three species had the same number of teeth in each valve: two posterior and two anterior teeth in the right valve and three posterior and three anterior in the left valve. In the pediveliger stage the three species could be differentiated by the number of anterior teeth of the right valve: C. rhizophorae had two teeth, C. brasiliana one tooth and C. gigas three teeth.

  17. Morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of the genus Crassostrea Sacco, 1897 (Bivalvia: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SW. Christo

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of Crassostrea genus. Two species, C. rhizophorae and C. brasiliana, are native to the Brazilian coast, and C. gigas is an introduced species. Samples of laboratory reared larvae, obtained through artificial fertilisation, were collected at intervals during the cultivation process for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Prodissoconch morphology was observed in relation to the presence, position, form and number of teeth in the three larval stages: D-shaped larva, umbo larva and pediveliger. Characteristic of D-shaped larvae of C. rhizophorae was the total absence of teeth in the provinculum area while C. brasiliana and C. gigas had two anterior and two posterior teeth in each valve. In the umbo larval phase, the three species had the same number of teeth in each valve: two posterior and two anterior teeth in the right valve and three posterior and three anterior in the left valve. In the pediveliger stage the three species could be differentiated by the number of anterior teeth of the right valve: C. rhizophorae had two teeth, C. brasiliana one tooth and C. gigas three teeth.

  18. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  19. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  20. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  1. SUBANTARCTIC LIMPET POPULATIONS TODAY AND HUMAN IMPACT ABOUT 1,400 YEARS AGO

    OpenAIRE

    Thatje,Sven; Ríos,Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Age, growth and length frequency data of the subantarctic intertidal limpets Nacella (Patinigera) magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata (gmelin, 1791) were investigated at Bahía Laredo in the eastern part of the Straits of Magellan (South america). data were obtained from (i) recent populations and (ii) from shells of the same species, excavated from an indian tribe kitchen midden nearby. Conventional 14C age determination showed the shells of both limpet-species from this midden to b...

  2. J. Agardh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Au Maroc, l'industrie des carraghénanes n'a pas encore pris de l'extension et la seule activité se réduit à la récolte et à l'exportation en mélange à l'état brut de Gigartina pistillata (Gmelin) Stackhouse et. Chondracanthus acicularis et Chondracanthus teedi qui constituent les espèces principalement commercialisées.

  3. U uranium. Suppl. Vol. D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    This volume of the uranium series of the Gmelin handbook deals with the anion exchange of uranium. Compounds of the valence states of III, IV, V and VI of uranium in halide, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate media as well as in media containing organic complexing agents are treated. The literature cited covers the period from about 1947 to the end of 1980. (RB) [de

  4. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  5. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Shafay, Shimaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  6. Parasitoidism of Chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Couri

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert larvae are known as parasites of birds, with coprophagous, semi-hematophagous or hematophagous habits. Biological data of the larvae of the fifty described species are still scarcely known. Here we describe some aspects of the parasitism of a species of Philornis on Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin (Trochilidae and record two species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera parasitoids, Conura annulifera (Walker, 1864 and Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787, reared from Philornis puparia.

  7. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  8. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  9. Geochronology and structuring of the Ceara State: Borborema Province northwestern part, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.; Van Schmus, W.R.; Santos, Ticiano J. Saraiva dos; Arthaud, M.; Nogueira Neto, J.

    1997-01-01

    The work confirms that the geochronological new data U/Pb in zircon and Samarium/Neodymium from the Ceara State furnished a refined chronology of the geological activity in the NW part of the Borborema Province, indicating an evolutive history since 2,78 Ga and 532 Ma. Furthermore, these data facilitated the different crust domain outlines in the region, putting age maximum limits in the pre-brasilianas supracrusts rocks deposition, and evidencing the epoch and duration of the Brasiliano magmatism and metamorphism in the northwest part of the State

  10. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Luz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil, its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240 were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8. In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  11. Fenologia reprodutiva, polinização e frutificação de Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae em fragmento de Floresta Atlântica do município do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-07-01

    Este estudo apresenta aspectos da fenologia e da biologia reprodutiva de Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. em áreas de borda e interior de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Quatro parcelas de 10x10m foram delimitadas, duas na borda e duas no interior da mata, e indivíduos de H. spathocircinata foram monitorados de junho de 2009 a junho de 2010. As observações foram realizadas das 6:00 às 18:00 horas, semanalmente em dezembro e janeiro, e quinzenalmente no restante da floração. Heliconia spathocircinata floresce entre novembro e março. Seus frutos encontram-se maduros dois meses após a polinização. A proporção flores-frutos foi em média 66,6% no interior e 27% na borda da mata. Machos do beija-flor Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin correspondem ao polinizador mais frequente em todas as parcelas estudadas, o segundo polinizador mais frequente nas quatro parcelas foram fêmeas desta mesma espécie. Phaethornis ruber L. foi o terceiro polinizador mais frequente nas quatro parcelas, Ramphodon naevius Dumont somente foi observado no interior da mata, sendo o quarto polinizador mais frequente nas duas parcelas. Eupetomena macroura Gmelin e Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin foram observados somente nas parcelas de borda, são o quarto e quinto polinizador mais frequentes em ambas as parcelas.

  12. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Nidup

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  13. Preliminary results on accumulation and loss of artificial radionuclides in marine benthic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.L. dos; Santos Gouvea, R.C.; Gusmao Pedrini, A.

    1978-01-01

    The acummulation and the loss of artificial radionuclides in three species of marine benthic algae of the state of Rio de Janeiro were studied under laboratory conditions, so that a selection of biological indicators for radioctive contamination of the marine environment could be made. Medium concentration factors were calculated, the most significant figures being those obtained for the algae Pterocladia Capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet et Thuret (132+-40) p/ sub(131) I and Sargassum vulgares J. Agardh (19+-5) p/ 51 Cr [pt

  14. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina First record of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae in Chilean swallow nests Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.Chilean swallows Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis nest in the central area in Chile and Southwest in Argentina. In winter, they migrate to Bolivia, Paraguay and Southeast of Brazil. A nest box population of Chilean swallows was established in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. After the breeding season, we collected all nests, treated them with ethyl acetate, and inspected all the nest material for hematophagous arthropods. We found adult fleas, which were fixed, cleared, diaphanized, dehydrated, and mounted in a clove derivative for observation under a microscope. We identified males and females of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. In Argentina, this flea is only known for Sierra de la Ventana

  15. Dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese (Acari: Macronyssidae: a case report in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein report human dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese. The cases occurred in an apartment in a residential district of Porto Alegre City, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where three members of the same family presented with pruritic lesions on the arms and legs. On inspecting the bathroom, several mites measuring approximately 1.0mm in length were observed coming from a nest of Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin. This is the first report of O. bursa in the urban area of Porto Alegre City, from a nest of F. rufus that bites humans.

  16. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  17. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  18. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana ARAMBURÚ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.

  19. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. CARPINTERO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.

  20. Oyster radiation sensitivity; Sensibilidade de ostras a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  1. Oyster radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    1996-01-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  2. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  3. Resenha do livro: 'Catálogo dos folhetos da Coleção Barbosa Machado. Anais da Biblioteca Nacional'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo D'Almeida Magalhães

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto As investigações e trabalhos levados a cabo por Rosemaire Horch, responsável pela publicação de Sermões impressos dos autos da fé (Rio de Janeiro, 1960 e dos primorosos Catálogos da Brasiliana da Coleção Barbosa Machado (Rio de Janeiro, 1967 e dos Vilancicos da Coleção Barbosa Machado (Rio de Janeiro, 1969, tem revelado a importância da função da bibliotecária que não se atem tão somente a problemas de ordem técnica secundária, mas antes, torna a biblioteca um organismo vivo e dinâmico.

  4. Os imigrantes italianos em São Paulo, na perspectiva de Alcântara Machado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il libro Brás, Bexiga e Barra Funda, di Alcântara Machado, pubblicato nel 1927, tratta della vit di alcuni quartieri poplari di San Paolo (indicati nel titolo dell´opera, obitari da immigranti italiani. Il narratore rappresenta questo universo - ora con simpatia ora con ironia - rivelando, in modo chiaro o tra le righe, gli sterotipi in voga in quel periodo sugli italiani arrivati da poco, che non conoscevano ancora la lingua e le tradizioni del Brasile, ma desideravano raggiungere rapidamente una posizione social ed economica elevata, per conquistare un posto nella nuova società. Nell´articolo si propone una lettura dello scontro fra gli immigranti e la società brasiliana, scontro filtrato nei racconti che presentano - con straordinaria vivacità - il quotidiano dei quartieri popolari di San Paolo, proprio nel momento in cui vari gruppi di immigranti stanno vivendo il processo di integrazione e assimilazione.

  5. Habitar íntimo: a poesia de Eduardo Dall’Alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Dall’Alba (1963-2013 ha pubblicato oltre dieci libri, tra saggi e poesia, ed ha ricevuto diversi premi. Appartiene ad una famiglia di emigranti veneti stabilitosi del Rio Grande do Sul alla fine dell’Ottocento. È un profondo conoscitore della letteratura italiana, studioso di Dante, Eduardo è riuscito a fondere le due culture e identità, quella brasiliana a quella italiana. Qui desidero enfatizzare come la poesia di quest’autore recupera il vissuto rimosso e senza voce di migliaia di italiani emigrati al sud del Brasile, con il loro dolore e la loro frustrazione per aver abbandonato la propria terra, la nostalgia e l’ossessione di autosufficienza economica che si otteneva tramite il lavoro incessante di tutti i componenti della famiglia, il cui dialetto – o dialetti – erano visti quale elemento agglutinante delle prime comunità.

  6. Le Comunità Tradizionali e la Politica Recente Dell'incentivo Allo Sviluppo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Greice Soares Ribeiro Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo studio si contestualizza la recente politica brasiliana di incentivo allo sviluppo, istituita con il PAC I e il sucessivo PAC II, per una miglior comprensione della questione ambientale e dellacutizzarsi dei conflitti determinati dalla configurazione del capitalismo globale, che, privo di regole, indebolisce i diritti naturali. In quanto nazione periferica, il Brasile, non senza difficoltà, si inserisce in questo nuovo momento del capitalismo, e proprio da questo suo inserimento emergono le contraddizioni tipiche di un progetto politico che, nel nome del progresso economico, di recente concretizzato in grandi imprese per il commercio di commodities, causa grandi conflitti tra interessi economici e il diritto originario dei popoli indigeni o delle popolazioni tradizionali.

  7. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-04-03

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented.

  8. Determinação de atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas de uso popular como antiflamatório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caetano

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of “babaçu” (Orbignya martiana, “cardo santo” (Argemone mexicana, “mentrasto” (Ageratum conyzoides, “cavalinha” (Equisetum yeamalis and “terramicina” (Alternanthera brasiliana, used by Brazilian population as antiinflamatory medicine, were studied on Staphylococcus aureus. The freezer dried hydroalcoholic extracts solutions were tested for 7 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which two of those are methicillin resistant (MRSA. The diffusion method on agar-agar, using holes technique, with tetracycline chlorydrate as standard. “Babaçu”, “cardo santo” and “terramicina” showed antimicrobial activity, within of those “terramicina” inhibited 6 strains, presenting zone inhibition of 22 mm compared to standard antibiotic (34 mm, except the seventh strain which was also tetracycline resistant.

  9. Survival of Saplings in Recovery of Riparian Vegetation of Pandeiros River (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalle Cristine Alencar Fagundes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study monitored the survival of saplings planted according to different recovery models in a riparian forest of the Pandeiros river (Januária, MG. The models consisted of planting the saplings in lines of 2 or 4 m with presence (T2S and T4S, respectively or absence of direct seeding (T2 and T4, respectively. We planted 16,259 saplings of 17 botanical families, 32 genera and 33 species. The saplings, in general, presented a survival rate after one year of 34.4% (±1.8. The species with highest survival rates were Jacaranda brasiliana, with 85.0% (±13.5 of survival, Anadenanthera colubrina, with 70.1% (±7.0, and Triplaris gardneriana, with 69.3% (±9.1. Survival did not vary between the models tested, probably due to the short evaluation period (12 months.

  10. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  11. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  12. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Larvae of commercial  and other oyster species in Thailand (Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The development of larvae of some Thai commercial oyster species (Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), Crassostrea bilineata (Röding, 1798), Saccostrea forskali (Gmelin, 1791) and Dendrostrea folium (Linnaeus, 1758)) is described from newly hatched to the settlement stage with particular...... reference to changes in shell morphology. Planktonic oyster larvae were collected in the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. Different species of oyster larvae were found in the genera Crassostrea, Saccostrea, Ostrea, Dendrostrea, Nanostrea, Planostrea, Lopha, and Hyotissa. Detailed morphological...... descriptions and measurements are provided. Diagnostic features of the larval shape, hinge teeth, and prodissoconch sizes were identified in order to allow separation of commercial oyster larvae from other oyster species in Thai waters. Brooding species (incubatory) of the subfamilies Ostreinae (Ostrea...

  14. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  15. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan DURUCAN

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan. At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus, Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Heterokontophyta (Cystoseira compressa (Esper Gerloff et Nizamuddin, Cystoseira crinita Duby, Cystoseira elegans Sauvageau, Cystoseira spinosa Sauvageau, Cystoseira stricta (Montagne Sauvageau, Padina pavonica (Linnaeus Thivy, Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh, Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Nees, Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing K.L. Vinogradova ex Scagel et al. ve Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Species belong to the families have been determined as an important economic potential in this region. Key Words: Mediterranean, Antalya, seaweeds for economic purposing

  16. Chronic lead poisoning in a herd of mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, V.R.; Hunt, A.E.; French, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of lead fishing shot was shown to be the cause of death of a number of mute swans Cygnus olor Gmelin. The area in which they were feeding was shown to be heavily contaminated with fishing shot. The results of clinical, histopathological, haematological and analytical examinations are reported. The kidneys of the dead birds contained from 350 to 6650 ..mu..g/g DM of lead and blood lead levels in the remainder of the herd were greatly elevated, rising to 3290 ..mu..g/100 ml. Consistently elevated liver levels of iron and zinc and a marked loss of body weight were all directly proportional to the increase in kidney lead concentration. 17 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Brazilian red macroalgae organic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi P. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 36.5 million people worldwide, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition is currently considered the main therapeutic strategy against it. Seaweed biodiversity in Brazil represents one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds for applications in phytotherapy. Accordingly, this study aimed to carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux, Ochtodes secundiramea (Montagne M.A. Howe, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand (Rhodophyta in order to determine the AChE effects from their extracts. As a matter of fact, the O. secundiramea extract showed 48% acetylcholinesterase inhibition at 400 μg/ml. The chemical composition of the bioactive fraction was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS; this fraction is solely composed of halogenated monoterpenes, therefore allowing assignment of acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity to them.

  18. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  19. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  20. Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, B.S.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the dispersal rates of normal and γ-irradiated laboratory-reared as well as wild Dacus oleae (Gmelin) were carried out in an olive grove using protein-baited McPhail traps. No differences were found in the dispersal rates of normal and irradiated laboratory-cultured flies or between males and females. The mean distance travelled by the surviving flies up to 2 weeks after release was 180-190 m, and by that time only ca. 13% of the flies remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared flies were trapped outside the olive grove. The limited amount of data obtained with wild flies suggested that they may disperse over greater distances than laboratory-reared flies

  1. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamer S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1 925 and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884, parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844 from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  2. Redescription of Mehdiella microstoma and description of Mehdiella petterae sp. n., with a new definition of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamer, S; Morand, S; Bourgat, R

    2001-01-01

    The generic diagnosis of Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 is emended based on study and redescription of Mehdiella microstoma (Drasche, 1884) from the caecum of Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758 collected in Settat, Morocco and on study and description of a new species, Mehdiella petterae sp. n., from the large intestine of Testudo hermanni (Gmelin, 1789) collected in Catalonia, Spain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed substantial differences in the structure of the mouth and the caudal end, and made possible to differentiate the new species from the others. SEM studies showed the real and sound characteristics of the genus Mehdiella, namely number of anal papillae 2 instead of 3, post-anal papillae pedunculate or sessile instead sessile.

  3. Description of Tachygonetria combesi n. sp. and redescriptions of four species of Tachygonetria Wedl, 1862 (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae), with a new diagnosis of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge

    2002-10-01

    The generic diagnosis of Tachygonetria Wedl, 1862 is modified based on the study and redescription of Tachygonetria vivipara Wedl, 1862 (collected from large intestine of Uromastyx acanthinurus Bell, from North Africa) and T. dentata (Drasche, 1883) (collected from large intestine of Testudo graeca Linnaeus in Settat, Morocco and T. hermanni Gmelin in Catalonia, Spain). The following taxa were redescribed: Tachygonetria conica (Drasche, 1883) and T. robusta (Drasche, 1883) (both from the large intestine of Testudo graeca collected in Settat, Morocco); the subspecies Tachygonetria conica nicollei (Seurat, 1918) is suppressed. A new species, T. combesi n. sp. is described from the large intestine of Testudo hermanni, which confirms the revision of the genus. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed substantial interspecific differences in the structure of the caudal end.

  4. Redescription of four species of Mehdiella from Testudinidae, with a key to the species and discussion on the relationships among the species of this genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamer, S; Morand, S; Kara, M

    2003-12-01

    Four species of the genus Mehdiella Seurat, 1918 are redescribed: M. cristata Petter, 1966 and M. stylosa dollfusi Petter, 1966, parasite of Pyxix arachnoides Bell, 1827 from Madagascar, M. s. stylosa (Thapar, 1925) and M. uncinata (Drasche, 1884), parasite of Testudo graeca Linneaus, 1758, Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 and Testudo horsfieldii (Gray, 1844) from Palaearctic region. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed new informations on the morphology of these species. On the basis of this morphological study, the sub-species Mehdiella stylosa dollfusi and M. s. stylosa are raised to level of species. The position of Mehdiella cristata among the species of the genus Mehdiella and the relationships among the species of the genus Mehdiella are discussed. A key to the eight valid species Mehdiella is given.

  5. Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Ular sebagai Upaya Konservasi Satwa Liar Pada Masyarakat Dusun Kopendukuh, Desa Grogol, Kecamatan Giri, Kabupaten Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Sabrina Kemala Asri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ular sering dianggap sebagai hal yang membahayakan oleh masyarakat sehingga keberadaannya tidak disukai. Hal itu menyebabkan beberapa spesies ular menjadi terancam punah. Untuk itu, tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui spesies ular yang hidup di Dusun Kopendukuh dan untuk mengetahui persepsi masyarakat terhadap ular secara umum. Sampel ular diperoleh melalui sampling langsung dan tak langsung. Sampling langsung dengan melakukan jelajah di area kebun dan pekarangan rumah penduduk, sedangkan sampling tak langsung dengan melakukan wawancara dengan penduduk. Kemudian sampel didokumentasi dan diidentifikasi. Kajian persepsi diperoleh melalui wawancara semi terstruktur dan kuisioner kepada responden yang diambil secara acak dengan usia minimum 10 tahun sebanyak 30 orang. Hasil wawancara dan kuisioner dianalisis menggunakan skala Likert dan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ditemukan dua spesies dengan metode langsung yaitu ular piton (Phyton reticulatus Schneider dan ular kacang (Dendrelaphis pictus Gmelin, sedangkan dengan metode tak langsung didapatkan sepuluh spesies ular, yaitu ular piton (Phyton reticulatus Schneider, ular sanca (Python molurus L.innaeus, ular kacang (Dendrelaphis pictus Gmelin, ular kayu (Ptyas korros Schlegel, ular irus (Naja sputatrix F. Boie, ular siloro (Boiga dendrophylla Boie, ular lajing (Chrysopelea paradise Boie, ular jali (Bungarus candidus Linnaeus, ular hijau (Gonyosoma oxycephallum F. Boie, dan ular gadung (Ahaetulla prasina Boie. Masyarakat memperoleh pengetahuan tentang peran ular dalam ekosistem dari pengalaman kehidupan sehari-hari sehingga masyarakat dapat bersikap arif terhadap keberadaan ular dalam ekosistem. Masyarakat bersedia untuk menerima dan menyampaikan informasi yang diterima dari kalangan yang dianggap memiliki kredibilitas tinggi. Oleh karena itu tindakan konservasi ular dapat dilakukan dengan baik melalui pendekatan kearifan tradisional yang ada di wilayah tersebut. Kata

  6. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  7. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras Radiosensibility of Vibrio cholerae o1 incorporated in oysters, to 60CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivany R de Moraes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Canan��ia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of ionizing irradiation by 60Co on Vibrio cholerae O1, El-Tor, Ogawa, non-toxigenic, incorporated in live oysters Crassostrea brasiliana. METHODS: Samples of oysters were selected from Cananéia town in the South coast of S. Paulo state, Brazil, contaminated with Vibrio cholerae and irradiated with 60Co at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy dosages. RESULTS: Showed significant reductions of the initial number of V. cholerae , ranging from 3.4 x10(7 to 10³ and 10², respectively. The D10 values related with the respective doses of irradiation were 0.173 and 0.235. CONCLUSION: Considering a 6 value as safety factor, it is concluded that 1.41 kGy irradiation dosage is necessary to eliminate a high number of V. cholerae viable cells in oysters. Controls were used in the experiment.

  8. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  9. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for hydroclimate changes over the middle to late Holocene in the northern Bahamas from an inland saline lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, P. J.; Maale, G. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Onac, B. P.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    No Man's Land is one of the largest inland lakes on the Little Bahama Bank in the northern Bahamas, so its paleoenvironmental history may provide insight into how the regional hydroclimate developed over the Holocene. In its modern state, the site is shallow (aquatic invertebrates (e.g., ostracodes, foraminifera, aquatic mollusks) indicate that the site was a terrestrial ecosystem. However, the site transitioned into a subaqueous freshwater environment at 6400 Cal yrs BP, and the site became a palustrine-lacustrine setting thereafter until 4200 Cal yrs BP. During this time, widespread palustrine-lacustrine carbonate deposition and the appearance of freshwater to low mesohaline microfossils indicates that the lake's salinity was likely oligohaline (charophytes, ostracodes: Candona annae, Cypridopsis vidua, foraminifera: Helenina davescottensis, mollusks: Planorbis, Hydrobia). A salinity increase at 4200 Cal yrs BP is inferred from the appearance of the ostracode Cyprideis americana that typically prefers salinities exceeding 10 psu, and deposition of laminated microbial mats. Thereafter, an organic- rich, algal sapropel unit accumulated that was devoid of any microfossils or mollusks. This unit suggests that the lake hosted a stratified water column, where surface waters supported phytoplankton primary productivity and corrosive or anoxic bottom water conditions either hampered microfossil growth or precluded their preservation. The transition to the modern environment ( 20 psu) at 2600 cal yrs BP is characterized by diversification of brackish ostracodes (Aurila floridana, Dolerocypria inopinata, and Hemicyprideis setipunctata), foraminifera (Elphidium spp., Ammonia beccarii, Triloculina oblonga) and mollusks (Anomalocardia, Cerithidea). Over the middle to late Holocene, it appears that the stratigraphic development and salinity changes in No Man's Land has been driven by groundwater-level rise in response to Holocene sea-level rise, the regional delivery of fresh

  10. Detection of Perkinsus marinus in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ramos Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the presence of the pathogen Perkinsus marinus, notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Èpizooties = OIE in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia via proteomic analysis. We analyzed Crassostrea brasiliana from a long-line cultivation system and C. rhizophorae from an adjacent mangrove in Porto do Campo, Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. The collections (n = 100 were performed in October 2012. In the laboratory, the oysters were measured and opened to remove the meat, which was steeped in dry ice. For extraction of proteins, adaptation of a protocol used for mussels was used, after which separation in the first dimension was taken by isoelectric focusing (IEF. The peptides were transferred to a Mass Spectrometer. The obtained spectra were analyzed with the ProteinLynx Global Server 4.2 software tool and also by MASCOT (Matrix Science and compared to the databases of the SWISSPROT and NCBI, respectively. The identification was evidenced by beta-tubulin, Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983 and protein homology code in the database NCBI = gi | 294889481. This is the first record of P. marinus in Bahia and the fourth in Brazil.

  11. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivany R de Moraes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Cananéia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.

  12. Estudo da radiosensibilidade ao 60CO do Vibrio cholerae O1 incorporado em ostras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Ivany R de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência da radiação ionizante por 60CO na eliminação de Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, não-toxigênico, incorporados laboratorialmente em ostras vivas da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de ostras provenientes de Cananéia (litoral sul de São Paulo, Brasil, as quais foram contaminadas com Vibrio cholerae e irradiadas com doses de 0,5 kGy e 1,0 kGy. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diminuições significativas do número inicial do microrganismo indicado: de 3,4.10(7 para 10³ e 10², respectivamente. Os valores de D10 correspondentes foram de 0,173 a 0,235. CONCLUSÃO: Adotando-se o fator 6 como nível de segurança, conclui-se que a dose de irradiação de 1,41 kGy é necessária para eliminar números elevados de células viáveis de V. cholerae em ostras. Os experimentos foram realizados com os controles respectivos.

  13. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  14. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a produced water disposal area in the Potiguar Basin, Brazilian equatorial margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Oliveira, Fábio Francisco; de Souza, João Maximino; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Ângela; de Fátima Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria; Francioni, Eleine

    2016-09-01

    The Potiguar Basin has oil and gas production fields offshore and onshore. All treated produced water (PW) from these fields is discharged through submarine outfalls. Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are minor constituents of PW, their input into the marine ecosystem is environmentally critical due to potential ecological hazards. A 2-year monitoring program was conducted in the vicinity of the outfalls to evaluate PAH bioaccumulation in marine life from PW discharges. The study was performed using transplanted bivalves Crassostrea brasiliana and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to measure PAH concentrations via bioaccumulation and in seawater. The bioaccumulation of PAH in transplanted bivalves reached up to 1105 ng g(-1) in the vicinity of the monitored outfall. Significantly lower PAH concentrations were found in the reference area in comparison to the studied area around the outfalls. Time-integrated PAH concentrations in seawater ranged from 38 to 0.3 ng L(-1) near the outfalls and from 10 ng L(-1) to not detected in the reference area. Both measurement techniques were found to be effective for determining a gradient of descending PAH concentrations from the outfalls. In addition, this study also evaluated the bioavailability of PAH for local marine biota and provided information about the influence of PW discharges on the water quality of marine ecosystems.

  15. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  16. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  17. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  18. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  20. Digenean parasites of six species of birds from Formosa Province, Argentina Digéneos parásitos de seis especies de aves de la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge of the diversity of digenean parasites from birds collected in Formosa Province, Argentina. The helminthological survey of 15 specimens of 6 bird species revealed the presence of 5 digenean species: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae from the esophagus of Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae from the cloaca of Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae from the cloaca of Busarellus nigricollis (Latham and Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; and Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae from the bile canaliculi of G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot and Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. The present study adds new morphometric data on 2 species of digeneans (C. sorbens and G. propinquum and new host records for C. sorbens, G. propinquum, A. heterolecithodes and S. vicarium. The genera Clinostomatopsis Dollfus, 1932 and Glaphyrostomum Braun, 1901 are reported for the first time in Argentina.El propósito de este trabajo es incrementar el conocimiento sobre la diversidad de digéneos parásitos de aves recolectadas en la provincia de Formosa, Argentina. El estudio helmintológico de 15 ejemplares de 6 especies de aves reveló la presencia de 5 especies de digéneos: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 y Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae halladas en el esófago de Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae recolectada de la cloaca de Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae encontrada en la cloaca de Busarellus nigricollis (Latham y Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae hallada en los canalículos biliares de G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot y Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. El presente estudio

  1. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  2. A associação entre Crepidula aculeata (Gastropoda, Calyptraeidae a alga calcárea Amphiroa beauvoisii, na Baía de Santos, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Association Crepidula aculeata - Amphiroa beauvoisii. Population study of Crepidula aculeata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda Calyptraeidae and analysis of protocooperative association between the mollusc and the alga were carried out in the phytal of calcareous alga Amphiroa beauvoisii Lamouroux, 1816 at Ilha das Palmas, Santos Bay (24º00'S - 46º19'W. Samples were collected at three sites of different degree of water movement in the intertidal zone and sublittoral fringe during 1975 and 1976. From 93,916 organisms belonging to 172 species, 5,331 were Crepidula, the most abundant among sessile species. Also, Crepidula constitutes a substratum to attachment of Amphiroa, accounting for 30% of total phytal area. There was a positive correlation between the growth of shell and epizoic alga. Higher level of the phytal belt was more suitable for attachment and/or growth of the epizoic alga, without influence from water movement or season of the year. This association depends on the external morphology of the shell, filter-feeding habit, high adhesive power and lacking of mechanisms avoiding attachment of epizoics of Crepidula. Exuberant growth of the epizoic tuft over Crepidula female shell would constitute camouflage and protection of offsprings against predators.

  3. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  4. A new species of Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (Gastropoda, Cassidae from the Philippines identified by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedosov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Casmaria H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (family Cassidae is widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific and has been documented from some Atlantic localities as well. Two Casmaria species, C. erinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. ponderosa (Gmelin, 1791, are common in Indo-Pacific shallow-water sandy bottom communities and are characterized by high morphological variability; both species encompass multiple, often sympatric forms of uncertain status. In the present study we carry out a phylogenetic analysis of some Philippine Casmaria morphs and demonstrate that one of the distinctive morphs earlier assigned to Casmaria ponderosa is in fact a different species, which we describe as Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. The smooth form of Casmaria ponderosa, C. ponderosa ponderosa, and the solid nodulose form, widely called “form nodulosa” despite being strikingly different in shell morphology, are shown to be conspecific. Studied specimens of these two morphs even from different localities share the same haplotype of the CO1 gene. In light of these new data on the morphological variability of Casmaria species, we discuss criteria of species delimitation in the genus Casmaria and possible affinities of Casmaria boblehmani sp. nov. within the genus.

  5. Gamasoidosis caused by the special lineage L1 of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae): A case of heavy infestation in a public place in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Roy, Lise

    2017-10-01

    Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS). Based on morphological and molecular data, the species responsible for the infestation was identified as the special lineage L1 of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acarina: Dermanissydae), a cryptic species known to be associated with pigeons. Rock doves, Columba livia Gmelin (Columbiformes: Columbidae) were roosting on the top of the public building, thus the mites probably gained access to the halls through small window openings. The present case report is the first one providing morpho-molecular identification of a D. gallinae cryptic species responsible of gamasoidosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  7. Responses of a Rocky Shore Gastropod to the Effluents of Predatory and Non-predatory Crabs: Avoidance and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, P B; Palmer, A R

    1991-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that the rocky shore gastropod, Nucella lamellosa (Gmelin), could discriminate between the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs. N. lamellosa turned away from seawater that had passed over the large predatory crab, Cancer productus Randall. This avoidance behavior was observed in snails from two localities that, based on differences in shell form, presumably experienced different levels of predation intensity. The scent of the non-predatory crabs Pugettia producta (Randall) and Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt had no effect on the turning behavior of snails from either site. Surprisingly, snails from both sites were attracted to the scent of a small shore crab, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), but moved at random in response to a common prey item Balanus glandula Darwin. These results suggest that N. lamellosa can assess from a distance the relative risks posed by different species of crabs, and respond appropriately. The unexpected attraction to H. nudus suggests that N. lamellosa may use this effluent to home in from a distance on potential refugia, because H. nudus are often associated with crevices and the undersides of boulders where N. lamellosa would be less vulnerable to larger predators.

  8. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  9. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  10. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  11. Molecular taxonomy of cupped oysters (Crassostrea, Saccostrea, and Striostrea) in Thailand based on COI, 16S, and 18S rDNA polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinbunga, S; Khamnamtong, B; Puanglarp, N; Jarayabhand, P; Yoosukh, W; Menasveta, P

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity of oysters Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), C. iredalei (Faustino, 1932), Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778), S. forskali (Gmelin, 1791), and Striostrea (Parastriostrea) mytiloides (Lamarck, 1819) (Ostreoida, Mollusca) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of 16S ribosomal DNA with AcsI, AluI, DdeI, DraI, RsaI, and TaqI, 18S ribosomal DNA with HinfI, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I with AcsI, DdeI and MboI. A total of 54 composite haplotypes were observed. Species-diagnostic markers were specifically found in C. belcheri, C. iredalei, and S. cucullata, but not in S. forskali and Striostrea mytiloides, which shared common composite haplotypes. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from genetic distances between pairs of composite haplotypes and species indicated large genetic differences between Crassostrea and Saccostrea (including Striostrea mytiloides), but closer relationships were observed within each genus. Four groups of unidentified oysters (Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. groups 1, 2, and 3) were also genetically analyzed. Fixed RFLP markers were found in Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2, but not in Saccostrea sp. groups 1 and 3. Phylogenetic and genetic heterogeneity analyses indicated that Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2 should be considered as newly unidentified oyster species in Thailand.

  12. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  13. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  14. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  15. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y.; Rendon, Pedro A.; Sivinski, John

    2006-01-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  16. Geography and Timing of Cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis in New York State from 1992 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, JoAnne; Lukacik, Gary; Kramer, Laura D; Backenson, P Bryon; Sherwood, James A; Howard, John J

    2016-04-01

    In New York State (NYS), Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was first reported in a human in 1971, in horses in 1970, and in pheasants in 1952. Following work for the interval from 1970 to 1991, we identified cases in vertebrates from 1992 to 2012, through a passive surveillance system involving veterinarians in clinical practice, county health departments, and the Departments of Agriculture and Markets, Environmental Conservation, and Health, of the State of New York. During an 11-year hiatus, from 1992 to 2002, no case in any vertebrate was observed. In a re-emergence, from 2003 to 2012, disease occurred in 12 counties, including 7 counties where disease had never been documented. Vertebrate cases included 4 cases in humans and 77 nonhuman occurrences; in 58 horses, Equus ferus caballus L.; 2 deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann; 6 dogs, Canis familiaris; 10 birds; and 1 flock of pheasants, Phasianus colchicus L. These were the first reported cases in NYS in white-tailed deer, the domestic dog, and in five species of birds: American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm; American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis L.; bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus L.; blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata (L.); and red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin. One crow was dually infected with EEE virus and West Nile virus. The northern, southern, and southeastern borders of the state were newly affected. The geographic area, time periods, and vertebrate species with risk of EEE disease expanded from 1992 to 2012.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Taxonomic Studies of Allium Akaka and A. Elburzense Native to Iran Using Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Sajad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Allium species (A. akaka S.G. Gmelin and A. elburzense W. native to Iran are used locally as the fresh vegetables and in medical therapy. They are not cultivated, but are collected from the wild, thus, will soon be threatened with extinction. In this study, the diversity of 15 wild accessions (4 accessions of A. elburzense endemic of Iran and 11 accessions of A. akaka collected from the north-western part of Iran were evaluated with the use of 16 qualitative and 16 quantitative characteristics. The morphological characters with high heritability included leaf length, flower number in umbel, inflorescence diameter, leaf dry weight, bulb fresh weight, weight of 100 seeds, seed length and seed length/width. Results of the principal component analysis indicated that 92.52% of the observed variability was explained by the first six components. The first two components explained about 64.74% of the total observed variability. The first and third hierarchical cluster analysis included all accessions of A. akaka. The accessions of A. elburzense, except one, were placed in a separate cluster. These morphological descriptors can successfully apply for evaluating morphological diversity of Allium wild accessions and can help in horticultural usage.

  18. Radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urch, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Radiochemical techniques and procedures are used in most branches of chemistry; a review of recent progress in radiochemistry must therefore be selective if it is not to cover too wide an area and to repeat consideration of topics covered on other sections of Annual Reports. The topics that will form the main sections of this review are those where radioactivity would seem to be of prime importance, (i) the production of specific radioactive isotopes, (ii) the synthesis of labelled molecules and (iii) chemical reactions initiated by nuclear transformations (but excluding radiation chemistry). The safety aspects of radiochemistry will also be considered. But the inorganic chemistry, as opposed to the radiochemistry, of the heavy radioactive elements is more conveniently considered elsewhere in this Report. Perhaps, however, some recent reviews should be noted, on the chemistry of polonium and of radon, and the appearance of four Gmelin supplements for uranium (solvent extraction, compounds with Group V elements and germanium, ion exchange and chromatography, and the analytical chemistry of uranium), and two general articles on the transuranium elements. Other reviews of transuranium chemistry have considered lower and higher oxidation states, the solution chemistry of the actinides, and the production and chemistry of the trans-plutonium elements. (author)

  19. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMG Las-Casas

    Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  20. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  1. Electivities and resource use by an assemblage of lizards endemic to the dunes of the São Francisco River, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L.B. Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the pattern of resource use by one assemblage of lizards inhabiting a desert-like dune field in the Brazilian Caatinga. We evaluated food and microhabitat availability and phases of lizard activity, as well as use of, and electivities for, food and microhabitats. Six of the seven most abundant species are endemic to the dunes, and their diets under-represented arthropods possessing chemical defenses. The two fossorial gymnophthalmids were similar in presenting no electivities for microhabitat but differed in diet, electivities for food and phase of activity. The five species of epigeous lizards include one group presenting positive electivities for protected and shaded microhabitats (Procellosaurinus erythrocercus, Briba brasiliana, and Tropidurus psammonastes and another presenting negative electivities for such microhabitats (Eurolophosaurus divaricatus and Cnemidophorus spec. nov.. The tropidurid T. psammonastes presented the earliest activity in the morning, the strongest positive electivities for protected and shaded areas and negative electivity for exposed areas, and was the only species to present high positive electivity for ants. The only other tropidurid in the area, E. divaricatus, also ate ants but presented positive electivity for flowers. The medium-sized teiid Cnemidophorus spec. nov. showed the highest negative electivity for shaded areas, high positive electivity for open areas, and high negative electivity for protected areas. This pattern leads to use of microhabitat that is similar to that of E. divaricatus, which has a very different diet, and different from that of T. psammonastes, whose diet is comparable in the consumption of insect larvae and large-sized items. We discuss the evolution of the detected patterns of resource electivities.Este estudo descreve o padrão de uso de recursos por uma assembléia de lagartos de um campo de dunas da Caatinga. Avaliamos a disponibilidade de recursos e as fases

  2. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais no Brasil e em especial no Estado de Mato Grosso vem sendo registrado em suas comunidades rurais e tradicionais. Este trabalho visa identificar plantas com potencial dermatológico utilizada pelas comunidades: quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais e tradicionais dos municípios de Barão de Melgaço, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Poconé e Santo Antônio de Leverger. Fez-se a coleta de material botânico fértil e levantamento sobre o uso desses vegetais com a população local. Este material encontra-se identificado e depositado em Coleção de Referência de Plantas Medicinais no UFMT, Herbário Central. Registraram-se 36 espécies utilizadas no tratamento de doenças como afecções, feridas e úlceras, erisipelas, herpes labial e verrugas. Destacam-se espécies como: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alatal. Roxb., entre outras. Estes vegetais são freqüentemente usados na forma de banhos e chás. O órgão vegetal mais utilizado foi as folhas, seguido de cascas do caule, frutos, óleo, raiz, planta inteira, seiva e sementes. O avanço da fronteira agropecuária nesse Estado é constante preocupação dos botânicos e das comunidades que ao longo das décadas usufruem desse potencial medicinal.

  3. The reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAM Gomes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar (= C. brasiliana in the field and the laboratory. The reproductive cycle of the animals was evaluated in the field at Sambaqui Beach, Florianópolis, SC (27° 29′18″ S and 48° 32′12″ W from May 2008 through November 2009. In July, the animals were in the resting stage. The early growth stage began in August and was followed by the late growth stage in October. In November and December, the oysters began to enter the mature stage. Females in spawning condition were predominant during these months. The stages of the reproductive cycle were positively associated with temperature (r=0.77, P<0.01 and negatively associated with salinity (r=−0.56, P=0.042. These findings demonstrated that increased temperature and reduced salinity influence the reproductive development of Crassostrea gasar. The condition index (CI of the animals was also associated with the seawater temperature. The highest values of the condition index were observed during the months when the temperature of the seawater was gradually increasing. A laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of salinity on the reproductive cycle of the oysters. The experiment was conducted in standardized tanks. The animals were conditioned using two salinities (24‰ and 34‰. The salinity regime influenced the development of the gonadal tissue of the oysters. A salinity of 24‰ produced greater reproductive development.

  4. Pseudo-nitzschia species on the Catalan coast: characterization and contribution to the current knowledge of the distribution of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Proliferations of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia recur along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean throughout the year. The establishment of 58 clonal cultures facilitated morphological studies with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ITS 5.8S rDNA sequence characterization. Moreover, strains of each species were examined with respect to sexual compatibility and toxicity. The results of the morphological and phylogenetic studies confirmed nine species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia: P. brasiliana, P. calliantha, P. delicatissima clade A/del 2, P. arenysensis, P. fraudulenta, P. galaxiae, P. linea, P. multistriata and P. pungens clade I. Moreover, two Pseudo-nitzschia species, P. caciantha and P. cf mannii, could only be identified following SEM analysis of their morphology. None of the cultured strains of Pseudo-nitzschia analyzed produced domoic acid in amounts above the limit of detection. The current distributions of the Pseudo-nitzschia species in the Mediterranean Sea were plotted on maps, which led to the following observations: i diversity within this genus is much greater than previously considered, ii some species have a broad distribution (e.g. P. calliantha, iii whereas the distribution of others is narrowly restricted (e.g. P. pungens clade I. Moreover, this study reports the first detection of P. linea in the Mediterranean Sea and is the first description of P. galaxiae and P. cf mannii along the Catalan coast. Morphological studies coupled with molecular biological characterization, mating tests and biogeographic distribution analyses provide a critical theoretical basis for testing and/or implementing the current phylogenetic framework in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  5. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  6. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  7. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  8. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  9. Changes in nutritional composition of soybean seed caused by feeding of pentatomid (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and alydid bugs (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soon Do; Kim, Hyun Ju; Mainali, Bishwo Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Changes in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content, and the weight loss of soybean seeds caused by the feeding of 6- to 7-d-old unmated male adults of the pentatomids Peizodorous hybneri (Gmelin) and Halymorpha halys (Stål), and an alydid, Riptortus pedestris (F.), were examined in the laboratory. Our goals were to determine which species had the greatest capacity to damage soybean seed and to measure the effect of that damage on the nutritional composition of soybean seed. Individuals of the three species were provided with a preweighed dry soybean seed and allowed to feed for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 d, after which the remaining seed was analyzed for any change in weight, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate concentration. Lipids, carbohydrates, and seed weights were reduced by bug feeding, and the reduction was directly proportional to feeding duration. H. halys was found to be the most voracious feeder, reducing soybean seed weight by 42% after 24 d of feeding. There was a significant interaction between species and feeding duration for changes in nutritional components. Seeds fed on by H. halys had the highest incremental increase in protein content (13%) after 24 d of feeding, followed by those fed on by R. pedestris and P. hybneri. However, carbohydrates and lipid content of the soybean seeds fed by the tested insect species were found to decrease significantly. Soybean pods at mature stages remain in the field for a long period, and findings of our study suggest that longer exposure of the mature soybean pods to these pest species in the field may lead to low-quality seeds and lower yields, and may even affect the germination potential of the seeds.

  10. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  12. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  13. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  14. Management of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes fishery in the Berlengas Nature Reserve (Portugal: evaluation of bag and size limit regulation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1790 is an important shellfish resource in Portugal. Due to the social-economic importance of barnacle harvesting, a management plan aimed at achieving a controlled and sustainable activity (including temporal and spatial closures, rotational harvesting, a limited number of harvesting licenses, bag and size limits for catches and catch reporting was implemented in 2000 at the Berlengas Nature Reserve (RNB in central Portugal. We evaluated the bag and size limits imposed by the management plan, performing observations on harvesting activity and asking licensed harvesters and RNB staff about these measures. Both inquiries and observations suggest that licensed harvesters are not following the bag and size limits imposed. Mean amounts captured in RNB varied from 14 to 24 kg per harvester/day, but 25% of the observations corresponded to higher catches per individual than the total amount allowed (20 kg. Only half of the sampled amounts (taken in autumn 2005 and 2006 were in agreement with the size limit regulation and 50% of the total biomass comprised individuals of maximal rostro-carinal length (RC ≥ 25 mm. For most harvesters, size limit is the most difficult management rule to fulfil. Both harvesters and RNB staff agree that surveillance is scarce and is a major problem of this fishing activity. In order to achieve a more sustainable use of this resource, we propose the implementation of a more effective surveillance and monitoring plan, the definition of a unique landing site, the maintenance of the bag limit (20 kg and a reduction of the size limit (50% of total biomass comprising individuals ≥ 22 mm RC.

  15. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  16. Effect of Rhodophyta extracts on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis and microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Ja; Shin, Nyeon Hak; Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, Eun Tae; Lee, Su Kyoung; Lee, Sung Sill

    2018-01-01

    Due to the threat of global warming, the livestock industry is increasingly interested in exploring how feed additives may reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of Rhodophyta supplemented bovine diets on in vitro rumen fermentation and rumen microbial diversity. Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors. Rumen fluid:buffer (1:2; 15 mL) solution was incubated for up to 72 h in six treatments: a control (timothy hay only), along with substrates containing 5% extracts from five Rhodophyta species ( Grateloupia lanceolata [Okamura] Kawaguchi, Hypnea japonica Tanaka, Pterocladia capillacea [Gmelin] Bornet, Chondria crassicaulis Harvey, or Gelidium amansii [Lam.] Lamouroux). Compared with control, Rhodophyta extracts increased cumulative gas production after 24 and 72 h (p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0047). The extracts reduced methane emission at 12 and 24 h (p<0.05). In particular, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that at 24 h, ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased at 24 h (p = 0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001), while Fibrobacter succinogenes ( F. succinogenes ) increased (p = 0.0004). Additionally, Rhodophyta extracts improved acetate concentration at 12 and 24 h (p = 0.0766 and p = 0.0132), as well as acetate/propionate (A/P) ratio at 6 and 12 h (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0278). Rhodophyta extracts are a viable additive that can improve ruminant growth performance (higher total gas production, lower A/P ratio) and methane abatement (less ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and more F. succinogenes .

  17. Effect of Rhodophyta extracts on ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis and microbial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ja Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Due to the threat of global warming, the livestock industry is increasingly interested in exploring how feed additives may reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of Rhodophyta supplemented bovine diets on in vitro rumen fermentation and rumen microbial diversity. Methods Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors. Rumen fluid:buffer (1:2; 15 mL solution was incubated for up to 72 h in six treatments: a control (timothy hay only, along with substrates containing 5% extracts from five Rhodophyta species (Grateloupia lanceolata [Okamura] Kawaguchi, Hypnea japonica Tanaka, Pterocladia capillacea [Gmelin] Bornet, Chondria crassicaulis Harvey, or Gelidium amansii [Lam.] Lamouroux. Results Compared with control, Rhodophyta extracts increased cumulative gas production after 24 and 72 h (p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0047. The extracts reduced methane emission at 12 and 24 h (p<0.05. In particular, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that at 24 h, ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased at 24 h (p = 0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001, while Fibrobacter succinogenes (F. succinogenes increased (p = 0.0004. Additionally, Rhodophyta extracts improved acetate concentration at 12 and 24 h (p = 0.0766 and p = 0.0132, as well as acetate/propionate (A/P ratio at 6 and 12 h (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0278. Conclusion Rhodophyta extracts are a viable additive that can improve ruminant growth performance (higher total gas production, lower A/P ratio and methane abatement (less ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and more F. succinogenes.

  18. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  19. Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, A.P.; Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population; a 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter

  20. The genus Pirenella Gray, 1847 (= Cerithideopsilla Thiele, 1929) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Ozawa, Tomowo

    2016-02-05

    Members of the genus Pirenella are abundant inhabitants of intertidal sedimentary shores, often found in association with mangroves, on the continental margins of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, and eastern Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, four morphological species were recognised in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region and classified in the genus Cerithideopsilla, while another species occupying the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean was classified as Pirenella conica. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that all these species are congeneric and here it is shown that the valid name for the genus is Pirenella. A recently published molecular study recognised a total of 16 species and the present work is a systematic account of these species. Of the 16, nine are described as new. Other significant nomenclatural acts are: fixation of type species of Pirenella as Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847; designation of neotypes for Cerithium alatum Philippi, 1849, Cerithium microptera Kiener, 1841, Cerithium conicum Blainville, 1829, Pirenella mammillata J.E. Gray, 1847 and Murex cingulatus Gmelin, 1791; designation of lectotype for Cerithium retiferum G.B. Sowerby II, 1855. The species accounts include full synonymies, detailed descriptions of shells (based on 831 museum samples), distribution records and maps, reviews of life history, of habitat and of ecology, and some images of radulae. Details of shell sculpture are adequate for the diagnosis of most species. Distorted shells are common in some populations and are suggested to represent parasitised individuals. Some species are pests of fishponds in Southeast Asia and P. conica is the intermediate host of a trematode responsible for the human disease heterophyiasis, while others are threatened by habitat destruction.

  1. The breeding biology, nest success, habitat and behavior of the endangered Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Aves: Icteridae, at an Important Bird Area (IBA in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane R. da Silva Mohr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Saffron-cowled Blackbird, Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, 1788, is a globally vulnerable icterid endemic to grasslands and open areas, and a priority species for research and conservation programs. This contribution provides information on the population size, habitat, behavior, breeding biology and nest success of X. flavus in two conservation units (CUs in Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the Environmental Protection Area Banhado Grande, and the Wildlife Refuge Banhado dos Pachecos, classified as an “Important Bird Area”. Searches for X. flavus were carried out mainly in open areas, the type of habitat favored by the species. Outside the breeding season individual behavior was recorded by the ad libitum method; during the breeding season, selected X. flavus pairs were observed following the sequence sampling method. The research areas were visited once a month, totaling approximately 530 hours of observations (September 2014 to June 2016 over 84 days, which included two breeding seasons. The species was observed across all months (not necessarily within the same year and several X. flavus flocks were encountered, some with more than one hundred individuals (range = 2-137. Additionally, the behavior and feeding aspects, habitat use and breeding information on X. flavus were recorded. Two breeding colonies were found, and eleven nests were monitored. The estimated nesting success was 10% in Colony 1, but zero in Colony 2, where all eggs and nestlings were predated. Saffron-cowled Blackbirds were recorded in mixed flocks, mostly with Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819, P. virescens (Vieillot, 1819 and Xolmis dominicanus (Vieillot, 1823, the last also a globally endangered species. The collected information highlights the importance of CUs for the maintenance of X. flavus populations in the region. Maintenance of proper areas for feeding and breeding is necessary and urgent. Information from current research is being

  2. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  3. A dynamic optimization model of the diel vertical distribution of a pelagic planktivorous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Rune; Giske, Jarl

    A stochastic dynamic optimization model for the diel depth distribution of juveniles and adults of the mesopelagic planktivore Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin) is developed and used for a winter situation. Observations from Masfjorden, western Norway, reveal differences in vertical distribution, growth and mortality between juveniles and adults in January. Juveniles stay within the upper 100m with high feeding rates, while adults stay within the 100-150m zone with very low feeding rates during the diel cycle. The difference in depth profitability is assumed to be caused by age-dependent processes, and are calculated from a mechanistic model for visual feeding. The environment is described as a set of habitats represented by discrete depth intervals along the vertical axis, differing with respect to light intensity, food abundance, predation risk and temperature. The short time interval (24h) allows fitness to be linearly related to growth (feeding), assuming that growth increases the future reproductive output of the fish. Optimal depth position is calculated from balancing feeding opportunity against mortality risk, where the fitness reward gained by feeding is weighted against the danger of being killed by a predator. A basic run is established, and the model is validated by comparing predictions and observations. The sensitivity for different parameter values is also tested. The modelled vertical distributions and feeding patterns of juvenile and adult fish correspond well with the observations, and the assumption of age differences in mortality-feeding trade-offs seems adequate to explain the different depth profitability of the two age groups. The results indicate a preference for crepuscular feeding activity of the juveniles, and the vertical distribution of zooplankton seems to be the most important environmental factor regulating the adult depth position during the winter months in Masfjorden.

  4. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the

  5. Costituzione, diritto penale e politica criminale in Brasile tra convergenze e paradossi/Constitution, loi pénale et politiques en Brésil entre convergences et paradoxes/Constitution, criminal law and policies in Brazil between convergences and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Callegari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo cerca di analizzare come la politica criminale brasiliana abbia assunto una posizione che legittima quelle teorie note come il “diritto penale del nemico” e quei movimenti come il “Law and Order”. Cercheremo di delineare i principi costituzionali che in Brasile hanno dato origine ad un’idea di politica criminale che dovrebbe invece condurre a politiche criminali garantiste in un senso più ampio. Nonostante la previsione costituzionale di diversi diritti del cittadino nell’ambito del diritto penale e processuale penale, si vedrà come le attuali politiche criminali si sono allontanate dagli ideali previsti dalla Costituzione. Alla fine, svilupperemo anche dei ragionamenti sulle possibili origini politiche di questo attuale modello di politica criminale brasiliano. Cet article s’attache à analyser comment les politiques pénales brésiliennes ont adopté une position qui légitime ces théories connues sous le nom de « la loi criminelle de l’ennemi » et ces mouvements appelés « de l’ordre et de la loi » (Law and Order. Les auteurs essayent de délinéer les principes constitutionnels brésiliens à la base des politiques criminelles qui devraient protéger les libertés civiles. Malgré des dispositions constitutionnelles garantissant les droits des citoyens dans le domaine du droit pénal et de la procédure pénale, les auteurs verront que les politiques criminelles actuelles sont en train de s’écarter des idéaux inscrits dans la Constitution. Enfin, les auteurs puiseront certains arguments à propos d’une origine politique possible de ce modèle actuel de politique criminelle au Brésil. This article seeks to analyse how the Brazilian criminal policy has assumed a position that legitimates those theories known as the “Enemy Criminal Law” and movements known as the “Law and Order”. We will try to delineate the constitutional principles in Brazil which originated the idea of criminal policy

  6. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of

  7. Genetic signature analysis of Perkinsus marinus in Mexico suggests possible translocation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Améndola-Pimenta, Monica; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2017-08-02

    The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten r

  8. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento ou decréscimo das populações de aves aquáticas tem sido usado como indicador da qualidade de água e conseqüentemente da qualidade ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de inventariar e monitorar a avifauna aquática da maior lagoa da região do sistema cárstico de Lagoa Santa, região central de Minas Gerais, dentro da 'Área de Proteção Ambiental Carste de Lagoa Santa' (APA LS, a Lagoa do Sumidouro. A Lagoa ocupa uma área de aproximadamente 253 h na época de maior cheia e apresenta um perímetro de cerca de 12.072 m. Durante o período de junho de 1999 a dezembro de 2002 foram estimadas a riqueza e a abundância das aves aquáticas presentes na Lagoa. Foram registradas 27 espécies de aves aquáticas, distribuídas em 12 famílias. Das 27 espécies registradas, 12 foram consideradas residentes ou prováveis residentes e oito visitantes. Sete espécies não apresentaram nenhum padrão distinto de presença sazonal. A família mais bem representada foi Ardeidae com seis espécies perfazendo 23% do total de espécies. Em seguida, a família Anatidae com cinco espécies (15% e Scolopacidae sendo representada por três espécies (11% do total. Uma das espécies Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 é considerada ameaçada de extinção no Estado de Minas Gerais, enquanto outras duas Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 e Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 são consideradas raras. Não houve diferença significativa entre a riqueza de espécies estimada para as três estações ('chuvosa', 'seca' e 'transição'. A diversidade de espécies mostrou-se significativamente diferente entre as três estações, sendo a estação chuvosa com a maior diversidade. A presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção e local de parada de espécies migratórias faz com que a região da APA Carste de Lagoa Santa seja considerada uma área de extrema importância referente aos aspectos biológicos.Increases and decreases of waterfowl population have

  9. Recurring extensional and strike-slip tectonics after the Neoproterozoic collisional events in the southern Mantiqueira province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern South America, a series of fault-bounded sedimentary basins that crop out from Southern Uruguay to Southeastern Brazil were formed after the main collisional deformation of the Brasiliano Orogeny and record the tectonic events that affected the region from the Middle Ediacaran onwards. We address the problem of discerning the basin-forming tectonics from the later deformational events through paleostress analysis of more than 600 fault-slip data, mainly from the Camaquã Basin (Southern Brazil, sorted by stratigraphic level and cross-cutting relationships of superposed striations, and integrated with available stratigraphic and geochronological data. Our results show that the Camaquã Basin was formed by at least two distinct extensional events, and that rapid paleostress changes took place in the region a few tens of million years after the major collision (c.a. 630 Ma, probably due to the interplay between local active extensional tectonics and the distal effects of the continued amalgamation of plates and terranes at the margins of the still-forming Gondwana Plate. Preliminary paleostress data from the Castro Basin and published data from the Itajaí Basin suggest that these events had a regional nature.No Leste da América do Sul, um conjunto de bacias sedimentares que afloram do sul do Uruguai ao sudeste do Brasil formou-se após os eventos colisionais da Orogenia Brasiliana, registrando os eventos tectônicos que afetaram a região a partir do Mesoediacarano. O problema da distinção entre a tectônica formadora das bacias e os eventos deformacionais posteriores é aqui abordado através da análise de paleotensões de mais de 600 dados de falhas com estrias, obtidos principalmente na Bacia Camaquã (Sul do Brasil, que foram classificados por nível estratigráfico e relações de corte entre estrias sobrepostas, e intergrados a dados estratigráficos e geocronológicos disponíveis. Nossos resultados revelam que a Bacia Camaqu

  10. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced

  11. Estación Biológica Senda Darwin: Investigación ecológica de largo plazo en la interfase ciencia-sociedad Senda Darwin Biological Station: Long-term ecological research at the interface between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍN R CARMONA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La Estación Biológica Senda Darwin (EBSD constituye un centro de investigación inmerso en el paisaje rural del norte de la Isla de Chiloé (42º S, donde fragmentos del bosque siempreverde original coexisten con praderas de uso ganadero, turberas de Sphagnum, matorrales sucesionales, plantaciones de Eucalyptus y otras formaciones de origen antropogénico. Desde 1994 hemos realizado estudios de largo plazo centrados en algunas especies de plantas (e.g., Pilgerodendron uviferum D. Don y animales (e.g., Aphrastura spinicauda Gmelin, Dromiciops gliroides [Thomas] catalogados como amenazados o escasamente conocidos y en ecosistemas nativos de importancia regional y global (e.g., turberas de Sphagnum, bosque Valdiviano y Nordpatagónico. Las investigaciones han considerado las respuestas de las especies y de los ecosistemas frente al cambio antropogénico del paisaje y cambio climático, así como los efectos de diferentes formas de manejo. Este escenario es semejante al de otras regiones de Chile y Latinoamérica lo que da generalidad a nuestros resultados y modelos. En este período, investigadores asociados a la EBSD han producido más de un centenar de publicaciones en revistas nacionales e internacionales y 30 tesis de pre y postgrado. Entendiendo el papel clave de los seres humanos en los procesos ecológicos de la zona rural, la EBSD ha desarrollado un programa de educación ecológica y vinculación del avance científico con la sociedad local y nacional. La integración de la EBSD a la naciente red de Sitios de Estudios Socio-Ecológicos de Largo Plazo en Chile consolidará y fortalecerá la investigación básica y aplicada que realizamos para proyectarla hacia la siguiente década.Senda Darwin Biological Station (SDBS is a field research center immersed in the rural landscape of northern Chiloé island (42º S, where remnant patches of the original evergreen forests coexist with open pastures, secondary successional shrublands, Sphagnum

  12. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  13. Supporting Our Valued Adolescents (SOVA), a Social Media Website for Adolescents with Depression and/or Anxiety: Technological Feasibility, Usability, and Acceptability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Hua, Jing; Long, Cassandra; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-02-26

    .7), or a "C-grade," which correlated to an acceptable range. The participants reported to have liked the "easy-to-understand format" and "positive, helpful atmosphere," but they also reported a desire for greater social interaction. Iterative recruitment resulted in incremental improvements to the site. The SOVA site met feasibility goals of recruiting almost 100 users and establishing acceptable usability. Subsequent interventions are planned to increase site engagement and to evaluate efficacy in increasing uptake of primary care-recommended depression and/or anxiety treatment. ©Ana Radovic, Theresa Gmelin, Jing Hua, Cassandra Long, Bradley D Stein, Elizabeth Miller. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 26.02.2018.

  14. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2004 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 27 / 2004Autor: Rubem Porto Júnior Orientador: Joel Gomes Valença Título: Petrogênese das rochas do maciço da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro - RJ No de páginas: 231 Resumo: O Maciço da Pedra Branca (MPB tem toda sua área ("150km2nos limites da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. É formado por um conjunto derochas gnáissicas e graníticas de composições, idades e estilos estrutu-rais distintos, geradas e/ou retrabalhadas durante a Orogênese Brasiliana(Neoproterozóico-Cambriano/Ordoviciano. Geotectonicamente estáinserido no Terreno Oriental do segmento central da Faixa Ribeira,correspondendo à parte do Complexo Costeiro. Trabalhos de campo,em variadas escalas, análise petrográfica, análise litogeoquímica eisotópica, além de modelagem petrogenética, permitiram que fosse tra-çado o contexto em que sua evolução petrotectônica ocorreu. As ro-chas do MPB podem ser descritas da seguinte forma: a conjunto degnaisses metassedimentares que representam a existência pretérita deuma bacia de margem passiva de idade não estabelecida; b ortognaissescalcialcalinos, de composição diorítica a granodiorítica, característicaspré-colisionais, idades de até 792 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND792 de4,0, que correspondem ao estabelecimento de um arco de ilhas oceâni-co, aqui denominado de Arco Guanabara; c ortognaisses calcialcalinos,de composição granodiorítica a granítica, características sin-colisionais,idades de até 578 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND578 -4,2, quecorrespondem a um magmatismo relacionado à colisão do ArcoGuanabara com um terreno, arco (Arco Magmático Rio Negro? oubacia a oeste-noroeste; d rochas magmáticas básicas a intermediárias(gabros, dioritos, tonalitos e granodioritos, de idades absolutas desco-nhecidas; e granitos (sensu stricto pós-colisionais, calcialcalinos,posicionados sob a forma de diques e soleiras, cujos resultados U-PBem zircão forneceram idades de 520 e 480 Ma. Quatro fases geométri-cas de

  15. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Teses Defendidas 2000 - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    átero Ferrífero; - 604 +- 19 Ma a 567 +- 11 Ma associado a fácies xisto verde e desenvolvido em diques metabasíticos e nas rochas metassedimentares das Bacias São João del Rei, Carandaí e Andrelândia durante a Orogenia Brasiliana. Após as mudanças associadas ao terceiro evento metamórfico (entre 2.131 +- 4 e 2.121 +- 7 desenvolveram-se novas transformações mineralógicas, representadas principalmente pela substituição de hornblenda magmática e actinolita metamórfica por biotita e de plagioclásio por microclina, que foram interpretadas como relacionadas a um evento metassomático potássico. Essas transformações necessitariam da adição de potássio ao sistema, o qual estaria associado aos corpos pegmatíticos e/ou diques e apófises do Granitóide Ritápolis, cuja idade 207Pb/206 Pb (evaporação de zircão varia entre 2.122 +- 6 e 2.121 +- 7 Ma. Nome: Reneu Rodrigues da Silva Orientador: Claudio Bettini Título: Explorator: protótipo de sistema holístico em exploração de petróleo Resumo: O processo de explorar petróleo pode ser representado por um único sistema computacional que integra os subprocessos de planejamento (geológico e econômico, operações (levantamentos sísmicos e perfuração de poços e controle exploratório (qualidade e desempenho. Para uma empresa de petróleo, um sistema dessa natureza, 39 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 23 / 2000 de concepção holística, pode melhorar significativamente a qualidade das decisões e por conseguinte aumentar o valor econômico dos resultados exploratórios, porque todas informações pertinentes estão interconectadas e disponíveis no mesmo sistema. Para demonstrar a viabilidade dessa tese, um protótipo, chamado de Explorator, foi desenvolvido em Excel (com a linguagem de programação Visual Basic*, com base no conceito de play petrolífero representado por mapas de fatores geológicos (geração, migração, reservatório, capeadora e geometria de trapa e campos de

  16. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2003 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências, UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    distribuem-se em duas categorias: 1 pegmatitos simples, homogêneos, formados dentro dos granitóides parentais, e 2 pegmatitos complexos ou de profundidade intermediária, formados fora dos corpos granitóides parentais, que apresentam uma mineralogia acessória ampla, com minerais de metais raros, e outros que atestam a ocorrência de metassomatismo no seu processo final de formação. A pegmatitogênese da região se deu em um período que varia entre 160 e 200 Ma, a partir da colocação da Suíte Rio Negro (640 a 600 Ma até o Ordoviciano Médio. Sob o ponto de vista tectônico, toda a área de trabalho pode ser dividida em dois blocos crustais. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos, que sofreu uma anatexia crustal ampla e dentro do qual se situam os corpos magmáticos brasilianos; é considerado a Zona Central do Orógeno Brasiliano. O Bloco de Cabo Frio, considerado como a Zona Marginal do mesmo orógeno, é destituído de granitóides brasilianos, e expõe em vastas áreas o embasamento Paleoproterozóico, com suas estruturas pré-brasilianas preservadas na orla litorânea. Contém raros pegmatitos, do tipo simples, que ocorrem isoladamente, formados pela anatexia local das encaixantes. Pela interpretação de todos os dados 187 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 26 / 2003 disponíveis, os dois blocos tiveram uma evolução em comum, mas se diferenciam sobretudo pelo grau de anatexia que teriam sofrido durante a Orogênse Brasiliana e pela conseqüente ausência de granitogênese no Bloco de Cabo Frio. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos foi aquele onde os processos de transformação crustal se deram de forma mais intensa. Autor: Diniz Tamantini Ribeiro Orientador: Fernando Roberto Mendes Pires Título: Enriquecimento supergênico de formações ferríferas bandadas: estruturas de colapso e desordem - 123 p. Resumo Processos supergênicos em Formações Ferríferas Bandadas (FFB atuam segundo importante dissolução, transporte de material e simultânea desordem das