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Sample records for anomalocardia brasiliana gmelin

  1. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791): A bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted. PMID:21637701

  2. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791: a bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Cristina Bulhões Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe. Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted.

  3. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  4. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10-3). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BFS do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  5. Processamento, estabilidade e aceitabilidade de marinado de vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana Processing, stability and acceptability of marinade of vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana

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    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana tem importância socioeconômica para grande parte da população da região da Baía de Todos os Santos, na costa da Bahia, por fazer parte da dieta familiar e ser uma das principais fontes de renda. Para ampliar a comercialização deste molusco foi desenvolvido um processo de obtenção de marinado, envolvendo acidificação do produto com vinagre (pHThe vongole has economic-social importance to the most of people in the "Todos os Santos" Bay, located in Bahia coast, Brazil; it is a product of the familiar diet and it is one of the principal rental source of this local people. In purpose to increase the mollusc sale was developed studies on the marinating of vongole, through acidification of the product with vinegar at a pH[4,5 and a boiling water treatment during 30 min.The product was stored at room temperature for 240 days and the shelf life study included microbiological, physico-chemical, chemical and sensory evaluation. The process was effective to stablish commercial sterility to the marinaded vongole. According to sensory analyses, the marinaded vongole reached acceptability index like 78-82% for the overall appearance, colour, odour, flavour and texture. The data showed that the marinade of vongole was stable during storage for 240 days at room temperature.

  6. Dinâmica da População de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae no Estuário do Rio Paciência, no Município da Raposa, Estado do Maranhão

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    Juan Jethro Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de moluscos no litoral maranhense é significativa, servindo de fonte de renda e subsistência para muitas comunidades. Um exemplo de molusco relacionado com esse potencial é a espécie Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin 1791, que possui grande importância para a população do município da Raposa, na ilha do Maranhão. A presente pesquisa objetivou analisar a dinâmica dessa espécie em lotes naturais do próprio município, nos períodos locais caracterizados como seco e chuvoso. Coletas mensais foram realizadas no período de agosto a dezembro de 2010 e março a junho de 2011, onde foram efetuados levantamentos de informações importantes como variáveis biométricas, fator de condição e densidade. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que os organismos durante todo o período de coleta, exceto o mês de agosto, apresentaram tamanho satisfatório para o consumo, com média acima de 20 mm. Para outro caso, observou-se uma diminuição do fator de condição nos meses de agosto e dezembro, podendo estar relacionado com algum estresse no meio como: período de desova da espécie em questão ou pressão antrópica na região, tendo em vista que, esse organismo sofre forte extração local de forma não sustentável. A densidade dos organismos mostrou-se alta, em termos de biomassa, apresentando uma média de 3,16 toneladas em uma área de 6.007,5 m², que comparada com uma criação de gado extensiva, dependendo do manejo, torna-se mais produtiva, econômica e ecológica.

  7. A pesca e o manejo do berbigão (Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae na Reserva Extrativista Marinha do Pirajubaé, SC, Brasil

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    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Extractive Reserve of Pirajubaé (MER is located in the urban area of Florianópolis city (capital of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil, and has the bivalve known as “berbigão” (Anomalocardia brasiliana as its main fishing resource. Based on 100 daily surveys carried out during 2005, this paper describes the berbigão fishery and presents the history of its management. A hand dredge (“gancho” was used by 22 men and four women to catch the berbigão. The fishery is conducted predominantly in the morning and under water depths between 20 and 50 cm. On average, each fisherman swept 469.2 m2 with the dredge and caught 270.5 kilograms of live clams per fishing day, summing up 888.6 t landed in the RESEX along 2005. More than 97% of the individuals in the catch exceeded the minimum legal size (20 mm total length. However, both individual size and total biomass of the stock reduced significantly over time. Most of the catch was processed (i.e. cooked and unshelled and sold to very few buyers. Current management measures include: a maximum number of authorized fisherman; b days of the week and times of the day when the fishery is allowed; c minimum distance between the iron bars in the ganchos’ basket; d minimum legal size; e space-time rotation of fishing areas and, f reporting of daily production data. In spite of the large volume of scientific and traditional knowledge available and the existence of management rules discussed and approved on a participatory system, both the berbigão sustainability and the RESEX as a whole are threatened by administrative, social, economic, environmental and bureaucratic pressures. Neutralize such threats is a key challenge to be faced in this important federal conservation area of Southern Brazil.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

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    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  9. Sensitivity of oysters (Crassostrea Brasiliana) to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiolo Marchese, S.R. [Brazilian Navy Technology Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mastro, N.L. del [Inst. of Nuclear and Energy Researches IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Various foods including oysters, crabs and shrimps have been shown to be possible transmitters of Vibrio ssp. Irradiation of sea-foods is being considered an alternative to intervention measures in Public Health against food borne diseases. The aim of this work was to establish, the radiation resistance of the oysters Crassostrea brasiliana. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5, 3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves as a function of time showed that 100% of the oysters irradiated with doses of 3 kGy survived at least 6 days. 100% those irradiated with 6 kGy survived 3 days. The obtained results are auspicious considering that a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in the diminishing of the microbial load on oysters. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Pterocarpans and a novel flavanone from harpalyce brasiliana roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Renata M. de; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2009-07-01

    The novel (-)-7,8,3',4'-trihydroxy-8-(3{sup ,}7{sup -}dimethyl-octa-2{sup ,}6{sup -}dienoyl)-flavanone was isolated from the EtOH extract from the roots of Harpalyce brasiliana (Leguminosae) together with the known pterocarpans (-)-2-geranyl-3-hydroxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan, harpalicin, medicarpin, maackiain and cabenegrins A-I and A-II. The isolated metabolites were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  11. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

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    MW Biavatti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  12. Spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone of sheltered beaches in southeastern of Brazil

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    Eliane P. de Arruda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone was examined monthly from August 1995 through July 1997, in Enseada, Barra Velha and Araçá beaches in southeastern of Brazil. One study sector was selected in Enseada and Barra Velha, and two sectors in Araçá (Araçá I and Araçá II. The sectors were 10 m wide and equivalent in length to the width of the intertidal zone. Each sector was divided into three horizontal levels: lower, middle and upper, where the samples were taken with a cylinder corer with a base area of 0.16 m². In order to characterize the intertidal environment in these areas, some environmental variables were analyzed. In general, the mollusks were distributed in the sectors as follows: Enseada - Olivella minuta (Link, 1807 in the lower level and Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 in the upper level; Araçá I - O. minuta in the lower level, Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791 in the middle levels; Araçá II - Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 in the lower level, O. minuta in the lower and middle levels, and A. brasiliana and Corbula caribaea Orbigny, 1842 in the middle level; Barra Velha - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794, Lucina pectinata (Gmelin, 1791 and Tellina versicolor De Kay, 1843 in the lower level, and A. brasiliana and Macoma constricta (Brugüìere, 1792 in the upper level. The intertidal zone of the study sectors could be divided into two biological zones: the upper zone, where T. plebeius, A. brasiliana and M. constricta were more abundant; and the lower zone, where O. minuta, C. atratum, T. lineata, T. versicolor, C. caribaea, T. divisus and L. pectinata were abundant.

  13. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) complex - 2. the eastern forms (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Vogel; J. van Rooijen

    2008-01-01

    The Southeast Asian, Indonesian and Philippine forms of the polytypic Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) are reviewed using multivariate analyses. Several distinct phenetic clusters are discerned. Geographically, these clusters are separated by important biogeographic boundaries, such as the Isthmus

  14. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment (60Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  15. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi in the Ebro river Basin (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocete Rubio, Rafael; Arroyo García, R.; Morales, M. L.; Cantos, Manuel; Gallardo Cano, A.; Pérez Izquierdo, Mª Á.; Gómez Parrales, Isidoro; López Martínez, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    A wild grapevine population of 76 vines of Vitis vinifera L. subspecies sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi was found along the Iregua river valley (Northeastern Spain), located in the Ibérica mountain-range. The characterization of this phytogenetic resource was based on an ampelographic description of the male and female individuals and an evaluation of their sanitary state. This shows that the imported North American downy and powdery mildews are the main pathogens, but no symptoms caused by phylloxe...

  16. Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V; Rizzo, R.

    2007-01-01

    Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) find a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive cultivars, Nocellara del Belice, Moresca and Tonda Iblea. In 2004, in the same field and on the same cultiv...

  17. Kaolin protects olive fruits from Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) infestations unaffecting olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, Dr Enzo; Iannotta, dr. Nino; Muzzalupo, PhD Innocenzo; Russo, Dr Anna; Caravita, Dr Maria Anna; Pellegrino, Massimiliano; Parise, Mr Attilio; Tucci, Mr Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of the processed kaolin “Surround WP” to control olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, field infestations was investigated in east Calabria. The preliminary results showed that fruit infestation levels were significantly reduced on kaolin-treated trees compared with untreated trees. The promising results of these experiments points to the feasibility of using particle film technology composed of a non-toxic material, to avoid olive fly damage as an alternative to the applicat...

  18. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

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    Jingli Zhang

    Full Text Available Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported.Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth, Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth, Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir.The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  19. Helminths of Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes: Icteridae) from southernmost Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardon, Fabiana Fedatto; Soares, Tatiele de Aguiar Lopes; Vieira, Thainá Dutra; Müller, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    Information about helminths of Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes: Icteridae) are scarce; in this sense the objective of this paper was to contribute to its knowledge. Five hosts of southern Brazil were examined and the helminths Prosthogonimus ovatus, Tanaisia valida (Digenea), Diplotriaena bargusinica and Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Nematoda) were identified. The species T. valida, P. ovatus and S. (D.) nasuta are for the first time registered for the bird in Brazil. Prosthogonimus ovatus, T. valida, D. bargusinica e S. (D.) nasuta are first recorded in M. bonariensis in the southern Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:27580390

  20. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE BIOLOGY OF TUBEROLACHNUS SALIGNUS (GMELIN) (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE) ON (SALIX ALBA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nıhal ÖZDER; SAĞLAM, Özgür

    2008-01-01

    The development time, survivoship and reproduction of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin)( Lachninae: Lachnini) were studied on Salix alba at fi ve constant temperatures (17.5°C, 20°C, 22.5°C, 25°C and 27.5°C ). The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 17.00 days at 17.5°C to 12.21 days at 25°C on Salix alba. The total percentage of survivorship of immature stages varied from 50% and 70% 17.5°C -20°C on S. alba. The largest r m valueoccurred with 0.2540 at 20°C on S. alba. The mean g...

  1. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

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    Pavan Kumar Samudrala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.

  2. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) using different systems to induce metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R C; Silva, F C; Gomes, C H M; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability--that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.

  3. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE BIOLOGY OF TUBEROLACHNUS SALIGNUS (GMELIN (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE ON (SALIX ALBA

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    Nıhal ÖZDER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development time, survivoship and reproduction of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin( Lachninae: Lachnini were studied on Salix alba at fi ve constant temperatures (17.5°C, 20°C, 22.5°C, 25°C and 27.5°C . The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 17.00 days at 17.5°C to 12.21 days at 25°C on Salix alba. The total percentage of survivorship of immature stages varied from 50% and 70% 17.5°C -20°C on S. alba. The largest r m valueoccurred with 0.2540 at 20°C on S. alba. The mean generation time of the population ranged from 13.595 days at 22.5°C to 19.60 days at 17.5°C on S. alba. The optimal temperature for Tuberolachnus salignus was 20°C.

  4. Morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Maria das Graças Ribeiro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the female genital system of Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is part of the research on the reproductive biology of Brazilian birds. This work describes the morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia, as well as the histological differences observed in the ovarian follicles during the ovocyte maturation process. Ten Columba livia females were studied, whose ovaries had been dissected, fixed in Bouin and Helly solutions, and histologically processed for staining (Hematoxylin-Eosin; Gomori's trichromic and Weigert's technique and Gomori's technique for connective tissue fibers. The ovary has an irregular surface, is located in the abdominal cavity, and relates to the cranial portion of the left kidney and caudal extremity of the left lung. Histological examination shows that the ovary is covered with simple cubical epithelium, underlined by loose connective tissue that continues internally, surrounding the follicles. The ovarian follicles were described, in their different stages of development, with basis on the morphological changes occurring in the ovocyte and in the layers that surround it, in each phase of maturation. Among the follicles, groups lof cells of two distinct types, surrounded by connective tissue, are observable: clear cells with a spherical nucleus, and acidophilic cells with a slightly elongated nucleus. The studies of the ovary of Columba livia reveal histological similarities between this species and Columbina talpacoli (Temminck, 1811, whose ovaries were examined by Ribeiro et al. (1991.

  5. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  6. Serum biochemistry of an, atlantic Yellow-Nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789 Bioquímica do soro sangüíneo de um albatroz Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789

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    P. Baldassin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Colheu-se uma amostra de sangue de um albatroz Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789, recolhido pela Polícia do Meio Ambiente de Ubatuba, SP, para análises da bioquímica do soro. O objetivo dessas análises foi o de apontar possíveis alterações dos parâmetros bioquímicos, visando facilitar futuras casas para reabilitação de aves. Nenhuma anormalidade foi encontrada e o animal morreu após três dias da captura.

  7. Conhecimento tradicional das marisqueiras de Barra Grande, área de proteção ambiental do delta do Rio Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

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    Simone Tupinambá Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Na comunidade de Barra Grande localizada no litoral do Piauí, as mulheres dos pescadores, conhecidas localmente como marisqueiras, extraem do manguezal vários tipos de moluscos para comercialização e em maior escala para a subsistência. Dados sobre a atividade de mariscagem, conceitos de conservação e aspectos socioeconômicos do contexto em que ocorre a atividade de cata dos moluscos, foram revelados após a aplicação de protocolos estruturados e semiestruturados. O molusco bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, popularmente denominado de marisco, é caracterizado por ser um importante recurso para a subsistência, sendo o mais coletado pela comunidade, seguido da Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842, o sururu, explorado para a comercialização por ter o maior valor de mercado. O conhecimento das marisqueiras sobre A. brasiliana foi comparado com literatura especializada, muitas vezes mostrando-se em harmonia com esta. Demonstra-se assim que o conhecimento tradicional deve ser valorizado para delineamento de programas de gestão de recursos pesqueiros da região. Quanto aos modos de pensar, foi revelado que 82,81% das marisqueiras praticam manejo para a conservação da A. brasiliana ao coletar apenas os indivíduos de maior tamanho, e 80,86% consideram que não existe poluição nos pontos de coletas. O surgimento de uma Associação exclusiva e cooperativa para as marisqueiras é necessário para a valorização do trabalho por elas desenvolvido, visto que há uma média estimada de 351 kg de carne sendo extraídos mensalmente.En la comunidad de Barra Grande, situada en la costa del estado de Piaui, las esposas de los pescadores, localmente llamadas de "marisqueiras", extraen de los manglares diversos tipos de moluscos para su comercialización, haciendo de esta actividad en una fuente de subsistencia. Informaciones detalladas y sistemáticas sobre la actividad de cosecha de mariscos, del contexto en el que se desarrolla la

  8. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

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    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  9. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

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    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  10. Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva extract attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes.

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    Piao, M J; Kim, K C; Zheng, J; Yao, C W; Cha, J W; Kang, H K; Yoo, E S; Koh, Y S; Ko, M H; Lee, N H; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective effects of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva (GBE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. GBE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. In addition, both the superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical were scavenged by GBE in cell-free systems. GBE absorbed light in the UVB range (280-320 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum and lessened the extent of UVB-induced oxidative damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Finally, GBE-treated keratinocytes showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that GBE exerts cytoprotective actions against UVB-stimulated oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby attenuating injury to cellular constituents and preventing cell death.

  11. A simple non-invasive technique for venom milking from a solitary wasp Delta conoideum Gmelin (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

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    Bhagavathula, Naga Chaitanya; Kumar, Mukesh; Krishnappa, Chandrashekra

    2016-01-01

    Prospecting wasp, ant and bee venom for active bio-molecules has gained considerable interest among researchers in recent years. Collecting sufficient quantity of venom from solitary wasps without sacrificing them is often difficult. Here we describe a non-invasive technique for collecting venom from a solitary wasp Delta conoideum Gmelin (Red-backed potter wasp). Venom was milked by presenting an agar block to a single female wasp for stinging. The venom was extracted from the agar block using ACN: water solvent system. The total protein in venom was estimated quantitatively and the presence of peptides in the venom was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis. The proposed technique is non-invasive and pure venom can be repeatedly 'milked' using this method from other wasps and also bees without the need for sacrificing a large number of individuals. PMID:26556656

  12. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

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    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  13. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

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    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchove, C M; Markus, R P; Freitas, J C; Costa-Lotufo, L V

    2002-04-01

    Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 +/- 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 +/- 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05), suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM). Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 +/- 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 +/- 0.9 g), which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 microM) with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 microM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively. PMID:11960200

  15. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

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    Martina Venturini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the population size of Genoa Nervi and the presence of the species in surrounding areas were investigated. In 2002 the population size was estimated in 115/286 individuals by distance sampling method, while, by direct observation, it varied from 80 individuals (2004 to 114 individuals (2003. The sampling by hair tubes in surrounding areas confirmed the presence of a group of grey squirrels in Bogliasco and excluded a further dispersal of the species. Riassunto In Liguria, la popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis ha avuto origine dall'introduzione di 5 coppie nei parchi urbani di Genova Nervi nel 1966. Un primo studio condotto nel 1996 ha localizzato, tramite interviste, un secondo nucleo a 3 km di distanza, in località Bogliasco. Il presente studio, condotto nel 2001-2004, è stato finalizzato alla valutazione della consistenza della popolazione nei parchi di Nervi, mediante il metodo distance sampling e osservazioni dirette, e all'accertamento della presenza della specie nelle aree circostanti mediante l'utilizzo di hair tube. La stima della popolazione con il metodo distance sampling è risultata di 115/286 individui nel 2002, mentre quella ottenuta mediante osservazioni dirette è variata da 80 individui nel 2004 a 114 individui nel 2003. Gli accertamenti compiuti nelle aree circostanti i parchi di Nervi hanno consentito di confermare la presenza di un nucleo di scoiattoli a Bogliasco e di escludere un'ulteriore espansione della specie.

  16. Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers

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    Wallace Richard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791, is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174 of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ≤ 1e-05 to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the

  17. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

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    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  18. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

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    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  19. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei:Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males), collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E), (34°45' N, 11°17' E), (33°41' N, 11°48' E) was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010) using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K) indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  20. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males, collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E, (34°45' N, 11°17' E, (33°41' N, 11°48' E was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010 using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Haemogregarina sp. (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) from the blood of the Caspian freshwater turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    To date, a number of species of Haemogregarina have been described from different turtle hosts, mainly based on the morphology of the developmental stages detected in the host erythrocytes. The diversity and overlapping morphological features in the old and recent descriptions has led to considerable complications in the taxonomy of Haemogregarina spp. In this study, different stages of maturity and developing gamonts of a putative new species of Haemogregarina were detected in erythrocytes of the Caspian turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) originating from a southern province in Iran. Although some of the morphological characteristics were consistent with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885, some new observations were made, particularly in the gamont stage. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the present isolate appears as basal to a large clade of Haemogregarina spp. with sequences available in the GenBank database. In accordance with the phylogenetic results, the present Iranian isolate showed a higher degree of interspecific divergence (up to 3.3%) compared to the data for the taxa available in the GenBank database. Thus, molecular data indicate that this isolate may represent a new species. However, further genetic analyses are needed as a complementary tool to the morphological characterisation in order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Haemogregarina spp. PMID:27221004

  2. Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich (Nematoda, Anisakidae from the Neotropical Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae in southern Brazil Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich (Nematoda, Anisakidae parasita de biguás (cormorões Neotropicais, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report is part of a larger study on the helminth fauna of Neotropical Cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 in Brazil, particularly, in the southernmost State of Rio Grande do Sul. The nematodes which were found loose in the proventriculus/ventriculus or in groups of adults of different ages and of L3 and L4 larval stages, forming eosinophylic granulomas had a prevalence of 100% in 47 Neotropical cormorants from Lago Guaíba, Municipality of Guaíba. The morphology of the labia/interlabia, the distribution pattern of the caudal papillae in males examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the tips of the spicules allowed determination of the species as Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 sensu lato (s. l.. This is the first record of C. rudolphii in southern Brazil.O presente trabalho é parte de um estudo maior sobre a helmintofauna dos cormorões Neotropicais conhecidos no Brasil como biguás, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789, particularmente, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os nematóides que foram encontrados soltos no proventrículo/ventrículo ou em grupos compostos por adultos de várias idades e larvas de vários estágios (L3 e L4, formando granulomas eosinofílicos tiveram prevalência de 100% em 47 biguás do Lago Guaíba, Município de Guaíba. A morfologia dos lábios e dos interlábios, o padrão de distribuição das papilas caudais em machos examinados com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV e as extremidades dos espículos permitiram a determinação da espécie como Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 sensu lato (s. l.. Este é o primeiro registro de C. rudolphii na região Sul do Brasil.

  3. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil

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    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, tamb

  4. Arsenic speciation and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin) (Annelida, Sabellidae) under naturally acidified conditions: An in situ transplant experiment in a Mediterranean CO2 vent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricevuto, E; Lanzoni, I; Fattorini, D; Regoli, F; Gambi, M C

    2016-02-15

    The fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791) (Annelida, Sabellidae) is considered tolerant to several types of stressors but is generally absent from the CO2 vents. A peculiar characteristic of this species is the elevated content of arsenic in the gills, particularly dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), stored as an anti-predatory compound. In this study, modulation of trace metal levels, chemical speciation of arsenic and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified in S. spallanzanii after a 30days transplant experiment into naturally acidified conditions in a Mediterranean vent system. No significant bioaccumulation of metals was observed in the thoracic tissues and branchial crowns after the translocation period, whereas variations occurred in the relative abundance of different arsenic compounds with the appearance of inorganic forms. The antioxidant system of translocated polychaetes exhibited a significant decrease of enzymatic activities of both catalase and glutathione peroxidases, and the impairment of the overall capability to neutralize hydroxyl radicals (OH). This highlighted an oxidative challenge primarily on the detoxification pathway of hydrogen peroxide. Overall low pH-elevated pCO2 may have detrimental effects on arsenic metabolism and oxidative status of S. spallanzanii, supporting the hypothesis of species-specific differences in vulnerability to ocean acidification. PMID:26688050

  5. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  6. Lysosomal responses as a diagnostic tool for the detection of chronic petroleum pollution at Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L K P; Nascimento, I A; Fillmann, G; King, R; Evangelista, A J A; Readman, J W; Depledge, M H

    2005-11-01

    Coastal marine environments, especially semienclosed systems such as bays, are under unrelenting stress caused by urban and industrial development. Biomonitoring plays a vital role in strategies to identify, assess, and control stressors. However, due to the magnitude of the challenge there is a demand for new and innovative approaches to provide timely and accessible information to environmental managers and policy makers. The present work aimed to assess hydrocarbon levels in sediments from petroleum-related industrial areas at Todos os Santos Bay (Brazil) and associate them to toxicity-induced responses (neutral red retention (NRR) assay) by the burrowing clam Anomalocardia brasiliana. Surface sediments collected during the dry and rainy seasons were analyzed for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At the control site, hydrocarbon levels were low and mainly biogenic. The aliphatic hydrocarbon ("total unresolved complex mixture," alkanes, and isoprenoids) concentrations indicated a chronic situation with very little "fresh" oil contamination at the oil-related sites. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated sites moderately contaminated by chronic oil and some pyrolytic input. The effects of those contaminants were assessed by the lysosomal NRR assay applied to A. brasiliana hemocytes. Sediment toxicity at the oil-related sites was evidenced by the lowered capacity of the lysosomes to retain the neutral red dye compared to results from the control site. This research indicates that the NRR assay is a useful and efficient screening technique able to discriminate polluted from clean sites. PMID:16307981

  7. Utilização do farelo de conchas de vôngole na adsorção de fósforo e como corretivo da acidez do solo Utilization of ground clam shells in the adsorption of phosphorus and for correction of soil acidity

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    Paola A. V. Lo Monaco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Teve-se o objetivo de, com a realização deste trabalho, obter a curva de neutralização do pH de amostras dos horizontes A e B de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, utilizando-se de farelo de conchas de vôngole (Anomalocardia brasiliana; além disso, avaliar a capacidade de adsorção de fósforo, obtendo-se a isoterma de adsorção de melhor ajuste aos dados obtidos. Verificou-se que o farelo de concha de vôngole apresenta potencial para uso como corretivo de acidez do solo e que a dose recomendada para correção do pH do horizonte A do Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico estudado foi de 2,92 t ha-1, enquanto, para correção do horizonte B, foi de 3,35 t ha-1. O farelo de conchas de vôngole também apresentou alta capacidade de adsorção de fósforo, o que indica possibilidades de sua utilização em sistemas que visem à remoção deste elemento químico de águas residuárias. Os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich ajustaram-se bem aos dados e podem ser utilizados para representar a isoterma de adsorção de fósforo.The objective of this study was to obtain the curve of pH neutralization for samples of the horizons A and B of a dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox soil using ground clam shells (Anomalocardia brasiliana, as well as assess the capacity of phosphorus adsorption to obtain the adsorption isotherm that best fit to the data obtained. It was found that the ground clam shells present potential to be used in soil acidity correction and that the recommended dose for pH correction of horizon A of the dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox studied was 2.92 t ha-1, while for correction of horizon B was 3.35 t ha-1. The ground clam shells also showed high adsorption capacity for phosphorus, which indicates possibilities of its use in systems targeting the removal of this chemical from wastewater. The Langmuir and Freundlich models fit well to the data and may be used to represent the adsorption isotherm.

  8. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs.

  9. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region.

  10. Evaluation of microwave and ultrasound extraction procedures for arsenic speciation in bivalve mollusks by liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS) was used for arsenic speciation analysis in tissues of bivalve mollusks (Anomalocardia brasiliana sp. and Macoma constricta sp.). Microwave and ultrasound radiation, combined with different extraction conditions (solvent, sample amount, time, and temperature), were evaluated for As-species extraction from the mollusks' tissues. Accuracy, extraction efficiency, and the stability of As species were evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials (DORM-2, dogfish muscle; BCR-627, tuna fish tissue; and SRM 1566b, oyster tissue) and analyte recovery tests. The best conditions were found to be microwave-assisted extraction using 200 mg of samples and water at 80 °C for 6 min. The agreement of As-species concentration in samples ranged from 97% to 102%. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was the main species present in bivalve mollusk tissues, while monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenate (As(V)) were below the limit of quantification (0.001 and 0.003 μg g−1, respectively). Two unidentified As species also were detected and quantified. The sum of the As-species concentration was in agreement (90 to 104%), with the total As content determined by ICP-MS after sample digestion. - Highlights: • Method development for As speciation analysis by LC–ICP-MS • Evaluation of microwave and ultrasonic radiation for sample preparation • Investigation on As species content in mollusks

  11. Evaluation of microwave and ultrasound extraction procedures for arsenic speciation in bivalve mollusks by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Clarissa M. M.; Nunes, Matheus A. G.; Barbosa, Isa S.; Santos, Gabriel L.; Peso-Aguiar, Marlene C.; Korn, Maria G. A.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Dressler, Valderi L.

    2013-08-01

    Liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) was used for arsenic speciation analysis in tissues of bivalve mollusks (Anomalocardia brasiliana sp. and Macoma constricta sp.). Microwave and ultrasound radiation, combined with different extraction conditions (solvent, sample amount, time, and temperature), were evaluated for As-species extraction from the mollusks' tissues. Accuracy, extraction efficiency, and the stability of As species were evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials (DORM-2, dogfish muscle; BCR-627, tuna fish tissue; and SRM 1566b, oyster tissue) and analyte recovery tests. The best conditions were found to be microwave-assisted extraction using 200 mg of samples and water at 80 °C for 6 min. The agreement of As-species concentration in samples ranged from 97% to 102%. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was the main species present in bivalve mollusk tissues, while monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenate (As(V)) were below the limit of quantification (0.001 and 0.003 μg g- 1, respectively). Two unidentified As species also were detected and quantified. The sum of the As-species concentration was in agreement (90 to 104%), with the total As content determined by ICP-MS after sample digestion.

  12. Evaluation of microwave and ultrasound extraction procedures for arsenic speciation in bivalve mollusks by liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Clarissa M.M.; Nunes, Matheus A.G. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Barbosa, Isa S.; Santos, Gabriel L. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Peso-Aguiar, Marlene C. [Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Korn, Maria G.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L., E-mail: vdressler@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS) was used for arsenic speciation analysis in tissues of bivalve mollusks (Anomalocardia brasiliana sp. and Macoma constricta sp.). Microwave and ultrasound radiation, combined with different extraction conditions (solvent, sample amount, time, and temperature), were evaluated for As-species extraction from the mollusks' tissues. Accuracy, extraction efficiency, and the stability of As species were evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials (DORM-2, dogfish muscle; BCR-627, tuna fish tissue; and SRM 1566b, oyster tissue) and analyte recovery tests. The best conditions were found to be microwave-assisted extraction using 200 mg of samples and water at 80 °C for 6 min. The agreement of As-species concentration in samples ranged from 97% to 102%. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was the main species present in bivalve mollusk tissues, while monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenate (As(V)) were below the limit of quantification (0.001 and 0.003 μg g{sup −1}, respectively). Two unidentified As species also were detected and quantified. The sum of the As-species concentration was in agreement (90 to 104%), with the total As content determined by ICP-MS after sample digestion. - Highlights: • Method development for As speciation analysis by LC–ICP-MS • Evaluation of microwave and ultrasonic radiation for sample preparation • Investigation on As species content in mollusks.

  13. Desafios à cogestão: os impactos da Via Expressa Sul sobre o extrativismo na RESEX Marinha do Pirajubaé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lima Spínola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the case of the environmental impacts generated by the installation of the Southern Expressway, an enterprise of the State Government of Santa Catarina, on the extraction of berbigão (cockles; Anomalocardia brasiliana in the Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX, in the Portuguese acronym Pirajubaé, in Florianópolis (SC. The project caused significant impacts on the marine environment of this RESEX, including the loss of about half of the cockle bank, and hence on extractive practices and their management. The socio-environmental changes resulting from the construction of the Southern Expressway led to a situation of deregulation in the use of fisheries resources, resulting in use conflicts and establishing a situation of open access to resources in the area. In the case of Pirajubaé, when interests of dominant social groups in conflict with the goals of the RESEX were imposed, its institutional arrangement proved unable to secure the rights of the local users or gatherers on the use of natural resources in its territory, which should be the main objective of this kind of Conservation Unit. This leads us to question the effectiveness of the RESEX as an institutional arrangement to ensure shared management and conservation of natural resources in a given territory.

  14. Comparative biomonitors of coastal trace metal contamination in tropical South America (N. Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Carlos Augusto R; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S

    2006-05-01

    Samples of 5 bivalve molluscs (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella charruana, Anomalocardia brasiliana, Anadara ovalis, Phacoides pectinata), 2 barnacles (Fistulobalanus citerosum, Balanus amphitrite) and leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle were collected from up to 11 sites in two estuaries in Natal, Brazil--the comparatively contaminated Potengi estuary and the comparatively uncontaminated Curimataú estuary. Specimens were analysed for the trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and Ni, and a comparative assessment made of the power of the different species as trace metal biomonitors. Four of the 5 bivalves (not P. pectinata) take up metals from solution and suspended material (food source), while P. pectinata as a lucinid with symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria takes up metals from dissolved sources only. The organisms with the strongest net accumulation of particular metals showed the greatest discrimination between trace metal bioavailabilities between sites. Barnacles (F. citerosum) showed the best discrimination, but oysters (C. rhizophorae) are particularly recommended as biomonitors given their strong accumulation patterns for many trace metals, their large size and their local abundance. PMID:16574213

  15. Study on the radiation sensitivity of pathogenic Vibrionaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and after inoculation into oysters (Cassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on various biotypes and serotypes of Vibrio cholerae (different biotypes and serotypes from group O1 and one strain from group O139); V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides; Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, S. typhymurium, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli O157:H7. In vivo tests were also conducted in oysters allowed to self-contaminate with V. cholerae and S. enteritidis cultures in sea water tanks through the natural feeding process of the mollusks. Bacterial populations irradiated (0.5-3.0 kGy) in pure culture in liquid broth or in oysters varied from 106 to 1010 colony forming units per mL or gram (CFU/g or mL), respectively. The decrease in viable cells through the radiation dose range applied varied from 4 to 10 log10. The lowest radiation resistance was found in Vibrio spp. Aeromonas hydrophilia, and E. coli O157:H7, whereas S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium proved to be the most resistant species tested. A dose of 1.5 kGy was determined to be appropriate for elimination of up to 1010 of bacteria tested except Salmonella spp. particularly, S. enteritidis, which required 3.0 kGy for complete elimination. Radiation doses of up to 3.0 kGy were not lethal to oysters. (author)

  16. BIOECOLOGÍA DEL PHALACROCORAX BRASILIANUS (GMELIN, 1789 (PELECANIFORMES: PHALACROCORACIDAE EN SUDAMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde-Tinco, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout South America there are several species of cormorants, phalacrocoracids, within which is Phalacrocorax brasilianus. The level of bioecology of P. brasilianus was studied in South America where this species is least concern at the moment. However, the fragmentation of their habitat could change this situation, threatening the survival of this species. This paper summarizes the main aspects of the biology, behavior, feeding ecology, morphology, aquatic habits, distribution, status, management and conservation of P. brasilianus in South America. According to all the data obtained, Argentina is the country with more studies on this species, followed by Brazil and Chile.

  17. Determination of lipase activity in the larval midgut of Bacterocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Delkash-Roudsari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, digestive lipase activity was determined and characterized in the third larval instars of olive fly, Bactericera oleae as the first time in dipteran order. By using two sample fractions, it was found that the enzyme had higher activity in membrane-bound fraction than that of soluble fraction. Optimal pH of soluble lipase was found to be 4 and 6 but membrane-bound lipase showed pH 4 as optimal value. Optimal temperatures for soluble and membrane-bound lipase were obtained to be 35 and 50 °C, respectively. Activities of digestive soluble and membrane-bound lipases decreased by using various mono- and di-valent ions. Since, fruits of olive are full of various oils, digestive lipases of B. oleae larvae have critical role in their digestion. So, these enzymes might be a good target for developing inhibitors and resistant varieties.

  18. Studies on bioprospecting potential of a gastropod mollusc Cantharus tranquebaricus(Gmelin,1791)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G; Sarumathi; M; Arumugam; S; Kumaresan; T; Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the biological activities of the tissue extract of Cantharus tranquebaricus(C.tranquebaricus).Methods:Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial growth.Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and the activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract.Molecular weight of the extract was determined by using SDS-PAGE.Plasma coagulation,Fibrin plate assay and substrate SDS-PAGE were used to determine the effect of sample on plasma coagulation,fibrin(ogen)olytic and proteolytic;activity.Results:The maximum inhibition zone(10 mm)was observed against Vibrio cholera(V.cholera)and minimum inhibition zone(2 mm)was noticed against Proteus mirablis(P.mirablis).The molecular weight was determined as 47-106kDa.The tissue extract shows proteolytic activity above 48 kDa.SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen after incubation with the tissue extract showed fibrinogenolytic activity.In plasma coagulation assay C.tranquebaricus tissue extract showed procoagulant property and it coagulated chicken plasma within 150 s,while control took 5 min to clot.The 9 HU hemolytic units were found against chicken blood and also exhibit high level of brine shrimp lethality.Conclusions:This study suggests that C.tranquebaricus could be used as potential source for isolating bioactive compounds,since it is explored first time and found with promising results.

  19. Notas sobre o comportamento alimentar do Anu branco, Guira Guira (GMELIN, 1788 (Cuculiformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernán Fandiño Mariño

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento aumentar de um grupo de anus brancos, Guira guira, foi observado em condições naturais, no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, no Paraná. Foram totalizadas vinte horas diurnas de observação direta em várias sessões, no período pôs-reprodutivo. A alimentação ocorre ao longo do dia com intervalos nos quais atividades de manutenção como tomar o sol e o contato de limpeza mú tua, são freqüentes. As áreas de alimentação são abertas, apresentando baixa densidade em árvores. O tipo de alimento está baseado principalmente em insetos saltadores, mas pequenos vertebrados são também aproveitados. O comportamento alimentar é uma atividade de grupo cujo processo inclui aparentemente as seguintes etapas: lo. - Permanência prévia num ponto alto e próximo ao terreno alimentar. 2o. - Descida progressão no terreno, emitindo freqüentemente um chamado característico dos deslocamentos. 3o. — Em terra a técnica de captura consiste em "caminhar perturbando ". A atividade é realizada em grupo o que facilita e aumenta a captura das presas em fuga. O avanço do grupo no campo não tem formação fixa, mas urna tendência a formar linhas paralelas ao sentido da progressão. Uma característica ressaltante do comportamento alimentar, foi a presença quase invariável de um sentinela num ponto alto que teria como função denunciar a presença de predadores terrestres. Diversos mecanismos de coesão do grupo parecem ter evoluído, como possíveis evidências do valor adaptativo desta estrutura social. Entre esses mecanismos, alguns padrões visuais conspícuos, uma ampla gama de vocalizações e certos padrões de comportamento social nos quais se estabelece um contato íntimo entre os indivíduos, pareceram-me de maior importância.

  20. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  1. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nit...

  2. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC(50) value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC(50) values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH(-) radical generated from Fe(2+)-ascorbate-EDTA-H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  3. Studies on bioprospecting potential of a gastropod mollusc Cantharus tranquebaricus (Gmelin, 1791)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Sarumathi; M Arumugam; S Kumaresan; T Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    To study the biological activities of the tissue extract of Cantharus tranquebaricus (C. tranquebaricus). Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and the activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular weight of the extract was determined by using SDS-PAGE. Plasma coagulation, Fibrin plate assay and substrate SDS-PAGE were used to determine the effect of sample on plasma coagulation, fibrin (ogen) olytic and proteolytic activity. Results: The maximum inhibition zone (10 mm) was observed against Vibrio cholera (V. cholera) and minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Proteus mirablis (P. mirablis). The molecular weight was determined as 47-106 kDa. The tissue extract shows proteolytic activity above 48 kDa. SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen after incubation with the tissue extract showed fibrinogenolytic activity. In plasma coagulation assay C. tranquebaricus tissue extract showed procoagulant property and it coagulated chicken plasma within 150 s, while control took 5 min to clot. The 9 HU hemolytic units were found against chicken blood and also exhibit high level of brine shrimp lethality. Conclusions: This study suggests that C. tranquebaricus could be used as potential source for isolating bioactive compounds, since it is explored first time and found with promising results.

  4. NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND METHODS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING OF PELED (СOREGONUS PELED GMELIN (REVIEW

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    O. Nazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peled as a food product, raw material for processing and analyze traditional methods of its technological processing. Findings. The paper contains an analysis of the chemical composition of peled meat and its difference compared to other fish of pond aquaculture of Ukraine. According to the parameters of the biochemical composition of the meat of peled reared in the conditions of pond aquaculture, including: contents of fats, proteins, and moisture, belongs to the category of fish from medium to high fat content with medium protein content as well as to fish of increased nutritional value and assimilability based on water-protein, fat-protein, and water-fat balance, and based on amino-acid composition in percent, according to Score standard. Unlike cyprinids — objects of pond aquaculture, general indices of the biochemical composition and peculiarities of anatomical structure of peled as a coregonid representative, contribute to the formation of organoleptic features of native origin that are inherent to gourmet types of the products of traditional processing. It was found that unlike other coregonids, the biochemical indices of peled meat, which define the type and directions of its processing and its regime, first of all, the content of fat, protein, and moisture аre relatively stable for different age groups under conditions of pond aquaculture and they change less during the biological cycle. Main product requirements to the methods of technological processing of peled are summarized, namely: drying, smoking, salting. Full technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods taking into account biochemical peculiarities of raw material and requirements for the finished product are presented and analyzed. Practical value. The summarized information is useful for further development of domestic aquaculture and processing. Different indices of biochemical composition and high output indices of peled meat compared to main objects of pond aquaculture of Ukraine as well as with other fish species are shown. Special attention is given to the analysis of technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods, first of all, using traditional equipment taking into account rational regimes of the processing of raw materials and semi-products, which contribute to the formation of trade features of the finished gourmet product. The detailed analysis will contribute to the awareness of the importance of the formation of high quality properties of fish raw material for its further processing by the manufacturers of aquaculture products.

  5. Aproveitamento industrial de marisco na produção de lingüiça Shellfish industrial utilization to produce sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as condições do processamento e a aceitabilidade da lingüiça de vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana, além de avaliar a estabilidade do produto congelado sob os aspectos químico, físico-químico, microbiológico e sensorial. O produto final obedeceu a seguinte formulação: 48% vongole, 5% proteína texturizada de soja, 15% água, 25% gordura suína, 3% albumina, 2% pré-mistura (sais de cura e NaCl, 1,5% condimentos e 0,5% urucum. O produto congelado ficou armazenado à temperatura de -18ºC durante três meses; periodicamente foi avaliado quanto ao pH, umidade, proteínas, lipídios, NBV, índice de peróxidos, reação de Kreiss, quanto à presença de microrganismos patogênicos e toxigênicos e quanto à aparência, aroma, sabor, textura. Os resultados apontaram que a lingüiça de vongole teve uma boa aceitação, com IA entre 78-87% para todos os atributos avaliados, especialmente em relação ao sabor e textura. As amostras foram avaliadas como sabor ideal de marisco e sabor ideal de condimentos por 66,67% e 73,33% dos provadores, respectivamente. Os resultados com o teste de atitude de intenção de compra mostraram que 46,67% dos consumidores tinham intenção provável ou certa de compra do produto. Os resultados da avaliação microbiológica, físico-química, química e sensorial da lingüiça de vongole, indicaram que o produto manteve-se estável, durante 90 dias de armazenamento a temperatura de -18ºC.It was studied the process and the acceptibility of the vongole (Anomalocardia brasiliana sausage, beyond to evaluate the stability of the frozen product as to chemical, physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. The vongole sausage had the following formulation: 48% vongole, 5% soy protein, 15% water, 25% swine fat, 3% albumin, 2% blend of cure salts and NaCl, 1.5% flavouring, 0.5% colouring. The final product was stored during three months at -18ºC, and the shelf life study included pH, moisture

  6. Soft-Bottom macrobenthic communities of the Vitória Bay estuarine system, South-eastern Brazil

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    Rosebel C. Nalesso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes and analyses the structure of the macrobenthic epi- and infaunal assemblage of the estuarine system of Vitória Bay, South-eastern Brazil, from January 1998 to June 1999. Replicated sampling at intertidal and subtidal levels was conducted quarterly at ten stations. Intertidal and subtidal sediment composition was characterised. Water physico-chemical parameters were measured in situ. A total of 10,695 individuals, belonging to 144 taxa, were collected. Molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes were the most abundant groups. The bivalves Anomalocardia brasiliana, Mytella guyanensis and M. falcata were the most abundant species. Locally, significant discharges of residential and industrial wastewater resulted in high organic content in the sediment (up to 30% and low dissolved oxygen concentration in the water (O presente trabalho analisa e descreve a estrutura das associações faunísticas macrobênticas (epifauna e infauna do sistema estuarino da Baía de Vitória, sudeste do Brasil, de Janeiro de 1998 a Junho de 1999. Amostras replicadas em níveis de entre-marés e sublitoral foram coletadas em intervalos de três meses em dez estações. Foram caracterizadas as composições dos sedimentos de entre-marés e sublitoral. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos in situ. Foram coletados 10.695 indivíduos, compreendendo a 144 taxa. Os grupos mais abundantes foram moluscos, crustáceos e poliquetos. As espécies mais abundantes foram os bivalves Anomalocardia brasiliana, Mytella guyanensis e M. falcata. Localmente, descargas significativas de esgoto doméstico causaram um aumento da quantidade de matéria orgânica no sedimento (até 30% e baixa concentração de oxigênio dissolvido na água (< 1mg.l-1. Próximo às duas entradas da baía, o alto hidrodinamismo e a presença de areia grossa reduziram os efeitos deletérios dos aportes de esgotos. A riqueza (S, a diversidade (H' de espécies e a abund

  7. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH• radicals scavenging (38% for 4 mg of lyophilized; beta-Carotene-Linoleic assay (12% for 4 mg of lyophilized; O2•- radicals scavenging (IC50 0.36 mg/mL; OH• radicals scavenging (IC50 2.11 mg/mL and iron quelation ability (IC50 0.37 mg/mL. Thus, antioxidant properties of this natural product seem to be related to its ability to scavenge free species. In previous reports of our group, cinnamic and phenolic acids were proposed as at least partially responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract, but the necessity for the presence of other components was also shown. Then, the antioxidant properties of the extract could be envisioned as the result of the additive and/or synergic effect between phenolic constituents and the other antioxidant components, such as minerals, carotenes and ascorbic acid.

  8. Cypermethrin-Induced Toxic Effect on Glycogen Metabolism in Estuarine Clam, Marcia Opima (Gmelin, 1791 of Ratnagiri Coast, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Tendulkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid class of insecticide. Toxic effects of cypermethrin were studied by selecting Marcia opima as an animal model. Cypermethrins effect on the total glycogen content of mantle, gill, foot, hepatopancreas, male gonad and a female gonad of an estuarine clam, Marcia opima was examined. The clams were exposed to 1.58 ppm cypermethrin for acute and 1/th of that concentration for chronic treatment. It was found that there was a decrease in glycogen content in various tissues as compared to control. In LC0 and LC50 groups, glycogen was decreased in all tissues except in hepatopancreas compared to control. This decrease is greater in mantle, gill, and foot in LC50 group than the decrease in those tissues of LC0 group. In chronic exposure it was found that glycogen was decreased in mantle, foot, male gonad, and female gonad when compared to the control group except in gill and hepatopancreas. Decrease in glycogen content indicates greater utilization of glycogen for metabolic purposes and too combat with cypermethrin stress. The significant increase in glycogen content in gill and hepatopancreas may be a reaction to the increase in energy demand.

  9. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanina, Anna V. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu

    2008-06-02

    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate transport that also suggest low energy demand for P-gp function.

  10. Combined effects of temperature acclimation and cadmium exposure on mitochondrial function in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, Anton S; Ringwood, Amy H; Sokolova, Inna M

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium and temperature have strong impacts on the metabolic physiology of aquatic organisms. To analyze the combined impact of these two stressors on aerobic capacity, effects of Cd exposure (50 microg/L) on mitochondrial function were studied in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) acclimated to 12 and 20 degrees C in winter and to 20 and 28 degrees C in fall. Cadmium exposure had different effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics of oysters depending on the acclimation temperature. In oysters acclimated to 12 degrees C, Cd exposure resulted in elevated intrinsic rates of mitochondrial oxidation, whereas at 28 degrees C, a rapid and pronounced decrease of mitochondrial oxidative capacity was found in Cd-exposed oysters. At the intermediate acclimation temperature (20 degrees C), effects of Cd exposure on intrinsic rates of mitochondrial oxidation were negligible. Degree of coupling significantly decreased in mitochondria from 28 degrees C-acclimated oysters but not in that from 12 degrees C- or 20 degrees C-acclimated oysters. Acclimation at elevated temperatures also increased sensitivity of oyster mitochondria to extramitochondrial Cd. Variation in mitochondrial membrane potential explained 41% of the observed variation in mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis and proton leak between different acclimation groups of oysters. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of metabolic physiology to Cd has significant implications for toxicity testing and for extrapolation of laboratory studies to field populations of aquatic poikilotherms, indicating the importance of taking into account the thermal regime of the environment. PMID:16986802

  11. Temporal variation of the cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924) in their host, domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica (Gmelin, 1789).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-06-01

    A study of the temporal variation of Cotugnia cuneata, on a monthly basis, was carried out from January 2008 to December 2010. The study revealed a similarity in the percentage prevalence and mean intensity of infection with higher values in the beginning of the year that gradually declined towards the middle and rose to moderate values towards the end of the year. The periodicity clearly shows a correlation with the seasonal changes throughout the year and provides important insights to the survival strategies of the parasite as well as its life-cycle.

  12. Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, I.M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail: insokolo@uncc.edu; Ringwood, A.H. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson, C. [Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Road, Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States)

    2005-09-10

    Cadmium distribution was studied in different subcellular fractions of gill and hepatopancreas tissues of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Oysters were exposed for up to 21 days to low sublethal Cd concentrations (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Gill and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled and divided into organelle fractions and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Organelle content of different fractions was verified by activities of marker enzymes, citrate synthase and acid phosphatase for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. In both tissue types, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium in cytosol reaching 230-350 ng mg{sup -1} protein. Among organelles, mitochondria were the main target for Cd bioaccumulation in gills (250-300 ng mg{sup -1} protein), whereas in hepatopancreas tissues, the highest cadmium accumulation occurred in lysosomes (90-94 ng mg{sup -1} protein). Although 75-83% of total cadmium burden was associated with the cytosol reflecting high volume fraction of this compartment, Cd concentrations in organelle fractions reached levels that could cause dysfunction of mitochondria and lysosomes. Organ- and organelle-specific patterns of cadmium bioaccumulation support our previous in vivo studies, which showed adverse effects of cadmium exposures on mitochondrial oxidation in gills and on the lysosomal system of hepatopancreas. This may have important implications for the development of biomarkers of effect for heavy metals and for understanding the mechanisms of toxic effects of metals.

  13. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  14. First record of Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae in Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, 1788 (Aves: Trochilidae

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    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available From the groups causing myiasis, the genus Philornis Meinert, 1890 appears as the only representative of the family Muscidae, obligatorily associated with birds. Thus, the aim of this work was to report the occurrence of Philornis in Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae. Two parasitized nestlings of T. glaucopis were encountered in May of 2008, in an area with a high degree of degradation in the municipal district of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 11 larvae were located intradermically in the regions of the head and neck. The larvae were removed using tweezers and placed in a plastic container with sawdust, in order to await the emergence of the adult. Only seven larvae completed metamorphosis and reached the adult stage, being identified as Philornis glaucinis. This study presented the first record of P. glaucinis in the state of Rio de Janeiro and also the first occurrence of this parasite in nestlings of T. glaucopis.

  15. Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory implantation at the Rio Grande do Norte Federal University: the dating of the Serrinha Granitoid (RN) and the correlate Brasiliana extensional deformation; Implantacao do Laboratorio Intermediario de Geocronologia na UFRN: a datacao do granitoide de Serrinha (RN) e da deformacao extensional brasiliana correlata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Maria Helena F.; Sa, Emanuel F. Jardim de; Souza, Zorano S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Mendes, Franklin S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Ramalho, Karlos A.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Curso de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The article describes the activities developed by the Geochronology Intermediary Laboratory at the Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, a Brazilian university, where there were the preoccupation of establishing strategies for a geochronological development. It relates the Rubidium-Strontium (Rb/Sr) and Samarium-Neodymium (Sm/Nd) methods, describing the analysis realized in these methodologies. Afterward, it presents the geological and petrographic situation of the Granitoide de Serrinha, located at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil and its geochronological data 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

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    S. KALOGIROU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  17. Physiological responses of two seaweed biofilter candidates, Gracilariopsis bailiniae Zhang et Xia and Hydropuntia edulis (S Gmelin, to nutrient source and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Joy Carton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two gracilarioid species, Gracilariopsis bailiniae and Hydropuntia edulis, were comparedbased on their growth under different temperature and salinity levels and nitrogen source and on theirphotosynthetic responses under different irradiance levels. Results show that growth of Gp. bailiniaewas significantly higher than that of H. edulis. Both species were euryhaline and had optimum growthrates at 27˚C (16.06 % d-1 ± 0.10 for Gp. bailiniae and 9.53 % d-1 ± 0.62 for H. edulis under bothammonium and nitrate enrichment. Gracilariopsis bailiniae was able to use both N-forms as a nitrogensource in all temperature and salinity levels tested. Meanwhile, the interactive effect of nitrogensource with temperature was observed for H. edulis with plants grown in nitrate enrichment showingsignificantly higher growth rates than those in ammonium. Nitrate enrichment also resulted to highergrowth rates for H. edulis in all salinity levels tested. Photosynthetic rates of Gp. bailiniae were higherthan H. edulis. We also found a two-fold difference between the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmaxof Gp. bailiniae (12.41 ± 1.81 and that of H. edulis (6.44 ± 0.62. However, photosynthetic efficiency(α was significantly higher in H. edulis than in Gp. bailiniae while compensation and saturation pointirradiance levels were similar in both species.

  18. The effect of density in larval rearing of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791) in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, S.; Matias, D.; A Matias; Leitão, A; Soares, F.; Cabral, M.; Chícharo, L.; Gaspar, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    The pullet carpet shell Venerupis corrugata is an economically valuable species in several European countries, however, nowadays stocks are under high fishing pressure. Hatchery production of juveniles for release is a major contributor to strengthen the stock and consequently improve the sustainability of the natural stocks. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of rearing V. corrugata larvae with different larval densities (10, 40 and 200 larvae per mL) in a recirculating aquacultur...

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like.

  20. Cadmium exposure affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail: insokolo@uncc.edu; Sokolov, Eugene P. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ponnappa, Kavita M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Cadmium is a ubiquitous and extremely toxic metal, which strongly affects mitochondrial function of aquatic organisms in vitro; however, nothing is known about the in vivo effects of sublethal concentrations of this metal on mitochondrial bioenergetics. We have studied the effects of exposure to 0 (control) or 25 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Cd-exposed) Cd{sup 2+} on mitochondrial function and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Cadmium exposure in vivo resulted in considerable accumulation of cadmium in oyster mitochondria and in a significant decrease of ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3) by 30% indicating impaired capacity for ATP production. The decrease in state 3 respiration was similar to the level of inhibition expected from the direct effects of cadmium accumulated in oyster mitochondria. On the other hand, while no effect on proton leak was expected based on the mitochondrial accumulation of cadmium, Cd-exposed oysters in fact showed a significant decline of the proton leak rate (state 4 + respiration) by 40%. This suggested a downregulation of proton leak, which correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP6 and two other potential uncouplers, mitochondrial substrate carriers MSC-1 and MSC-2. Expression of other key mitochondrial proteins including cytochrome c oxidase, adenine nucleotide transporter and voltage dependent anion channel was not affected by cadmium exposure. Adenylate energy charge (AEC) was significantly lower in Cd-exposed oysters; however, this was due to higher steady state ADP levels and not to the decrease in tissue ATP levels. Our data show that adjustment of the proton leak in cadmium-exposed oysters may be a compensatory mechanism, which allows them to maintain normal mitochondrial coupling and ATP levels despite the cadmium-induced inhibition of capacity for ATP production.

  1. Physiological responses of Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G. Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M. Irvine and Farnham (Rhodophyceae) to sub-lethal copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M T; Newman, J E

    2003-07-16

    Through a series of comparative experiments the relative effects of copper (Cu) exposure on the growth and physiology (chlorophyll fluorescence, ion leakage, O(2) evolution and pigmentation) of the red seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima was investigated. Of the various physiological end-points measured, growth proved to be the most sensitive with reductions in relative growth rate (RGR) observed at a concentration of 12.5 microg l(-1) Cu, with zero growth above about 300 microg l(-1). A significant increase in ion leakage and reduction in phycobiliprotein concentrations were evident, but only at the highest concentration tested (500 microg l(-1)), at which point shrinkage of apical tips also occurred. Photosynthetic rates, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution, were first impaired at 250 microg l(-1), with a 30% reduction in photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) and a 60% reduction in oxygen evolution. There were no discernible effects on respiration rates or chlorophyll a and beta-carotene content over this concentration range. It was hypothesised that the observed uncoupling of growth and photosynthesis at low Cu concentrations might be explained by the release of dissolved organic matter (DOC), resulting in less available energy for growth. No such increase in DOC was apparent. Alternative explanations to account for the uncoupling, including the diversion of energy for maintenance of cell integrity and induction of protective mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:12799112

  2. Avaliação do sequestro do óxido nítrico (NO) pelo extrato metanólico da alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (Gmelin) Howe Evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging for the metanol extract of the alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (Gmelin) Howe

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson M. Maia; Carlos W. N. Moura; Bispo, Vanderson S.; João L. A. Santos; Rafael S. Santana; Humberto R. Matos

    2010-01-01

    O excesso de óxido nítrico (NO) produzido por indução da enzima óxido nítrico sintase (iNOS) participa do desenvolvimento de inúmeras desordens que conduzem à perda da homeostasia. O estresse oxidativo gerado pelo aumento da produção endógena de NO pode levar a efeitos de toxidade induzida, tais como peroxidação lipídica, nitração de proteínas e danos ao DNA. Compostos que sejam capazes de sequestrar o radical NO podem diminuir a toxicidade das espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), atuando n...

  3. Germinação, avaliação do ácido giberélico e posição do explante no alongamento in vitro de Uncaria guianensis (AUBLET Gmelin Rubiaceae (UNHA-DE-GATO Germination, avaliation of giberelic acid and position of explants in vitro of Uncaria guianensis (Aublet Gmelin Rubiaceae (cat's claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Alves Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia existe uma diversidade vegetal, onde se encontram muitas plantas com propriedades medicinais e, que durante milênios são utilizadas pelas comunidades nativas. Uma dessas plantas é a unha-de-gato (Uncaria guianensis, cujo valor medicinal se atribui a efeitos imuno-estimulantes, anti-inflamatório e inibidores de crescimento de células cancerígenas. Atualmente, a espécie vem sendo submetida a uma extração indiscriminada e intensiva, podendo levá-la a sua extinção. A micropropagação permite solucionar problemas dessa natureza. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar um protocolo de propagação in vitro desta espécie. O melhor meio para germinação dos embriões foi ¼ de MS independente da presença ou não de sacarose. A posição de inoculação do explante da espécie Uncaria guianensis demonstrou exercer influência no número médio de brotações/explante original, assim como no número de gemas iniciais. Presença ou ausência de ácido giberélico não exerceu efeito nesta característica, exceto quando explantes com uma única gema foram inoculados na horizontal.In the Amazon Rain Forest there are a great botanical diversity where can be found a lot of plants with medicinal proprieties, and for ages it has been used by the native people. One of those plants is Uncaria guianensis known as Cat's Claw to which is believed to have antinflammatories, immunostimulating and growth inhibitors effects on cancerigenic cells. Nowadays, those species have been under uncontrolled and long extraction that could take to extinction. The micropropagation can solve these problems. The purpose of this work was to identify in vitro propagation protocol from these specie. The best medium for embryo germination was ¼ MS independent from presence or absence of saccarose. The explant inoculation position from Uncaria guianensis specie influenciated the shoots average number/original explant, as well as, the initial buds numbers. The giberelic acid presence or absence had not effect on this characteristics, except when explants with only one bud were inoculated in the horizontal position.

  4. Geology of the Curimatau medium region (Paraiba State, Brazil) and the emplacement of the Dona Ines granite associated to the Brasiliano transcurrent shear zones; Geologia da Regiao do Medio Curimatau (PB) e o alojamento do granito de Dona Ines associado a zonas de cisalhamento transcorrentes brasilianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Sergio Vieira Freire

    1996-12-31

    In an area of about 700 Km{sup 2} located in the northeast of Paraiba State and having as main point the town of Dona Ines, a geologic/structural mapping, a gravimetric survey and radiometric dating using the Rb/Sr method in whole rock and Sm.Nd model ages were undertaken in order to study and to understand the geology of this portion of terrain, the emplacement of the Dona Ines granitoids and its relationship with the enclosing rocks and the deformation acting at the time of the intrusion. The age of the pluton of Dona Ines was determined by the Rb/Sr whole rock method as 560 {+-} 20 Ma (end of Brasiliano Cycle in the region). Sm.Nd model ages in granitoids of Araras, Belem and Dona Ines have revealed paleoproterozoic ages for their crustal sources, as indicated by the negative {epsilon}{sub nd} of this rock 128 refs., 95 figs., 6 tabs., 7 maps

  5. Resumos dos Trabalhos Apresentados em Painéis no Workshop Baía de Guanabara, IGEO/UFRJ - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    26 / 2003 componentes biominerais tais como moluscos marinhos, foraminíferos e ostracodes e elementos continentais polínicos e da malacofauna dulçaqüícola. Tomando por base que bioclastos são partículas biominerais maiores que 2 mm foram efetuadas análises em sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara com a finalidade de verificar as variações quantitativas e as propriedades tafonômicas da malacofauna. O material estudado cedido pelo MicroCentro/ DEGEO/UFRJ compreende 2690 indivíduos. A malacofauna é composta pelas espécies Anomalocardia brasiliana Gmelin 1791 e Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835. A. brasiliana, um biválvio comum de praias e manguezais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, desenvolve populações numerosas em lagoas hipersalinas como a Lagoa de Araruama. O microgastrópode Heleobia australis atinge no máximo 7 mm, e apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica na faixa atlântica do Hemisfério Sul desde o Estado do Rio de Janeiro até a Argentina. A espécie domina habitats onde as condições físicas são variáveis, e caracteriza-se pelo endemismo em ecossistemas continentais aquáticos oligotróficos de todos os tamanhos, em lagoas costeiras e estuários, onde a densidade populacional alcança a média de 11 indivíduos por cm 2. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro registra-se a ocorrência da espécie na Lagoa Iriri e Lagoa Itapebussus, Município de Rio das Ostras em associação com fanerógamas aquáticas. Na Lagoa Salgada constitui níveis de biodetritos intercalados a esteiras algais e estromatólitos. Na Baía de Guanabara foram quantificados 2634 exemplares de H. australis que apresentou a maior freqüência no intervalo de 15 cm a 73 cm com 72%, predominam a 20 cm de profundidade com 31% dos espécimes e desaparecem totalmente aos 60 cm e 160 cm. As feições bioestratinômicas avaliadas nos bioclastos apontaram que 18% estão fragmentados, 15% evidenciam bioerosão e o índice de abrasão é 82%. Os maiores níveis de fragmentação ocorrem

  6. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  7. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  8. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela S Diniz; Elisabete Barbarino; João Oiano-Neto; Sidney Pacheco; Sergio O. Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera), Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria), Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca), Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata), and Phallusia nigra (Chordata) were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohyd...

  9. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Diego L Carpintero; Rosana M. Aramburú

    2007-01-01

    Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang), chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin) (Furnaridae) («hornero») y de Passer domesticus (L.) (Ploceidae) («gorrión»), fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin) («golondrina doméstica»), Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra») e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert ...

  10. Germination and Seedling Emergence of Scirpus-Lacustris L and Scirpus-Maritimus L with Special Reference to the Restoration of Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination and seedling emergence of Scirpus lacustris L. ssp. lacustris (S.l. lacustris), S. lacustris L. ssp. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmelin) Syme (S.l. tabernaemontani) and Scirpus maritimus L. were investigated in order to assess their ability to establish from seed in former tidal waters, where

  11. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  12. Two New Species of the Family Syringophilidae (Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) Parasitising Bushshrikes (Passeriformes: Malaconotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovičová, M; Skoracki, M; Njoroge, P; Hromada, M

    2016-04-01

    Two new species of quill mites of the subfamily Syringophilinae Lavoipierre (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) are described from the Bushshrikes (Passeriformes: Malaconotidae) in the Afrotropical region: Neoaulonastus malaconotus n. sp. parasitizing Telophorus nigrifrons (Reichenow) (Malaconotidae) [type host] in Liberia and Kenya, Laniarius aethiopicus (Gmelin) in Somalia, Nilaus afer (Latham) in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus nkaii n. sp. from Nilaus afer in Kenya. PMID:26571331

  13. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  14. Trypanocidal activity of a new pterocarpan and other secondary metabolites of plants from Northeastern Brazil flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nashira Campos; Espíndola, Laila Salmen; Santana, Jaime Martins; Veras, Maria Leopoldina; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pinheiro, Sávio Moita; de Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2008-02-15

    Two hundred fifteen compounds isolated from plants of Northeastern Brazil flora have been assayed against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, using the tetrazolium salt MTT as an alternative method. Eight compounds belonging to four different species: Harpalyce brasiliana (Fabaceae), Acnistus arborescens and Physalis angulata (Solanaceae), and Cordia globosa (Boraginaceae) showed significant activity. Among them, a novel and a known pterocarpan, a chalcone, four withasteroids, and a meroterpene benzoquinone were the represented chemical classes.

  15. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  16. Preliminary results on accumulation and loss of artificial radionuclides in marine benthic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acummulation and the loss of artificial radionuclides in three species of marine benthic algae of the state of Rio de Janeiro were studied under laboratory conditions, so that a selection of biological indicators for radioctive contamination of the marine environment could be made. Medium concentration factors were calculated, the most significant figures being those obtained for the algae Pterocladia Capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet et Thuret (132+-40) p/ sub(131) I and Sargassum vulgares J. Agardh (19+-5) p/ 51Cr

  17. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  18. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, François

    2011-01-01

    The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintroduce wild grape...

  19. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of Fipronil and Imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Adan del Rio, Angeles; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Here, we report on the effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on P. concolor females, when different routes of exposure were evaluated: residual contact (cover and bait sprays) and via treatment of host species. Moreover, the persistence of the bait formulated compound also was studied. Fo...

  20. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan)'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

    OpenAIRE

    DURUCAN, Furkan; TURNA, İsmail İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan). At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus), Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin) Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville) Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret), Heterokontophyta (Cyst...

  1. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan M. Khairy; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results s...

  2. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan M. Khairy; Shimaa M. El-Shafay

    2013-01-01

    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  3. Natural history of four species of Platydracus Thomson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) flower bracts

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, John Howard; Morón, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The insect fauna within inflorescences of Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) was evaluated in Parque Metlac, Fortín de las Flores, Veracruz, Mexico between May and October 1995. Floral bracts were present in May and some persisted to October, despite much destruction in August by a grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus (JF Gmelin) (Icteridae). Flowers were abundant in the bracts in May-June, after which their number declined as fruits matured. Insects that fed on the flowers w...

  4. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  5. Remarks, on six species of Heterakid Nematodes parasites of brazilian Tinamid birds with description of a new species

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    J. Julio Vicente

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes representing five species of the genus Heterakis, namely: H. inglisi n. sp., H. alata, H. gallinarum, H. spiculatus and one species of the genus Odontoterakis, O. multidentata, were studied. Heterakis inglisi n. sp. closely resembles H. spiculatus, differing from it by smaller size of spicules, precloacal sucker and terminal spike of the tail in the males. Heterakis arquata and H. brasiliana are only listed, for they were not found during the present study. Odontoterakis multidentata is reported in Brazil for the first time. New host records are estabilished for most of the species. These species are fully illustrated.

  6. Geochronology and structuring of the Ceara State: Borborema Province northwestern part, NE Brazil; Geocronologia e estruturacao do estado do Ceara: NW da provincia Borborema, NE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetter, A.; Van Schmus, W.R. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Santos, Ticiano J. Saraiva dos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Arthaud, M.; Nogueira Neto, J. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    1997-12-31

    The work confirms that the geochronological new data U/Pb in zircon and Samarium/Neodymium from the Ceara State furnished a refined chronology of the geological activity in the NW part of the Borborema Province, indicating an evolutive history since 2,78 Ga and 532 Ma. Furthermore, these data facilitated the different crust domain outlines in the region, putting age maximum limits in the pre-brasilianas supracrusts rocks deposition, and evidencing the epoch and duration of the Brasiliano magmatism and metamorphism in the northwest part of the State

  7. COZINHEIRO IMPERIAL - Ou a nova arte do cozimento e do copeiro em todos os seus ramos

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    Daniela Pereira de Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Cozinheiro Imperial Ou Nova Arte Do Cozinheiro E Do Copeiro Em Todos Os Seus Ramos é uma referencia tanto na culinária como na bibliografia brasileira, por tratar-se do primeiro livro de receitas editado no Brasil. De autor anônimo, foi reeditado em 1996 pela Best Seller. A Universidade de São Paulo digitalizou os originais, que hoje são parte de sua Coleção Brasiliana. Pela importância cultural do material, ele é destacado nesta edição de RRV. Palavras chave: Gastronomia. Cultura Brasileira. Cozinheiro Imperial. 

  8. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha; Franscisco Léo Nascimento de Aguiar; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; Rossana Aguiar Cordeiro; Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro Teixeira; Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco; Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva; João Paulo Otaviano Zeferino; Jair Mafezoli; Célia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Francisco Geraldo Barbosa; José Júlio Costa Sidrim

    2011-01-01

    O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4) e Ocimum g...

  9. Natural hosts of Notocotylus breviserialis (Digenea, Notocotylidae parasite of brazilian waterfowl

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    Luís Cláudio Muniz-Pereira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Notocotylus breviserialis has been collected from Anas bahamenis L. and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, in Maricá, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is the first time that this digenean is collected as adult in its natural hosts, and this is its first record for the neotropical region. The prevalence of N. breviserialis was 5.56% and 18.18% in A. bahamensis and in A. brasiliensis, respectively. New morphological data about the location of the vitelline glands and previtellinic space measurements are presented.

  10. Studies on Cercariae from Kuwait Bay. XI. Description and surface topography of Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae

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    Abdul-Salam J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new echinostome cercaria, Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n., from the prosobranch gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin from Kuwait Bay is described. The new cercaria is characterized by 23 collar spines and primary excretory tubules with distinct diverticula. The cercaria encysts in the snail host and is similar to those of Acanthoparyphium sp. The surface topography of the redia, cercaria and metacercarial cyst wall is studied by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first echinostome cercaria to be recorded in a gastropod from the Arabian Gulf region.

  11. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,

    2014-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  12. Dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese (Acari: Macronyssidae: a case report in humans

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    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein report human dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese. The cases occurred in an apartment in a residential district of Porto Alegre City, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where three members of the same family presented with pruritic lesions on the arms and legs. On inspecting the bathroom, several mites measuring approximately 1.0mm in length were observed coming from a nest of Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin. This is the first report of O. bursa in the urban area of Porto Alegre City, from a nest of F. rufus that bites humans.

  13. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina First record of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae in Chilean swallow nests Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.Chilean swallows Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis nest in the central area in Chile and Southwest in Argentina. In winter, they migrate to Bolivia, Paraguay and Southeast of Brazil. A nest box population of Chilean swallows was established in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. After the breeding season, we collected all nests, treated them with ethyl acetate, and inspected all the nest material for hematophagous arthropods. We found adult fleas, which were fixed, cleared, diaphanized, dehydrated, and mounted in a clove derivative for observation under a microscope. We identified males and females of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. In Argentina, this flea is only known for Sierra de la Ventana

  14. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia M. Togura; Darren Norris; Fernanda Michalski

    2014-01-01

    O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788)], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W), sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitor...

  15. Limitation des populations de ravageurs de l’olivier par le recours à la lutte biologique par conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Warlop, Francois

    2006-01-01

    L’olivier est une culture relativement rustique, mais qui peut être fortement attaquée par la mouche Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), son principal ravageur. Les parasitoïdes de cette mouche sont connus, mais leur impact sur les populations de Diptères demeure faible, faute d’aménagement adéquat du paysage et suite à une intensification abusive des pratiques culturales. Le programme d’installation de bandes florales mené par le Groupe de recherches en agriculture biologique qui a débuté en 2004 vis...

  16. Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: primeiro registro para o Brasil, redescrição da espécie e considerações sobre a ocorrência e distribuição de Isognomon na costa brasileira Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: first record to the Brazilian littoral, redescription of the species and comments on the occurrence and distribution of Isognomon in the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Domaneschi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve family Isognomonidae is represented in the Western Atlantic by the living genera Crenatula Lamarck, 1804 and Isognomon Solander, 1786. I. alatus (Gmelin, 1791 and I. radiatus (Anton, 1839 are the only Isognomonidae referred to the Brazilian malacofauna. The present work refers to the first record and geographic distribution of I. bicolor along the Brazilian littoral, and presents a re-description of the species based on shell characters, which include those of the prodissoconch. The occurrence of I. alatus and I. radiatus along the Brazilian littoral could not be confirmed, despite the intensive search for these Isognomonidae from Rio Grande do Norte through Rio Grande do Sul.

  17. Actividad antioxidante y neuroprotectora in vitro del extracto acuoso del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fallarero Linares, Adyary

    2005-01-01

    La presente investigación aborda el estudio de las propiedades antioxidantes y neuroprotectoras de un extracto acuoso del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin) Howe, así como la relación de tales propiedades con los compuestos fenólicos presentes en este producto natural, mediante el uso de modelos experimentales in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto acuoso de B. triquetrum contiene moléculas que pueden unir Fe, atrapar radicales O2•, OH•, DPPH•, e inhibir la peroxidación li...

  18. New and significant bird records from Rio Grande do Sul, with comments on biogeography and conservation of the southern Brazilian avifauna

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    Glayson A. Bencke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I report on the occurrence of 16 species of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, of which seven are new for the state - Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766, Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837, Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862, Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817, Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819, and Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758 - and seven were previously known from unsubstantiated or poorly documented records - Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789, Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818, Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901, Psilorhamphus guttatus (Ménétriès, 1835, Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck, 2007, and Hemithraupis ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818. Descriptive and natural history notes are presented for some of these species. The records of B. tirica, P. guttatus, P. griseocapilla, Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825, O. chloricterus, H. ruficapilla, and S. lineola represent significant southward range extensions of up to 300 km. Also, a new confirmed record of Myiarchus ferox (Statius Muller, 1776 is divulged. Finally, I argue that the Atlantic forests of north-eastern Rio Grande do Sul should be included in the Serra do Mar area of endemism (sensu SILVA et al., 2004 because of the presence of Orthogonys chloricterus, and comment on the possible range expansion of Myiozetetes similis, Sporophila lineola and other primarily tropical species in southern Brazil.

  19. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-01-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae). PMID:27395696

  20. Morphoanatomical studies of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, M; Di Sapio, O; Gattuso, S; Pereyra, E Li

    2004-02-01

    The genus Uncaria Schreber (Rubiaceae) includes species that are widely distributed in tropical areas. The inner bark of the stems and leaves of two native species of South America, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC., and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin, "cat's claw" are used in either folk medicine or in procuring phytotherapeutic drugs. These species contain about sixty active substances which are being tested widely for possible medicinal value. The following applications are considered: peptic ulcer, rheumatism, tumours, antiinflammatory effect, inflammation, diabetes and as general tonic. Currently, Uncaria tomentosa is in demand as tea, tablets or capsules in more than 30 countries outside Perú, as well as inside the country. Pharmacognosy studies are required to determine the comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features for identification and quality control purposes. Several microscopic parameters, including phloem fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, starch granules, trichomes, and foliar architecture should be considered. The aim of our work is to analyse comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features which might provide assistance in the identification, analysis and standardization of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin stem bark and leaves in order to obtain phytotherapeutic drugs, and of the crude drug as well.

  1. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  2. Oyster radiation sensitivity; Sensibilidade de ostras a radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, Sandra R.M. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Various food products like oysters, crabs and shrimps have been described as possible Vibrio spp. transmitting agents. Seafood irradiation is been presented as an alternative among the different public health intervention measures to control food borne diseases. The objective of this work was to establish, firstly, the radioresistance of Crassostrea brasiliana oysters. The oysters were irradiated with Co-60 radiation with doses of 0, 1.5,3 and 6 kGy. Survival curves a function of time showed that 100% of samples irradiated with 3 kGy survived at least 6 days; among those irradiated with 6 kGy, 100% survived 3 days. These results are encouraging since a dose of 2 kGy is already effective in diminishing oyster bioburden. (author)

  3. Equinodermes do Brasil: IV. Sobre seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea da região ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a descrição, distribuição, dados ecológicos, chaves para classificação e fotografias de seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea pertencentes às famílias Ophiolepididae, Amphiuridae, Ophiacanthidae , Ophiomyxidae e Amphilepididae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea. Os animais foram coletados das dragagens efetuadas pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ em fevereiro e julho de 1969. Os gêneros Ophiornastus, Ophioleptoplax e Amphilepis são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul Ocidental.Description, distribution and ecological observations are presented for the following six new Ophiuroidea species: Ophiomastus satelitae sp. n., Ophiomusium anaelisae sp. n., Amphioplus mathildae sp. n., Ophiaoantha brasiliensis sp. n., Ophioleptoplax brasiliana sp. n. and Amphilepis teodorae sp. n.. The species were collected in front of Ilha Grande (RJ, from 50-500 m depth.

  4. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented.

  5. Os Granitóides Brasilianos da Faixa de Dobramentos Paraguai, MS e MT

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Misson Godoy; Amarildo Salina Ruiz; Jefferson Cassu Manzano; Larissa Marques Barbosa de Araújo-Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    A Província Granítica Brasiliana do sudeste mato-grossense encontra-se relacionada à evolução do Cinturão Paraguai e podeser distinta em dois grandes grupos e/ou eventos magmáticos. A parte sul, aflorante no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, éconstituída pelos maciços Taboco, Rio Negro, Coxim e Sonora, na forma de pequenas intrusões alongadas segundo NE-SW,enquanto na parte norte, os corpos apresentam dimensões batolíticas e são constituídos pelos maciços São Vicente, Araguaianae Lajinha, que afl...

  6. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  7. «Parque Industrial»: influxos feministas no romance proletário de Patrícia Galvão

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    Anselmo Peres Alós

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo tem por objetivo traçar o perfil de Patrícia Galvão, a Pagu, resgatando-a do esquecimento a que foi relegada dentro dos estudos de literatura brasileira. Primeiramente, é estabelecido um quadro do que foi a participação de Pagu na vida política e cultural do Brasil entre as décadas de 1930 (quando publica seu primeiro romance e 1960 (quando Patrícia Galvão faleceu. Na segunda parte, faz-se uma apreciação do romance Parque Industrial, publicado em 1933, dando particular atenção à maneira pela qual a autora tece suas considerações acerca da condição das mulheres proletárias na São Paulo de seu tempo.Palavras-chave: Crítica feminista; literatura brasileira; Patrícia Galvão (Pagu.Abstract: In questo articolo ci si propone disegnare il profilo di Patrícia Galvão, chiamata Pagu, per salvarla dall’oblio a cui è stata relegata negli studi di letteratura brasiliana. In primo luogo si tratta della partecipazione di Pagu alla vita politica e culturale del Brasile compresa tra gli anni ‘30 (quando ha pubblicato il primo romanzo e ‘60 (quando è deceduta. Nella seconda parte si valuta il romanzo Parque Industrial, pubblicato nel 1933, con enfasi al modo in cui l’autrice fa alcune considerazioni sulla situazione a São Paulo delle donne proletarie a lei contemporanee.Parole chiave: La critica femminista; letteratura brasiliana; Patrícia Galvão (Pagu.Keywords: Feminist criticism; Brazilian literature; Patrícia Galvão (Pagu.

  8. Movilidad, redes de intercambio y circulación de bienes en el sudoeste del Neuquén (Norpatagonia, Argentina: Los moluscos marinos del lago Traful Mobility, Exchange Networks And Circulation Of Goods In Southwestern Neuquén, Northern Patagonia, Argentina: The Marine Mollusks From Traful Lake

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    Mario Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la procedencia de fragmentos de moluscos marinos hallados en los aleros Los Cipreses y Lariviere, en el área del lago Traful, sur de la provincia de Neuquén. Estudios previos en áreas cercanas con mayor proximidad a la costa del océano Pacífico suponen que las piezas recuperadas evidencian contacto con grupos provenientes del lado occidental de la cordillera de Los Andes -Chile. En este trabajo se indica que parte de las valvas estudiadas corresponden a fósiles marinos o fluviales no identificados. Los fragmentos identificados corresponden al gasterópodo marino Adelomelon brasiliana procedente del Atlántico y al bivalvo Choromytilus chorus posiblemente del Pacífico. Estos datos, sumados a los recientes análisis sobre muestras de obsidiana procedentes de fuentes de aprovisionamiento del sudoeste neuquino que circularon grandes distancias hacia la costa atlántica, resaltan la complejidad y extensión de la movilidad humana y/o de las redes interregionales de intercambios.In this article the origin of fragments of marine shells found at Los Cipreses and Lariviere rock-shelters is presented. Consistent with studies by other authors in nearby areas in greater proximity to the Pacific coast, it was assumed that these fragments indicated contact with groups from the western side of the Chilean Andes. The results show that the shells correspond to marine or unknown fluvial fossils; a few pieces correspond to a marine gasteropod of great size, Adelomelon brasiliana, from the Atlantic Ocean and the bivalve Choromytilus chorus, probably from the Pacific. These data, and the recent analysis of samples of obsidian from sources located in southwestern Neuquén, which circulated far toward the Atlantic coast, highlight the complexity and extent of human mobility and interregional exchange networks.

  9. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web.

  10. Larvae of commercial  and other oyster species in Thailand (Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    reference to changes in shell morphology. Planktonic oyster larvae were collected in the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. Different species of oyster larvae were found in the genera Crassostrea, Saccostrea, Ostrea, Dendrostrea, Nanostrea, Planostrea, Lopha, and Hyotissa. Detailed morphological......The development of larvae of some Thai commercial oyster species (Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), Crassostrea bilineata (Röding, 1798), Saccostrea forskali (Gmelin, 1791) and Dendrostrea folium (Linnaeus, 1758)) is described from newly hatched to the settlement stage with particular...... descriptions and measurements are provided. Diagnostic features of the larval shape, hinge teeth, and prodissoconch sizes were identified in order to allow separation of commercial oyster larvae from other oyster species in Thai waters. Brooding species (incubatory) of the subfamilies Ostreinae (Ostrea...

  11. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  12. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  13. A karyological study of the spirurid nematode Mastophorus muris (Nematoda: Spirocercidae

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    Špakulová M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 comprises four pairs of small autosomal chromosomes and two larger sex X chromosomes in females or one X chromosome in males (2n = 8 + XX/XO. All pairs of chromosomes possess rather uniform morphology without distinct primary or secondary constrictions. No heterochromatin bands were found by C-banding analysis. The absolute chromosome length ranges from 4.02 to 2.24 μm. The mean total length of the haploid complement is 14.34 μm. The course of gametogenesis represents a typical pattern common in the order Spirurida. The recently available karyotypes of spirurid nematodes have been reviewed.

  14. Taxonomic notes on the Polish Tulostoma species

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    Agnieszka Tomaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulostoma genus Pers.: Pers. is represented in Poland by five species (Wojewoda 2003. Only two of those: Tulostoma brumale Pers.: Pers. and T. fimbriatum Fr. can be considered as a relatively common while others such as: Tulostoma kotlabae Pouzar, T. melanocyclum Bres. and T. squamosum (Gmelin in L.: Pers. are very rare. Observations of macrofungi of xerothermic habitats at the Nida Basin (Central Poland, demonstrated the existance of many varieties of particular taxa until now not listed in the Polish mycological literature, and also new sites of all so far described Tulostoma species. Recording of lower taxa such as: Tulostoma brumale Pers. var. longipes (Czern. J. E. Wright, T. brumale Pers. var. pallidum (Lloyd J. E. Wright, and T. fimbriatum Fr. var. campestre (Morgan Moreno are identified at the study area.

  15. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Brazilian red macroalgae organic extracts

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    Levi P. Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 36.5 million people worldwide, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition is currently considered the main therapeutic strategy against it. Seaweed biodiversity in Brazil represents one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds for applications in phytotherapy. Accordingly, this study aimed to carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux, Ochtodes secundiramea (Montagne M.A. Howe, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand (Rhodophyta in order to determine the AChE effects from their extracts. As a matter of fact, the O. secundiramea extract showed 48% acetylcholinesterase inhibition at 400 μg/ml. The chemical composition of the bioactive fraction was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS; this fraction is solely composed of halogenated monoterpenes, therefore allowing assignment of acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity to them.

  16. Ceroid in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    Since the original description of ceroid in rats, many papers have appeared on the etiology and characteristics of this pigment. It was first seen as a yellow, granular pigment in hematoxylin and eosin sections of the cirrhotic livers of choline deficient rats. The pigment was more fully characterized by Endicott and Lillie, and additional stainging reactions were summarized recently by Lillie. The pigment is sudanophilic in paraffin sections, acid-fast, basophilic, isotropic, iron negative, and highly resistant to solution in water, alcohol, fat solvents, and dilute aqueous acids and alkalis. It is stained by Mallory's hemofuscin stain and Weigert's myelin stain. It reduces osmium tetraoxide and diamine silver carbonate but not ferric ferricyanide. The Gmelin reactions for bile pigments is negative. It has a greenish yellow fluorescence at 3650-3660 Å. It is Schiff positive with or without antecedent diastase digestion after performic or periodic acid oxidation.

  17. Decouverte de deux nouveaux gisements de poissons fossiles messiniens dans le bassin de Nijar-Carboneras (Andalousie Orientale: Signification paleoecologique et implications paleogeographiques

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    Gaudant, J.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new fossil fish-Iocalities are reported from the Messinian of the Nijar-Carboneras basin (South Spain. That of Cortijo Ruil, South-West of Nijar, seems to take part in the evaporitic Messinian. It yields a marine, poorly diversified, fish-fauna which characterizes a shallow deposit sedimented relatively near the sea-shore. However, the occurrence of a Myctophid: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage and of a Gonostomatid: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin demonstrates that the Nijar-Carboneras basin was widely open to the sea, the depth of which probably sensibly exceeded 2.000 m. The post-evaporitic locality of Rambla de las Colmenas, westward of Gafares, has provided the species Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz, which characterizes the lagoonal Messinian environments of the Mediterranean area.Se han encontrado dos nuevos yacimientos de peces fósiles en el Mesiniense de la cuenca de Nijar-Carboneras (España meridional. El yacimiento del Cortijo Ruil, al Oeste de Nijar, parece pertenecer al Mesiniense evaporítico. Contiene una ictiofauna marina relativamente poco diversificada que caracteriza un depósito poco profundo, próximo a la orilla. De todos modos, la presencia de un Myctophidae: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage y de un Gonostomatidae: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin indica que la cuenca de Nijar se abria ampliamente a un mar cuya profundidad debía superar considerablemente los 2.000 m. El yacimiento postevaporítico de la Rambla de las Colmenas, al Oeste de Gafares, ha suministrado la especie Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz que caracteriza los ambientes lagunares del Mesiniense del área mediterránea.

  18. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

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    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  19. Persistência de plantas medicinais em sistemas agroflorestais no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, Brasil

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    A.L. Hanisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No final da década de 90, a comunidade de Rio Natal, no município de São Bento do Sul, SC, passou a fazer parte de uma Área de Preservação Ambiental e desde então, muitas áreas de cultivo, paulatinamente, estão retomando o processo de formação florestal. Neste cenário, foi sugerido pela comunidade, a possibilidade de cultivo de plantas medicinais adaptadas às condições de sombreamento. Em atendimento a essa demanda foi realizada uma pesquisa participativa na comunidade, de 2005 a 2008, onde foram avaliadas 14 espécies de plantas medicinais com potencial de mercado, cultivadas em áreas sombreadas, em três propriedades familiares. Foram avaliados: taxa de sobrevivência das espécies, incidência de doenças e pragas, teor de massa seca e altura das plantas. Apresentaram persistência ao cultivo em áreas sombreadas as espécies: Curcuma longa L. (açafrão-da-índia; Arctium lappa L. (bardana; Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (fáfia ou ginseng-brasileiro; Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco; Alternanthera brasiliana L. Kuntze (penicilina; Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth (patchuli e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex Reissek (espinheira-santa.

  20. Compostos biologicamente ativos em invertebrados marinhos

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    José Carlos de Freitas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The author has reviewed the classification, the nomenclature and the ecological aspects of biologically active compounds, emphasizing the Freyvogel & Perret's (1973 concepts of venomous and poisonous organisms. The literature involving the phyla Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda was also reviewed. The author's pharmacological studies performed with the polychaete Eurytlioe camplanata, which revealed a dializable principle, active in the guinea pig's ileum and dorsal muscle ot polvchaete itself are also commented. This principle differs from Acetylcholine and Serotonin. Pharmacologically studies in the sea-hares (genus Aplysia were also focused, including the author's contribution. In the glands os Aplysia brasiliana, namely the mid-gut-gland, the opaline gland and the purple gland, the author confirmed presence of cholinesters, which are discussed in the review. Toxicity of Arthropods are also discussed, mainly in decapod crustaceans. In some Brazilian crabs studies revealed a pharmacological activity of the gastric secretion expelled with an apparently defensive purpose and its ecological importance is focused in terms of the community. The relatively scarce studies of chemical ecology of marine organisms in Latin America and the importance of these studies were finally emphasized.

  1. O CIBERESPAÇO COMO UMA NOVA DIMENSÃO DA ESFERA PÚBLICA: a cobertura da campanha presidencial de 2010 nos blogs de Josias de Souza e Luis Nassif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ademir Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz uma discussão sobre a interface mídia e política relacionada a uma nova dimensão do espaço público que é o ciberespaço. A análise é da cobertura jornalística sobre a disputa presidencial de 2010 nos blogs de Josias de Souza, do Portal Uol, ligado ao Grupo Folha, e de Luís Nassif, que era hospedado no Portal Ig e passou para o Portal www.brasilianas.org. Trata-se da compreensão dos meios de comunicação – no caso os veículos jornalísticos – como atores políticos que interferem na disputa eleitoral. Os dados sobre a visibilidade e o tratamento (valência positiva, negativa ou neutra revelam a tendência dos jornalistas – Josias de Souza assume um tom crítico em relação à candidatura de Dilma Rousseff (PT enquanto Luís Nassif posta, na maioria das vezes, mensagens favoráveis à petista e negativas em relação ao candidato José Serra (PSDB.

  2. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  3. Study on HPLC fingerprint characteristic of the ox bile powder%牛胆粉高效液相色谱法特征图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢海燕; 邹纯才

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate HPLC fingerprint characteristic for the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus,and provide basis for the establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of ox bile powder. METHODS The HPLC was run on Lichrospher C18 (4. 6 mmX 250 mm,5 jum) column with acetonitrile-water (0. 1 % potassium dihydro-gen phosphate) as mobile phase in gradient elution (0-20 min acetonitrile 30%→30/"o ,20-40 min acetonitrile 30%→40%, 40 - 70 min acetonitrile 40%-→50% ;70 - 80 min,acetonitrile 50%→50% at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min-1. The temperature of column was 30 °C. The detection wavelength and reference wavelength were 210 nm with DAD detector. The information of 22 fingerprint peaks compared with cholic acid was treated by cluster analysis. RESULTS Through the analysis of 10 batches samples of the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus,22 peaks were identified,and the HPLC fingerprint of the ox bile powder was established. CONCLUSION HPLC fingerprint characteristic for the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus are similarity, but there is a certain difference in content among the characteristic ingredients.%目的:探求比较黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉的HPLC特征图谱,为建立牛胆粉的特征图谱提供依据.方法:采用梯度洗脱技术进行HPLC分离分析.色谱柱为Lichrospher C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5n),以乙腈-0.001 mol·L-1 KH2PO4溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱(0~20 min,乙腈30%→30%;20~40 min,乙腈30%→40%;40~70 min,乙腈40%→50%;70~80 min,乙腈50%→50%),流速1.0mL·min-1;柱温30℃;DAD检测器,检测波长210 nm.用聚类分析方法处理色谱特征信息,比较色谱以胆酸为参照色谱峰的22个特征峰的信息.结果:通过分析10批黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉样品,确定了22个共有峰,建立了牛胆粉的HPLC特征图谱.结论:黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉的色谱指纹特征比

  4. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  5. 蛤壳油糊外用对大小鼠烫伤模型的影响%External application effect of clam shell oil paste on scalded mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞奇; 缪君娴; 白明; 苗明三

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨外用蛤壳油糊对大小鼠烫伤模型的影响.方法:动物背部去毛,次日腹腔注射水合氯醛麻醉,将大鼠去毛的背部皮肤浸入80C恒温水浴中持续10s,使之造成大鼠烫伤模型,小鼠去毛的背部皮肤浸入90℃恒温水浴中持续6s,使之造成小鼠烫伤模型,观察大、小剂量文蛤油糊,大、小剂量青蛤油糊对动物烫伤皮肤面积变化的影响和病理组织变化的影响.结果:大、小剂量文蛤油糊组,大、小剂量青蛤油糊组动物烫伤皮肤面积比用药前均显著减小(P<0.01),且能显著改善烧烫伤的病理损伤(P<0.01).结论:外用蛤壳油糊对大小鼠烫伤有较好的治疗作用.%Objective:To explore the external curative effect of clam shell oil paste on scalded mice and rat model.Methods:Removing the back hair of animals,and intraperitoneal injection of chloral to anaesthetize animals on the next day,then immersing the animals' back skin into the thermostat water bath which was 80 or 90 degree Celsius for 10 seconds or 6 seconds to make them be scalded,and observing the changes of scalded skin area and pathological changes of Meretrix meretris Linnaeus oil paste and Cyclina Sinensis Gmelin oil paste on the scalded skin.Results:Meretrix meretris Linnaeus oil paste and Cyclina Sinensis Gmelin oil paste could significantly reduce the scalded skin area (P<0.01),and significantly improve the burned and scalded injury (P<0.01).Conclusion:The external application of the clam shell oil paste had a good curative effect on scalded mice and rat model.

  6. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  7. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  8. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  9. RPB2 gene reveals a phylodemographic signal in wild and domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni ZECCA; Fabrizio GRASSI

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism at the single copy RPB2 locus was investigated to define the relationship between wild and domesticated grapevines.Two different forms still coexist in Eurasia,the cultivated (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.vinifera) and the wild (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi),referred to as separate subspecies.Using the observed number of mutations at the RPB2 locus,as well as archaeological data,to define an approximate age of domestication,we have estimated a high nucleotide substitution rate (4.25 × 10-7) in the domesticated group.Moreover,the dynamics of population size in the RPB2 gene were estimated using Bayesian coalescent inference.The Bayesian skyline plot offered interesting information on the past dynamics of RPB2 for both wild and domesticated groups.The signal of exponential growth observed in grapevine accessions can be viewed as a consequence of human breeding activity during the domestication of the species.However,a recent and drastic decline of population size has been observed in the Mediterranean wild lineages.This event mirrors the demographic decline of wild grape,probably explained by anthropogenic pressure on its natural habitats and by the introduction of pathogens from North America in recent centuries.

  10. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  11. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) (B. capriscus) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods:A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results:Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions:It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  13. Redescription and life cycle of the monorchiid Postmonorcheides maclovini Szidat, 1950 (Digenea) from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Morphological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Estefanía; Gilardoni, Carmen; Pina, Susana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Cremonte, Florencia

    2016-02-01

    The adult monorchiid, Postmonorcheides maclovini Szidat, 1950, digenean parasite of the Patagonian blennie Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier) (Eleginopidae) from Puerto Deseado (47° 45' S, 65° 55' W), Argentina, was characterized and its life cycle elucidated. P. maclovinus is the only species of the genus Postmonorcheides, proposed by Szidat (1950) from Tierra del Fuego province (~54° S), Argentina. This digenean uses the Patagonian blennie as definitive host, and the intertidal bivalve Lasaea adansoni (Gmelin) (Lasaeidae) as both first and second intermediate hosts (metacercariae encyst inside sporocysts), being the first record of this clam as intermediate host of trematode parasites. The cercaria may, in addition to encysting in the sporocyst, emerge and presumably infect other intermediate hosts. This is the second report of a monorchiid species with metacercariae encysting inside the sporocyst. Adults were found parasitizing the fish stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine with a prevalence of 100%; sporocysts with cercariae and/or metacercariae were found parasitizing the gonad of the bivalve with a prevalence of 2.78%. The cercariae possess a well-developed tail and eye-spots are absent. The ITS1 sequence from the adult digeneans found in the Patagonian blennie, identified as P. maclovini, was found to be identical to the ITS1 sequences obtained both from sporocysts containing cercariae and encysted metacercariae found in L. adansoni. PMID:26423199

  14. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  15. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  16. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  17. Patterns of spatial genetic structuring in the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea: implications for the conservation of a Mediterranean endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Marco; Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Cossu, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Sanna, Daria; Dedola, Gian Luca; Sussarellu, Rossana; Sella, Gabriella; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini-Galletti, Marco; García-Gómez, José Carlos; Espinosa, Free

    2011-10-01

    Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is an endangered marine gastropod endemic to the Western Mediterranean. Its range is restricted to the Sardinian-Corsican region (SCR), North Africa, a few scattered sites in Southern Spain, and Sicily. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and three different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I, 12S (small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene) and 16S (large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene), were used to investigate the presence of genetic population structuring. The mtDNA sequences showed very low levels of genetic differentiation. Conversely, ISSRs showed the presence of two main genetic groups, corresponding to Spain, North Africa and Sicily and the SCR. The SCR was further split into two subgroups. The ISSR results suggest that, on a regional scale, the genetic structure of P. ferruginea is mainly determined by the restriction of gene flow by dispersal barriers. On a more local scale human harvesting may play a crucial role in population structuring by increasing the effect of genetic drift.

  18. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  19. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  20. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  1. Replacement and growth of primary feathers in captive rock pigeons, Columba livia (Aves: Columbidae

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    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The replacement and growth of 311 primary feathers of eight captive male rock pigeons, Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 were monitored daily. Feather replacement was recorded in all months, but the primaries 1 to 5 (innermost primaries were replaced mostly from September to December, whereas the primaries 6 to 10 (outermost primaries were more frequently replaced from January to August. Each primary was held in plumage from six to fifteen months, but the lifetime of the outer feathers was longer than that of the inner feathers. A new primary emerges two or three days after its predecessor has been dropped, but the primaries replacing the feathers accidentally lost during bird handling emerge only after about eight days. The average growth period of a primary ranged from 21 to 37 days, with the larger and outermost feathers exhibiting a longer growth period. A constant average growth rate of 4 to 5 mm/day was found for all primaries until the last two days of growth, when the growth rate of the feathers became progressively slower. Bilateral symmetry in the primary replacement, when the same feather is replaced simultaneously in both wings, was not significant (22.2% in the birds monitored in this study.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF SEABIRDS OFF THE NORTH-CENTRAL PERUVIAN COAST IN 2010 AUSTRAL WINTER AND ITS POTENTIAL INTERACTION WITH THE FISHERIES

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    Judith Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From July 14 to 25, 2010 (austral winter, an evaluation of seabirds was performed between latitudes 7º00'S and 10º59'S, in front to the regions of La Libertad, Ancash and northern Lima, at a distance of 8.33 km to 78.71 km (4.50 M and 42.50 M off the coast line. A total of 25001 birds, corresponding to 23 species was counted. There was an average of 2.38 sp./km2where Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789 had the highest density, 20.73 ind/km2. The greatest number of species was present in 9°S (20 spp., 87% while the largest number of individuals was in 7°S (9778 ind, 39.1%. Most birds were concentrated within the continental shelf, between 18.52 km (10 M and 46.30 km (25 M. The most notable records were two immature individuals of Thalassarche bulleri platei (Reichenow, 1898 and three individuals of Creagrus furcatus (Neboux, 1846 in breeding plumage. Among the birds that were more attracted to the boat were Phoebastria irrorata (Salvin, 1883, C. furcatus and Leucophaeus modestus (Tschudi, 1843, so these species could be potentially susceptible to capture by fishing activities.

  3. Philosophische und historische Aspekte des Periodensystems der chemischen Elemente (HYLE Studies in History and Philosophy of Chemistry, No. 1 (e-book

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    Ralph M. Cahn

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In this book Ralph Cahn analyzes the logical structure of the periodic system of chemical elements and discusses the differences and similarities between various tables advanced by 19th-century chemists. After a survey of the historical and philosophical literature, the author suggests a more general and philosophically informed approach that allows for a critical epistemological history of the periodic system including its precursors. He argues that the periodic system is essentially a constitutional scheme consisting of relations, and discusses which combinations of scientific relations (atomic weights, elements, chemical similarities, etc. are sufficient to constitute a law-like system. From such a general epistemological point of view, the development of these relations becomes an integral part of the history of the periodic system. Similarity applied to chemical elements (e.g. by Leopold Gmelin and Alexander Martius deserves particular attention as an evolving relation as well as the rather neglected chemical system of Gustav Tschermak. e-book of Philosophische und historische Aspekte des Periodensystems der chemischen Elemente (HYLE Studies in History and Philosophy of Chemistry, No. 1

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf of Mexico American Oyster

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    Cake, Edwin W.

    1983-01-01

    The American or eastern oyster (Crassostrea virrinica [Gmelin]), a bivalve in the family Ostreidae, is an important commercia and recreational species along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America and other areas (U.S. Pacific coast and Hawaii) where it has been introduced (Galtsoff 1964). It evolved over the last 25 million years (Miocene and Pliocene epochs) from an ancestral, Atlantic-Pacific species that also gave rise to the Central American oyster of the Pacific coast, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein) (Stenzel 1971). It evolved to fill a eurytopic niche in coastal estuaries where it forms massive reefs in nearshore bays, sounds, lagoons, and river mouths. Its existence depends on suitable substratum (cultch and firm bottom sediments) and acceptable sal-inity conditions. The location and distribution of oyster reefs in a salt marsh-estuari ne ecosystem are not acci denta 1; rather, they result from the interacti on of many bi 01 ogi ca 1, chemica1, geo1ogi ca1, and phys i ca 1 processes (Butler 1954a; Marshall 1954; Bahr and Lanier 1981).

  5. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

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    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  6. A review of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena; Spicer, Greg S

    2016-01-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) is comprehensively revised. All of 78 known species, which are grouped into 11 genera, are examined and diagnosed or redescribed. Data on picobiine hosts and distribution are summarized, including new host and locality records. The following new species are described: Charadriineopicobia apricaria sp. nov. ex Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from France, Neopicobia pari sp. nov. ex Periparus venustulus Swinhoe (type host) (Passeriformes: Paridae) from China, Parus major Linnaeus (Paridae) from Macedonia and Finland, and Poecile varius Temminck and Schlegel (Paridae) from Japan, Picobia magellani sp. nov. ex Scytalopus magellanicus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from Colombia, Picobia lonchura sp. nov. ex Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) from Indonesia, Picobia makoli sp. nov. ex Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson) (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from Colombia. The species Picobia polonica Skoracki, Magowski and Dabert, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of C. khulkhaskhani Kivganov and Sharafat, 1995. The following new combinations are proposed: Neopicobia ictericus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2010) comb. nov., Rafapicobia brotogeris (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov., and Rafapicobia ramphastos (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov. Keys to the all picobiine genera and species are presented, along with a check-list of picobiine species and their hosts.

  7. Reconstruction of the charophyte community of Lake Shinji by oospore collection

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    Komuro T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV aids in maintaining a clear stable state in shallow lakes. However, charophytes are more effective in increasing transparency compared to angiosperms. Lake Shinji was more transparent prior to the beginning of herbicide use for rice weed control in the mid-1950s, because its bottom was covered by SAV up to 3 m depth. Although Chara braunii C.C. Gmelin and Nitella hyaline (De Candolle C. Agardh were recorded in the 1960s, there are no reports on SAV in the 1950s. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to show that the SAV of Lake Shinji was mostly composed of charophytes prior to the 1950s, by conducting a seed analysis. We obtained charophyte oospores from the sediment, but seeds of angiosperms were not identified. In addition to C. braunii that was previously recorded in Lake Shinji, we also found two newly identified species, Chara corallina Willdenow  and Chara fibrosa C. Agardh ex Bruzelius. Overall, this study indicates that seed analysis is helpful in reconstructing the former flora of Lake Shinji.

  8. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

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    M. Macedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais no Brasil e em especial no Estado de Mato Grosso vem sendo registrado em suas comunidades rurais e tradicionais. Este trabalho visa identificar plantas com potencial dermatológico utilizada pelas comunidades: quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais e tradicionais dos municípios de Barão de Melgaço, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Poconé e Santo Antônio de Leverger. Fez-se a coleta de material botânico fértil e levantamento sobre o uso desses vegetais com a população local. Este material encontra-se identificado e depositado em Coleção de Referência de Plantas Medicinais no UFMT, Herbário Central. Registraram-se 36 espécies utilizadas no tratamento de doenças como afecções, feridas e úlceras, erisipelas, herpes labial e verrugas. Destacam-se espécies como: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alatal. Roxb., entre outras. Estes vegetais são freqüentemente usados na forma de banhos e chás. O órgão vegetal mais utilizado foi as folhas, seguido de cascas do caule, frutos, óleo, raiz, planta inteira, seiva e sementes. O avanço da fronteira agropecuária nesse Estado é constante preocupação dos botânicos e das comunidades que ao longo das décadas usufruem desse potencial medicinal.Medicinal plants used for dermatology treatment in communities of Alto Rio Paraguai' Basin in Mato Grosso State. The use of medicinal plants in Brazil and in special in the Mato Grosso State is being registered by the rural and traditional communities. This work aims to identify plants with dermatologic potential used by the communities: quilombolas, riversides, rural and traditional of the municipal districts of Barão de Melgaço, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Poconé and Santo Antonio de Leverger. The collection of fertile botanical

  9. A “linguagem do futebol” segundo Pasolini: “futebol de prosa” e “futebol de poesia”

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    Élcio Loureiro Cornelsen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Nosso artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre a tentativa do cineasta e escritor italiano Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922-1975 em elaborar uma “semiologia do futebol”. No ensaio “Il calcio ‘è’ un linguaggio con i suoi poeti e prosatori” (1971, Pasolini estabelece, em tom de “diversão”, as categorias  “futebol de prosa” e “futebol de poesia” para diferenciar esteticamente o futebol europeu do latin-americano. Nesse sentido, nos valeremos de tais categorias para avaliar “semiologicamente” – no sentido pasoliniano – o estado atual do futebol em relação àquele de 1970, quando a Seleção Canarinho se sagrou tricampeã mundial diante da Squadra Azzurra.Palavras-chave: Pier Paolo Pasolini; semiologia; futebol; prosa; poesia.Abstract: Questo articolo riflette sull’esperimento dell’elaborazione di una “semiologia del calcio” proposta dal cineasta e scrittore Pier Paolo Pasolini (1922-1975. Nel saggio del 1971, intitolato “Il calcio ‘è’ un linguaggio con i suoi poeti e prosatori”, Pasolini crea per svago le categorie “calcio di prosa” e “calcio di poesia”, vuole distinguere esteticamente il calcio europeo da quello latino americano. Ci si avvale di predette categorie per valorare “semiologicamente” – in senso pasoliniano – lo stato attuale in rapporto a quello del 1970, anno in cui la Selezione Brasiliana ha ottenuto il titolo di tricampione mondiale vicendo la Squadra Azzurra.Parole chiave: Pier Paolo Pasolini; semiologia; calcio; prosa; poesia.Keywords: Pier Paolo Pasolini; semiology; soccer; prose; poetry.

  10. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  11. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

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    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  12. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

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    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  13. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

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    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  14. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  15. Propagation of Kiwi fruit with green cuttings under greenhouse conditions.

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    LUSH SUSAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi is one of the most ancient and disseminated species in the riverbanks, forests and villages of the Northern Albania. An ampelographic and ampelometric study of the mature leaf characters was carried out during 2009-2013 in three wild grapevines populations, located in three river basins. Individuals of the wild grapevines populations belongig to the Mati River Valley, the lower part of Drini Valley and Shkreli Valley, were compared by means of mature leaf characters, using IPGRI, OIV and UPOV ampelographic methods. There was found that from twentseven observed, measured and evaluated mature leaf characters, fifteen of them did not show any significant differences between three wild grapevine populations, while for twelve characters, such as size of blade (length of N1 and length of petiole, number of lobes, length of tooth N2, ratio length/width of tooth N2, and leaf angle between N1 and N3 showed significant differences. The highest value for the size of blade was measured in Drini Valley wild grapevine population, followed by Mati Valley population, while Shkreli Valley wild population showed the lowest size of blade. The same results were observed for length of tooth N2 and the ratio length/width of tooth N2. There was observed an inverse correlation between the size of blade and the angle between N1 and N3 measured at the first ramification. The highest value for angle ( +  was measured for Shkreli Valley, while the lowest value was measured for Drini Valley wild grapevine population.

  16. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Sea level changes during the last and present interglacials in Sal Island (Cape Verde archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Dabrio, C. J.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Cabero, A.; Bardají, T.; Ghaleb, B.; Soler, V.

    2010-07-01

    Last interglacial and Holocene deposits are particularly well developed in the southern parts of Sal Island (Cape Verde Archipelago). They primarily consist of low-elevation (≤ 2 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) marine deposits made of a basal conglomerate embedded in carbonate mud, passing upwards to calcarenites. All deposits contain an abundant fauna with corals, algae and molluscs with Strombus latus Gmelin and accompanying warm water species of the "Senegalese" fauna. Small scale geomorphological mapping with detailed morphosedimentary analysis revealed lateral facies changes and imbricate (offlapping) structures that suggest small-scale oscillations of paleo-sealevels during high sea stand intervals. U-series measurements (in coral fragments) allowed unequivocal identification of Marine Isotope Substage (MIS) 5.5 units, but were not precise enough to date the sea level oscillations of the interval. However, geomorphological data and sedimentary facies analysis suggest a double sea level highstand during the peak of the last interglacial. MIS 5.5 age deposits occur at Sal and the Canary Islands at low topographic elevations, between 1 and 2 masl. However, these values are lower than the elevations measured for the correlative terraces outcropping at the western tropical Atlantic islands, widely considered to be tectonically stable. Combining the results in this paper with earlier investigations of the "Senegalese" fauna distribution as far north as the Mediterranean basin, it is suggested that the last-interglacial oceanic temperatures in this basin, as well as the temperatures in other islands of the Eastern Atlantic and the coasts of Morocco, were warmer than modern temperatures.

  18. Kondoma Tatars and the Bloomery Process (source: the Great Northern Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Vodyasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents for the first time the unique source for studying indigenous ironmaking in West Siberia. This is a copy of the illustration made by Johann Wilhelm Lursenius on 19 September 1734 during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (the copy is kept in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. On that day, the artist together with German scientist Johann Georg Gmelin observed the iron melting process in a Tatar yurt in Gornaya Shoria, and they both documented these observations in detail, each in his own way. The synchronous description and sketching of a traditional trade technology is a most singular or even the unique phenomenon in Siberian ethnography of the early 18th century. The article features excerpts from Gmelin’s 1751 work devoted to iron ore smelting by Kondoma Tatars and provides an analysis of the illustration by Lursenius. Ferrous metallurgy of Kondoma Tatars in the 18th century involved using «small» iron-smelting furnaces (0.3 m high at the most placed at the hearths of yurts. Besides, Tatars decorated the upper part of the furnace with carving. As seen from the analysis of archaeological and ethnographic sources, the tradition of building such furnaces and smelting iron ore in dwellings existed in the Upper Parts of Ob River from the early 5th century AD to the ethnographic modernity. Ethnographic sources and archaeological experiments reveal that one small furnace could yield about 1 kg iron. According to historical sources, a few kilograms would make a year of trouble-free housekeeping for a Tatar family. This explains why «home production» of iron was so widespread, when a dwelling would be turned into a metallurgy shop to provide the family with all necessary tools and utensils.

  19. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A

    2016-05-01

    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories.

  20. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  1. Size-dependent concentrations of trace metals in four Mediterranean gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubadda, F; Conti, M E; Campanella, L

    2001-11-01

    In order to gain more information on the possible use of four gastropod species as metal biomonitors for the Mediterranean area, the influence of body weight upon Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations was studied in specimens collected at locations with different degrees of environmental pollution. The selected species were the marine snails Monodonta turbinata Born and Monodonta mutabilis Philippi, and the limpets Patella caerulea L. and Patella lusitanica Gmelin. Significant differences between metal concentrations in individuals from different stations were tested by ANCOVA on log-transformed data with log body weight as covariate. For all species a positive correlation between metal concentrations and body weight was observed, which means that the largest individuals contained the highest levels of metals. The inclusion of body weight as covariate in the statistical analysis explained from 81% to 99% of the metal variability within the organisms and enabled the achievement of improvements in the detection of differences among sites. The four selected species provided a rather univocal picture of bioavailable metal loads at the different stations of the experimental area. Except for Cd, the metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations were found to lie in the range of the lowest values reported in the literature and can be employed as useful background levels which can be referred to for intraspecific comparison within the Mediterranean area. It is concluded that in view of its distribution, unambiguous identification, resistance to pollution and accumulation patterns M. turbinata has considerable potential as a biomonitor of trace metals over the Mediterranean. PMID:11680752

  2. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  3. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  4. Influence of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) (Teleostei: Balistidae) (B. capriscus) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from June 2011 to June 2012. A total of 1080 fish were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, size, sex, date and area of capture of each specimen were recorded. Then, B. capriscus was examined to search for ectoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: The parasite species are indentified as two copepods: Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and a monogenean: Ancyrocephalus balisticus. The parasitological indices depend significantly on seasonality; the highest prevalence of Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and Ancyrocephalus balisticus (28.89%, 35.93% and 55.56%respectively) was recorded during summer season (June–August), while the lowest prevalence of each (6.3%, 4.44%, 8.15%) recorded during winter season (December–February). Furthermore the parasitological indices depend significantly on the host size but not on host sex. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus is a result of a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. It is the first study on the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  5. Dryinidae of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, Massimo; Virla, Eduardo G

    2014-01-01

    dromedarius (Cameron, 1888), comb. nov. (from Gonatopus); Gonatopus goiasensis (Olmi 1991), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. hispidus (Olmi 1984), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. longinoi (Olmi, 1998d), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. marinoae (Virla, 1997), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. neotropicus (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. raptor (Fenton, 1927), comb. nov. (from Chalcogonatopus); G. rubriceps (Kieffer, 1909), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus); G. stellaris (Virla, 1997), comb. nov. (from Trichogonatopus). The male of Crovettia brasiliana Olmi 1984, is described for the first time.

  6. Costituzione, diritto penale e politica criminale in Brasile tra convergenze e paradossi/Constitution, loi pénale et politiques en Brésil entre convergences et paradoxes/Constitution, criminal law and policies in Brazil between convergences and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Callegari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo cerca di analizzare come la politica criminale brasiliana abbia assunto una posizione che legittima quelle teorie note come il “diritto penale del nemico” e quei movimenti come il “Law and Order”. Cercheremo di delineare i principi costituzionali che in Brasile hanno dato origine ad un’idea di politica criminale che dovrebbe invece condurre a politiche criminali garantiste in un senso più ampio. Nonostante la previsione costituzionale di diversi diritti del cittadino nell’ambito del diritto penale e processuale penale, si vedrà come le attuali politiche criminali si sono allontanate dagli ideali previsti dalla Costituzione. Alla fine, svilupperemo anche dei ragionamenti sulle possibili origini politiche di questo attuale modello di politica criminale brasiliano. Cet article s’attache à analyser comment les politiques pénales brésiliennes ont adopté une position qui légitime ces théories connues sous le nom de « la loi criminelle de l’ennemi » et ces mouvements appelés « de l’ordre et de la loi » (Law and Order. Les auteurs essayent de délinéer les principes constitutionnels brésiliens à la base des politiques criminelles qui devraient protéger les libertés civiles. Malgré des dispositions constitutionnelles garantissant les droits des citoyens dans le domaine du droit pénal et de la procédure pénale, les auteurs verront que les politiques criminelles actuelles sont en train de s’écarter des idéaux inscrits dans la Constitution. Enfin, les auteurs puiseront certains arguments à propos d’une origine politique possible de ce modèle actuel de politique criminelle au Brésil. This article seeks to analyse how the Brazilian criminal policy has assumed a position that legitimates those theories known as the “Enemy Criminal Law” and movements known as the “Law and Order”. We will try to delineate the constitutional principles in Brazil which originated the idea of criminal policy

  7. Extratos de Moringa oleifera e Vernonia sp. sobre Candida albicans e Microsporum canis isolados de cães e gatos e análise da toxicidade em Artemia sp. Moringa oleifera and Vernonia sp. extracts against Candida albicans and Microsporum canis isolates from dogs and cats and analysis of toxicity to Artemia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da incidência das infecções fúngicas, bem como o registro crescente de resistência e falha terapêutica, têm impulsionado a realização de estudos de prospecção de fitoquímicos com propriedades antifúngicas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo investigou o potencial antifúngico de extratos de Baccharis ligustrina, B. schultzii, Croton jacobinensis, Licania rigida, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia sp. e V. brasiliana, e de óleos essenciais de Lippia alba (Quimiotipos 1, 2, 3 e 4 e Ocimum gratissimum. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma avaliação qualitativa da atividade antifúngica de cada amostra por meio do método de difusão em ágar, frente a cepas de Candida albicans e Microsporum canis, mostrando que apenas os extratos de M. oleifera (MLF-C e Vernonia sp. (TVS-H apresentaram atividade frente a C. albicans e M. canis, com halos de inibição =10mm. Também foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, frente a 12 cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, e a toxicidade aguda de MLF-C e TVS-H, através de protocolos do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI e ensaio com Artemia sp., respectivamente. A CIM (80% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,156 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans e de 0,039 a 1,25 e 0,039 a 0,625mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. A CIM (100% de MLF-C e TVS-H variou de 0,625 a 2,5mg mL-1 frente C. albicans é de 0,039 a 2,5 e 0,078 a 1,25mg mL-1 para M. canis, respectivamente. As doses letais (DL50 para o MLF-C e TVS-H foram de 201,09 e 204,17mg mL-1, respectivamente, sendo, portanto, demonstrada a baixa toxicidade desses extratos. Os extratos de M. oileifera e Vernonia sp. apresentaram atividade antifúngica frente cepas de C. albicans e M. canis, abrindo a perspectiva de estudos para caracterização dos seus componentes bioativos.The increase in the incidence of fungal infections and the frequent report of resistance and therapeutic failure has promoted the performance of phytochemical

  8. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

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    Alexis Ribas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  9. Revision of Khawia spp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish, including a key to their identification and molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Brabec, Jan; Král'ová-Hromadová, Ivica; Oros, Mikulás; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Ermolenko, Alexey; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2011-09-01

    Monozoic cestodes of the genus Khawia Hsü, 1935 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae), parasites of cyprinid fish in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, are revised on the basis of taxonomic evaluation of extensive materials, including recently collected specimens of most species. This evaluation has made it possible to critically assess the validity of all 17 nominal species of the genus and to provide redescriptions of the following seven species considered to be valid: Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (type species); K. armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915); K. baltica Szidat, 1941; K. japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934); K. parva (Zmeev, 1936); K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937); and K. saurogobii Xi, Oros, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009. Several new synonyms are proposed: Khawia barbi Rahemo et Mohammad, 2002 and K. lutei Al-Kalak et Rahemo, 2003 are synonymized with K. armeniaca; K. coregoni Kritscher, 1990 with Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (family Caryophyllaeidae); K. cyprini Li, 1964 and K. iowensis Calentine et Ulmer, 1961 with K. japonensis; K. dubia (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex dubius Szidat, 1937) with K. rossittensis; and Tsengia neimongkuensis Li, 1964 and T. xiamenensis Liu, Yang et Lin, 1995 with K. sinensis. Khawia prussica (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex prussicus Szidat, 1937) is considered to be species incertae sedis, but its morphology indicates it may belong to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllaeidae). The molecular analysis of all seven valid species, based on comparison of sequences of two nuclear ribosomal and two mitochondrial genes, has shown that the species form three major groups clustered according to their fish hosts. Five species from common and crucian carp and goldfish were grouped together, whereas K. armeniaca from barbels (Barbinae) and K. baltica from tench (Tinca) formed separate clades. In contrast, geographical distribution does not seem to play a crucial role in grouping of individual taxa. A phylogenetic tree based on

  10. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-07-15

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them. PMID:27295964

  11. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of

  12. The Impact of Ecological and Phytocenotic Conditions on Fraction Composition of Proteins and Sowing Qualities of the Siberian Fir Seeds

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    S. G. Prokushkin

    2014-12-01

    were insignificant (0.01–0.27, which is also consistent with the data obtained for the Gmelin and Siberian larch seeds.

  13. Assimilation efficiencies and turnover rates of trace elements in marine bivalves: A comparison of oysters, clams and mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Wang, W.-X.; Luoma, S. N.; Fisher, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and physiological turnover-rate constants (k) of six trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se, Zn) in four marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin,Macoma balthica Linnaeus, Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus, and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus) were measured in radiotracer-depuration experiments. Egestion rates of unassimilated elements were highest during the first 24 h of depuration and declined thereafter. Significant egestion of unassimilated Co, however, continued for up to 5 d in Macoma balthica,Mercenaria mercenaria and Mytilus edulis. With the exception of the extremely low values for110 mAg, 109Cd, and 65Zn in C. virginica, physiological turnover-rate constants (k) showed no general pattern of variation among elements, bivalve species or food types, and were relatively invariant. Values from  ≤0.001 to 0.1 d−1 were observed, but excluding those for Co, most values were  ≤0.04 d−1. In all four species, the AEs of Ag, Am, and Co were generally lower than those of Cd, Se, and Zn. The AEs of Ag, Cd, Se, and Zn in these bivalves are directly related to the proportion of each element in the cytoplasmic fraction of ingested phytoplankton, indicating that >80% of elements in a prey alga's cytoplasm was assimilated. C. virginica, Macoma balthica, and Mercenaria mercenaria assimilated ∼36% of the Ag and Cd associated with the non-cytoplasmic (membrane/organelle) fraction of ingested cells in addition to the cytoplasmic fraction. The ratio of AE:k, which is proportional to the consumer–prey trace-element bioaccumulation factor (concentration in consumer:concentration in prey) was generally greater for Cd, Se, and Zn than for Ag, Am, and Co. This ratio was lowest in Mytilus edulis, suggesting that this bivalve, the most widely employed organism in global biomonitoring, is relatively inefficient at accumulating important elements such as Ag, Cd, and Zn from ingested phytoplankton.

  14. Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae em Guira guira e Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae in Guira guira and Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae on Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Adriane Bartmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides do gênero Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 parasitam aves de diversas ordens e têm sido estudados, principalmente, em aves de importância econômica devido às lesões que provocam no proventrículo dos hospedeiros. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 é registrado em duas espécies de Cuculiformes, anu-branco, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 e anu-preto, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, no Sul do Brasil. Entre 2005 e 2008 foram coletados e necropsiados 120 espécimes de G. guira e 120 espécimes de C. ani nos municípios de Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul e Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A prevalência de D. nasuta foi de 28,3% em G. guira e 26,7%, em C. ani, e a intensidade média de infecção foi de 8,81 (DP=18,41; Amplitude 1 - 82 helmintos/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 5,10 (DP=6,17; Amplitude 1 - 30 helmintos/hospedeiro, em C. ani. Já a abundância média de infecção foi de 2,28 (DP=10,02 helminto/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 1,32 (DP=3,82 helminto/hospedeiro em C. ani. Análise comparativa entre o sexo, a maturidade sexual e a estação do ano, para as duas espécies de aves, mostrou que em C. ani não ocorreram diferenças significativas com relação a qualquer dos parâmetros analisados. Em G. guira as fêmeas estavam mais parasitadas do que os machos (P=0,039; as fêmeas encontravam-se mais parasitadas no inverno (P=0,008; os machos, no verão (P=0,011; os machos jovens estavam mais parasitados do que os adultos (P=0,015. As lesões encontradas no proventrículo das aves parasitadas confirmaram o diagnóstico de hiperplasia adenomatóide do proventrículo com proventriculite granulomatosa. Esta comunicação amplia o número de espécies hospedeiras e a distribuição geográfica do nematóide D. nasuta.Nematodes of the genus Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 are parasites of several groups of birds which have been primarily studied in birds of economic importance due to the

  15. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento ou decréscimo das populações de aves aquáticas tem sido usado como indicador da qualidade de água e conseqüentemente da qualidade ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de inventariar e monitorar a avifauna aquática da maior lagoa da região do sistema cárstico de Lagoa Santa, região central de Minas Gerais, dentro da 'Área de Proteção Ambiental Carste de Lagoa Santa' (APA LS, a Lagoa do Sumidouro. A Lagoa ocupa uma área de aproximadamente 253 h na época de maior cheia e apresenta um perímetro de cerca de 12.072 m. Durante o período de junho de 1999 a dezembro de 2002 foram estimadas a riqueza e a abundância das aves aquáticas presentes na Lagoa. Foram registradas 27 espécies de aves aquáticas, distribuídas em 12 famílias. Das 27 espécies registradas, 12 foram consideradas residentes ou prováveis residentes e oito visitantes. Sete espécies não apresentaram nenhum padrão distinto de presença sazonal. A família mais bem representada foi Ardeidae com seis espécies perfazendo 23% do total de espécies. Em seguida, a família Anatidae com cinco espécies (15% e Scolopacidae sendo representada por três espécies (11% do total. Uma das espécies Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 é considerada ameaçada de extinção no Estado de Minas Gerais, enquanto outras duas Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 e Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 são consideradas raras. Não houve diferença significativa entre a riqueza de espécies estimada para as três estações ('chuvosa', 'seca' e 'transição'. A diversidade de espécies mostrou-se significativamente diferente entre as três estações, sendo a estação chuvosa com a maior diversidade. A presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção e local de parada de espécies migratórias faz com que a região da APA Carste de Lagoa Santa seja considerada uma área de extrema importância referente aos aspectos biológicos.Increases and decreases of waterfowl population have

  16. Estudio mineralógico, microtermométrico y aspectos estructurales de la mineralización de topacio imperial de Antônio Pereira, Distrito de Ouro Preto (Minas Gerais - Brasil Mineralogical and microthermometric studies and structural aspects of imperial topaz mineralization in Antônio Pereira, Ouro Preto District (Minas Gerais - Brazil

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    Arol Josue Rojas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las ocurrencias de topacio imperial de la mina de Antônio Pereira, Ouro Preto, MG, están asociadas a rocas carbonáticas metamórficas del Supergrupo Minas. La densidad del topacio varió desde 3,46 hasta 3,58. Los parámetros de celda unitaria son: 4,658 a 4,663Å (a o, 8,823 a 8,832Å (b o, 8,382 a 8,389Å (c o y 344,65 a 345,46ų (V. Los índices de refracción son: 1,622 a 1,630 (nX, 1,624 a 1,632 (nY, 1,633 a 1,640 (nZ y 0,008 a 0,011 (B. Esas propiedades están coherentes con los bajos tenores de flúor obtenidos (16,48%/17,05% en peso. La espectroscopia en el infrarrojo y la microtermometría mostraron que las inclusiones fluidas representativas de los fluidos mineralizantes son formadas por H2O (con Ca2+, Mg2+ y Na+ y CO2 ± CH4. Las condiciones mínimas de atrapamiento de las inclusiones primarias fueron de 290/320oC y 2.349/2.497bar. Las inclusiones pseudosecundarias fueron aprisionadas en menores temperaturas, con presiones variables,, sugiriendo atrapamiento durante procesos de deformación que presentan alternancia local en las condiciones de compresión. La microtermometria conjuntamente con los análisis estructurales y los tenores de flúor indicaron que las vetas con topacio fueron formadas a partir de fluidos hidrotermales originados durante el evento tectónico-metamórfico de edad Brasiliana.The occurrences of imperial topaz in the Antonio Pereira mine, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, are associated with the metamorphic carbonate rocks of the Minas Supergroup. The crystals have densities varying from 3.46 to 3.58. The parameters of the unitary cells obtained were: 4.658 to 4.663Å (a o, 8.823 to 8.832Å (b o, 8.382 to 8.389Å (c o, and 344.65 to 345.46Å3 (V. The refraction indices presented the following variations: 1.622 to 1.630 (nX, 1.624 to 1.632 (nY, 1.633 to 1.640 (nZ, and 0.008 to 0.011 (B. These properties are coherent with the low fluorine contents obtained (16,48%/17,05wt%. infrared spectroscopy and microthermometry

  17. Recurring extensional and strike-slip tectonics after the Neoproterozoic collisional events in the southern Mantiqueira province

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    Renato P. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern South America, a series of fault-bounded sedimentary basins that crop out from Southern Uruguay to Southeastern Brazil were formed after the main collisional deformation of the Brasiliano Orogeny and record the tectonic events that affected the region from the Middle Ediacaran onwards. We address the problem of discerning the basin-forming tectonics from the later deformational events through paleostress analysis of more than 600 fault-slip data, mainly from the Camaquã Basin (Southern Brazil, sorted by stratigraphic level and cross-cutting relationships of superposed striations, and integrated with available stratigraphic and geochronological data. Our results show that the Camaquã Basin was formed by at least two distinct extensional events, and that rapid paleostress changes took place in the region a few tens of million years after the major collision (c.a. 630 Ma, probably due to the interplay between local active extensional tectonics and the distal effects of the continued amalgamation of plates and terranes at the margins of the still-forming Gondwana Plate. Preliminary paleostress data from the Castro Basin and published data from the Itajaí Basin suggest that these events had a regional nature.No Leste da América do Sul, um conjunto de bacias sedimentares que afloram do sul do Uruguai ao sudeste do Brasil formou-se após os eventos colisionais da Orogenia Brasiliana, registrando os eventos tectônicos que afetaram a região a partir do Mesoediacarano. O problema da distinção entre a tectônica formadora das bacias e os eventos deformacionais posteriores é aqui abordado através da análise de paleotensões de mais de 600 dados de falhas com estrias, obtidos principalmente na Bacia Camaquã (Sul do Brasil, que foram classificados por nível estratigráfico e relações de corte entre estrias sobrepostas, e intergrados a dados estratigráficos e geocronológicos disponíveis. Nossos resultados revelam que a Bacia Camaqu

  18. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced

  19. 广东梅县机场鸟类群落结构研究%COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF BIRDS IN MEIXIAN AIRPORT OF GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟福生; 杨春苑; 彭娜; 黄勋和

    2014-01-01

    2012年11月~2013年12月期间,采用固定半径样点法和样带法对扩建后广东梅县机场及其周边11种生境的鸟类物种多样性进行了调查,并分析了群落结构。共记录到鸟类71种,隶属于13目31科,其中东洋界种有31种,占43.67%,构成了该地区各生境鸟类群落组成的主体;古北界物种9种,广布种30种,新北界物种1种;按鸟类的居留型可分为夏候鸟16种(22.54%);留鸟36种(50.70%);冬候鸟16种(22.54%);旅鸟1种(1.41%)。按鸟类的生境分布系数划分,属广性分布的鸟类有山斑鸠(Streptopelia orientalis)、珠颈斑鸠(Streptopelia chinensis)和信鸽(Columbalivia gmelin)等20种;优势度分析表明,机场鸟类优势种为灰背椋鸟(Sturnus sinensis)、棕背伯劳(Lanius schach)、白头鹎(Pycnonotus sinensis)和田鹨(Anthus novaeseelandiae)等13种。对不同生境鸟类多样性的分析表明,河岸湿地鸟类多样性指数最高,鱼塘鸟类均匀性指数最高。群落相似度分析表明,公园与旱地生境相似度最高,灌木与鱼塘生境相似度最低。%According to the investigation of species diversity of birds in Guangdong Meixian Airport from November 2012 to December 2013, 71 species were recorded, which belongs to 13 orders and 31 families. Among them, 31 are oriental species (43.67%), 30 are cosmopolitan species, 9 are palaearctic species and one is new north border species. There are 36 resident species (50.70%), 16 summer migrant species (22.54%), 16 winter migrant species (22.54%) and one travelling specie (1.41%). According to the habitat distributive coefficient of birds, 20 species, such as Streptopelia orientali, Streptopelia chinensis, Columbalivia gmelin, are widely distributive; as shown by the dominance degree analysis, 13 are dominant bird species (e.g. Sturnus sinensis, Lanius schach, Pycnonotus sinensis, Anthus novaeseelandiae). The ananlysis on

  20. Osteologia craniana de Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, comparada com outras espécies de Threskiornithidae Skull osteology of Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, compared with others species of Threskiornithidae

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    Carolina D. Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 pertence Threskiornithidae (curicacas e afins e colhereiros, Threskiornithoidea, Ciconiiformes. Threskiornithidae (colhereiros, curicacas e afins são subdivididos em dois grupos: Threskiornithinae que compreende curicacas e afins, caracteriza-se por seus representantes possuírem um bico longo, estreito e curvo, ao passo que Plataleinae inclui os colhereiros, que apresentam bico longo e achatado na ponta. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a osteologia craniana de P. ajaja (Plataleinae e comparar com outras espécies pertencentes à Threskiornithinae. As espécies utilizadas para tal comparação foram: Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789, Phimosus infuscatus (Lichteinstein, 1823, Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783 e Plegadis chivi (Vieillot, 1817. Outras espécies pertencentes a ordem Ciconiiformes também foram utilizadas para comparação. A partir do presente estudo, observou-se que P. ajaja (Plataleinae apresenta como características que a separa dos Threskiornithinae: 1 sutura frontonasal conspícua; 2 processo supra-orbital do osso lacrimal curto; 3 maxila superior achatada dorsoventralmente, sendo alargada na extremidade, tomando forma de uma colher; 4 narina curta e de forma oval; e 5 processo retroarticular curto. Entretanto, são necessários estudos osteológicos que contemplem as outras espécies da família, bem como um estudo filogenético do grupo para maior compreensão das relações existentes entre os Threskiornithidae.Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills, Threskiornitoidea, Ciconiiformes. The Threkiornithidae are currently divided into two groups: Threskiornithinae (ibises and allies, which have curved bills used to probe into the mud, and Plataleinae that have specialized flat bill shapes. The goal of the present work was to describe the cranial osteology of P. ajaja (Plataleinae and compare it with other species of the

  1. 氧化-吹扫-金柱捕集-(双柱)热脱附-电感耦合等离子体质谱测定液体和固态样品中痕量汞同位素含量%Determination of Trace Mercury Isotopes in Liquid and Solid Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with Oxidation, Purge-trap, Dual-stage Thermal Desorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锡尧; 袁东星; 刘宝敏; 陈耀瑾; 林方芳; 苏海涛; 罗苏笙

    2013-01-01

    0. 15 ng/g and 0. 20 ng/g, respectively. Under the optimized conditions,the RSDs(n = 7) of 198Hg and 201 Hg were both 7. 0% for a matrix spiked water sample,and the internal precisiond RSD) of Hg isotope ratios(201 Hg/198 Hg) was 0. 26‰. The recoveries of matrix spiked seawater samples containing trace 198Hg and 201 Hg were 98. 3% -116. 0%, 92. 4%-109. 4%. The recoveries of l98Hg and 201 Hg from matrix spiked biota samples were 88. 4 % - 106. 7%, 79. 7% -88. 0%. The determination result of a standard reference solution showed — 0. 15% relative deviation for 198Hg,and —0. 09% for 201Hg. For duplicate measurement of mercuy isotopes in Ostrea Plicatula Gmelin samples collected from ambient environment, the relative deviations for isotopic ratios (201 Hg/198 Hg) between measured and its theoretical value in nature were 0. 4‰ and — 6. 0‰. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine Hg isotopic composition in stardard reference samples and practical biota samples,and was expected to be applied in tracing experiments for studying Hg transportation and transformation.

  2. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2004 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 27 / 2004Autor: Rubem Porto Júnior Orientador: Joel Gomes Valença Título: Petrogênese das rochas do maciço da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro - RJ No de páginas: 231 Resumo: O Maciço da Pedra Branca (MPB tem toda sua área ("150km2nos limites da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. É formado por um conjunto derochas gnáissicas e graníticas de composições, idades e estilos estrutu-rais distintos, geradas e/ou retrabalhadas durante a Orogênese Brasiliana(Neoproterozóico-Cambriano/Ordoviciano. Geotectonicamente estáinserido no Terreno Oriental do segmento central da Faixa Ribeira,correspondendo à parte do Complexo Costeiro. Trabalhos de campo,em variadas escalas, análise petrográfica, análise litogeoquímica eisotópica, além de modelagem petrogenética, permitiram que fosse tra-çado o contexto em que sua evolução petrotectônica ocorreu. As ro-chas do MPB podem ser descritas da seguinte forma: a conjunto degnaisses metassedimentares que representam a existência pretérita deuma bacia de margem passiva de idade não estabelecida; b ortognaissescalcialcalinos, de composição diorítica a granodiorítica, característicaspré-colisionais, idades de até 792 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND792 de4,0, que correspondem ao estabelecimento de um arco de ilhas oceâni-co, aqui denominado de Arco Guanabara; c ortognaisses calcialcalinos,de composição granodiorítica a granítica, características sin-colisionais,idades de até 578 Ma (U/Pb em zircão e (eND578 -4,2, quecorrespondem a um magmatismo relacionado à colisão do ArcoGuanabara com um terreno, arco (Arco Magmático Rio Negro? oubacia a oeste-noroeste; d rochas magmáticas básicas a intermediárias(gabros, dioritos, tonalitos e granodioritos, de idades absolutas desco-nhecidas; e granitos (sensu stricto pós-colisionais, calcialcalinos,posicionados sob a forma de diques e soleiras, cujos resultados U-PBem zircão forneceram idades de 520 e 480 Ma. Quatro fases geométri-cas de

  3. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2003 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências, UFRJ

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    2003-01-01

    distribuem-se em duas categorias: 1 pegmatitos simples, homogêneos, formados dentro dos granitóides parentais, e 2 pegmatitos complexos ou de profundidade intermediária, formados fora dos corpos granitóides parentais, que apresentam uma mineralogia acessória ampla, com minerais de metais raros, e outros que atestam a ocorrência de metassomatismo no seu processo final de formação. A pegmatitogênese da região se deu em um período que varia entre 160 e 200 Ma, a partir da colocação da Suíte Rio Negro (640 a 600 Ma até o Ordoviciano Médio. Sob o ponto de vista tectônico, toda a área de trabalho pode ser dividida em dois blocos crustais. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos, que sofreu uma anatexia crustal ampla e dentro do qual se situam os corpos magmáticos brasilianos; é considerado a Zona Central do Orógeno Brasiliano. O Bloco de Cabo Frio, considerado como a Zona Marginal do mesmo orógeno, é destituído de granitóides brasilianos, e expõe em vastas áreas o embasamento Paleoproterozóico, com suas estruturas pré-brasilianas preservadas na orla litorânea. Contém raros pegmatitos, do tipo simples, que ocorrem isoladamente, formados pela anatexia local das encaixantes. Pela interpretação de todos os dados 187 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 26 / 2003 disponíveis, os dois blocos tiveram uma evolução em comum, mas se diferenciam sobretudo pelo grau de anatexia que teriam sofrido durante a Orogênse Brasiliana e pela conseqüente ausência de granitogênese no Bloco de Cabo Frio. O Bloco Serra dos Órgãos foi aquele onde os processos de transformação crustal se deram de forma mais intensa. Autor: Diniz Tamantini Ribeiro Orientador: Fernando Roberto Mendes Pires Título: Enriquecimento supergênico de formações ferríferas bandadas: estruturas de colapso e desordem - 123 p. Resumo Processos supergênicos em Formações Ferríferas Bandadas (FFB atuam segundo importante dissolução, transporte de material e simultânea desordem das