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Sample records for anodic alumina films

  1. Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The kinetics of growth of complex anodic alumina films was investigated. These films were formed by filling porous oxide films (matrices) having deep pores. The porous films (matrices) were obtained voltastatically in (COOH)2 aqueous solution under various voltages. The filling was done by re-anodization in an electrolyte ...

  2. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  3. Structure transformations in ion implanted anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenda, N.N.; Uglov, V.V.; Litvinovich, G.V.; Daniluyk, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ion implantation on aluminium oxide has been widely studied. The change of mechanical, electrical, optical and chemical properties were investigated. Most studies were performed on a single crystal (a- or c-oriented) α-Al 2 O 3 though polycrystalline α-Al 2 O 3 or amorphous aluminium oxide films were the subject of the investigation too. Porous anodic alumina films were the object of the investigation of this work. An unique structure, low cost, controllability and ease of production allow it application in developing of microelectronic devices. Earlier it was shown that implantation of metal ions in anodic alumina films decreases its surface resistance to tens of Ωm. The aim of this work was the investigation of anodic alumina films structure changes after implantation. The implantation of Ti and Cu ions was carried out using a MEVVA source with an impulse duration of 1 ms. The applied acceleration voltage was 80 kV, the ions current density - 53 μA/cm 2 , the doses -1·10 17 ions/cm 2 and 1.5·10 18 ions/cm 2 . Implantation was carried out into two types of crystalline structure: amorphous and γ-Al 2 O 3 . The latter structure was produced by annealing at 830 deg. C. A variety of techniques were used for phase and element composition investigations: X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that implantation into amorphous film results in the formation of γ-AO 2 O 3 while implantation into γ-Al 2 O 3 film - in the formation of an amorphous structure. Implantation both to amorphous and crystalline AA films also led to the formation of θ-Al 2 O 3 phase inclusions in the film structure. The whole structure of AA films with the thickness of 200 μm undergoes these transformations. Implantation also lead to sputtering of the surface barrier layer thus resulting in the shift of the ions depth profile to the surface at higher doses. Diffusion of Ti

  4. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  5. Excitation of anodized alumina films with a light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.

    Optical properties of anodized aluminium alloys were determined by optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of such films. Samples with different concentrations of dopants were excited with a white-light source combined with an integrating sphere for fast determination of diffuse reflectance....... The UV-VIS reflectance of Ti-doped anodized aluminium films was measured over the wavelength range of 200 nm to 900 nm. Titanium doped-anodized aluminium films with 5-15 wt% Ti were characterized. Changes in the diffuse light scattering of doped anodized aluminium films, and thus optical appearance......, with doping are discussed. Using the Kubelka-Munk model on the diffuse reflectance spectra of such films, the bandgap Eg of the oxide alloys can be determined....

  6. Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    follow the metal surface profile. The porous films are formed in electrolytes dissolving the ... investigated during anodization of different valve metals including Al (Andreeva and Ikonopisov 1970). The vali- .... age (Uf = 400 V) in order to finish the re-anodization just before reaching the breakdown voltage. From the kinetic ...

  7. Blue luminescence in porous anodic alumina films: the role of the oxalic impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Tao; Zhang Li

    2003-01-01

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) films with ordered nanopore arrays have been prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminium in oxalic acid solutions, and the role of the oxalic impurities in the optical properties of PAA films has been discussed. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the PAA films obtained have a blue PL band with a peak position at around 470 nm; the oxalic impurities, incorporated in the PAA films during the anodization processes and already existing in them, could be being transformed into PL centres and hence responsible for this PL emission.

  8. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  9. Analysis of Permalloy films prepared on anodized alumina templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getlawi, Saleh; Koblischka, Michael R.; Hartmann, Uwe [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The magnetic properties of Permalloy (Py) systems have been extensively studied for thick films due to the important role in many technological applications, e.g., in magnetoresistive-based sensors and devices. Nanopatterned magnetic media are important for various current approaches in magnetoelectronics and magnetic recording. Commercially available anodized aluminia templates with pore diameters of 100 mm and 30 mm were employed as substrates for Py thin films. The films were prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering. The film thickness was between 7 nm and 30 nm. The obtained antidot patterns were observed by electron and force microscopy. The resulting magnetic domain structures were characterized by means of magnetic force microscopy performed in externally applied magnetic fields. Additionally, the magnetic parameters were characterized by means of SQUID magnetometry.

  10. Anodic formation of low-aspect-ratio porous alumina films for metal-oxide sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokh, G.; Mozalev, A.; Solovei, D.; Khatko, V.; Llobet, E.; Correig, X.

    2006-01-01

    Thin nanoporous anodic alumina films, of low aspect ratio (1:1), with two distinctive pore sizes and morphologies were prepared by two-step constant-current anodising of aluminium layers on SiO 2 /Si substrates in 0.4 mol dm -3 tartaric (TA) and malonic acid (MA) electrolytes and then modified by open-circuit dissolution. The anodic films were employed as a support material for sputtering-deposition of thin WO 3 layers in view of exploiting their gas sensing properties. The films and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electric resistance measurements at fixed temperatures in the range of 100-300 deg. C upon NH 3 and CO gas exposures. Test sensors prepared from the annealed and stabilized alumina-supported WO 3 active layers were insensitive to CO but showed considerably enhanced responses to NH 3 at 300 deg. C, the sensitivity depending upon the anodic film nature, the pore size and the surface morphology. The increased sensor sensitivity is due to the substantially enlarged film surface area of the TA-supported WO 3 films and the nanostructured, camomile-like morphology of the MA-supported WO 3 films. Sensing mechanisms in the alumina-supported WO 3 active layers are discussed

  11. Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Porous Anodic Alumina Thin Films from Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Richard X; Fisher, Timothy; Raman, Arvind; Sands, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a precise and convenient technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed to measure the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of a porous anodic alumina thin film. A stage was used to heat the sample from room temperature up to 450 K. Thermal effects on AFM probes and different operation modes at elevated temperatures were also studied, and a silicon AFM probe in the tapping mode was chosen for the subsequent measurements due to its temperature insensitivi...

  12. Influence of the anodizing process variables on the acidic properties of anodic alumina films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Boldrini

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work, the effect of the different variables involved in the process of aluminum anodizing on the total surface acidity of the samples obtained was studied. Aluminum foils were treated by the electro-chemical process of anodic anodizing within the following variable ranges: concentration = 1.5-2.5 M; temperature = 303-323 K; voltage = 10-20 V; time = 30-90 min. The total acidity of the samples was characterized by two different methods: acid-base titration using Hammett indicators and potentiometric titration. The results showed that anodizing time, temperature and concentration were the main variables that determined the surface acid properties of the samples, and to a lesser extent voltage. Acidity increased with increasing concentration of the electrolytic bath, whereas the rest of the variables had the opposite effect. The results obtained provide a novel tool for variable selection in order to use synthetized materials as catalytic supports, adding to previous research based on the morphology of alumina layers.

  13. Formation and disruption of current paths of anodic porous alumina films by conducting atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Nigo, S.; Inoue, J.; Sakai, O.; Kitazawa, H.; Kido, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina (APA) films have a honeycomb cell structure of pores and a voltage-induced bi-stable switching effect. We have applied conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a method to form and to disrupt current paths in the APA films. A bi-polar switching operation was confirmed. We have firstly observed terminals of current paths as spots or areas typically on the center of the triangle formed by three pores. In addition, though a part of the current path showed repetitive switching, most of them were not observed again at the same position after one cycle of switching operations in the present experiments. This suggests that a part of alumina structure and/or composition along the current paths is modified during the switching operations.

  14. On hydrophilicity improvement of the porous anodic alumina film by hybrid nano/micro structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Kaige; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Bai, Jintao

    2017-09-01

    In both, laboratory and industry, tremendous attention is paid to discover an effective technique to produce uniform, controllable and (super) hydrophilic surfaces over large areas that are useful in a wide range of applications. In this investigation, by combing porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with nano-structures and microarray of aluminum, the hydrophilicity of hybrid nano-micro structure has been significantly improved. It is found some factors can affect the hydrophilicity of film, such as the size and aspect ratio of microarray, the thickness of nano-PAA film etc. Comparing with pure nano-PAA films and microarray, the hybrid nano-micro structure can provide uniform surface with significantly better hydrophilicity. The improvement can be up to 84%. Also, this technique exhibits good stability and repeatability for industrial production. By optimizing the thickness of nano-PAA film and aspect ratio of micro-structures, super-hydrophilicity can be reached. This study has obvious prospect in the fields of chemical industry, biomedical engineering and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  15. Preparation of mesoporous alumina films by anodization: Effect of pretreatments on the aluminum surface and MTBE catalytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.L.; Carrera, R.; Arce, E.; Castillo, N.; Castillo, S.; Moran-Pineda, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous materials are both scientifically and technologically important because of the presence of voids of controllable dimensions at atomic, molecular, and nanometric scales. Over the last decade, there has been both an increasing interest and research effort in the synthesis and characterization of these types of materials. The purposes of this work are to study the physical and chemical changes in the properties of mesoporous alumina films produced by anodization in sulphuric acid by different pretreatments on the aluminium surface such as mechanical polishing [MP] and electropolishing [EP]; and to compare their properties such as morphology, structure and catalytic activity with those present in commercial alumina. The morphologic and physical characterizations of the alumina film samples were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical evaluations were performed by the oxidation of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) at 400 deg. C under O 2 /He oxidizing conditions (Praxair, 2.0% O 2 /He balance). According to the results, the samples that presented higher activities than those in Al 2 O 3 /Al [MP] and commercial alumina in the MTBE oxidation (69%), were those prepared by Al 2 O 3 /Al [EP]. The average mesoporous diameter was 17 nm, and the morphological shape was equiaxial; thus, that pore distribution was the smallest of all with a homogeneous distribution.

  16. Preparation of mesoporous alumina films by anodization: Effect of pretreatments on the aluminum surface and MTBE catalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, A.L., E-mail: avazquezd@ipn.m [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carrera, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castillo, N. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica. Av. IPN 2508, 07360, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Castillo, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, AP 75-876, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Moran-Pineda, M. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Mesoporous materials are both scientifically and technologically important because of the presence of voids of controllable dimensions at atomic, molecular, and nanometric scales. Over the last decade, there has been both an increasing interest and research effort in the synthesis and characterization of these types of materials. The purposes of this work are to study the physical and chemical changes in the properties of mesoporous alumina films produced by anodization in sulphuric acid by different pretreatments on the aluminium surface such as mechanical polishing [MP] and electropolishing [EP]; and to compare their properties such as morphology, structure and catalytic activity with those present in commercial alumina. The morphologic and physical characterizations of the alumina film samples were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical evaluations were performed by the oxidation of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) at 400 deg. C under O{sub 2}/He oxidizing conditions (Praxair, 2.0% O{sub 2}/He balance). According to the results, the samples that presented higher activities than those in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al [MP] and commercial alumina in the MTBE oxidation (69%), were those prepared by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al [EP]. The average mesoporous diameter was 17 nm, and the morphological shape was equiaxial; thus, that pore distribution was the smallest of all with a homogeneous distribution.

  17. Fabrication of Densely Packed AlN Nanowires by a Chemical Conversion of Al2O3Nanowires Based on Porous Anodic Alumina Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Da-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina film on aluminum with gel-like pore wall was prepared by a two-step anodization of aluminum, and the corresponding gel-like porous film was etched in diluted NaOH solution to produce alumina nanowires in the form of densely packed alignment. The resultant alumina nanowires were reacted with NH3and evaporated aluminum at an elevated temperature to be converted into densely packed aluminum nitride (AlN nanowires. The AlN nanowires have a diameter of 15–20 nm larger than that of the alumina nanowires due to the supplement of the additional evaporated aluminum. The results suggest that it might be possible to prepare other aluminum compound nanowires through similar process.

  18. Hollow carbon nanospheres/silicon/alumina core-shell film as an anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yao, Fei; Bae, Jung Jun; Chang, Jian; Zamfir, Mihai Robert; Le, Duc Toan; Pham, Duy Tho; Yue, Hongyan; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    Hollow carbon nanospheres/silicon/alumina (CNS/Si/Al2O3) core-shell films obtained by the deposition of Si and Al2O3 on hollow CNS interconnected films are used as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The hollow CNS film acts as a three dimensional conductive substrate and provides void space for silicon volume expansion during electrochemical cycling. The Al2O3 thin layer is beneficial to the reduction of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Moreover, as-designed structure holds the robust surface-to-surface contact between Si and CNSs, which facilitates the fast electron transport. As a consequence, the electrode exhibits high specific capacity and remarkable capacity retention simultaneously: 1560 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 1 A g−1 with the capacity retention of 85% and an average decay rate of 0.16% per cycle. The superior battery properties are further confirmed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance measurement. PMID:25564245

  19. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Anodization of aluminium surfaces containing linearly oriented scratches leads to the formation of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) with the nanopores arranged preferentially along the scratch marks. NAA, when coated with a thin gold film, support plasmonic resonances. Dark-field spectroscopy revealed that ...

  20. Fabrication of Highly Ordered Gold Nanorods Film Using Alumina Nanopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Soltani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for fabrication of highly ordered gold nanorod film is introduced in this article. The procedure is based on thermal evaporation of gold into a porous anodic alumina film (PAA. The PPA film was fabricated by combining the hard and mild anodization. This combination effectively decreases the processing time of fabrication of highly ordered porous anodic alumina film with controlled pore diameter and length.  It was found that gold nanorods configuration affected by the porous anodic alumina film structure such as pore diameter and length. Furthermore the evaporation process change the rods diameter along the nanopores via the decreasing the pore mouth during the gold deposition.

  1. Energy transfer in porous anodic alumina/rhodamine 110 nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhouichet, H., E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Mineraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Materiaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, University of Tunis Elmanar 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Harima, N.; Koyama, H. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato, Hyogo 673-1494 (Japan); Gaponenko, N.V. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browki St. 6, 220013 Minsk (Belarus)

    2012-09-15

    We have used porous anodic alumina (PAA) films as templates for embedding rhodamine 110 (Rh110) molecules and examined their photoluminescence (PL) properties in detail. The analysis of the polarization memory (PM) of PL strongly suggests that there is a significant energy transfer from PAA to Rh110 molecules. The effect of annealing the PAA layer on the PL properties of the nanocomposite has been studied. The results show that the energy transfer becomes more efficient in annealed PAA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous anodic alumina-rhodamine 110 nanocomposites are elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient energy transfer from the host to Rh110 molecules is evidenced from measurements of photoluminescence and degree of polarization memory spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of porous anodic alumina can improve the process of excitation transfer.

  2. MeV ion beam polishing of anodically grown alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, B.; Martin, P.

    1988-01-01

    When bombarded with 1 MeV N + ions, the surface of anodically grown alumina films is smoothened. This polishing effect was studied as a function of the ion bombardment fluence and of the substrate temperature in the range 80 - 650 K. The techniques used to characterize the surface roughness were Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and small angle X-rays diffusion. It is suggested that atomic and/or electronic sputtering is responsible for the smoothing effect which was observed

  3. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  4. Structural analysis of anodic porous alumina used for resistive random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeungwoo; Nigo, Seisuke; Kato, Seiichi; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Kido, Giyuu; Nakano, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Anodic porous alumina with duplex layers exhibits a voltage-induced switching effect and is a promising candidate for resistive random access memory. The nanostructural analysis of porous alumina is important for understanding the switching effect. We investigated the difference between the two layers of an anodic porous alumina film using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Diffraction patterns showed that both layers are amorphous, and the electron energy-loss spectroscopy indicated that the inner layer contains less oxygen than the outer layer. We speculate that the conduction paths are mostly located in the oxygen-depleted area.

  5. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method

  6. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  7. Enhanced gas separation factors of microporous polymer constrained in the channels of anodic alumina membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, Ekaterina; Petukhov, Dmitrii; Boytsova, Olga; Alentiev, Alexander; Budd, Peter; Yampolskii, Yuri; Eliseev, Andrei

    2016-08-08

    New composite membranes based on porous anodic alumina films and polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) have been prepared using a spin-coating technique. According to scanning electron microscopy, partial penetration of polymer into the pores of alumina supports takes place giving rise to selective polymeric layers with fiber-like microstructure. Geometric confinement of rigid PIM-1 in the channels of anodic alumina causes reduction of small-scale mobility in polymeric chains. As a result, transport of permanent gases, such as CH4, becomes significantly hindered across composite membranes. Contrary, the transport of condensable gases (CO2, С4H10), did not significantly suffer from the confinement due to high solubility in the polymer matrix. This strategy enables enhancement of selectivity towards CO2 and C4H10 without significant loss of the membrane performance and seems to be prospective for drain and sweetening of natural gas.

  8. Structural Engineering of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Photonic Crystals by Sawtooth-like Pulse Anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel; Nemati, Mahdieh; Losic, Dusan

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a sawtooth-like pulse anodization approach aiming to create a new type of photonic crystal structure based on nanoporous anodic alumina. This nanofabrication approach enables the engineering of the effective medium of nanoporous anodic alumina in a sawtooth-like manner with precision. The manipulation of various anodization parameters such as anodization period, anodization amplitude, number of anodization pulses, ramp ratio and pore widening time allows a precise control and fine-tuning of the optical properties (i.e., characteristic transmission peaks and interferometric colors) exhibited by nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals (NAA-PCs). The effect of these anodization parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-PCs is systematically evaluated for the establishment of a fabrication methodology toward NAA-PCs with tunable optical properties. The effective medium of the resulting NAA-PCs is demonstrated to be optimal for the development of optical sensing platforms in combination with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). This application is demonstrated by monitoring in real-time the formation of monolayers of thiol molecules (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid) on the surface of gold-coated NAA-PCs. The obtained results reveal that the adsorption mechanism between thiol molecules and gold-coated NAA-PCs follows a Langmuir isotherm model, indicating a monolayer sorption mechanism.

  9. Anodic oxide films on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, A.; Di Quarto, F.; Sunseri, C.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphology of anodic oxide films on tungsten, obtained in various conditions of anodization. Studies were made of the growth of porous films, whose thickness increases with time and depends upon the current density. Temperature and electrolyte composition influence the film morphology. Gravimetric measurements of film dissolution at 70 0 C show that after a transient time, the rate of metal dissolution and that of film formation coincide. The porous films thicken because tungsten dissolves as WO 2 2+ and precipitates as WO 3 .H 2 O. (author)

  10. Characterization of nanopores ordering in anodic alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2008-01-01

    A simple characterization method of the ordering of the nanopores is described for nanoporous anodized aluminium oxides. The method starts with image analysis on scanning electron microscopy representations for the purpose to find repetitive shapes and their centres, i.e. nanopores. Then triangles...

  11. Pore development in anodic alumina in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habakaki, H.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic films on an Al-3.5 at.%W alloy is compared in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes in order to investigate pore development processes. The findings disclose that for anodizing in sulphuric acid, the pores develop mainly due to the influences of field-induced plasticity of the film and growth stresses; in borax, field-assisted dissolution dominates. The films formed in sulphuric acid are consequently much thicker than the layer of oxidized alloy and tungsten species are retained in the film. In contrast, with borax, the films and oxidized alloy layers are of similar thickness and tungsten species are lost to the electrolyte. Efficiencies of film growth are also significantly different, about 65% in sulphuric acid and about 52% in borax. The retention of tungsten species during anodizing in sulphuric acid is due to the localization of tungsten in the inner regions of the barrier layer and cell walls, with a layer of anodic alumina separating the tungsten-containing regions from the electrolyte. For borax, the tungsten is distributed more uniformly through the film material, enabling loss of tungsten species to the electrolyte from the pore base

  12. Nanocarbon-Coated Porous Anodic Alumina for Bionic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Aramesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly-stable and biocompatible nanoporous electrode is demonstrated herein. The electrode is based on a porous anodic alumina which is conformally coated with an ultra-thin layer of diamond-like carbon. The nanocarbon coating plays an essential role for the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the electrodes; thus, the coated electrodes are ideally suited for biomedical applications. The corrosion resistance of the proposed electrodes was tested under extreme chemical conditions, such as in boiling acidic/alkali environments. The nanostructured morphology and the surface chemistry of the electrodes were maintained after wet/dry chemical corrosion tests. The non-cytotoxicity of the electrodes was tested by standard toxicity tests using mouse fibroblasts and cortical neurons. Furthermore, the cell–electrode interaction of cortical neurons with nanocarbon coated nanoporous anodic alumina was studied in vitro. Cortical neurons were found to attach and spread to the nanocarbon coated electrodes without using additional biomolecules, whilst no cell attachment was observed on the surface of the bare anodic alumina. Neurite growth appeared to be sensitive to nanotopographical features of the electrodes. The proposed electrodes show a great promise for practical applications such as retinal prostheses and bionic implants in general.

  13. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.G.

    1978-08-01

    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

  14. Porous anodic alumina on galvanically grown PtSi layer for application in template-assisted Si nanowire growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrinidou Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the fabrication and morphology/structural characterization of a porous anodic alumina (PAA/PtSi nano-template for use as matrix in template-assisted Si nanowire growth on a Si substrate. The PtSi layer was formed by electroless deposition from an aqueous solution containing the metal salt and HF, while the PAA membrane by anodizing an Al film deposited on the PtSi layer. The morphology and structure of the PtSi layer and of the alumina membrane on top were studied by Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM, HRTEM. Cross sectional HRTEM images combined with electron diffraction (ED were used to characterize the different interfaces between Si, PtSi and porous anodic alumina.

  15. Nanostructural characterization of large-scale porous alumina fabricated via anodizing in arsenic acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiya, Shunta; Kikuchi, Tatsuya, E-mail: kiku@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Anodic porous alumina was formed in an arsenic acid solution. • Potential difference (voltage) anodizing at 340 V was achieved. • The porous alumina was slightly ordered under the appropriate conditions. • Pore sealing behavior was not observed in boiling distilled water. • The porous alumina exhibits a white photoluminescence emission under UV irradiation. - Abstract: Anodizing of aluminum in an arsenic acid solution is reported for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina. The highest potential difference (voltage) without oxide burning increased as the temperature and the concentration of the arsenic acid solution decreased, and a high anodizing potential difference of 340 V was achieved. An ordered porous alumina with several tens of cells was formed in 0.1–0.5 M arsenic acid solutions at 310–340 V for 20 h. However, the regularity of the porous alumina was not improved via anodizing for 72 h. No pore sealing behavior of the porous alumina was observed upon immersion in boiling distilled water, and it may be due to the formation of an insoluble complex on the oxide surface. The porous alumina consisted of two different layers: a hexagonal alumina layer that contained arsenic from the electrolyte and a pure alumina honeycomb skeleton. The porous alumina exhibited a white photoluminescence emission at approximately 515 nm under UV irradiation at 254 nm.

  16. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  17. Current Trends in Nanoporous Anodized Alumina Platforms for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pristine aluminum (Al has received great deal of attention on fabrication of nanoporous anodized alumina (NAA with arrays of nanosized uniform pores with controllable pore sizes and lengths by the anodization process. There are many applications of NAA in the field of biosensors due to its numerous key factors such as ease of fabrication, high surface area, chemical stability and detection of biomolecules through bioconjugation of active molecules, its rapidness, and real-time monitoring. Herein, we reviewed the recent trends on the fabrication of NAA for high sensitive biosensor platforms like bare sensors, gold coated sensors, multilayer sensors, and microfluidic device supported sensors for the detection of various biomolecules. In addition, we have discussed the future prospectus about the improvement of NAA based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules.

  18. Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina with Ultrasmall Nanopores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding GuQiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anodization of Al foil under low voltages of 1–10 V was conducted to obtain porous anodic aluminas (PAAs with ultrasmall nanopores. Regular nanopore arrays with pore diameter 6–10 nm were realized in four different electrolytes under 0–30°C according to the AFM, FESEM, TEM images and current evolution curves. It is found that the pore diameter and interpore distance, as well as the barrier layer thickness, are not sensitive to the applied potentials and electrolytes, which is totally different from the rules of general PAA fabrication. The brand-new formation mechanism has been revealed by the AFM study on the samples anodized for very short durations of 2–60 s. It is discovered for the first time that the regular nanoparticles come into being under 1–10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultrasmall nanopores. Under higher potentials from 10 to 40 V, the surface nanoparticles will be less and less and nanopores transform into general PAAs.

  19. Optical properties of alumina membranes prepared by anodic oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaojian; Huang Kelong

    2007-01-01

    The luminescence property of anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) with ordered nanopore arrays prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminum in oxalic acid solutions have been investigated. Photoluminescence emission (PL) measurement shows that a blue PL band occurs in the wavelength ranges of 300-600 nm. The PL intensity and peak position of AAMs depend markedly on the excitation wavelength. A new peak located at 518 nm can be observed under a monitoring wavelength at 429 nm in the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. Convincing evidences have been presented that the PLE would be associated with the residual aluminum ions in the membrane. The PLE and PL of AAMs, as a function of anodizing times, have been discussed. It is found that the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs would have important influences on the optical properties of AAMs in the initial stage of anodization. The PL and PLE spectra obtained show that there are three optical centers, of which the first is originated from the F + centers in AAMs, the second is correlated with the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs, and the third is associated with the excess aluminum ions in the membrane

  20. From alumina nanopores to nanotubes: dependence on the geometry of anodization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Adriano F; da Costa, Marlla V; Migowski, Pedro; Dupont, Jaïrton; Teixeira, Sérgio R; Amaral, Lívio

    2011-03-01

    The Conventional anodization of commercial aluminum sheets with a phosphoric acid electrolyte was employed for the preparation of alumina nanopore and/or nanotube structures. Modifying the system geometry (the ratio of platinum to aluminum electrode areas) controlled the nature of the anodization process (mild to hard). Nanotube formation was observed after low temperature preferential chemical etching of the defective corners of the hexagonal alumina cells using the same solution from the anodization process. Electrode geometry can be used to combine mild and hard anodization with low temperature etching to tune the alumina morphology from 100% nanopores to 100% nanotubos coverage.

  1. Study the effect of striping in two-step anodizing process on pore arrangement of nano-porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, M.H.; Saramad, S.; Tabaian, S.H.; Marashi, S.P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mohammadalinezhad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-step anodic oxidation of aluminum is generally employed to produce the ordered porous anodized alumina (PAA). Dissolving away (striping) the oxide film after the first anodizing step plays a key role in the final arrangement of nano-pores. In this work, different striping durations between 1 and 6 h were applied to the sample that was initially anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V at 17 deg. C for 15 h. The striping duration of 3 h was realized as the optimum time for achieving the best ordering degree for the pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used during and at the end of the process to examine the cross section and finishing surface of the specimens. Linear-angular fast Fourier transform (LA-FFT), an in-house technique based on MATLAB software, was employed to assess the ordering degree of the anodized samples.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Structural Color by Widening the Pore Size of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Jiawen Li; Zhiqiang Zhu; Yanlei Hu; Jinjin Zheng; Jiaru Chu; Wenhao Huang

    2014-01-01

    The structural color originated from the nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) film is related to the structural characteristics. This paper aimed to obtain different structural colors which can cover the whole visible range by widening the pore size of metal-coated NAA. First, we used the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to analyze the relationship between the physical structure and optical properties. Then, we fabricated different colors and expected color pattern by widening the pore...

  3. Matrix coatings based on anodic alumina with carbon nanostructures in the pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokh, G. G.; Pashechko, M. I.; Borc, J. T.; Lozovenko, A. A.; Kashko, I. A.; Latos, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes thickness of 1.5 mm and pore sizes of 45, 90 and 145 nm were formed on Si substrates. The tubular carbon nanostructures were synthesized into the matrixes pores by pyrolysis of fluid hydrocarbon xylene with 1% ferrocene. The structure and composition of the matrix coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy, Auger analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon nanostructures completely filled the pores of templates and uniformly covered the tops. The structure of carbon nanostructures corresponded to the structure of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Investigations of mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured oxide-carbon composite performed by scratching and nanoindentation showed nonlinear dependencies of the frictional force, penetration depth of the cantilever, hardness and plane strain modulus on the load. It was found that the microhardness of the samples increases with reduced of alumina pore diameter, and the penetration depth of the cantilever into the film grows with carbon nanostructures size. The results showed the high mechanical strength of nanostructured oxide-carbon composite.

  4. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-21

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.

  5. Growth of anodic films on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M.A.B.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of the response of the galvanostatic growth of anodic films on niobium metal in aqueous solutions is shown. The first spark voltage showed a dependence upon value of current density that could be explained as the incorporation of anions into the film. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Method for Synthesizing Metal Nanowires in Anodic Alumina Membranes Using Solid State Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Inesta, Maria M (Inventor); Feliciano, Jennie (Inventor); Quinones-Fontalvo, Leonel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention proposes a novel method for the fabrication of regular arrays of MNWs using solid-state reduction (SSR). Using this method copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and palladium (Pd) nanowire (NWs) arrays were synthesized using anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) as templates. Depending on the metal loading used the NWs reached different diameters.

  7. Density control of electrodeposited Ni nanoparticles/nanowires inside porous anodic alumina templates by an exponential anodization voltage decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, B; Eude, L; Gowtham, M; Cho, G; Jeong, H J; Châtelet, M; Cojocaru, C S; Kim, B S; Pribat, D

    2008-10-08

    Porous alumina templates have been fabricated by applying an exponential voltage decrease at the end of the anodization process. The time constant η of the exponential voltage function has been used to control the average thickness and the thickness distribution of the barrier layer at the bottom of the pores of the alumina structure. Depending on the η value, the thickness distribution of the barrier layer can be made very uniform or highly scattered, which allows us to subsequently fine tune the electrodeposition yield of nickel nanoparticles/nanowires at low voltage. As an illustration, the pore filling percentage with Ni has been varied, in a totally reproducible manner, between ∼3 and 100%. Combined with the ability to vary the pore diameter and repetition step over ∼2 orders of magnitude (by varying the anodization voltage and electrolyte type), the control of the pore filling percentage with metal particles/nanowires could bring novel approaches for the organization of nano-objects.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Structural Color by Widening the Pore Size of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural color originated from the nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA film is related to the structural characteristics. This paper aimed to obtain different structural colors which can cover the whole visible range by widening the pore size of metal-coated NAA. First, we used the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method to analyze the relationship between the physical structure and optical properties. Then, we fabricated different colors and expected color pattern by widening the pore diameter of NAA. Numerical and experimental study shows that the colors can cover the whole visible range by widening the pore diameter. This work can not only lead to better understanding of the mechanism of tuning color on NAA film, but also help us to fabricate expected color in the whole light range.

  9. Anodic titania films as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.J.; Blackford, M.G.; Attard, D.J.; Luca, V.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.; Griffith, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Titania thin films were prepared through the anodisation of titanium metal in a 1.0 M sulphuric acid solution at 80 o C utilising a series of pulsed dc constant currents of increasing magnitude. Films were then tested as a potential anode material for lithium batteries using a variety of techniques. Electrochemical testing revealed that the films (3.8 cm 2 ) offered good rate capabilities affording a constant capacity of 48 μAh for a constant current of 10 μA which decreased to 25 μAh on increasing the current to 1250 μA. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted over a range of scan rates from which capacitive currents were examined and rate constants, transfer coefficients and diffusion coefficients calculated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted over six potentials in the range 0.1-2.7 V with the experimental data successfully modelled using an equivalent circuit with the notation R(Q(RW))C. TEM observation of focussed ion beam milled cross-sections showed significant structural differences between the as-anodised film and those cycled in a lithium battery. Raman spectroscopy showed that the films had an anatase character that transformed into an unidentified lithium-containing, titanate phase on cycling. Based on a film thickness of 100 nm, and assuming density of 4 g cm -3 such films offered a stable capacity of 316 mAh g -1

  10. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a simple technique to align the nanopores in a linear fashion along lines by using an aluminium surface with linear scratch marks made on it prior to the anodization process. The nanopores tend to preferentially form along the scratch marks resulting in a linear organization of the nanopores to form an ...

  11. Transparent Aluminum Oxide Films by Edge Anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jonathan; Greenwood, Thomas; Winn, David

    In this paper we present our recent work on manufacturing thin (3 - 5 μm) films of porous aluminum(III) oxide [PAO] using a novel edge-anodization technique. With this modified anodization process, we are able to create transparent PAO films on top of insulating substrates such as glass or plastic. By controlling the processing parameters, the index of refraction of PAO films can be engineered to match the substrate, which gives us a durable reflection-free and scratch-resistant coating over conventional optics or LCD displays. Eventually we hope to create ordered porous aluminum oxide cladding around an optical fiber core, which could have a number of interesting optical properties if the pore spacing can be matched to the wavelength of light in the fiber. This work was funded by Fairfield University startup funding.

  12. Vertically aligned nanowires on flexible silicone using a supported alumina template prepared by pulsed anodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carpets of vertically aligned nanowires on flexible substrates are successfully realized by a template method. Applying special pulsed anodization conditions, defect-free nanoporous alumina structures supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible silicone elastomer, are created. By using...... this template with nanopores ending on a conducting underlayer, a high-density nanowire array can be simply grown by direct DCelectrodeposition on the top of the silicone rubber....

  13. Advances of the research evolution on aluminum electrochemical anodic oxidation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. B.; Hu, J. C.; Li, K. Q.; Zhang, S. Y.; Fan, Q. H.; Liu, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    This article gives an overview on the development of aluminum anodization technique in terms of fundamental aspects and practical applications in the past decades. Besides, the formation mechanism and structural characteristics of anodic alumina films as well as the factors affected the formation of porous anodic alumina films are also discussed. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared by the anodization method can be divided into two categories: dense anodic alumina (DAA) and porous anodic alumina (PAA). This article also summarizes the optical properties, magnetic properties, solar absorption properties, and catalytic properties of porous anodic alumina film and its applications in nanomaterials, optical materials, magnetic materials, biosensors, solar cells, and so on. In addition, future developmental trend of porous anodic alumina film is covered.

  14. Synthesis and properties of iridescent Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiaoxuan; Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan

    2015-07-01

    A simple method of fabricating Zn-containing anodic aluminum oxide films for multifunctional anticounterfeit technology is reported. The resulting membranes were characterized with UV–vis illumination studies, natural light illumination color experiments, and electron microscopy analysis. Deposition of Zn in the nanopore region can enhance the color saturation of the thin alumina film with different colors dramatically. Both the anodization time and etching time have great influence on the structural color. The mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon are discussed and theoretical analysis further demonstrates the experimental results. - Highlights: • Iridescent PAA@Zn nanocomposite films were successfully fabricated. • A simple organics-assisted method is applied to making a series of fancy and multicolor patterns. • The color varies with the angle of incidence of the light used to view the film as is expected with Bragg–Snell formula. • Such colored films could be used in multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  15. Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Fernández, Jose Francisco; Caballero-Calero, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures combine properties of nanoscale materials with the advantages of being macro-sized pieces when the time comes to manipulate, measure their properties, or make a device. However, the amount of compounds with the ability to self-organize in ordered three-dimensional nanostructures is limited. Therefore, template-based fabrication strategies become the key approach towards three-dimensional nanostructures. Here we report the simple fabrication of a template based on anodic aluminum oxide, having a well-defined, ordered, tunable, homogeneous 3D nanotubular network in the sub 100 nm range. The three-dimensional templates are then employed to achieve three-dimensional, ordered nanowire-networks in Bi2Te3 and polystyrene. Lastly, we demonstrate the photonic crystal behavior of both the template and the polystyrene three-dimensional nanostructure. Our approach may establish the foundations for future high-throughput, cheap, photonic materials and devices made of simple commodity plastics, metals, and semiconductors. PMID:25342247

  16. Si nanopatterning by reactive ion etching through an on-chip self-assembled porous anodic alumina mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianneta, Violetta; Olziersky, Antonis; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2013-02-01

    We report on Si nanopatterning through an on-chip self-assembled porous anodic alumina (PAA) masking layer using reactive ion etching based on fluorine chemistry. Three different gases/gas mixtures were investigated: pure SF6, SF6/O2, and SF6/CHF3. For the first time, a systematic investigation of the etch rate and process anisotropy was performed. It was found that in all cases, the etch rate through the PAA mask was 2 to 3 times lower than that on non-masked areas. With SF6, the etching process is, as expected, isotropic. By the addition of O2, the etch rate does not significantly change, while anisotropy is slightly improved. The lowest etch rate and the best anisotropy were obtained with the SF6/CHF3 gas mixture. The pattern of the hexagonally arranged pores of the alumina film is, in this case, perfectly transferred to the Si surface. This is possible both on large areas and on restricted pre-defined areas on the Si wafer.

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of graphitic carbon nitride nanofibers using porous anodic alumina templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S. M.; Udayashankar, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we describe an effective method for the synthesis of Graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) nanostructures using porous anodic alumina (AAO) membrane as template by simple thermal condensation of cyanamide. Synthesized nanostructure was fully analysed by various techniques to detect its crystalline nature, morphology, luminescent properties followed by the evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Methylene blue dye. Structural analysis of synthesized GCNNF was systematically carried out using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and. The results confirmed the growth of GCN inside the nanochannels of anodic alumina templates. Luminescent properties of GCNNF were studied using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL analysis showed the presence of a strong emission peak in the wavelength range of 350–600 nm in blue region. GCNNF displays higher photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methylene blue compare to the bulk GCN. Highlights 1. In the present paper, we report the synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanofibers (GCNNF) using porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes as templates through thermal condensation of cyanamide at 500 °C. 2. The synthesis of Graphitic carbon nitride nanofibers using porous andic alumina template is the efficient approach for increasing crystallinity and surface area. 3. The high surface area of graphitic carbon nitride nanofibers has a good impact on novel optical and photocatalytic properties of the bulkGCN. 4. AAO templating of GCN is one of the versatile method to produce tailorable GCN nanostructures with higher surface area and less number of structural defects. 5. Towards photocatalytic degradation of dyes, the tuning of physical properties is very essential thing hence we are succeeded in achieving better catalytic performance of GCN nanostructures by making use of AAO templates.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of mesoporous silica nanochannels inside the channels of anodic alumina membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz M. Mekawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brij type surfactants (CnEOx that have different chemical structures were used to fabricate 3D Mesoporous Silica Nanochannels (MSN inside the channels of Anodic Alumina Membrane (AAM under acidic conditions. The fabricated 3D MSN were characterized using TEM-ED, SEM, Small angle XRD, and N2 isotherm. Results revealed that the synthesis of ordered 3D cubic Im3m mesostructures can be formed with tunable pore diameters varied from 4.0 to 4.9 nm that are partially affected with the length of ethylene oxide (EO group in the template surfactant.

  19. Preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotubes by pyrolysis of phenolic resin in anodic alumina pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Zhi; Wei, Jian; Li, He-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Lei; Wang, Chuang; Hou, Dang-She

    2007-07-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of high quality were synthesized by pyrolysis of phenolic resin at 800 °C in anodic alumina oxide (AAO) pores under argon protection. The innocuous source materials and safe operational conditions permit this method to synthesize well-aligned CNTs in large-scale and low cost. The formation mechanism of the synthesized CNTs is also proposed in this work by a series of visual sketches and is proved with obvious evidence. Firstly, phenolic resin nanotubes form in the template pores through the evaporation of solvent. Heat treatment then transfers these tubes into CNTs.

  20. Collimated microfiber spectroscopy for optical characterization of disordered porous anodic alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Kimura, Saho; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kimura, Daiki; Ohkoshi, Yutaka; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Usami, Hisanao

    2016-02-01

    A novel collimated microfiber spectroscopy technique using an optical fiber probe with microball lens was developed to observe the photonic crystalline characteristics of porous anodized alumina (PAA) slabs with disordered arrays of holes. Transmittance spectra of the PAA slab observed by the microfiber probe with ball lens showed a broad valley at ∼410 nm; conversely, no significant valley was observed by an ordinary microfiber spectroscope without ball lens. The broad valley was comparable with that observed in a spectrum simulated for a model based on a scanning electron microscopy image of the PAA slab by using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  1. Study and utilization of residual sludges rich in alumina from an anodizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Carlos; Montero, Mavis L.; Rodriguez, Ventura

    2006-01-01

    Residual sludges from a process of anodizing were studied by x-ray diffraction as part of research into alternative materials for the chemical industry. The sludge containing mainly bayerite Al(OH) 3 and bohemite AlO(OH). The phases of α and β alumina were identified at 700 degrees, corundum phase is present at 850 degrees. Zeolite A is synthesized from these and by means of hydrothermal, which was identified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning microscopy of zeolite A shows a high degree of crystallinity. (author) [es

  2. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Platforms: Engineered Surface Chemistry and Structure for Optical Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kumeria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices.

  3. A novel vertical fan-out platform based on an array of curved anodic alumina nanochannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Yi; Lai, Ming-Yu; Tsai, Kun-Tong; Chang, Hsuan-Hao; Wang, Yuh-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Shiue, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam lithography and a two-step anodization have been combined to fabricate a vertical fan-out platform containing an array of unique probes. Each probe comprises three anodic alumina nanochannels with a fan-out arrangement. The lithography is used to pattern an aluminum sheet with a custom-designed array of triangular ‘cells’ whose apexes are composed of nanoholes. The nanoholes grow into straight nanochannels under proper voltage in the first-step anodization. The second step uses a doubled voltage to induce lateral repulsion among the nanochannels’ growth fronts originating in the same cell. Therefore, the fronts fan out. The repulsion roots in the inter-front distance being shorter than the naturally favoured length, which increases with anodization voltage. The fan-out evolution continues until the growth fronts originating in all the cells evolve into a close-packed two-dimensional hexagonal lattice whose spacing is identical to the favoured one. The chemical and physical mechanisms behind the fan-out fabrication are discussed. This novel fan-out platform facilitates probing and handling of many signals from different areas on a sample’s surface and is therefore promising for applications in detection and manipulation at the nanoscale level. (paper)

  4. An electrochemical investigation on the dissolution of bilayered porous anodic alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Jinfu; Ling, Zhiyuan; Li, Yi; Hu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulse polarization was introduced to investigate the dissolution of PAA. • Electric field within the bilayers was estimated. • The formation of the barrier layer involves mainly solid-state processes. • The structure should be the determining factor in the dissolution of the bilayers. - Abstract: Anodic alumina attracts much research interest in many disciplines for its versatility. Meanwhile, some aspects regarding its growth are still not well-understood, such as the formation and properties of its bilayer structure. In this paper, along with capacitance measurement, pulse polarization is introduced to study the dissolution of bilayered porous anodic alumina (PAA). Combined with electron microscope observation, the electric field in the outer layer is estimated to be slightly higher than that in the inner layer. By comparing with (oxy-)hydroxide layers, the electric field distribution within barrier layer of PAA confirms that the bilayers are compact and are formed mainly by solid-state ionic migration. The changes of dissolution rates after annealing and application of electric pulses suggest that structure may be a determining factor for the dissolution behaviors of the bilayers.

  5. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  6. Effects of Processing Temperatures of Nickel Plating on Capacitance Density of Alumina Film Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myung-Sun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2015-06-01

    We observed the effects of nickel plating temperatures for controlling the surface morphologies of the deposited nickel layers on the alumina nano-pores. The alumina nano-channels were filled with nickel at various processing temperatures of 60-90 degrees C. The electrical properties of the alumina film capacitors were changed with processing temperatures. The electroless nickel plating (ENP) at 60 degrees C improved the nickel penetration into the alumina nano-channels due to the reduced reaction rate. Nickel layers are uniformly formed on the high aspect ratio alumina pores. Due to the uniform nickel electrode, the capacitance density of the alumina film capacitors is improved by the low leakage current, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance. Alumina film capacitors made by ENP at 60 degrees C had a high capacitance density of 160 nF/cm2.

  7. Formation and Entrapment of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum from 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Anodic Porous Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shohei; Matsui, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    The formation and entrapment of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) molecules on the surface of anodic porous alumina (APA) immersed in an ethanol solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) were investigated by absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies. The effects of the selected APA preparation conditions (galvanostatic or potentiostatic anodization method, anodizing current and voltage values, one- or two-step anodizing process, and sulfuric acid electrolyte concentration) on the adsorption and desorption of Alq3 species were examined. Among the listed parameters, sulfuric acid concentration was the most important factor in determining the Alq3 adsorption characteristics. The Alq3 content measured after desorption under galvanostatic conditions was 2.5 times larger than that obtained under potentiostatic ones, regardless of the adsorbed quantities. The obtained results suggest the existence of at least two types of adsorption sites on the APA surface characterized by different magnitudes of the Alq3 bonding strength. The related fluorescence spectra contained two peaks at wavelengths of 480 and 505 nm, which could be attributed to isolated Alq3 species inside nanovoids and aggregated Alq3 clusters in the pores of APA, respectively. The former species were attached to the adsorption sites with higher binding energies, whereas the latter ones were bound to the APA surface more weakly. Similar results were obtained for the Alq3 species formed from the HQ solution, which quantitatively exceeded the number of the Alq3 species adsorbed from the Alq3 solution. Alq3 molecules were formed in the HQ solution during the reaction of HQ molecules with the Al3+ ions in the oxide dissolution zone near the oxide/electrolyte interface through the cracks and the Al3+ ions adsorbed on surface of pore and cracks. In addition, it was suggested that HQ molecules could penetrate the nanovoids more easily than Alq3 species because of their smaller sizes, which resulted in higher

  8. Manipulation of optical properties of Ag/Cu alloy nanowire arrays embedded in anodic alumina membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoye; Wang Zhenyang; Zhang Tianci; Zeng Xiaoyan; Xu Wei; Zhang Junxi; Yan Jian; Zhang Jinping; Zhang Lide

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of Ag/Cu alloy nanowires embedded in anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) were synthesized by directly electrodepositing from a mixing electrolyte solution containing Ag + and Cu 2+ ions. Manipulations of optical properties of the resulting samples were successfully achieved by tuning the molar ratio of Ag + and Cu 2+ ions in the starting materials. When the ratio is less than 2:20, two surface plasma resonance (SPR) peaks corresponding to Ag and Cu appear, respectively. After annealing treatment, the SPR peak corresponding to Cu disappears, and that of Ag presents a red shift. Furthermore, this red shift can be up to 85 nm when the molar ratio of Ag + and Cu 2+ reduce to 1:20, which is attributed to the transferable electrons from Cu atoms

  9. Enhancing the platinum atomic layer deposition infiltration depth inside anodic alumina nanoporous membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaish, Amit, E-mail: anv@udel.edu; Krueger, Susan; Dimitriou, Michael; Majkrzak, Charles [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8313 (United States); Vanderah, David J. [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, NIST, Rockville, Maryland 20850 (United States); Chen, Lei, E-mail: lei.chen@nist.gov [NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8313 (United States); Gawrisch, Klaus [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Nanoporous platinum membranes can be straightforwardly fabricated by forming a Pt coating inside the nanopores of anodic alumina membranes (AAO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the high-aspect-ratio of AAO makes Pt ALD very challenging. By tuning the process deposition temperature and precursor exposure time, enhanced infiltration depth along with conformal coating was achieved for Pt ALD inside the AAO templates. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering were employed to analyze the Pt coverage and thickness inside the AAO nanopores. Additionally, one application of platinum-coated membrane was demonstrated by creating a high-density protein-functionalized interface.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of self-assembled thiol monolayers and supported lipid membranes on thin anodic porous alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salerno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin anodic porous alumina (tAPA was fabricated from a 500 nm thick aluminum (Al layer coated on silicon wafers, through single-step anodization performed in a Teflon electrochemical cell in 0.4 M aqueous phosphoric acid at 110 V. Post-fabrication etching in the same acid allowed obtaining tAPA surfaces with ≈160 nm pore diameter and ≈80 nm corresponding wall thickness to be prepared. The tAPA surfaces were made SERS-active by coating with a thin (≈25 nm gold (Au layer. The as obtained tAPA–Au substrates were incubated first with different thiols, namely mercaptobenzoic acid (MbA and aminothiol (AT, and then with phospholipid vesicles of different composition to form a supported lipid bilayer (SLB. At each step, the SERS substrate functionality was assessed, demonstrating acceptable enhancement (≥100×. The chemisorption of thiols during the first step and the formation of SLB from the vesicles during the second step, were independently monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D technique. The SLB membranes represent a simplified model system of the living cells membranes, which makes the successful observation of SERS on these films promising in view of the use of tAPA–Au substrates as a platform for the development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS biosensors on living cells. In the future, these tAPA–Au-SLB substrates will be investigated also for drug delivery of bioactive agents from the APA pores.

  11. Synthesis of Alumina Thin Films Using Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, G.; Palacio, C.; Trujillo, M.; Arroyave, M.

    2017-06-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering in reactive conditions between an aluminium target and oxygen 99.99% pure. The plasma was formed employing Argon with an R.F power of 100 W, the dwelling time was 3 hours. 4 samples were produced with temperatures between 350 and 400 ºC in the substrate by using an oxygen flow of 2 and 8 sccm, the remaining parameters of the process were fixed. The coatings and substrates were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare their properties before and after deposition. The films thicknesses were between 47 and 70 nm. The results show that at high oxygen flow the alumina structure prevails in the coatings while at lower oxygen flow only aluminum is deposited in the coatings. It was shown that the temperature increases grain size and roughness while decreasing the thicknesses of the coatings.

  12. Rare earth-doped alumina thin films deposited by liquid source CVD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanvres, J.L.; Meffre, W.; Joubert, J.C.; Senateur, J.P. [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Phys. de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. des Materiaux et du Genie Phys.; Robaut, F. [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d`Heres (France); Broquin, J.E.; Rimet, R. [Laboratoire d`Electromagnetisme, Microondes et Optoelectronique, CNRS-Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electronique et Radioelectricite de Grenoble, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

    1998-07-24

    Two types of liquid-source CVD processes are proposed for the growth of rare earth-doped alumina thin films suitable as amplifying media for integrated optic applications. Amorphous, transparent, pure and erbium- or neodymium-doped alumina films were deposited between 573 and 833 K by atmospheric pressure aerosol CVD. The rare earth doping concentration increases by decreasing the deposition temperature. The refractive index of the alumina films increases as a function of the deposition temperature from 1.53 at 573 K to 1.61 at 813 K. Neodymium-doped films were also obtained at low pressure by liquid source injection CVD. (orig.) 7 refs.

  13. Fine tuning of transmission features in nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces an innovative apodisation strategy to tune the filtering features of distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs). The effective medium of NAA-DBRs, which is modulated in a stepwise fashion by a pulse-like anodisation approach, is apodised following a logarithmic negative function to engineer the transmission features of NAA-DBRs. We investigate the effect of various apodisation parameters such as apodisation amplitude difference, anodisation period, current density offset and pore widening time, to tune and optimise the optical properties of NAA-DBRs in terms of central wavelength position, full width at half maximum and quality of photonic stop band. The transmission features of NAA-DBRs are shown to be fully controllable with precision across the spectral regions by means of the apodisation parameters. Our study demonstrates that an apodisation strategy can significantly narrow the width and enhance the quality of the characteristic photonic stop band of NAA-DBRs. This rationally designed anodisation approach based on the combination of apodisation and stepwise pulse anodisation enables the development of optical filters with tuneable filtering features to be integrated into optical technologies acting as essential photonic elements in devices such as optical sensors and biosensors.

  14. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  15. Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kliment Ohridski blvd.,. 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria ... porous layer grows, whose pores are placed normally to the electrode surface. It is widely considered that the barrier sub-layer determines to a great extent the electric resistance of porous ...

  16. Fabrication and Optimization of Bilayered Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Structures as Multi-Point Interferometric Sensing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nemati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present an innovative strategy for optimizing hierarchical structures of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA to advance their optical sensing performance toward multi-analyte biosensing. This approach is based on the fabrication of multilayered NAA and the formation of differential effective medium of their structure by controlling three fabrication parameters (i.e., anodization steps, anodization time, and pore widening time. The rationale of the proposed concept is that interferometric bilayered NAA (BL-NAA, which features two layers of different pore diameters, can provide distinct reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS signatures for each layer within the NAA structure and can therefore potentially be used for multi-point biosensing. This paper presents the structural fabrication of layered NAA structures, and the optimization and evaluation of their RIfS optical sensing performance through changes in the effective optical thickness (EOT using quercetin as a model molecule. The bilayered or funnel-like NAA structures were designed with the aim of characterizing the sensitivity of both layers of quercetin molecules using RIfS and exploring the potential of these photonic structures, featuring different pore diameters, for simultaneous size-exclusion and multi-analyte optical biosensing. The sensing performance of the prepared NAA platforms was examined by real-time screening of binding reactions between human serum albumin (HSA-modified NAA (i.e., sensing element and quercetin (i.e., analyte. BL-NAAs display a complex optical interference spectrum, which can be resolved by fast Fourier transform (FFT to monitor the EOT changes, where three distinctive peaks were revealed corresponding to the top, bottom, and total layer within the BL-NAA structures. The spectral shifts of these three characteristic peaks were used as sensing signals to monitor the binding events in each NAA pore in real-time upon exposure to different

  17. Topotactic preparation of textured alumina ceramics from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louaer, Seif-Eddine; Wang, Yao, E-mail: yao@buaa.edu.cn; Guo, Lin, E-mail: guolin@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, textured alumina ceramics were prepared from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films and the pseudomorphic and topotactic nature of the dehydroxylation of textured gibbsite films has been investigated. First, the precursor film with a (001)-textured structure was obtained via vacuum filtration deposition of diluted aqueous suspensions of gibbsite nanoplatelets. Subsequently, (001)-textured α-alumina ceramics were successfully achieved by sintering of the deposited gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results show that, during the phase transition from gibbsite to α-alumina, both layered morphology and crystal's axis orientation have been retained to a considerable extent. For the first time, a direct XRD evidence of gibbsite topotactic dehydroxylation to the α-alumina phase is presented. It is believed that the method described here exploits gibbsite's pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation, not on individual particles scale but on a bulk form. The resulting structure can be considered as inorganic scaffolds which can have applications for fabrication of dense, textured alumina-based ceramics and other layered/textured nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Gibbsite nanoplatelets were assembled on their basal plane to form (001)-textured films. • Textured alumina ceramics were prepared by sintering textured gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. • Both pseudomorphic and topotactic aspects were exploited in bulk form instead of individual nanoparticulate size. • Direct XRD evidence of the topotactic dehydroxylation from gibbsite to α-alumina is presented in this work.

  18. Topotactic preparation of textured alumina ceramics from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louaer, Seif-Eddine; Wang, Yao; Guo, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, textured alumina ceramics were prepared from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films and the pseudomorphic and topotactic nature of the dehydroxylation of textured gibbsite films has been investigated. First, the precursor film with a (001)-textured structure was obtained via vacuum filtration deposition of diluted aqueous suspensions of gibbsite nanoplatelets. Subsequently, (001)-textured α-alumina ceramics were successfully achieved by sintering of the deposited gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results show that, during the phase transition from gibbsite to α-alumina, both layered morphology and crystal's axis orientation have been retained to a considerable extent. For the first time, a direct XRD evidence of gibbsite topotactic dehydroxylation to the α-alumina phase is presented. It is believed that the method described here exploits gibbsite's pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation, not on individual particles scale but on a bulk form. The resulting structure can be considered as inorganic scaffolds which can have applications for fabrication of dense, textured alumina-based ceramics and other layered/textured nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Gibbsite nanoplatelets were assembled on their basal plane to form (001)-textured films. • Textured alumina ceramics were prepared by sintering textured gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. • Both pseudomorphic and topotactic aspects were exploited in bulk form instead of individual nanoparticulate size. • Direct XRD evidence of the topotactic dehydroxylation from gibbsite to α-alumina is presented in this work

  19. Surface modification of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report on the development of a rationally designed composite photocatalyst material by combining nanoporous anodic alumina-rugate filters (NAA-RFs) with photo-active layers of titanium dioxide (TiO2). NAA-RFs are synthesised by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and subsequently functionalised with TiO2 by sol-gel method to provide the photonic structures with photocatalytic properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband (PSB) of the surface-modified NAA-RFs can be precisely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum to enhance the photon-toelectron conversion of TiO2 by `slow photon effect'. We systematically investigate the effect of the anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period and pore widening time) on the position of the PSB of NAA-RFs as well as the photocatalytic performances displayed by these photonic crystal structures. When the edges of the PSB of surfacemodified NAA-RFs are positioned closely to the absorption peak of the model organic dye (i.e. methyl orange - MO), the photocatalytic performance of the system to degrade these molecules is enhanced under simulated solar light irradiation due to slow photon effect. Our investigation also reveals that the photocatalytic activity of surface-modified NAA-RFs is independent of slow photon effect and enhances with increasing period length (i.e. increasing anodisation period) of the photonic structures when there is no overlap between the PSB and the absorption peak of MO. This study therefore provides a rationale towards the photocatalytic enhancement of photonic crystals by a rational design of the PSB, creating new opportunities for the future development of high-performance photocatalysts.

  20. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  1. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  3. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  4. Properties of alumina films by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited at low temperatures (290–420°C) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide. The film properties including the protection of the underlying

  5. The mechanical properties of thin alumina film deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Gellings, P.J.; van de Vendel, D.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.

    1995-01-01

    Amorphous alumina films were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The MOCVD experiments were performed in nitrogen at low and atmospheric pressures. The effects of deposition temperature, growth rate and film thickness on the mechanical

  6. Remote microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RMPECVD) of silica and alumina films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmaison, J.; Hidalgo, H.; Tristant, P.; Naudin, F.; Merle, D. [Limoges Univ. (France). Lab. de Sciences des Procedes Ceramiques et Traitements de Surface

    2002-07-01

    Alumina or silica are attractive as insulation and protective layers for sensitive substrates. Oxides are deposited by remote microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RMPECVD) using an oxygen plasma and a mixture of precursor gas silane or trimethylaluminum (TMA) diluted in argon, respectively for silica and alumina, injected in the afterglow. This technique allows to deposit films of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with satisfactory characteristics (density, etch rate, stoichiometry) and high deposition rate. The comparison of the best deposition conditions reveals that in case of alumina higher temperatures and lower pressures are needed. (orig.)

  7. Corrosion of cermet anodes during low temperature electrolysis of alumina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarek, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.

    1997-09-26

    Successful development of inert anodes to replace carbon anodes in Hall cells has the potential benefits of lower energy consumption,lower operating costs, and reduced CO{sub 2} and CO emissions. Using inert anodes at reduced current density and reduced operating temperature (800 C) has potential for decreasing the corrosion rate of inert anodes. It may also permit the use of new materials for containment and insulation. This report describes the fabrication characteristics and the corrosion performance of 5324-17% Cu Cermet anodes in 100 hour tests. Although some good results were achieved, the corrosion rate at low temperature (800 C) is varied and not significantly lower than typical results at high temperature ({approximately} 960 C). This report also describes several attempts at 200 hour tests, with one anode achieving 177 hours of continuous operation and another achieving a total of 235 hours but requiring three separate tests of the same anode. The longest run did show a lower wear rate in the last test; but a high resistance layer developed on the anode surface and forced an unacceptably low current density. It is recommended that intermediate temperatures be explored as a more optimal environment for inert anodes. Other electrolyte chemistries and anode compositions (especially high conductivity anodes) should be considered to alleviate problems associated with lower temperature operation.

  8. Tribological characteristics of sputtered Au/Cr films on alumina substrates at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, P. A.; Dellacorte, C.

    1993-01-01

    Research to evaluate the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films deposited on alumina disk substrates is described. A 250 A thick chromium interlayer was first deposited onto the alumina test disks to enhance adhesion and high temperature wetting of the gold films. The Au/Cr films were tribotested in pure sliding in a pin-on-disk tribometer under a 4.9 N load at 1m/s. The test atmosphere was room air at temperatures of 25, 500, and 800 C and the test duration varied from 60 to 540 min. The use of the Au/Cr films reduced friction by about a factor of two compared to the unlubricated alumina sliding couple. The coatings prevented wear of the alumina substrate disks and reduced pin wear by one to two orders of magnitude. In addition, wear lives in excess of 200,000 sliding passes (9 hr) were observed during sliding at 800 C. The results suggest that these films show promise for the practical lubrication of many high temperature sliding components.

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  10. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  11. Simulator of Non-homogenous Alumina and Current Distribution in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell to Predict Low-Voltage Anode Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Lukas; Kiss, László I.; Poncsák, Sándor; Lagacé, Charles-Luc

    2018-04-01

    Perfluorocarbons are important contributors to aluminum production greenhouse gas inventories. Tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane are produced in the electrolysis process when a harmful event called anode effect occurs in the cell. This incident is strongly related to the lack of alumina and the current distribution in the cell and can be classified into two categories: high-voltage and low-voltage anode effects. The latter is hard to detect during the normal electrolysis process and, therefore, new tools are necessary to predict this event and minimize its occurrence. This paper discusses a new approach to model the alumina distribution behavior in an electrolysis cell by dividing the electrolytic bath into non-homogenous concentration zones using discrete elements. The different mechanisms related to the alumina distribution are discussed in detail. Moreover, with a detailed electrical model, it is possible to calculate the current distribution among the different anodic assemblies. With this information, the model can evaluate if low-voltage emissions are likely to be present under the simulated conditions. Using the simulator will help the understanding of the role of the alumina distribution which, in turn, will improve the cell energy consumption and stability while reducing the occurrence of high- and low-voltage anode effects.

  12. Simulator of Non-homogenous Alumina and Current Distribution in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell to Predict Low-Voltage Anode Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Lukas; Kiss, László I.; Poncsák, Sándor; Lagacé, Charles-Luc

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons are important contributors to aluminum production greenhouse gas inventories. Tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane are produced in the electrolysis process when a harmful event called anode effect occurs in the cell. This incident is strongly related to the lack of alumina and the current distribution in the cell and can be classified into two categories: high-voltage and low-voltage anode effects. The latter is hard to detect during the normal electrolysis process and, therefore, new tools are necessary to predict this event and minimize its occurrence. This paper discusses a new approach to model the alumina distribution behavior in an electrolysis cell by dividing the electrolytic bath into non-homogenous concentration zones using discrete elements. The different mechanisms related to the alumina distribution are discussed in detail. Moreover, with a detailed electrical model, it is possible to calculate the current distribution among the different anodic assemblies. With this information, the model can evaluate if low-voltage emissions are likely to be present under the simulated conditions. Using the simulator will help the understanding of the role of the alumina distribution which, in turn, will improve the cell energy consumption and stability while reducing the occurrence of high- and low-voltage anode effects.

  13. Structured Ni catalysts on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming: NiAl 2 O 4 formation and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2015-06-29

    This communication presents the successful design of a structured catalyst based on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming. The catalyst with a strong Ni-NiAl2O4 interaction shows both excellent activity and stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Features of Porous Anodic Alumina Growth in Galvanostatic Regime in Selenic Acid Based Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarkina, Y.; Kamnev, K.; Dronov, A.; Dudin, A.; Pavlov, A.; Gavrilov, S.

    2017-01-01

    The features of porous anodic Al 2 O 3 formation process in galvanostatic regime in selenic acid based electrolyte under a range of anodization conditions were investigated. The growth process kinetics of porous anodic Al 2 O 3 was characterized by chronopotentiometric curves. The effect of electrolyte concentration, current density and anodization duration on the oxide porous structure ordering was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Approximate regions of self-ordered porous Al 2 O 3 formation process conditions were estimated. It was found that anodization parameters, at which self-ordered porous structure formation is observed, correspond to the conditions of equilibrium of oxidation and etching rates. It is shown that deviations from these conditions lead to the disordering of the porous structure.

  15. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  16. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  17. Nano structured porous anodized aluminium oxide by using C2H2O4 for electronic applications: Study of the cell potential effects on formation of porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Hafiza Mohd Najib; Derman, M.N.M.; Nuzaihan, M.N.; Nazwa, T.; Azniza, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, a nano porous anodized aluminium oxide AAO thin film was successfully grown onto oxide layer on silicon substrate. The anodization of Si/ SiO 2 / Al substrate was conducted in a vigorous stirring oxalic acid bath solution. The rate of growth, morphology and also the kinetic study of the AAO thin film were investigated. The resulting array, pores structure and pores density of AAO strongly depends on an applied voltage of the anodizing process. (author)

  18. The simulation of the temperature effects on the microhardness of anodic alumina oxide layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gombár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the mechanical properties of the layer deposited by anodic oxidation of aluminum on the material EN AW-1050 H24, in the contribution was investigated the microhardness of the deposited layer as a function of the physic-chemical factors affecting in the process of anodic oxidation at the constant anodic current density J = 3 A.dm-2 in electrolyte formed by sulfuric acid and oxalic acid, with the emphasis on the influence of electrolyte temperature in the range – 1,78 °C to 45,78 °C. The model of the studied dependence was compiled based on mathematical and statistical analysis of matrix from experimental obtained data from composite rotation plan of experiment with five independent variable factors (amount of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte, the amount of oxalic acid in the electrolyte, electrolyte, anodizing time and applied voltage.

  19. Experimentally validated dispersion tailoring in a silicon strip waveguide with alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Shi, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a silicon strip waveguide structure with alumina thin-film coating in-between the core and the cladding for group-velocity dispersion tailoring. By carefully designing the core dimension and the coating thickness, a spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion...

  20. Alumina particles doped in a polymer film act as scatterers for random laser generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Huang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Liu, Shenye; Wang, Chuanke; Yi, Tao; Li, Tingshuai

    2018-02-01

    Lasing can be achieved with a system that has randomly distributed particles that act as scatterers in polymer films doped with laser dyes; a strict resonant cavity is not required. In this study, alumina particles and Rhodamine 6G dye were dispersed in polyvinyl pyrrolidone solutions as slurry to prepare thin films by a spin-coating method. These films were then pumped as a laser generator using a pulsed Nd:YLF laser. The results indicate that film thickness had an obvious affect on laser emission, and the lasing intensity increased with the pump energy, which tended to increase and then decrease with film thickness. An optical model based on the fabricated films was established to analyze light coupling with the films and possible distribution of light in films.

  1. Systematic in vitro nanotoxicity study on anodic alumina nanotubes with engineered aspect ratio: understanding nanotoxicity by a nanomaterial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kaur, Gagandeep; Zysk, Aneta; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report a detailed and systematic approach for studying the in vitro nanotoxicity study of high aspect ratio (HAR) nanomaterials using anodic alumina nanotubes (AANTs) as a nanomaterial model. AANTs with bio-inert properties and tailored aspect ratios ranging from 7.8 to 63.3 were synthesized by an electrochemical pulse anodization process. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells and MDA-MB 231-TXSA human breast cancer cells through several toxicity parameters, including cell viability and morphology, pro-inflammatory response, mitochondrial depolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), induction of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The resulting toxicity patterns were cell-type dependent and strongly related with AANTs dose, length of time, and importantly the AR of AANTs. Long AANTs triggered enhanced cell death, morphological changes, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release, LMP and ER stress than short AANTs. The toxic AR window of AANTs was determined to be 7.8, which is shorter than that of other previously reported HAR nanomaterials. This toxic AR window provides a promising opportunity to control the nanotoxicity of HAR nanomaterials for their advanced drug delivery application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of ordered nanoporous anodic alumina prepatterned by mold-assisted chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leu Ing-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a simple and cost-effective method to create patterned nanoindentations on Al surface via mold-assisted chemical etching process is demonstrated. This report shows the reaction-diffusion method which formed nanoscale shallow etch pits by the absorption/liberation behaviors of chemical etchant in poly(dimethylsiloxane stamp. During subsequent anodization, it was possible to obtain the ordered nanopore arrays with 277 nm pitch that were guided by the prepatterned etch pits. The prepatterned etch pits obtained can guide the growth of AAO nanopores during anodization and facilitate the preparation of ordered nanopore arrays.

  3. Interface termination and band alignment of epitaxially grown alumina films on Cu-Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Michiko; Song, Weijie; Libra, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Šutara, František; Matolín, Vladimír; Prince, Kevin C.

    2008-02-01

    Epitaxial ultrathin alumina films were grown on a Cu-9 at. % Al(111) substrate by selective oxidation of Al in the alloy in ultrahigh vacuum. The photoelectron spectra of Al 2p and valence band were measured in situ during oxidation. By analyzing multiple peaks of Al 2p, the interface atomic structure was discussed. The energy difference between the Fermi level of the substrate and the valence band maximum of alumina (band offset) was obtained. The relation between the interface atomic structure and the band offset was compared with the reported first-principles calculations. A novel method for controlling the band offset was proposed.

  4. Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in magnetron sputtered alumina films with metastable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzjaková, Š.; Zeman, P.; Kos, Š.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in alumina films was investigated. • The structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. • Kinetic triplets of all transformation processes were determined. • The KAS, FWO, FR and IKP methods for determination of E a and A were used. • The Málek method for determination of the kinetic model was used. - Abstract: The paper reports on non-isothermal kinetics of transformation processes in magnetron sputtered alumina thin films with an amorphous and γ-phase structure leading ultimately to the formation of the thermodynamically stable α-Al 2 O 3 phase. Phase transformation sequences in the alumina films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 °C/min). Three isoconversional methods (Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman (FR) method) as well as the invariant kinetic parameters (IKP) method were used to determine the activation energies for transformation processes. Moreover, the pre-exponential factors were determined using the IKP method. The kinetic models of the transformation processes were determined using the Málek method. It was found that the as-deposited structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. The film with the amorphous as-deposited structure heated at 40 °C/min transforms to the crystalline γ phase at a temperature of ∼930 °C (E a,IKP = 463 ± 10 kJ/mol) and subsequently to the crystalline α phase at a temperature of ∼1200 °C (E a,IKP = 589 ± 10 kJ/mol). The film with the crystalline γ-phase structure heated at 40 °C/min is thermally stable up to ∼1100 °C and transforms to the crystalline α phase (E a,IKP = 511 ± 16 kJ/mol) at a temperature of ∼1195 °C. The empirical two-parameter Šesták–Berggren kinetic model was found to be the most adequate one to describe all transformation processes

  5. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Morphological and Topography of Nickel-Alumina Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwani Khairul Ilman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip coating process promises good potential of nickel-alumina catalyst deposition on metal substrate for various applications especially in gas conversion reaction. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different calcination temperature on nickel-alumina catalysts thin film formation. Four different calcination temperature were used, which are 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. The calculation process was conducted for a duration of 90 minutes. The deposited thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD equipment. The AFM result showed that the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina increase proportionally from 56 to 275 nm when the calcination temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. From an observation at high calcination temperature, the atom of grains assisted diffusion at the crystallite point causing grain with lower surface energy become larger. As the calcination temperature increase, the surface profile becomes rough and uneven representing high surface roughness. Thus, the effect of calcination temperature greatly influences the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina thin film.

  6. Study on Pt-structured anodic alumina catalysts for catalytic combustion of toluene: Effects of competitive adsorbents and competitive impregnation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Luan, Hongjuan; Li, Tao; Wu, Yongqiang; Ni, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Novel competitive impregnation methods were used to prepare high dispersion Pt-structured anodic alumina catalysts. It is found that competitive adsorbents owning different acidity result in different Pt loading amount and also exert great effects on Pt distribution, particle size and redox ability. The suitable adsorption ability of lactic acid led to its best activity for catalytic combustion of toluene. Co-competitive and pre-competitive impregnation methods were also compared and the mechanisms of two competitive methods were proposed. Co-competitive impregnation made Pt distribute more uniformly through pore channels and resulted in better catalytic activity, because of the weaker spatial constraint effect of lactic acid. Furthermore, the optimized Pt-structured anodic alumina catalyst also showed a good chlorine-resistance under moisture atmosphere, because water could promote the reaction of dichloromethane (DCM) transformation and clean chloride by-products to release more active sites.

  7. Study and application of alumina films for the realization of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieu, Eric

    1970-01-01

    Alumina used in thin films on silicon substrate (MIS structures) or deposited on silica SiO 2 as second dielectric for MIIS structures is actually investigated. In a theoretical part concerning MIS structure properties all the defects of the C(V) curves have been extensively checked off. After a description of the deposition method used, the experimental results are reviewed. With the deposition method used, we realize amorphous alumina films at low temperatures (T∼150 deg. C). The treatment of the surface before deposition is important for the reproducibility of the films and the properties of the interface. Al 2 O 3 -Si. The films have good electrical characteristics and a heat treatment at 500 deg. C with argon as atmosphere is helpful. Alumina contains negative charges and we establish a surface inversion of the silicon type (V FB >0). The density of surface states N SS is approximately 10 11 e-bar/cm 2 . The deposition method investigated has a direct application for integrated circuits technology; it may be used for multilayers structures, the obtention of reduced MOST threshold voltages and memory elements MIIS. (author) [fr

  8. Carbonaceous alumina films deposited by MOCVD from aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize carbonaceous, crystalline aluminium oxide films grown on Si(100) by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapour deposition, using aluminium acetylacetonate as the precursor. The presence of carbon in the films, attribured to the use of a metalorganic precursor for the ...

  9. Optical meta-films of alumina nanowire arrays for solar evaporation and optoelectronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Bae, Kyuyoung; Kang, Gumin; Baek, Seunghwa

    2017-05-01

    Nanowires with metallic or dielectric materials have received considerable interest in many research fields for optical and optoelectronic devices. Metal nanowires have been extensively studied due to the high optical and electrical properties and dielectric nanowires are also investigated owing to the multiple scattering of light. In this research, we report optical meta-films of alumina nanowire arrays with nanometer scale diameters by fabrication method of self-aggregate process. The aluminum oxide nanowires are transparent from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelength regions and array structures have strong diffusive light scattering. We integrate those optical properties from the material and structure, and produce efficient an optical haze meta-film which has high transparency and transmission haze at the same time. The film enhances efficiencies of optical devices by applying on complete products, such as organic solar cells and LEDs, because of an expanded optical path length and light trapping in active layers maintaining high transparency. On the other hands, the meta-film also produces solar steam by sputtering metal on the aluminum oxide nanowire arrays. The nanowire array film with metal coating exhibits ultrabroadband light absorption from ultraviolet to mid-infrared range which is caused by nanofocusing of plasmons. The meta-film efficiently produces water steam under the solar light by metal-coated alumina arrays which have high light-to-heat conversion efficiency. The design, fabrication, and evaluation of our light management platforms and their applications of the meta-films will be introduced.

  10. Direct sub-nanometer scale electron microscopy analysis of anion incorporation to self-ordered anodic alumina layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rovira, L.; Lopez-Haro, M.; Hungria, A.B.; El Amrani, K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sanchez-Amaya, J.M. [Titania, Ensayos y Proyectos Industriales, S.L. Parque Tecnobahia, Edificio RETSE, Nave 4, 11500 El Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz) (Spain); Calvino, J.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Botana, F.J., E-mail: javier.botana@uca.e [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Republica Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Morphological and chemical characterization at atomic scale of porous alumina layers anodised in ordered regimes. {yields} Characterization based on the use of FEG-SEM, STEM-HAADF, STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. {yields} Nanoscale distribution of P-, C- and S-bearing species in the pore wall. - Abstract: Ordered porous alumina layers prepared by two-step anodising in phosphoric, oxalic and sulphuric acids have been characterized at sub-nanometer scale using electron microscopy techniques. FEG-SEM and STEM-HAADF images allowed estimating the pore size, cell wall and pore wall thicknesses of the layers. Nanoanalytical characterization has been performed by STEM-EELS and STEM-X-EDS. Detailed features of the spatial distribution of anions in the pore wall of the films have been obtained. Maximum concentration of P-species occurs, approximately, at the middle of the pore wall; adjacent to the pore for C-species, whereas the distribution of S-species appears to be uniform.

  11. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  12. Nanostructured thin films of indium oxide nanocrystals confined in alumina matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouifoulen, A.; Edely, M.; Errien, N.; Kassiba, A.; Outzourhit, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Gautier, N.; Lajaunie, L.; Oueriagli, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystals of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) with sizes below 10 nm were prepared in alumina matrixes by using a co-pulverization method. The used substrates such as borosilicate glasses or (100) silicon as well as the substrate temperatures during the deposition process were modified and their effects characterized on the structural and physical properties of alumina-In 2 O 3 films. Complementary investigation methods including X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance in the range 250-1100 nm and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the nanostructured films. The crystalline order, morphology and optical responses were monitored as function of the deposition parameters and the post-synthesis annealing. The optimal conditions were found and allow realizing suitable nanostructured films with a major crystalline order of cubic phase for the In 2 O 3 nanocrystals. The optical properties of the films were analyzed and the key parameters such as direct and indirect band gaps were evaluated as function of the synthesis conditions and the crystalline quality of the films.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm 2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  14. Direct fabrication of 3D graphene on nanoporous anodic alumina by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hualin; Garrett, David J.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond; Prawer, Steven; Cervenka, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    High surface area electrode materials are of interest for a wide range of potential applications such as super-capacitors and electrochemical cells. This paper describes a fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) graphene conformally coated on nanoporous insulating substrate with uniform nanopore size. 3D graphene films were formed by controlled graphitization of diamond-like amorphous carbon precursor films, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Plasma-assisted graphitization was found to produce better quality graphene than a simple thermal graphitization process. The resulting 3D graphene/amorphous carbon/alumina structure has a very high surface area, good electrical conductivity and exhibits excellent chemically stability, providing a good material platform for electrochemical applications. Consequently very large electrochemical capacitance values, as high as 2.1 mF for a sample of 10 mm3, were achieved. The electrochemical capacitance of the material exhibits a dependence on bias voltage, a phenomenon observed by other groups when studying graphene quantum capacitance. The plasma-assisted graphitization, which dominates the graphitization process, is analyzed and discussed in detail.

  15. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe-containing intermet...

  16. The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of thin alumina films prepared by low pressure MOCVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van de Vendel, D.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin amorphous alumina films were prepared on stainless steel, type AISI 304, by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. The effect of thermal annealing in nitrogen (for 2, 4 and 17 h at 600, 700 and 800 °C) on the film properties, including the protection of the underlying substrate

  17. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen and europium doped TiO2 anodized films with applications in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Choi, Jinwook; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lee, Oh Yeon; Oh, Han-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation method is a useful process for mesoporous titanium dioxide films. In order to improve the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 film, N-Eu co-doped titania catalyst was synthesized by micro-arc oxidation in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 mixture solution. The specific surface area and the roughness of the anodic titania film fabricated in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 electrolyte, were increased compared to that of the anodic TiO 2 film prepared in H 2 SO 4 solution. The absorbance response of N-Eu titania film shows a higher adsorption onset toward visible light region, and the incorporated N and Eu ions during anodization as a dopant in the anodic TiO 2 film significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. After dye decomposition test for 3 h, dye removal rates for the anodic TiO 2 film were 60.7% and 90.1% for the N-Eu doped titania film. The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the surface enlargement and the new electronic state of the TiO 2 band gap by N and Eu co-doping.

  19. Controlled fabrication of patterned lateral porous alumina membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowtham, M; Eude, L; Cojocaru, C S; Marquardt, B; Jeong, H J; Legagneux, P; Song, K K; Pribat, D

    2008-01-01

    Confined lateral alumina templates are fabricated with different pore sizes by changing the acid electrolyte and the anodization voltage. The control of the number of pore rows down to one dimension is also achieved, by controlling the thickness of the starting aluminum film as well as the anodization voltage. We observe that the mechanism of pore formation in the lateral regime is very similar to that in the classical vertical situation

  20. Three-dimensional structural engineering of nanoporous alumina by controlled sprinkling of an electrolyte on a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Noormohammadi, M.; Behzadi, F.

    2011-02-01

    The significant effect of anodization current on the morphology of nanopores encourages us to consider a novel method for engineering these nanostructures. In this paper we study a controlled anodization process using controlled electrolyte stirring. This is done using an electrical pump with variable speed for sprinkling an electrolyte on a membrane. The variable voltage applied to the pump can control the temperature gradient and diffusion of the ions which produce the anodization current. Here we show the significant role of pumping and how this effect can be used in the engineering of nanopores as a three-dimensional nanostructure. These experiments are carried out for a variety of anodization voltages and various electrolyte concentrations, and thus we investigate how these parameters in the vicinity of pumping can control the porosity of the template in three dimensions.

  1. L2O3 NANOSTRUCTURED FILMS CREATION BY METHOD OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ANODIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhukov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thin oxide films of aluminum were investigated by method of scanning probe microscopy. Electrical parameters of anodizing process were studied on different samples of aluminum to get the most structured oxide. The comparison of surface structure topography was held on oxide films by NTegra scanning probe microscope

  2. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  3. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuomin; Wang Qingtang; Li Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. ► NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. ► NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7–4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the potential study of trace and small molecular

  4. XPS characterization of the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaoguo; Wang Xiaolin; Guo Huanjun; Wang Qingfu; Zhao Zhengping; Zhong Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to examine the anodic oxide film formed on uranium metal in 0.8 mol/L NaOH solution. The U4f 7/2 fitting spectra suggests that the anodic oxide film is composed of uranium trioxide and a small amount of UO 2+x . Under UHV condition, the U4f peak shifts to the lower binding energy, while a gradual increase in the intensity of U5f peak and the broad of U4f peak are also observed. All of these changes are due to reduction of uranium trioxide in the anodic oxide film. XPS quantitative analysis confirms the occurrence of reduction reaction

  5. Ultrathin alumina film on Cu 9at%Al(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napetschnig, E.; Schmid, M.; Varga, P.

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated the structure of the clean and the oxidized (1 1 1) surface of a Cu-Al alloy with 9 at% Al by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Annealing of the clean crystal at 680 °C leads to segregation of Al to the surface. The Al concentration at the annealed surface is 23 ± 2% and domains with a (√3 × √3)R30° superstructure are visible, as well as small Cu(1 1 1) areas and disordered patches. Oxidation at 680 °C leads to the formation of a well-ordered flat alumina film with two very similar oxide structures. One oxide structure has a nearly commensurate rectangular cell rotated by 30° with respect to a close-packed row of the substrate and grows in three different domains. The second structure has a commensurate cell consisting of four equivalent building blocks and has a rectangular centered symmetry. This structure is rotated by 18° with respect to a close-packed row of the substrate and grows in six different domains. The rectangular building blocks of these two oxide structures have a similar thickness, the same surface termination and the same number and arrangement of the atoms as the oxide film on NiAl(1 1 0) [G. Kresse, M. Schmid, E. Napetschnig, M. Shishkin, L. Köhler, P. Varga, Science 308 (2005) 1448]. In contrast to the oxide on NiAl(1 1 0), alumina on the Cu-Al alloy crystal does not show stress-induced domain boundaries and grows in large defect-free domains. Thus, Pd deposited on this oxide nucleates not only on domain boundaries and steps but also on the unperturbed oxide, forming (1 1 1)-oriented clusters.

  6. Investigation of CuInSe2 nanowire arrays with core-shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Jia-Jun; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2017-02-01

    Copper indium selenide (CuInSe2) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe2 NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core-shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core-shell structure was achieved. Current-voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core-shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  7. Fabrication and optical properties of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays made by sol-gel electrophoresis deposition into anodic alumina membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Yuan, X Y; Xie, T; Zhang, L D

    2003-01-01

    Ordered TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays have been successfully fabricated into the nanochannels of a porous anodic alumina membrane by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition. After annealing at 500 deg. C, the TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays and the individual nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM images show that these nanowires are dense and continuous with a uniform diameter throughout their entire length. XRD and SAED analysis together indicate that these TiO sub 2 nanowires crystallize in the anatase polycrystalline structure. The optical absorption band edge of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays exhibits a blue shift with respect of that of the bulk TiO sub 2 owing to the quantum size effect.

  8. Organic photovoltaics using thin gold film as an alternative anode to indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldar, Amrita; Yambem, Soniya D.; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Alley, Nigel J.; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Barron, Andrew R.; Curran, Seamus A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used anode as a transparent electrode and more recently as an anode for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, there are significant drawbacks in using ITO which include high material costs, mechanical instability including brittleness and poor electrical properties which limit its use in low-cost flexible devices. We present initial results of poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester OPVs showing that an efficiency of 1.9% (short-circuit current 7.01 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage 0.55 V, fill factor 0.49) can be attained using an ultra thin film of gold coated glass as the device anode. The initial I-V characteristics demonstrate that using high work function metals when the thin film is kept ultra thin can be used as a replacement to ITO due to their greater stability and better morphological control.

  9. Layer-by-layer graphene/TCNQ stacked films as conducting anodes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lin, Cheng-Te; Huang, Jen-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong

    2012-06-26

    Large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for transparent conducting electrode applications in flexible optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or organic solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer photovoltaic devices using a pristine CVD graphene anode is still not appealing due to its much lower conductivity than that of conventional indium tin oxide. We report a layer-by-layer molecular doping process on graphene for forming sandwiched graphene/tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)/graphene stacked films for polymer solar cell anodes, where the TCNQ molecules (as p-dopants) were securely embedded between two graphene layers. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on these multilayered graphene/TCNQ anodes are fabricated and characterized. The P3HT/PCBM device with an anode structure composed of two TCNQ layers sandwiched by three CVD graphene layers shows optimum PCE (∼2.58%), which makes the proposed anode film quite attractive for next-generation flexible devices demanding high conductivity and transparency.

  10. X-ray spectral determination of chemical state of phosphorus and sulfur in anodic oxide films on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokij, L.P.; Kostikov, Yu.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical forms of phosphorus and sulfur in niobium oxide anodic film, obtained by electrochemical technique using niobium in H 2 SO 4 and H 3 PO 4 aqueous solutions, are determined using data on chemical shifts of X-ray emission lines. Films represent Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (SO 4 ) 5γ and Nb 2 O 5(1-γ) (PO 4 ) 10γ/3 (γ -share of oxygen substituted by acid anion) composition oxosalts. Electrolyte role in formation of niobium anodic oxide structure and effect of phosphorus and sulfur compounds on anodic film conductivity are determined

  11. Study on calcination of bi-layered films produced by anodizing iron in dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagminas, Arūnas; Klimas, Vaclovas; Mažeika, Kęstutis; Mickevičius, Sigitas; Balakauskas, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    Research on well adherent, thick and nanoporous oxide film formation onto the metal substrates underwent a major burst throughout the last decade. In the current study, thick bi-layered films produced onto a pure iron surface by anodizing way in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolyte containing silica hexafluoride acid have been investigated upon the annealing in air. Compositional, phase and structural transformations of the film material to hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 , were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy at room to cryogenic temperatures, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wave dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX). Experimental findings indicated that much longer heating in air is required for these films to be fully transformed to hematite. This effect is linked here with the complex nature of DMSO films. Based on the combined WDX, photoemission and Mössbauer spectroscopy results, the transformations taken place during calcination of such amorphous films by heat-treatment in air to crystalline hematite have been determined. Investigations on the calcination effects of thick iron anodic films reported here offer opportunities for both fundamental research and practical applications.

  12. Ordered mesoporous silica and alumina thin films studied by X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, M.; Idrissi-Kandri, N.; Ayral, A.; van der Lee, A.; Guizard, C.

    2002-07-01

    The use of X-ray techniques for the characterisation of ordered mesoporous films is demonstrated. Both silica and alumina thin layers with an ordered mesoporosity are studied using low-angle diffraction and grazing incidence reflectometry. It is shown how the internal structure evolves upon drying and how texture can be easily detected using a two-circle diffractometer. The reflectometry data are correlated with results from nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiments. Nous montrons comment les techniques de rayons-X peuvent être utilisées pour la caractérisation des couches à mésoporosité ordonnée. Des couches minces de silice et d'alumine à mésoporosité ordonnée ont été étudiées par diffraction aux petits angles et réflectométrie en incidence rasante. Il est montré comment la structure interne évolue au cours du séchage et comment la texture peut être analysée en utilisant un diffractomètre deux-cercles. Les données de réflectométrie sont corrélées avec les résultats obtenus par des mesures d'adsorption-désorption d'azote.

  13. Cauliflower hillock formation through crystallite migration of SnO2 thin films prepared on alumina substrates by using MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gwangpyo; Ryu, Hyunwook; Lee, Woosun; Hong, Kwangjun; Shin, Dongcharn; Park, Jinseong; Seo, Yongjin; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2003-01-01

    Tin-oxide thin films were deposited at 375 .deg. C on α-alumina substrates by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process. A number of hillocks were formed on the film after annealing in air at 500 .deg. C for 30 min, but fewer hillocks were formed for annealing in N 2 . The hillocks on the film and the grains on the alumina substrate were composed of crystallites. The oxygen content and the binding energy after annealing in air came to close to values for the stoichiometric SnO 2 . There was no relationship between the film thickness and the binding energy shift, but the binding energy did change with the annealing atmosphere and the oxygen content. The cauliflower hillocks on the film seem to be formed by the continuous migration of crystallites from cauliflower grains on the substrate to release the stress due to the increased oxygen content and volume. A cauliflower hillock can be grown by continuous migration of crystallites from nearby grains to the hillock.

  14. Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films as Effective Anodes of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO thin films were prepared by low-cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP. Both a low resistivity (3.13×10−3 Ω cm and an average direct transmittance (400∼1500 nm about 80% of the IZO films were achieved. The IZO films were investigated as anodes in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The device fabricated on IZO film-coated glass substrate showed an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, a short circuit current of 8.49 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.40, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.91%, demonstrating that the IZO films prepared by USP technique are promising low In content and transparent electrode candidates of low-cost OPV devices.

  15. Evaluation of double-layer density modulated Si thin films as Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Demirkan, Muhammed; Yurukcu, Mesut; Dursun, Burcu; Demir-Cakan, Rezan; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-10-01

    Double-layer density modulated silicon thin films which contain alternating low and high density Si film layers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Two different samples consisting of alternating layers of high-density/low-density and low-density/high-density Si thin film layers were investigated as anode electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Si thin film in which the terminating layer at the top is low density Si layer-quoted as low-density/high-density film (LD/HD)- exhibits better performance than Si thin film that has high density layer at the top, -quoted as high-density/low-density (HD/LD). A highly stabilized cycling performance with the specific charge capacities of 2000 mAh g‑1 at the 150th cycle at C/2 current density, and 1200 mAh g‑1 at the 240th cycle at 10 C current density were observed for the LD/HD Si anode in the presence of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) electrolyte additive.

  16. Pitting corrosion protection of stainless steel by sputter deposited hafnia, alumina, and hafnia-alumina nanolaminate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomani, M. A.; Aita, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    316L stainless steel coated with sputter deposited HfO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate films were subjected to direct current cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (DCP) in Hanks' balanced salt solution electrolyte. Postexposure morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with in situ energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM/EDS data show that bare steel and steel coated with single-layer HfO 2 develop pits with perforated covers. These pits become autocatalytic, consistent with an observed positive DCP hysteresis. On the other hand, SEM/EDS data show that steel coated with Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate films does not develop autocatalytic pits, consistent with an observed negative DCP hysteresis. However, Al 2 O 3 splinters upon polarization whereas the HfO 2 -Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate remains intact. The areas of worst damage in the nanolaminate correspond to pit cover rupture before autocatalysis, allowing pit and bulk electrolyte to mix and the newly exposed steel surface to repassivate. The films' diverse behavior is discussed in terms of a model for perforated pit growth that requires occlusion until an autocatalytic geometry is established. The authors conclude that the key property a film must have to arrest autocatalytic geometry development is the ability to rupture locally at an early stage of pit growth.

  17. Growth of anodic films on compound semiconductor electrodes: InP in aqueous (NH sub 4) sub 2 S

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, D N

    2002-01-01

    Film formation on compound semiconductors under anodic conditions is discussed. The surface properties of InP electrodes were examined following anodization in a (NH sub 4) sub 2 S electrolyte. The observation of a current peak in the cyclic voltammetric curve was attributed to selective etching of the substrate and a film formation process. AFM images of samples anodized in the sulfide solution revealed surface pitting. Thicker films formed at higher potentials exhibited extensive cracking as observed by optical and electron microscopy, and this was explicitly demonstrated to occur ex situ rather than during the electrochemical treatment. The composition of the thick film was identified as In sub 2 S sub 3 by EDX and XPS. The measured film thickness varies linearly with the charge passed, and comparison between experimental thickness measurements and theoretical estimates for the thickness indicate a porosity of over 70 %. Cracking is attributed to shrinkage during drying of the highly porous film and does n...

  18. Properties of anodic oxides grown on a hafnium–tantalum–titanium thin film library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionut Mardare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary thin film combinatorial materials library of the valve metal system Hf–Ta–Ti obtained by co-sputtering was studied. The microstructural and crystallographic analysis of the obtained compositions revealed a crystalline and textured surface, with the exception of compositions with Ta concentration above 48 at.% which are amorphous and show a flat surface. Electrochemical anodization of the composition spread thin films was used for analysing the growth of the mixed surface oxides. Oxide formation factors, obtained from the potentiodynamic anodization curves, as well as the dielectric constants and electrical resistances, obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, were mapped along two dimensions of the library using a scanning droplet cell microscope. The semiconducting properties of the anodic oxides were mapped using Mott–Schottky analysis. The degree of oxide mixing was analysed qualitatively using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. A quantitative analysis of the surface oxides was performed and correlated to the as-deposited metal thin film compositions. In the concurrent transport of the three metal cations during oxide growth a clear speed order of Ti > Hf > Ta was proven.

  19. Nanoconfined phosphorus film coating on interconnected carbon nanotubes as ultrastable anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Liyuan; Li, Nan; Chen, Cheng; Li, Cuiyu; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Kuang, Liyun; Tian, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Elemental phosphorus (P) is extensively explored as promising anode candidates due to its abundance, low-cost and high theoretical specific capacity. However, it is of great challenge for P-based materials as practical high-energy-density and long-cycling anodes for its large volume expansion and low conductibility. Here, we significantly improve both cycling and rate performance of red P by cladding the nanoconfined P film on interconnected multi-walled carbon nanotube networks (P-MWCNTs composite) via facile wet ball-milling. The red P-MWCNTs anode presents a superior high reversible capacity of 1396.6 mAh g-1 on the basis of P-MWCNTs composite weight at 50 mA g-1 with capacity retention reaching at ∼90% over 50 cycles. Even at 1000 mA g-1, it still maintains remarkable specific reversible capacity of 934.0 mAh g-1. This markedly enhanced performance is ascribed to synergistic advantages of this unique structure: Intimate contacts between nanosized red P and entangled MWCNTs not only shorten the transmission routes of ions through MWCNTs toward red P, but also motivate the access with electrolyte to open structures of P film. Besides, the confined nanosized P film moderate volume expansions effectively and the entangled MWCNTs networks acted as conductive channels activate high ionic/electronic conductivity of the whole electrodes.

  20. Multiple-layered effective medium approximation approach to modeling environmental effects on alumina passivated highly porous silicon nanostructured thin films measured by in-situ Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Alyssa; Carlson, Timothy; VanDerslice, Jeremy; Mohrmann, Joel; Woollam, John A.; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias

    2017-11-01

    Optical changes in alumina passivated highly porous silicon slanted columnar thin films during controlled exposure to toluene vapor are reported. Electron-beam evaporation glancing angle deposition and subsequent atomic layer deposition are utilized to deposit alumina passivated nanostructured porous silicon thin films. In-situ Mueller matrix generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in an environmental cell is then used to determine changes in optical properties of the nanostructured thin films by inspection of individual Mueller matrix elements, each of which exhibit sensitivity to adsorption. The use of a multiple-layered effective medium approximation model allows for accurate description of the inhomogeneous nature of toluene adsorption onto alumina passivated highly porous silicon slanted columnar thin films.

  1. Formation of barrier-type anodic films on ZE41 magnesium alloy in a fluoride/glycerol electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-López, J.M.; Němcová, A.; Zhong, X.L.; Liu, H.; Arenas, M.A.; Haigh, S.J.; Burke, M.G.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Barrier anodic films formed on ZE41 Mg alloy in glycerol/fluoride electrolyte. • Films contain oxygen and fluorine species; formation ratio ∼1.3 nm V −1 . • Nanocrystalline film structure, with MgO and MgF 2. • Zinc enrichment in alloy beneath anodic film. • Modified film formed above Mg-Zn-RE second phase. - Abstract: Barrier-type, nanocrystalline anodic films have been formed on a ZE41 magnesium alloy under a constant current density of 5 mA cm −2 in a glycerol/fluoride electrolyte, containing 5 vol.% of added water, at 293 K. The films contain magnesium, fluorine and oxygen as the major species, and lower amounts of alloying element species. The films grow at an efficiency of ∼0.8 to 0.9, with a formation ratio in the range of ∼1.2 to 1.4 nm V −1 at the matrix regions and with a ratio of ∼1.8 nm V −1 at Mg-Zn-RE second phase. At the former regions, rare earth species are enriched at the film surface and zinc is enriched in the alloy. A carbon- and oxygen-rich band within the film suggests that the films grow at the metal/film and film/electrolyte interfaces

  2. Bioinert Anodic Alumina Nanotubes for Targeting of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagic Signaling: A Combinatorial Nanotube-Based Drug Delivery System for Enhancing Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kaur, Gagandeep; Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-12-16

    Although nanoparticle-based targeted delivery systems have gained promising achievements for cancer therapy, the development of sophisticated strategies with effective combinatorial therapies remains an enduring challenge. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel nanomaterial, so-called anodic alumina nanotubes (AANTs) for proof-of-concept cancer therapy by targeting cell signaling networks. This strategy is to target autophagic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling by using thapsigargin (TG)-loaded AANTs cotreated with an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). We first show that AANTs are nontoxic and can activate autophagy in different cell types including human fibroblast cells (HFF), human monocyte cells (THP-1), and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB 231-TXSA). Treatment with 3-MA at a nontoxic dose reduced the level of autophagy induced by AANTs, and consequently sensitized breast cancer cells to AANTs-induced cellular stresses. To target autophagic and ER stress signaling networking, breast cancer cells were treated with 3-MA together with AANTs loaded with the prototype ER stress inducer TG. We demonstrated that 3-MA enhanced the cancer cell killing effect of AANTs loaded with TG. This effect was associated with enhanced ER stress signaling due to the combination effect of TG and 3-MA. These findings not only demonstrate the excellent biocompatibility of AANTs as novel biomaterials but also provide new opportunities for developing ER- and autophagy-targeted delivery systems for future clinical cancer therapy.

  3. Amorphous silicon-carbon based nano-scale thin film anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Moni Kanchan; Maranchi, Jeffrey; Chung, Sung Jae; Epur, Rigved; Kadakia, Karan; Jampani, Prashanth; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thin film amorphous C/Si. Good cycling response validates carbon matrix for Silicon anodes. → Thin film amorphous C/Si/C. Good cycling response validates carbon as an interface and matrix. - Abstract: The buffering effect of carbon on the structural stability of amorphous silicon films, used as an anode for lithium ion rechargeable batteries, has been studied during long term discharge/charge cycles. To this extent, the electrochemical performance of a prototype material consisting of amorphous Si thin film (∼250 nm) deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on amorphous carbon (∼50 nm) thin films, denoted as a-C/Si, has been investigated. In comparison to pure amorphous Si thin film (a-Si) which shows a rapid fade in capacity after 30 cycles, the a-C/Si exhibits excellent capacity retention displaying ∼0.03% fade in capacity up to 50 cycles and ∼0.2% after 50 cycles when cycled at a rate of 100 μA/cm 2 (∼C/2) suggesting that the presence of thin amorphous C layer deposited between the Cu substrate and a-Si acts as a buffer layer facilitating the release of the volume induced stresses exhibited by pure a-Si during the charge/discharge cycles. This structural integrity combined with microstructural stability of the a-C/Si thin film during the alloying/dealloying process with lithium has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The buffering capacity of the thin amorphous carbon layer lends credence to its use as the likely compliant matrix to curtail the volume expansion related cracking of silicon validating its choice as the matrix for bulk and thin film battery systems.

  4. Electrochemical performance of Sn-Sb-Cu film anodes prepared by layer-by-layer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qianlei; Xue Ruisheng; Jia Mengqiu

    2012-01-01

    A novel layer-by-layer electrodeposition and heat-treatment approach was attempted to obtain Sn-Sb-Cu film anode for lithium ion batteries. The preparation of Sn-Sb-Cu anodes started with galvanostatic electrochemically depositing antimony and tin sequentially on the substrate of copper foil collector. Sn-Sb and Cu-Sb alloys were formed when heated. The SEM analysis showed that the crystalline grains become bigger and the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu anode becomes more denser after annealing. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the antimony, tin and copper were alloyed to form SnSb and Cu 2 Sb after heat treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu electrode was covered by a thin oxide layer. Electrochemical measurements showed that the annealed Sn-Sb-Cu anode has high reversible capacity and good capacity retention. It exhibited a reversible capacity of about 962 mAh/g in the initial cycle, which still remained 715 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  5. Hierarchical structure and photocatalysis performance of the photo-anode TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Deng, Minghan; Bimenyimana, Theogene; Hu, Zhe

    2017-11-01

    We herein present a useful technique to design photo-anode films by composing P25 nanoparticles (NPs) with TiO2 nanorod or TiO2 nanotube arrays to optimize the photocatalysis property and overall property of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After solvothermal and spin-coating process, an interesting hierarchical film containing one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 film and P25 NPs (1D TiO2/P25) was obtained on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. In our study, P25 NPs with high specific surface area can potentially adsorb large numbers of dye molecules when 1D TiO2 arrays provide a straight path for rapid transmission of photo-generated electrons. From the experiment results, the hierarchical photo-anodes indeed exhibit superior properties than that of pristine 1D films. The photoelectric conversion efficiency improves up to 3.96 and 3.69% based on 1D TiO2/P25 DSSCs, which are significantly higher than those of 3.21 and 2.70% of the DSSCs based on 1D TiO2 photoanodes.

  6. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  7. Synthesis of coral-like tantalum oxide films via anodization in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Yu

    Full Text Available We report a simple method to fabricate nano-porous tantalum oxide films via anodization with Ta foils as the anode at room temperature. A mixture of ethylene glycol, phosphoric acid, NH4F and H2O was used as the electrolyte where the nano-porous tantalum oxide could be synthesized by anodizing a tantalum foil for 1 h at 20 V in a two-electrode configuration. The as-prepared porous film exhibited a continuous, uniform and coral-like morphology. The diameters of pores ranged from 30 nm to 50 nm. The pores interlaced each other and the depth was about 150 nm. After calcination, the as-synthesized amorphous tantalum oxide could be crystallized to the orthorhombic crystal system. As observed in photocatalytic experiments, the coral-like tantalum oxide exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of phenol than that with a compact surface morphology, and the elimination rate of phenol increased by 66.7%.

  8. Decomposition of ethylene carbonate on electrodeposited metal thin film anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridel, Jean-Sebastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Laruelle, Stephane; Tarascon, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne CNRS (UMR-6007), Faculte des Sciences, 33 rue Saint-Leu 80039, Amiens Cedex (France); Hassoun, Jusef; Reale, Priscilla; Scrosati, Bruno [Chemistry Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Metals capable of forming alloys with Li are of great interest as an alternative to present carbon electrodes, hence the importance of knowing their interactions with electrolytes is necessary. Herein we report further on the high-voltage extra irreversibility of Sn electrodeposited thin films vs. Li in EC-DMC 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolytes. We show that this high-voltage irreversibility is strongly dependent upon the electrolyte composition as demonstrated by its disappearance in EC-free electrolytes. This finding coupled with IR spectroscopy measurements provides direct evidence for the tin-driven catalytic degradation of EC during the discharge of Sn/Li cells. From an electrochemical survey of various metals, capable of alloying with Li, we found that Bi and Pb behaved like Sn while Si and Sb did not act as catalysts towards EC degradation. A rationale for such behaviour is proposed, a procedure to bypass EC degradation with the addition of VC is presented, and an explanation for the non-observance of catalytic-driven EC degradation for Sn/C composites is provided. (author)

  9. Deposition of fluorocarbon films by Pulsed Plasma Thruster on the anode side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Daixian; Zhang, Fan; He, Zhen; Wu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Fluorocarbon thin films were deposited by Pulsed Plasma Thruster at different angles on the anode side of the thruster. Density and velocity of the plasma in the plume of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster were determined using double and triple Langmuir probe apparatus respectively. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning probe microscope (SPM) and UV–vis spectrometer. Low F/C ratio (0.64–0.86) fluorocarbon films are deposited. The F/C ratio decreases with angle increasing from 0 degree to 30 degree; however it turns to increase with angle increasing from 45 degree to 90 degree. The films deposited at center angles appear rougher compared with that prepared at angles beyond 45 degree. These films basically show having strong absorption properties for wavelength below 600 nm and having enhanced reflective characteristics. Due to the influence of the chemical composition and the surface morphology of the films, the optical properties of these films also show significant angular dependence.

  10. Method for nanomodulation of metallic thin films following the replica-antireplica process based on porous alumina membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Central de Chile, Santa Isabel 1186, 8330601 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper we have introduced a method for modulation of metallic thin films by sputtering of metals on anodized aluminum templates. Using a high deposition rate during deposition of the non-magnetic metal on the Al pattern, we have separated the two metallic surfaces and, thus, imprinted a pattern of nanohills on a non-magnetic metallic film, such as Au, Ag or Cu. The morphology of the nanostructured metallic films was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Thus, we have confirmed that the ordering degree of the Al template remained after the replication process. Additionally, and as an example of use of these films, we have prepared Supermalloy thin films deposited by sputtering onto these nanostructured non-magnetic metals. The room temperature magnetic behavior of these thin films is also studied. Interestingly, we have found that when the external magnetic field is applied out of plane of the substrate, the coercivity increases linearly as we increase the radius of the nanohills. These soft magnetic films can open new opportunities for magnetic field sensor applications. - Highlights: • A very soft magnetic film is investigated on ordered nanohills. • It is possible to imprint a metallic pattern directly from the etched aluminum foil. • These nanopatterned substrates add an additional degree of freedom. • A method for modulation of metallic thin films.

  11. The effects of anode material type on the optoelectronic properties of electroplated CdTe thin films and the implications for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echendu, O. K.; Dejene, B. F.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of the type of anode material on the properties of electrodeposited CdTe thin films for photovoltaic application have been studied. Cathodic electrodeposition of two sets of CdTe thin films on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) was carried out in two-electrode configuration using graphite and platinum anodes. Optical absorption spectra of films grown with graphite anode displayed significant spread across the deposition potentials compared to those grown with platinum anode. Photoelectrochemical cell result shows that the CdTe grown with graphite anode became p-type after post-deposition annealing with prior CdCl2 treatment, as a result of carbon incorporation into the films, while those grown with platinum anode remained n-type after annealing. A review of recent photoluminescence characterization of some of these CdTe films reveals the persistence of a defect level at (0.97-0.99) eV below the conduction band in the bandgap of CdTe grown with graphite anode after annealing while films grown with platinum anode showed the absence of this defect level. This confirms the impact of carbon incorporation into CdTe. Solar cell made with CdTe grown with platinum anode produced better conversion efficiency compared to that made with CdTe grown using graphite anode, underlining the impact of anode type in electrodeposition.

  12. The influence of a thin gold film on the optical spectral characteristics of a porous anodic aluminum-oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, N. M.; Vasilkov, M. Yu.; Fedorov, F. S.

    2017-07-01

    We have experimentally studied how a thin mesostructured gold film, deposited onto one side of a porous anodic aluminum-oxide membrane, influences its optical spectral characteristics in a 200-900 nm wavelength range. It is established that the gold film only modifies the spectral characteristics of the composite membrane at light wavelengths above 500 nm. The presence of a thin gold film ensures the surface conductivity of membrane on a level of 3.4 × 106 Ω-1 m-1, retains optical transparency within 10-20%, leads to the appearance of anomalous dispersion in the long-wavelength part of the transmission spectrum, and reduces the bandgap width from 5.61 eV (in anodic aluminum oxide) to 4.51 eV (in the composite). The obtained anodic aluminum-oxide membranes with thin gold films can be used as transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices with large light transmitter/receiver active areas.

  13. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  14. Investigation of CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire arrays with core–shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu-Song [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Rd., Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jia-Jun [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The present paper reports that CuInSe2 NW arrays were fabricated through pulsed electrode position onto an AAO template with various duty cycles, and a pore-filling ratio of approximately 92% was achieved. • GIXRD patterns showed that all CuInSe2 NW arrays were chalcopyrite and SAED images confirmed that the CuInSe2 NWs were polycrystalline. • PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. • Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63. - Abstract: Copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe{sub 2} NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe{sub 2} NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe{sub 2} NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core–shell structure was achieved. Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe{sub 2} NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  15. Investigation of CuInSe2 nanowire arrays with core–shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Jia-Jun; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present paper reports that CuInSe2 NW arrays were fabricated through pulsed electrode position onto an AAO template with various duty cycles, and a pore-filling ratio of approximately 92% was achieved. • GIXRD patterns showed that all CuInSe2 NW arrays were chalcopyrite and SAED images confirmed that the CuInSe2 NWs were polycrystalline. • PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. • Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63. - Abstract: Copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 ) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe 2 NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe 2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe 2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core–shell structure was achieved. Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe 2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  16. Changes in structure and properties of Nb2O5 anodic films caused by generating anion defects on their surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrachnyi, B.I.; Liashok, L.V.; Gomozov, V.P.; Skatkov, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the structure as well as in electrical and optical properties of Nb 2 O 5 anodic oxide films during the extraction of oxygen anions from near-surface layers of the film are considered. It is shown that the anion extraction brings about a phase transition in the film which is accompanied by a change in conductivity resulting from structure distortions occurring during disordering in Nb 2 O 5 . (author)

  17. Solid-state electrochromic cell with anodic iridium oxide film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautremont-Smith, W.C.; Beni, G.; Schiavone, L.M.; Shay, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new solid-state electrochromic cell has been fabricated using an anodic iridium oxide film (AIROF) display electrode. The cell has the symmetric sandwich structure AIROFvertical-barNafionvertical-barAIROF, with the Nafion solid electrolyte opacified by an in situ precipitation technique. A symmetric square-wave voltage of 1.5 V amplitude produces clearly perceivable color changes from pale to dark blue-gray in approx. =1 sec when viewed in diffuse reflection. Good open-circuit optical memory is exhibited:

  18. Porous anodic film formation on an Al-3.5 wt % Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páez, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological development of porous anodic films in the initial stages is examined during anodizing an Al-3.5 wt % Cu alloy in phosphoric acid. Using transmission electron microscopy a sequence of ultramicrotomed anodic sections reveals the dynamic evolution of numerous features in the thickening film in the initial stages of anodizing. The morphological changes in the anodic oxide in the initial stages of its formation appears related to the formation of bubbles during film growth. From Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS analysis of the film, the formation of the bubbles is associated with the enrichment of copper in the alloy due to growth of the anodic oxide. On the other hand, during constant current anodizing of Al-Cu in phosphoric acid, the current efficiency is considerably less than that for anodizing superpure aluminium under similar conditions. From the contrasting results between the charge consumed calculated from RBS and the real charge consumed during anodizing, oxygen gas bubbles generation and copper oxidation seem to be of less importance on the low efficiency for film formation. It is apparent that the main cause of losing efficiency for film growth on Al-Cu is associated with generation of oxygen at residual second phase, with the development of stresses in the film and, the consequence of these effects on film cracking during film growth.

    En este trabajo se examinó el desarrollo morfológico de películas anódicas porosas en los estados iniciales de la anodización de una aleación de aluminio Al-3,5 % p/p Cu. La observación de una secuencia de secciones ultramicrotomadas del metal y su película anódica, por microscopía electrónica de transmisión, revela la evolución dinámica de numerosos detalles morfológicos durante los inicios del crecimiento de la película anódica. Los cambios morfológicos en el óxido anódico, en los inicios de su formación, aparecen relacionados a la formación de

  19. Transforming Anodized WO3 Films into Visible-Light-Active Bi2WO6 Photoelectrodes by Hydrothermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charlene; Iwase, Akihide; Ng, Yun Hau; Amal, Rose

    2012-04-05

    We directly transformed anodized tungsten oxide film (WO3·2H2O) into bismuth tungstate (Bi2WO6) by substituting the intercalated water molecules with [Bi2O2](2+) in a hydrothermal treatment. The resultant Bi2WO6 was readily used as an electrode to produce anodic photocurrent in H2 evolution on the Pt counter electrode observed under visible light irradiation.

  20. alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alumina was synthesized using a solid-state reaction. The changes in ... sive, because of its abundant lowcost raw materials and is suitable for high-volume mass production. The battery is composed of a sodium anode, a sulphur cathode, and. Na. +.

  1. Synthesis of bismuth (III oxide films based anodes for electrochemical degradation of reactive blue 19 and crystal violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Milica M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bi2O3 films-based anodes were synthesized by electrodeposition of Bi on stainless steel substrate at constant current density and during different deposition times, fallowed by calcination, forming Bi2O3. The thickness of the films was determined by two methods: the observation under the microscope and by calculation from mass difference. Electrochemical proceses at the anodes were ivestigated by linear sweep voltammetry. At the anodes obtained within 2, 5, 10 and 15 minutes of deposition, two dyes, namely: Reactive Blue 19 and Crystal Violet, were decolorized by oxidation with •OH radical, generated from H2O2 decomposition at the anodes. Decoloration times of the anodes varied, and the shortest one was achieved with the anode obtained during 5 minutes of deposition, with the film thickness of 2.5±0.3 μm. The optimal H2O2 concentration for the dyes degradation was found to be 10 mmol dm-3. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТR 34008

  2. Tube Inner Coating of Non-Conductive Films by Pulsed Reactive Coaxial Magnetron Plasma with Outer Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Timan Idriss Gasab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The double-ended coaxial magnetron pulsed plasma (DCMPP method with auxiliary outer anode was introduced in order to achieve the uniform coating of non-conductive thin films on the inner walls of insulator tubes. In this study, titanium (Ti was employed as a cathode (sputtering target, and a glass tube was used as a substrate. In an argon (Ar and oxygen (O2 gas mixture, magnetron plasma was generated. Oxygen gas was introduced to deposit a titanium oxide (TiO2 film. A comparison between films coated with and without an auxiliary outer anode was made. As a result, it was clearly shown that the DCMPP method using an auxiliary outer anode enhanced the uniformity of the deposited non-conductive film compared to the conventional DCMPP method. Moreover, the optimum conditions under which the thin TiO2 film was deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube were revealed. From the results, it was supposed that the auxiliary outer anode contributed to the uniformity of the distributions of deposited negative charge on the non-conductive film and consequently the electric field and the plasma density uniform.

  3. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Denghui; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Ying; Xiao Jing; Liang Chunjun; Pei Zhiliang; Sun Chao

    2005-01-01

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar o C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10 -4 Ωcm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm 2

  4. Enhanced tribological behavior of anodic films containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles on Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Songmei; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Jindan; Liang, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly sodium tartrate (C 4 O 6 H 4 Na 2 ) electrolyte is used. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles reduce friction coefficient of composite films. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles demonstrate a favorable synergistic effect on improving tribological properties of composite films. • Lubricating mechanisms of SiC and PTFE nanoparticles are discussed. - Abstract: Anodic films containing SiC and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy by using anodic oxidation method in an environmental friendly electrolyte. The morphology, structure and composition of the films were studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the film contained a layered structure and have a surface full of petaloid bulges, which was totally different from the common anodic oxide film of the porous kind. The tribological properties of the films were investigated with dry friction tests in terms of the friction coefficient, wear rate and the morphology of worn surfaces. The results indicated that the SiC/PTFE composite film exhibited much better anti-wear and anti-friction performances than that of the SiC composite film, the PTFE composite film and the ordinary film without nanoparticles. The SiC/PTFE composite film has friction coefficient of 0.1 and wear rate of 20.133 mg/m, which was decreased respectively by 80% and 44.5% compared with that of the ordinary film. The lubricating mechanisms of the composite film containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles were discussed. PTFE nanoparticles could lead to the formation of lubricating layer while SiC nanoparticles inside the lubricating layer turned sliding friction to rolling friction

  5. Reduction mechanism of fluoroethylene carbonate for stable solid–electrolyte interphase film on silicon anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Mei, Donghai; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y; Hu, Jianzhi; Engelhard, Mark; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) is an effective electrolyte additive that can significantly improve the cycling ability of silicon and other anode materials. However, the fundamental mechanism of this improvement is still not well understood. Based on the results obtained from (6)Li NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies, we propose a molecular-level mechanism for how FEC affects the formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film: 1) FEC is reduced through the opening of the five-membered ring leading to the formation of lithium poly(vinyl carbonate), LiF, and some dimers; 2) the FEC-derived lithium poly(vinyl carbonate) enhances the stability of the SEI film. The proposed reduction mechanism opens a new path to explore new electrolyte additives that can improve the cycling stability of silicon-based electrodes.

  6. Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2010-07-27

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However, lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300%, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Si nanostructures such as nanowires, which are chemically and electrically bonded to the current collector, can overcome the pulverization problem, however, the heavy metal current collectors in these systems are larger in weight than Si active material. Herein we report a novel anode structure free of heavy metal current collectors by integrating a flexible, conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) network into a Si anode. The composite film is free-standing and has a structure similar to the steel bar reinforced concrete, where the infiltrated CNT network functions as both mechanical support and electrical conductor and Si as a high capacity anode material for Li-ion battery. Such free-standing film has a low sheet resistance of ∼30 Ohm/sq. It shows a high specific charge storage capacity (∼2000 mAh/g) and a good cycling life, superior to pure sputtered-on silicon films with similar thicknesses. Scanning electron micrographs show that Si is still connected by the CNT network even when small breaking or cracks appear in the film after cycling. The film can also "ripple up" to release the strain of a large volume change during lithium intercalation. The conductive composite film can function as both anode active material and current collector. It offers ∼10 times improvement in specific capacity compared with widely used graphite/copper anode sheets. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Properties of alumina films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure in hte presence of small amounts of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Rem, J.B.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen with low partial pressures of water (0–2.6 × 10−2 kPa (0−0.20 mmHg)) by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) as the precursor.

  8. From two- to three-dimensional alumina: Interface templated films and formation of γ -Al2O3 (111) nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, Wolf-Dietrich; Leuenberger, Dominik; Mette, Gerson; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Oxide thin films are of fundamental importance due to their applications in materials science, optics, corrosion protection, catalysis, and microelectronics. A multistep oxidation procedure is employed to precisely tune the alumina (Al2O3 ) thickness on a NiAl(110) alloy from two atomic bilayers to 1.5 nm . Structural changes are analyzed with x-ray photoelectron diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction. The long-range order does not relate to any bulk structure and is imposed by the crystallized interface. The large unit cell formed at the interface persists in thicker films. In contrast, the local order changes at a thickness above 0.5 nm from the complex structure of this prelayer under the formation of subnanometer-sized γ -Al2O3 (111)-type nuclei. The band structure is monitored with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing film thickness results in a slight decrease of the work function, but does not lead to significant changes of the electronic band structure. The presented multistep procedure opens a route for the synthesis of thin film structures in general and in particular provides fundamental insight in the surface structure of spinel-based transition Al2O3 .

  9. Electrochemical Tests to Evaluate the Stability of the Anodic Films on Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. B. Marino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of anodic films potentiodynamically grown on titanium, titanium-grade 2, and Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in a simulated physiological electrolyte, up to 8.0 V, and at room temperature to determine the corrosion resistance levels of dental implants. In PBS (phosphate buffer saline solution, thin titanium oxide films protect the surface of the Ti6%Al4%V alloy up to 6.0 V, pure Ti up to 8.0 V, and Ti-grade 2 up to 1.5 V. At more positive potentials, localized corrosion starts to occur possibly due to the alloy elements (Ti6Al4V-V and Al and variable levels of interstitials (Ti-grade 2: C, N, and Fe, mainly. When the biomaterials were submitted to open-circuit conditions, in artificial saliva, the worst corrosion resistance was observed in dental implant (Ti-grade 2, according to the open-circuit potential values and reconstruction rate analysis of these oxide films. The XPS spectra revealed TiO2 oxide as the main phase in the barrier oxide film coating the dental implant.

  10. The effect of different thickness alumina capping layers on the final morphology of dewet thin Ni films

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin C.; Behbahanian, Amir; Stoker, T. McKay; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Hartnett, Chris; Rack, Phillip D.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cost effective fashion with control over size and spacing is desired, but difficult to do. This work presents a scalable method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel nanoparticles. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles with no noticeable difference in final morphology with increased capping layer thickness. The differences in carbon nanotube mats grown, on the uncapped sample and one of the capped samples, is also presented here, with a more dense mat being present for the capped case.

  11. Karakteristik Tcr Dan Vcr Resistor Pasta Resistor Pada Substrat Alumina Dengan Teknologi Film Tebal

    OpenAIRE

    Raden Arief Setyawan, ST., MT., Rhezananta Arya H., Ir. M. Julius St., MS

    2014-01-01

    Resistor merupakan komponen yang sangat berperan dalam rangkaian film tebal. Resistor berteknologi film tebal mempunyai karakteristik yang terdiri dari TCR (Temperature Coefficient of Resistance) dan VCR (Voltage Coefficient of Resistance). Dari alasan di atas maka perlu untuk mengetahui bagaimana pembuatan resistor film tebal dan mengetahui karakteristiknya.Penelitian ini menggunakan proses screen printing dalam pembuatan resistor yang kemudian melalui proses pengendapan (15 menit), drying (...

  12. Enhanced Absorption in Organic Thin-Films from Imprinted Concave Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, replicable method for imprinting concave nanostructures to be used as functional light-trapping nanostructures in organic thin-films is presented. Porous anodic alumina templates were fabricated both by anodization of thick Al foils and by anodization of submicrometer thin ...... that is attributed to field enhancement and diffuse scattering, leading to efficient light trapping for a selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM)....

  13. TiO2 nanotube formation by Ti film anodization and their transport properties for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iraj, M.; Kolahdouz, M.; Asl-Soleimani, E.; Esmaeili, E.; Kolahdouz Esfahani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays formed by anodization of Ti film deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate by direct current magnetron sputtering. NH4F/ethylene glycol electrolyte was used to demonstrate the growth of stable nanotubes at room

  14. Red Phosphorus-Embedded Cross-Link-Structural Carbon Films as Flexible Anodes for Highly Reversible Li-Ion Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiafeng [School of Materials; Yuan, Tao [School of Materials; Pang, Yuepeng [School of Materials; Xu, Xinbo [School of Materials; Yang, Junhe [School of Materials; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng; Ma, Zi-Feng [Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center,; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Zheng, Shiyou [School of Materials

    2017-10-06

    Red phosphorus (P) is considered to be one of the most attractive anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh g–1. However, intrinsic characteristics such as the poor electronic conductivity and large volume expansion at lithiation impede the development of red P. Here, we design a new strategy to embed red P particles into a cross-link-structural carbon film (P–C film), in order to improve the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion. The red P/carbon film is synthesized via vapor phase polymerization (VPP) followed by the pyrolysis process, working as a flexible binder-free anode for LIBs. High cycle stability and good rate capability are achieved by the P–C film anode. With 21% P content in the film, it displays a capacity of 903 mAh g–1 after 640 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g–1 and a capacity of 460 mAh g–1 after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g–1. Additionally, the Coulombic efficiency reaches almost 100% for each cycle. The superior properties of the P–C films together with their facile fabrication make this material attractive for further flexible and high energy density LIB applications.

  15. Role of oxygen vacancies in anodic TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Halley, J.W.

    1992-05-01

    Defects play an important role in the electronic and optical properties of amorphous solids in general. Here we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the nature and origin of defect states in anodic rutile TiO 2 thin films (of thickness 5nm to 20nm). There is experimental evidence that the observed gap state at 0.7eV below the edge of conduction-band is due to an oxygen vacancy. For this reason, oxygen vacancies are used in our model. A comparison of the calculated bulk-photoconductivity to photospectroscopy experiment reveals that the films have bulk-like transport properties. On the other hand a fit of the surface density of states to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the (001) surfaces has suggested a surface defect density of 5% of oxygen vacancies. To resolve this discrepancy, we calculated the dc-conductivity where localization effects are included. Our results show an impurity band formation at about p c =9% of oxygen vacancies. We concluded that the gap states seen in STM are localized and the oxygen vacancies are playing the role of trapping centers (deep levels) in the studied films. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  16. Surface Morphology and Growth of Anodic Titania Nanotubes Films: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    become the most studied material as they exhibit promising functional properties. In the present study, anodic TiO2 films with different surface morphologies can be synthesized in an organic electrolyte of ethylene glycol (EG by controlling an optimum content of ammonium fluoride (NH4F using electrochemical anodization technique. Based on the results obtained, well-aligned and bundle-free TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of 100 nm and length of 8 µm were successfully synthesized in EG electrolyte containing ≈5 wt% of NH4F for 1 h at 60 V. However, formation of nanoporous structure and compact oxide layer would be favored if the content of NH4F was less than 5 wt%. In the photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting studies, well-aligned TiO2 nanotubular structure exhibited higher photocurrent density of ≈1 mA/cm2 with photoconversion efficiency of ≈2% as compared to the nanoporous and compact oxide layer due to the higher active surface area for the photon absorption to generate more photo-induced electrons during photoexcitation stage.

  17. A Nanocrystalline Fe2O3Film Anode Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaoling; Qin, Youzhi; Wang, Xia; Li, Hongsen; Shang, Xiantao; Fan, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Derang; Li, Shandong

    2018-02-23

    Nanocrystalline Fe 2 O 3 thin films are deposited directly on the conduct substrates by pulsed laser deposition as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. We demonstrate the well-designed Fe 2 O 3 film electrodes are capable of excellent high-rate performance (510 mAh g - 1 at high current density of 15,000 mA g - 1 ) and superior cycling stability (905 mAh g - 1 at 100 mA g - 1 after 200 cycles), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art Fe 2 O 3 anode materials. The outstanding lithium storage performances of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline Fe 2 O 3 film are attributed to the advanced nanostructured architecture, which not only provides fast kinetics by the shortened lithium-ion diffusion lengths but also prolongs cycling life by preventing nanosized Fe 2 O 3 particle agglomeration. The electrochemical performance results suggest that this novel Fe 2 O 3 thin film is a promising anode material for all-solid-state thin film batteries.

  18. Effects of laminating and co-firing conditions on the performance of anode-supported Ce0.8Sm0.201.9 film electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the laminating and co-firing technique on the performance of anode-supported Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC film electrolyte and its single cell, NiO-YSZ and NiOSDC anode-supported SDC film electrolytes were fabricated by laminating 24 sheets of anode plus one sheet of electrolyte and co-firing. La0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF-SDC cathode was coated on the SDC electrolytes to form a single cell. The lamination was tried at different laminating temperatures and pressures and the co-firing was carried out at different temperatures. The results showed that the laminating temperature should above the glass transition temperature (Tg of the binder. The laminating pressure of 70 MPa resulted in warp of the samples. The best co-firing temperature of the anode-supported SDC film electrolyte was 1400°C. The SDC film electrolyte formed well adherence to the anode. The NiO-YSZ anode had larger flexural strength than the NiO-SDC anode. The NiO-YSZ anode-supported SDC film electrolyte single cell had an open circuit voltage of 0.803 V and a maximum power density of 93.03 mW/cm2 with hydrogen as fuel at 800°C.

  19. Multifunctional alumina/titania hybrid blocking layer modified nanocrystalline titania films as efficient photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlei; Yu, Zhenhua; Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Pei; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Chang; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Sun, Weiwei; Zhan, Kan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2015-05-01

    A facile way of fabricating efficient blocking layer on mesoporous TiO2 film of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated here for the first time. Al2O3 and TiO2 are combined together to form a blocking layer. A simple spin coating technique is employed which is a versatile and low-cost method over the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Multifunctional alumina/titania (Al2O3/TiO2) hybrid overlayer is prepared on traditional TiO2 nanocrystalline thin film surface, through sequential deposition of AlCl3·6H2O and TiCl4 precursor solutions followed by sintering at 500 °C for 30 min. Al2O3 effectively plays its role in retarding interfacial recombination of electrons and improving open circuit potential (Voc), while the tiny TiO2 clusters synthesized from TiCl4 treatment act as electron transporting channels to facilitate electron diffusion which leads to enhanced photocurrent (Jsc). Compared to the device without blocking layer, the DSSCs assembled with Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid blocking layer showed improvement in Jsc (from 13.09 mA/cm2 to 16.90 mA/cm2) as well as in Voc (from 0.72 V to 0.73 V) resulting a much better conversion efficiency of 8.60%.

  20. Silver nanoparticles with an armor layer embedded in the alumina matrix to form nanocermet thin films with sound thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junhua; Tu, Chengjun; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhuge, Fei; Wu, Liang; Cao, Hongtao; Yu, Ke

    2014-07-23

    In this article, we demonstrate that the Al-alloyed Ag nanoparticle-embedded alumina nanocermet films lead to excellent thermal stability, even at 500 °C for 130 h under an ambient nitrogen atmosphere. The outward diffusion of Al atoms from the AgAl bimetallic alloy nanoparticles and their easy oxidation create an armor layer to suppress the mobility of Ag atoms. Then, the AlAg particles or/and agglomerates with a uniform spherical shape favor higher dispersion concentration within the host matrix, which is beneficial both for high absorptance in the visible range and for the solid localized surface plasmon absorption features in the AgAl-Al2O3 nanocermet films. Based on the AgAl-Al2O3 absorbing layer with sound optical and microstructural stability, we successfully constructed a high-temperature-endurable solar selective absorber. The multilayer stacked absorber demonstrates a high solar absorptance of ∼94.2% and a low thermal emittance of ∼15% (@ 673 K) after annealing at 450 °C for 70 h in an ambient nitrogen atmosphere.

  1. In vitro biocompatibility and electrical stability of thick-film platinum/gold alloy electrodes printed on alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Objective. High-density electrode arrays are a powerful tool in both clinical neuroscience and basic research. However, current manufacturing techniques require the use of specialised techniques and equipment, which are available to few labs. We have developed a high-density electrode array with customisable design, manufactured using simple printing techniques and with commercially available materials. Approach. Electrode arrays were manufactured by thick-film printing a platinum-gold alloy (Pt/Au) and an insulating dielectric on 96% alumina ceramic plates. Arrays were conditioned in serum and serum-free conditions, with and without 1 kHz, 200 µA, charge balanced stimulation for up to 21 d. Array biocompatibility was assessed using an extract assay and a PC-12 cell contact assay. Electrode impedance, charge storage capacity and charge injection capacity were before and after array conditioning. Main results. The manufactured Pt/Au electrodes have a highly porous surface and exhibit electrical properties comparable to arrays manufactured using alternative techniques. Materials used in array manufacture were found to be non-toxic to L929 fibroblasts by extract assay, and neuronal-like PC-12 cells adhered and extended neurites on the array surfaces. Arrays remained functional after long-term delivery of electrical pulses while exposed to protein-rich environments. Charge storage capacities and charge injection capacities increased following stimulation accounted for by an increase in surface index (real surface area) observed by vertical scanning interferometry. Further, we observed accumulation of proteins at the electrode sites following conditioning in the presence of serum. Significance. This study demonstrates the in vitro biocompatibility of commercially available thick-film printing materials. The printing technique is both simple and versatile, with layouts readily modified to produce customized electrode arrays. Thick-film electrode arrays are an

  2. Sandwiched Thin-Film Anode of Chemically Bonded Black Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Zou, Yuqin; Tao, Li; Ma, Zhaoling; Liu, Dongdong; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Shuangyin

    2017-09-01

    A facile vacuum filtration method is applied for the first time to construct sandwich-structure anode. Two layers of graphene stacks sandwich a composite of black phosphorus (BP), which not only protect BP from quickly degenerating but also serve as current collector instead of copper foil. The BP composite, reduced graphene oxide coated on BP via chemical bonding, is simply synthesized by solvothermal reaction at 140 °C. The sandwiched film anode used for lithium-ion battery exhibits reversible capacities of 1401 mAh g -1 during the 200th cycle at current density of 100 mA g -1 indicating superior cycle performance. Besides, this facile vacuum filtration method may also be available for other anode material with well dispersion in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Influence of square wave anodization on the electronic properties and structures of the passive films on Ti in sulfuric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y.; Li, D. G.; Chen, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Two types of square wave anodization (type 1 and type 2) were employed in this work to form a passive film on Ti in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The influences of the anodization potential and duration on the electronic properties and structures of the passive films were studied by Mott-Schottky plots, auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the donor density, ND, of the passive film decreased and the flat band potential, EFB, shifted to the positive direction with the increase of the anodization duration and high anodization potential irrespective of whether type 1 or type 2 was used. Moreover, the passive film that formed on Ti using type 1 had a lower donor density and a more positive flat band potential than that on Ti using type 2 at one fixed anodization duration (only exchanging the anodization order of 1 V and the high potential). XPS analysis revealed that the outmost passive film was only composed of TiO2, the inner passive film was mainly composed of TiO2 with some amount of TiO and Ti2O3, and the TiO2 concentration in the outermost passive film increased with the increase of the anodization duration and the high potential in the case of using type 1 or type 2, implying an increased degree of crystallinity. The AES results showed that the O/Ti atomic ratio of the passive film obviously increased with the increasing anodization duration and high potential, demonstrating the increased homogeneous characteristic of the passive film; this was in agreement with the Mott-Schottky and XPS results.

  4. Nafion/2,2'-bipyridyl-modified bismuth film electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, Ferenc; Kadar, Mihaly; Toth, Klara; Tatar, Eniko

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication, characterisation and the application of a Nafion/2,2'-bipyridyl/bismuth composite film-coated glassy carbon electrode (NC(Bpy)BiFE) for the anodic stripping voltammetric determination of trace metal ions (Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ). The NC(Bpy)BiFE electrode is prepared by first applying a 2.5 mm 3 drop of a coating solution containing 0.5 wt% Nafion and 0.1% (w/v) 2,2'-bipyridil (Bpy) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode, while the Bi film was plated in situ simultaneously with the target metal ions at -1.4 V. The main advantage of the polymer coated bismuth film electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased considerably due to the incorporation of the neutral chelating agent of 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bpy) in the Nafion film, while the Nafion coating improved the mechanical stability of the bismuth film and its resistance to the interference of surfactants. The key experimental parameters relevant to both the electrode fabrication and the voltammetric measurement were optimized on the basis of the stripping signals. With a 2 min deposition time in the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range (about 2-0.001 μM) with detection limits of 8.6 nM (0.56 μg dm -3 ) for Zn 2+ , 1.1 nM (0.12 μg dm -3 ) for Cd 2+ and 0.37 nM (0.077 μg dm -3 ) for Pb 2+ . For nine successive preconcentration/determination/electrode renewal experiments the standard deviations were between 3 and 5% at 1.2 μM for zinc and 0.3-0.3 μM concentration level for lead and cadmium, respectively, and the method exhibited excellent selectivity in the presence of the excess of several potential interfering metal ions. The analytical utility of the stripping voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of heavy metals in some real samples and the method was validated by ICP-MS technique

  5. Structural, optical and electrical properties of CeO2 thin films simultaneously prepared by anodic and cathodic electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumeng; Du, Xiaoqing; Yi, Chenxi; Liu, Jiao; Zhu, Benfeng; Zhang, Zhao

    2018-05-01

    CeO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) and indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrodeposition, and the influence of negative potential on the formation of ceria films was studied with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, van der Pauw measurements, UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that CeO2 films on the anode are slightly affected by the potential, but the particle size, crystal orientation, strain, film thickness, resistivity and Ce(III) content of the films on the cathode increases with increasing potential on the SS substrate. Contradictory to the results of the SS cathode, redshift (Ed changed from 3.95 eV to 3.56 eV and Ei changed from 3.42 eV to 3.04 eV) occurring in the absorption spectrum of CeO2 deposited on the ITO-coated glass cathode indicates that the content of Ce3+ in the cathodic films is dependent on the adopted substrates and decreases as the applied potential is increased.

  6. Film growth and alloy enrichment during anodizing AZ31 magnesium alloy in fluoride/glycerol electrolytes of a range of water contents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, A.; Galal, O.; Skeldon, P.; Kuběna, Ivo; Šmíd, Miroslav; Briand, E.; Vickridge, I.; Ganem, J.-J.; Habazaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 219, NOV (2016), s. 28-37 ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium * anodic film * enrichment Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  7. Functioning of antimony film electrode in acid media under cyclic and anodic stripping voltammetry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebez, Bine; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Hocevar, Samo B; Veber, Marjan

    2013-06-27

    New insights into the functioning, i.e. electrochemical behaviour and analytical performance, of in situ prepared antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) under square-wave anodic stripping (SW-ASV) and cyclic (CV) voltammetry conditions are presented by studying several key operational parameters using Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) as model analyte ions. Five different carbon- and metal-based substrate transducer electrodes revealed a clear advantage of the former ones while the concentration of the precursor Sb(III) ion exhibited a distinct influence on the ASV functioning of the SbFE. Among six acids examined as potential supporting electrolytes the HNO3 was demonstrated to yield nearly identical results in conducting ASV experiments with SbFE as so far almost exclusively used HCl. This is extremely important as HNO3 is commonly employed acidifying agent in trace metal analysis, especially in elemental mass spectrometry measurements. By carrying out a systematic CV and ASV investigation using a medium exchange protocol, we confirmed the formation of poorly soluble oxidized Sb species at the substrate electrode surface at the end of each stripping step, i.e. at the potentials beyond the anodic dissolution of the antimony film. Hence, the significance of the cleaning and initializing the surface of a substrate electrode after accomplishing a stripping step was thoroughly studied in order to find conditions for a complete removal of the adhered Sb-oxides and thus to assure a memory-free functioning of the in situ prepared SbFE. Finally, the practical analytical application of the proposed ASV method was successfully tested and evaluated by measuring the three metal analytes in ground (tap) and surface (river) water samples acidified with HNO3. Our results approved the appropriateness of the SbFE and the proposed method for measuring low μg L(-1) levels of some toxic metals, particularly taking into account the possibility of on-field testing and the use of low cost

  8. Influence of the morphology and microstructure on the photocatalytic properties of titanium oxide films obtained by sparking anodization in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Sikora, Mariana de; Viana Rosario, Adriane [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), DQ, UFSCar, P.O. Box: 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Chaves Pereira, Ernesto, E-mail: decp@power.ufscar.b [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), DQ, UFSCar, P.O. Box: 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Paiva-Santos, Carlos O. [Laboratorio Computacional em Analises Cristalograficas e Cristalinas - LabCACC, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Variation of morphology and microstructure of TiO{sub 2} with applied charge. {yields} Influence of morphology on photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sparking anodization. {yields} Influence of crystallite size on photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sparking anodization. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in morphology and microstructure of TiO{sub 2} films, prepared by sparking anodization of Ti in a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution, by applying different formation charges. We show that although films obtained by this technique are rarely used in photocatalytic applications, the morphological and microstructural changes during sparking anodization produce TiO{sub 2} films that can be used as photocatalysts. In contrast to qualitative analysis commonly found in the literature, we used quantitative methods of analysis to quantify average pore diameter and pore density from the morphology and structural parameters from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using the Rietveld refinement. The results indicated that changes in both the morphology and crystalline structure have a strong influence on the photoactivity of the films. From this investigation, we concluded that, for films prepared in early stages of anodization, the morphology had the biggest influence on photoactivity, and after applying 72C of charge, crystalline properties dominated the photocatalytic characteristics of the films.

  9. Influence of the morphology and microstructure on the photocatalytic properties of titanium oxide films obtained by sparking anodization in H3PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Sikora, Mariana de; Viana Rosario, Adriane; Chaves Pereira, Ernesto; Paiva-Santos, Carlos O.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Variation of morphology and microstructure of TiO 2 with applied charge. → Influence of morphology on photoactivity of TiO 2 films prepared by sparking anodization. → Influence of crystallite size on photoactivity of TiO 2 films prepared by sparking anodization. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in morphology and microstructure of TiO 2 films, prepared by sparking anodization of Ti in a H 3 PO 4 solution, by applying different formation charges. We show that although films obtained by this technique are rarely used in photocatalytic applications, the morphological and microstructural changes during sparking anodization produce TiO 2 films that can be used as photocatalysts. In contrast to qualitative analysis commonly found in the literature, we used quantitative methods of analysis to quantify average pore diameter and pore density from the morphology and structural parameters from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using the Rietveld refinement. The results indicated that changes in both the morphology and crystalline structure have a strong influence on the photoactivity of the films. From this investigation, we concluded that, for films prepared in early stages of anodization, the morphology had the biggest influence on photoactivity, and after applying 72C of charge, crystalline properties dominated the photocatalytic characteristics of the films.

  10. Phase transition and thermal expansion studies of alumina thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, G; Thirumurugesan, R; Mohandas, E; Sastikumar, D; Kuppusami, P; Songl, J I

    2014-10-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3 x 10(-3) mbar at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were characterized by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTXRD pattern showed the cubic y-Al2O3 phase in the temperature range 300-973 K. At temperatures ≥ 1073 K, the δ and θ-phases of Al2O3 were observed. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficient and volume thermal expansion coefficient of γ-Al2O3 was found to be 12.66 x 10(-6) K(-1) and 38.87 x 10(-6) K(-1) in the temperature range 300 K-1073 K. The field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth and structureless morphology of the films deposited on Si (100). The atomic force microscopy study indicated the increased crystallinity and surface roughness of the films after annealing at high temperature.

  11. Self-sealing of unsealed aluminium anodic oxide films in very different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that the corrosion resistance behaviour of bare aluminium in natural environments is superior to that of unsealed anodised aluminium. However, results obtained in the exposure of unsealed anodised aluminium specimens with three different film thicknesses, in 9 atmospheres of Ibero-America with salinity levels between 3.9 and 517 mg.m-2.d-1 chloride, clearly shows the reverse to be true. After a sufficient time, which is shorter the higher the precipitation rate and the environmental relative humidity, a self-sealing process takes place, leading to coatings that surpass the quality standards demanded in industrial practice. Anodic films, sealed and unsealed, are protective coatings whose quality improves with ageing in most natural environments.

    Está muy difundida la idea de que el comportamiento del aluminio es superior al del aluminio anodizado y sin sellar, desde el punto de vista de la resistencia a la corrosión, en los ambientes naturales. Sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos en la exposición de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, a 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 517 mg.m-2.d-1 de cloruros, muestran, sin lugar a dudas, lo contrario. Con tiempo suficiente, tanto más rápidamente cuanto mayor sean las precipitaciones y la humedad relativa ambiental, tiene lugar un proceso de autosellado que conduce a recubrimientos que superan las normas de calidad exigidas en la práctica industrial. Los anodizados, sellados y sin sellar, son recubrimientos protectores que mejoran su calidad, en la mayoría de los ambientes naturales, con el envejecimiento.

  12. Study of the phase composition of nanostructures produced by the local anodic oxidation of titanium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, V. I.; Ageev, O. A.; Konoplev, B. G.; Smirnov, V. A.; Solodovnik, M. S.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the phase composition of oxide nanostructures formed by the local anodic oxidation of a titanium thin film are reported. The data of the phase analysis of titanium-oxide nanostructures are obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the ion profiling mode of measurements. It is established that the surface of titanium-oxide nanostructures 4.5 ± 0.2 nm in height possesses a binding energy of core levels characteristic of TiO 2 (458.4 eV). By analyzing the titanium-oxide nanostructures in depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the formation of phases with binding energies of core levels characteristic of Ti 2 O 3 (456.6 eV) and TiO (454.8 eV) is established. The results can be used in developing the technological processes of the formation of a future electronic-component base for nanoelectronics on the basis of titanium-oxide nanostructures and probe nanotechnologies.

  13. Study of passive films formed on mild steel in alkaline media by the application of anodic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, L.; Novoa, X.R.; Montemor, M.F.; Carmezim, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, iron oxide thin layers formed on mild steel substrates in alkaline media by the application of different anodic potentials were studied in order to characterize their morphology, composition and electrochemical behaviour, in particular under conditions of cathodic protection. The surface composition was evaluated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The morphology of the surface oxides was studied via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical behaviour of the surface oxides was studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the surface film is composed by Fe 2+ oxides and Fe 3+ oxides and/or hydroxides. The contribution of Fe 2+ species vanishes when the potential of film formation increases in the passive domain. Two distinct phases were differentiated in the outer layers of the surface film, which proves that film growing is topotactic in nature

  14. Study of passive films formed on mild steel in alkaline media by the application of anodic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, L. [Universidade de Vigo, E.T.S.E.I., Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: lorenafp@uvigo.es; Novoa, X.R. [Universidade de Vigo, E.T.S.E.I., Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); EST Setubal, DEM, Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Campus IPS, 2910 Setubal (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, iron oxide thin layers formed on mild steel substrates in alkaline media by the application of different anodic potentials were studied in order to characterize their morphology, composition and electrochemical behaviour, in particular under conditions of cathodic protection. The surface composition was evaluated by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The morphology of the surface oxides was studied via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical behaviour of the surface oxides was studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the surface film is composed by Fe{sup 2+}oxides and Fe{sup 3+} oxides and/or hydroxides. The contribution of Fe{sup 2+} species vanishes when the potential of film formation increases in the passive domain. Two distinct phases were differentiated in the outer layers of the surface film, which proves that film growing is topotactic in nature.

  15. Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. H. Perdieu

    2009-09-01

    A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted anodization of aluminum in oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Rong; Jiang Kaiming [Department of Physics, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550 Pudong Avenue, Shanghai 200135 (China); Zhu Yun [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Qi Haiyang [Department of Physics, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550 Pudong Avenue, Shanghai 200135 (China); Ding Guqiao, E-mail: gqding@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Porous anodic alumina is an important nanoscale template for fabrication of various nanostructures. We report a new ultrasound-assisted anodization process in oxalic acid. Under the continuous irradiation of ultrasound, the one-step-anodized sample has a smooth and clean surface, and two-step-anodization brings ordered porous anodic alumina with higher growth rate of 52 {mu}m/h. The ultrasound applied during the anodization can clean the surface and enhance the nanopore growth since it can accelerate the oxide dissolving on the electrolyte/oxide interface. The ultrasound-assisted anodization may be utilized for other anodizations.

  17. Structure, Morphology and Optical Properties of TiO2 Films Formed by Anodizing in a Mixed Solution of Citric Acid and Sulfamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Sarkar, P.; Biswas, A.; Mishra, P.; Abraham, G. J.; Sastry, P. U.; Kain, V.

    2017-08-01

    TiO2 films of 50-180 nm thickness were formed at room temperature by anodization of titanium metal in a mixture of citric acid and sulfamic acid in the potential range of 5-30 V. The films so obtained were characterized for their crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and micro-laser Raman spectroscopy measurements of the anodic films confirmed the formation of brookite phase of TiO2 at anodizing potentials of 15, 20, 25 and 30 V and amorphous structure at 5 and 10 V. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed non-porous microstructure of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements evaluated the band gap of TiO2 at around 3.3 eV, whereas the refractive index of the films was found to be in the range of 2-2.35, in the visible range of spectrum.

  18. Vortex pinning in superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous alumina templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinckx, W.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization and transport properties of superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous aluminium oxide templates. Periodic oscillations in the critical temperature vs. field, matching effects in fields up to 700 mT and strongly enhanced critical currents were observed....... These fields are considerably higher than those typical for periodic pinning arrays made by lithographic techniques, which reflects the benefits of nanostructuring superconductors by using self-organized growth. This method provides a periodic pinning potential with sub-100 nm spacing between the pinning...

  19. Multifunctional substrates of thin porous alumina for cell biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Toccafondi, Chiara

    2014-02-27

    We have fabricated anodic porous alumina from thin films (100/500 nm) of aluminium deposited on technological substrates of silicon/glass, and investigated the feasibility of this material as a surface for the development of analytical biosensors aiming to assess the status of living cells. To this goal, porous alumina surfaces with fixed pitch and variable pore size were analyzed for various functionalities. Gold coated (about 25 nm) alumina revealed surface enhanced Raman scattering increasing with the decrease in wall thickness, with factor up to values of approximately 104 with respect to the flat gold surface. Bare porous alumina was employed for micro-patterning and observation via fluorescence images of dye molecules, which demonstrated the surface capability for a drug-loading device. NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured in vitro and examined after 2 days since seeding, and no significant (P > 0.05) differences in their proliferation were observed on porous and non-porous materials. The effect on cell cultures of pore size in the range of 50–130 nm—with pore pitch of about 250 nm—showed no significant differences in cell viability and similar levels in all cases as on a control substrate. Future work will address combination of all above capabilities into a single device.

  20. Preparation of sodium beta″-alumina electrolyte thin film by electrophoretic deposition using Taguchi experimental design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao-ling; Xia, Yi; Liu, Xiao-min; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sodium beta″ alumina electrolyte thin film is successfully prepared via electrophoretic deposition. • The ionic conductivity of the optimized electrolyte disk is 0.138 S cm -1 . • A Daniell-typed cell is built which approves the reversible Na + conduction at only 100 °C. - Abstract: With the desire to lowering the working temperature of Na-β″-Al 2 O 3 solid electrolyte (BASE) based batteries, electrophoretic deposition process is employed to fabricate 300 μm thick Na-β″-Al 2 O 3 sheet with densification microstructure and high ionic conductivity. Taguchi design of experiment approach with signal to noise ratio analysis is utilized to optimize the operation parameters. The results show that the TiO 2 content in the precursor powders is critical to determine the ionic conductivity of the resulting electrolyte. X-Ray diffraction analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy examination point out that Ti 4+ can enter the crystal lattice of Na-β″-Al 2 O 3 , which results in the variation of lattice parameters, densifies the microstructure and improves both β″ phase content and ionic conductivity of the resulting sample. The thin Na-β″-Al 2 O 3 disk obtained under the optimized conditions Exhibit 97% β″ phase content and relatively high ionic conductivity. Moreover, a Daniell-typed cell built with this optimized sample disk, using copper/zinc redox couples as electrodes and 1 M NaBF 4 in DMSO as the secondary electrolyte, shows reversible charge and discharge behaviors at relatively low temperature, 100 °C

  1. Effect of zinc addition on the performance of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bharvez; Rosli, M. U.; Jahidi, H.; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Zakaria, M. S.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Khor, C. Y.; Faizal, W. M.; Rahim, W. M.; Nawi, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the effect of zinc addition on the performance of aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater was investigated. The parameters used in assessing the performance of the cast anodes are anodic efficiency, protection efficiency and polarized potential. The content of zinc in the anodes was varied after die casting. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anode for the protection of mild steel for marine application at room temperature. Factors such as reactivity of zinc particles in the seawater, corrosion activity during the period of experiment, pH of seawater and the electronegativity potential of zinc were collected for analysis. Overall findings shows addition of zinc increases rate of corrosion to the sacrificial anode and the protection offered by the sacrificial anodes measured and collected in PIT shows the seawater react to sacrificial anode and no porosity reaction between the anodes. The microstructure showed the intermetallic structures of β-phase which breakdown the alumina passive film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.

  2. Changes in the morphology of porous anodic films formed on aluminium in natural and artificial ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to demonstrate that the water retained in porous anodic aluminium oxide films is the main reason for their reactivity under electron beam irradiation in the TEM, accelerated ageing in an oven at 100 °C, or natural ageing over months and years in an outdoor atmosphere. Though the kinetics in each medium is highly different, there is a clear similarity between the structural and physical-chemical transformations that take place. Unsealed layers, practically free of water, hardly change their structure under the effect of electron beams and show the same impedance plots after hours at 100 °C or after years at environmental temperature in dry atmospheres.

    La microscopía electrónica de transmisión, por una parte, y la espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica, por otra, demuestran que el agua retenida en las películas anódicas porosas de óxido de aluminio es la principal responsable de su reactividad bajo la irradiación del haz de electrones en el MET, en el envejecimiento acelerado en la estufa a 100 ºC o en el envejecimiento natural de meses y años en la atmósfera a temperatura ambiente. Aunque, de cinéticas muy diferentes, existe una indudable semejanza entre las transformaciones estructurales y físico-químicas que tienen lugar en los tres medios. Las capas sin sellar, prácticamente exentas de agua, apenas cambian su estructura por efecto del haz de electrones y muestran los mismos diagramas de impedancia después de horas a 100 ºC o de años a temperatura ambiente en atmósferas secas.

  3. Surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite films deposited on anodized titanium by an electrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang [Research Institute, Kuwotech, 970–88, Wolchul-dong, Buk-ku, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State, University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    The biocompatibility of anodized titanium (Ti) was improved by an electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate (CaP) layer. The CaP layer was grown on the anodized Ti surface in modified simulated body fluid (M-SBF) at 85 °C. The phases and morphologies for the CaP layers were influenced by the electrolyte concentration. Nano flake-like precipitates that formed under low M-SBF concentrations were identified as hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals orientated in the c-axis direction. In high M-SBF concentrations, the CaP layer formed micro plate-like precipitates on anodized Ti, and micropores were covered with HAp. Proliferation of murine preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) on the HAp/anodized Ti surfaces was significantly higher than for untreated Ti and anodized Ti surfaces. - Highlights: • CaP layers were grown on anodized Ti surfaces by an electrochemical deposition process. • Phases and morphologies of layers were influenced by the electrolyte concentration. • Superior cell proliferation was observed on hydroxyapatite-coated anodized surfaces.

  4. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClere, D. J.; Thompson, G. E.; Derby, B.

    2009-06-01

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  5. Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Wenjing; Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn; Zhou, Haihan; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhang, Ying

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • PVP is used as a film- and pore-forming agent to prepare the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anode. • The TiO{sub 2} anode supplies high surface area for the dye adsorption. • The DSSC efficiency is strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. • The DSSC efficiency with the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP reaches 8.39%. - Abstract: A novel mean of generating mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) anodes by employing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the film- and pore-forming agent are proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influences on the morphology and photovoltaic performances of the TiO{sub 2} anodes are investigated by adjusting the PVP content in synthesizing the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anodes. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the DSSC is found to be strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. After the sintering process, the removal of the PVP leaves porously interconnected channel structures inside the TiO{sub 2} anode, supplying enhanced specific surface area for the dye adsorption as well as the efficient electron transmission. As a result, the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP presents the highest performances, based on which the DSSC achieves the highest conversion efficiency of 8.39%, approximately increased by 56.53% than that of the DSSC fabricated without PVP (5.36%).

  6. Fabrication of Meso-Porous Gamma-Alumina Films by Sol-Gel and Gel Casting Processes for Making Moisture Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kumar Mistry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meso-porous g-Al2O3 film may be used as a highly sensitive trace moisture sensor. The crack-free alumina film was developed using a combination of sol-gel and tape casting processes, which produce high porosity, high surface area and small pore dimensions in the range of few nano-meter at uniform distribution. Sol-gel processes are well known in nano-technology and nano-material preparation, but it is difficult to make crack-free thick or thin films using this method. Tape cast methods are used for the fabrication of flexible crack-free thick ceramic sheets. Our objective was to develop nano-structured, crack-free, transparent Al2O3 film a few microns thick, has a highly porous and stable crystallographic nature. A metallic paste was printed by screen printing on both side of the film surface for electrodes to form a sensitive element. A silver wire (dia j=0.1mm lead was connected to a grid structure electrode using a silver paste spot for fine joining. Alumina is absorbs moisture molecules into its meso-porous layer and changes its electrical characteristics according to the moisture content, its dielectric constant increase as moisture increase. Moisture molecules can be conceived of as dipoles in random state before the application of an electric field. When the dipole orientation was changed from random to an equilibrium state under the application of external field, a large change in dielectric constant was observed. The number of water molecules absorbed determines the electrical impedance of the capacitor, which in turn is proportional to water vapor pressure.

  7. Study of preparation and surface morphology of self-ordered nanoporous alumina; Estudo da preparacao e da morfologia de superficie de alumina nanoporosa auto-organizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Elisa Marchezini; Martins, Maximiliano Delany, E-mail: elisamarch@gmail.com, E-mail: MG.mdm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG. (Brazil); Silva, Ronald Arreguy, E-mail: arregsilva@yahoo.com.br [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous alumina is a typical material that exhibits self-ordered nanochannels spontaneously organized in hexagonal shape. Produced by anodizing of metallic aluminum, it has been used as a template for production of materials at the nanoscale. This work aimed to study the preparation of nanoporous alumina by anodic anodizing of metallic aluminum substrates. The nanoporous alumina was prepared following the methodology proposed by Masuda and Fukuda (1995), a two-step method consisting of anodizing the aluminum sample in the potentiostatic mode, removing the layer of aluminum oxide (alumina) formed and then repeat the anodization process under the same conditions as the first anodization. This method produces nanoporous alumina with narrow pore diameter distribution and well-ordered structure. (author)

  8. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  9. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  10. Properties and Structure of the LiCl-films on Lithium Anodes in Liquid Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hennesø, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Lithium anodes passivated by LiCl layers in different types of liquid cathodes (catholytes) based on LiAlCl4 in SOCl2 or SO2 have been studied by means of impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra have been fitted with two equivalent circuits using a nonlinear least squares fit program...

  11. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  12. A mercury free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions using poly zincon film modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, S.; Devendiran, M.; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2017-11-01

    With an aim of developing a mercury-free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions, a poly zincon film (PZF) modified electrode is reported here. The PZF on the electrode surface has been obtained by electropolymerisation of zincon. PZF present on the electrode surface has been used for preconcentrating Pb (II) ions through complexation. The electrochemical determination of the above metal ion has been carried out by reducing the preconcentrated Pb (II) at -1.0 V followed by anodic stripping in acetate buffer of pH 6 and measuring the stripping current at -0.64 V. The PZF and Pb preconcentrated PZF modified electrodes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The factors influencing the determination of Pb (II) ions such as the nature of medium/background electrolyte, pH, preconcentration time and electrode regeneration have been studied in detail. Under optimum conditions, a linear relation for the stripping current with Pb (II) ions in the solution has been observed in the range from 3.45 to 136.3 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg L-1. The regeneration of the modified electrode after each experiment has been achieved by simply immersing the electrode in 0.1 M EDTA solution for 2 min and washing thoroughly in de-ionised water. PZF modified electrode has shown a promising and sensitive platform for the anodic stripping determination of Pb (II) ions and the regeneration of the electrode has been found to be easy for subsequent uses. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of Pb (II) ions in ground water and tap water samples.

  13. MoOx thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering as an anode for aqueous micro-supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the potential application of non-stoichiometric molybdenum oxide as anode materials for aqueous micro-supercapacitors, conductive MoOx films (2 ≤ x ≤ 2.3 deposited via RF magnetron sputtering at different temperatures were systematically studied for composition, structure and electrochemical properties in an aqueous solution of Li2SO4. The MoOx (x ≈ 2.3 film deposited at 150 °C exhibited a higher areal capacitance (31 mF cm−2 measured at 5 mV s−1, best rate capability and excellent stability at potentials below −0.1 V versus saturated calomel electrode, compared to the films deposited at room temperature and at higher temperatures. These superior properties were attributed to the multi-valence composition and mixed-phase microstructure, i.e., the coexistence of MoO2 nanocrystals and amorphous MoOx (2.3 < x ≤ 3. A mechanism combining Mo(IV oxidation/reduction on the hydrated MoO2 grain surfaces and cation intercalation/extrusion is proposed to illustrate the pseudo-capacitive process.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of ferric oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite films on stainless steel fabricated by anodization and ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei-ting; Ni, Hong-wei; Chen, Rong-sheng; Yue, Gao; Tai, Jun-kai; Wang, Zi-yang

    2013-08-01

    A simple surface treatment was used to develop photocatalytic activity for stainless steel. AISI 304 stainless steel specimens after anodization were implanted by Ti ions at an extracting voltage of 50 kV with an implantation dose of 3 × 1015 atoms·cm-2 and then annealed in air at 450°C for 2 h. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution was carried out under ultraviolet light. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was evaluated in NaCl solution (3.5 wt%) by electrochemical polarization curves. It is found that the Ti ions depth profile resembles a Gaussian distribution in the implanted layer. The nanostructured Fe2O3/TiO2 composite film exhibits a remarkable enhancement in photocatalytic activity referenced to the mechanically polished specimen and anodized specimen. Meanwhile, the annealed Ti-implanted specimen remains good corrosion resistance.

  15. Investigations of Si Thin Films as Anode of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingliu [Department of Chemical; Shi, Bing; Bareño, Javier; Liu, Yuzi; Maroni, Victor A.; Zhai, Dengyun; Dees, Dennis W.; Lu, Wenquan

    2018-01-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films having various thicknesses were investigated as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical characterization of the 20 nm thick thin silicon film revealed a very low first cycle Coulombic efficiency, which can be attributed to the silicon oxide layer formed on both the surface of the as-deposited Si thin film and the interface between the Si and the substrate. Among the investigated films, the 100 nm Si thin film demonstrated the best performance in terms of first cycle efficiency and cycle life. Observations from scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the generation of cracks was inevitable in the cycled Si thin films, even as the thickness of the film was as little as 20 nm, which was not predicted by previous modeling work. However, the cycling performance of the 20 and 100 nm silicon thin films was not detrimentally affected by these cracks. The poor capacity retention of the 1 mu m silicon thin film was attributed to the delamination.

  16. Formation of double ring patterns on Co2MnSi Heusler alloy thin film by anodic oxidation under scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutam, Vijaykumar; Singh, Sandeep; Pandey, Himanshu; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Double ring formation on Co 2 MnSi (CMS) films is observed at electrical breakdown voltage during local anodic oxidation (LAO) using atomic force microscope (AFM). Corona effect and segregation of cobalt in the vicinity of the rings is studied using magnetic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double ring formation is attributed to the interaction of ablated material with the induced magnetic field during LAO. Steepness of forward bias transport characteristics from the unperturbed region of the CMS film suggest a non equilibrium spin contribution. Such mesoscopic textures in magnetic films by AFM tip can be potentially used for memory storage applications.

  17. Formation of double ring patterns on Co2MnSi Heusler alloy thin film by anodic oxidation under scanning probe microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Toutam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Double ring formation on Co2MnSi (CMS films is observed at electrical breakdown voltage during local anodic oxidation (LAO using atomic force microscope (AFM. Corona effect and segregation of cobalt in the vicinity of the rings is studied using magnetic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double ring formation is attributed to the interaction of ablated material with the induced magnetic field during LAO. Steepness of forward bias transport characteristics from the unperturbed region of the CMS film suggest a non equilibrium spin contribution. Such mesoscopic textures in magnetic films by AFM tip can be potentially used for memory storage applications.

  18. Formation of double ring patterns on Co2MnSi Heusler alloy thin film by anodic oxidation under scanning probe microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutam, Vijaykumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Singh, Sandeep; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-02-01

    Double ring formation on Co2MnSi (CMS) films is observed at electrical breakdown voltage during local anodic oxidation (LAO) using atomic force microscope (AFM). Corona effect and segregation of cobalt in the vicinity of the rings is studied using magnetic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double ring formation is attributed to the interaction of ablated material with the induced magnetic field during LAO. Steepness of forward bias transport characteristics from the unperturbed region of the CMS film suggest a non equilibrium spin contribution. Such mesoscopic textures in magnetic films by AFM tip can be potentially used for memory storage applications.

  19. Formation of double ring patterns on Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler alloy thin film by anodic oxidation under scanning probe microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutam, Vijaykumar; Singh, Sandeep [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi - 110012 (India); Pandey, Himanshu [Condensed Matter - Low Dimensional Systems Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur - 208016 (India); Budhani, R. C. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi - 110012 (India); Condensed Matter - Low Dimensional Systems Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur - 208016 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Double ring formation on Co{sub 2}MnSi (CMS) films is observed at electrical breakdown voltage during local anodic oxidation (LAO) using atomic force microscope (AFM). Corona effect and segregation of cobalt in the vicinity of the rings is studied using magnetic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double ring formation is attributed to the interaction of ablated material with the induced magnetic field during LAO. Steepness of forward bias transport characteristics from the unperturbed region of the CMS film suggest a non equilibrium spin contribution. Such mesoscopic textures in magnetic films by AFM tip can be potentially used for memory storage applications.

  20. Highly efficient and large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic alumina surface with strong stability based on self-congregated alumina nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2014-04-09

    In this study, a large-area superhydrophobic alumina surface with a series of superior properties was fabricated via an economical, simple, and highly effective one-step anodization process, and subsequently modified with low-surface-energy film. The effects of the anodization parameters including electrochemical anodization time, current density, and electrolyte temperature on surface morphology and surface wettability were investigated in detail. The hierarchical alumina pyramids-on-pores (HAPOP) rough structure which was produced quickly through the one-step anodization process together with a low-surface-energy film deposition [1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES) and stearic acid (STA)] confer excellent superhydrophobicity and an extremely low sliding angle. Both the PDES-modified superhydrophobic (PDES-MS) and the STA-modified superhydrophobic (STA-MS) surfaces present fascinating nonwetting and extremely slippery behaviors. The chemical stability and mechanical durability of the PDES-MS and STA-MS surfaces were evaluated and discussed. Compared with the STA-MS surface, the as-prepared PDES-MS surface possesses an amazing chemical stability which not only can repel cool liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, around 25 °C), but also can show excellent resistance to a series of hot liquids (water, HCl/NaOH solutions, 30-100 °C) and hot beverages (coffee, milk, tea, 80 °C). Moreover, the PDES-MS surface also presents excellent stability toward immersion in various organic solvents, high temperature, and long time period. In particular, the PDES-MS surface achieves good mechanical durability which can withstand ultrasonication treatment, finger-touch, multiple fold, peeling by adhesive tape, and even abrasion test treatments without losing superhydrophobicity. The corrosion resistance and durability of the diverse-modified superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined. These fascinating performances makes the present method suitable for large

  1. Electron transfer across anodic films formed on tin in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasi, C.A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas; Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria; Folquer, M.E. [Universidad Nacional de Tucaman (Argentina). Inst. de Quimica Fisica; Vallejo, A.E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria; Alvarez, P.E. [Universidad Nacional de Tucaman (Argentina). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-01-15

    Impedance and steady-state data were recorded in order to study the kinetics of electron transfer between passive tin electrodes and an electrolytic solution containing the K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6}-K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} redox couple. Film thickness plays a key role in determining the type of electronic conduction of these oxide covered electrodes. Electron exchange with the oxide takes place with participation of the conduction band in the semiconducting film. A mechanism involving direct electron tunneling through the space charge barrier is the most suitable to interpret the experimental evidence. (Author)

  2. Anodization of Aluminium using a fast two-step process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the electrolyte for the first anodization to form pits on. Al substrate, while in second anodization these pits act as the pattern for nanopore formation.26 Nanoporous alumina is used in the development of thermoelectric devices using metamaterials and for energy harvest- ing. Anodized magnetic nanohole arrays are used in.

  3. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry analysis of a thin film composite membrane consisting of polysulfone on a porous α-alumina support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Wormeester, Herbert; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of a thin polymer film to a fluid can affect properties of the film such as the density and thickness. In particular in membrane technology, these changes can have important implications for membrane performance. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a convenient technique for in situ studies of

  4. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  5. Formation of double ring patterns on Co2MnSi Heusler alloy thin film by anodic oxidation under scanning probe microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Toutam, Vijaykumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Singh, Sandeep; Budhani, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Double ring formation on Co2MnSi (CMS) films is observed at electrical breakdown voltage during local anodic oxidation (LAO) using atomic force microscope (AFM). Corona effect and segregation of cobalt in the vicinity of the rings is studied using magnetic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Double ring formation is attributed to the interaction of ablated material with the induced magnetic field during LAO. Steepness of forward bias transport characteristics from the unpertu...

  6. Luminescence enhancement of a self-organised Y.sub.2./sub.O.sub.3./sub.:Eu.sup.3+./sup. thin film-coated porous alumina membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdellaoui, N.; Pereira, A.; Kandri, T.; Drouard, E.; Novotný, Michal; Moine, B.; Pillonnet, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 39 (2016), s. 9212-9218 ISSN 2050-7526 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed laser deposition * thin film * self- organisation * alumina membrane * luminescence * photonic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  7. Preparation of Transparent TiO2 Nanoporous Coating with Highly Photocatalytic Activity by Anodizing Ti Film with Loose Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Yin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ti film with special structure was deposited onto glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, then via the process of electrochemical anodization and annealing, a transparent TiO2 nanoporous coating (denoted as TNP with high photocatalytic activity can be directly formed on glass substrate. The crystal structure of the TNP was detected by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and the morphology of the coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The transmittance, wettability and adhesion of TNP were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, contact angle meter and scratch tester respectively. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of TNP was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue solution under UV illumination. The results show that the prepared TNP coating has a nanoporous structure and only anatase can be found after annealing, the transmittance of TNP coating can reach 80% or more in visible region, with a super hydrophilic surface (contact angleC0=1×10-5mol/L can reach 94% in 2 hours and the photocatalysis reaction rate constant is 1.47h-1.

  8. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  9. Optical and magnetic properties of PAA@Fe nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method to fabricate porous anodic alumina films embedded with Fe is reported. The films exhibit vivid structural colors and magnetic properties after being synthesized by an ac electrodeposition method. The optical properties of the samples can be effectively tuned by varying the oxidation time of aluminum. The coercivity mechanism of the Fe nanowires in our case is consistent with fanning reversal mode. PAA@Fe films can be used in many areas including decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  10. One-step synthesis of continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes-Titanium oxide composite films as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongxu; Hou, Feng; Wan, Zhipeng; Zhao, Sha; Yang, Deming; Liu, Jiachen; Guo, Anran; Gong, Yuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNTs/TiO 2 compoiste films synthesized are continuous and free-standing. • The film can be directly used as flexible, binder-free Lithium-Ion Battery electrode. • The CNTs/TiO 2 electrodes exhibit excellent rate capacity and cyclic stability. • Our strategy is readily applicable to fabricate other CNTs-based composite films. - Abstract: Continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)/Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) composite films were fabricated in a vertical CVD gas flow reactor with water sealing by the One-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) approach. The composite films consist of multiple layers of conductive carbon nanotube networks with titanium oxide nanoparticles decorating on carbon nanotube surface. The as-synthesized flexible and transferrable composite films show excellent electrochemical properties, when the content of tetrabutyl titanate is 19.0 wt.%, which can be promising as binder-free anodes for Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) applications. It demonstrates remarkably high rate capacity of 150 mAh g −1 , as well as excellent high rate cyclic stability over 500 cycles (current density of 3000 mA g −1 ). Such observations can be attributed to the relatively larger surface area and pore volume comparing with pristine CNT films. Great potentials of CNTs/TiO 2 composite films for large-scale production and application in energy devices were shown

  11. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  12. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Deposited Silicon Thin Film Electrode by Self-Assembly Method for the Employment of an Anode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Nguyen, Si Hieu; Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-10-01

    This work describes a self-assembly method of gold nanoparticles coating on the surface of silicon thin films for the anode material of lithium secondary batteries. The preparation of the silicon thin films was carried out by electron cyclotron resonance metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MOCVD) process. The obtained films were further coated with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) which has a role to bind the oxygen functional groups on Si surface and the gold nanoparticles. The dispersed gold nanoparticles on the surface of silicon thin films could be prepared due to self-assembly phenomena which interact between attraction and repulsion in gold nanoparticles colloidal solution (GNCS). The use of reducing agent of sodium citrate and tannic acid in GNCS significantly affected the size of gold nanoparticle in our experimental range. Based on our experimental results, the higher reversible capacity was exhibited for the silicon that was immersed in the GNCS consisted of only sodium citrate. The GNCS consisted of both sodium citrate and tannic acid produced severe coagulated nanoparticles when deposited on the silicon surface and thus inhibited the lithium movement from electrolyte to silicon surface. Consequently, the reversible capacity of silicon anode material with coagulated gold nanoparticles coating showed the reduced performance.

  13. Probing anodic oxidation kinetics and nanoscale heterogeneity within TiO2 films by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy and combined techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamanti, M.V.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.; Chiesa, M.; Pedeferri, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoscale anodic titanium oxides were investigated with multidisciplinary approach. • Oxide thickness was estimated via spectrophotometry and coulometry. • C-AFM identified nanometric conductivity heterogeneities, ascribed to oxide structure. • High conductivity areas exhibited local memristive behavior. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium in acid electrolytes allows to obtain a thin, compact oxide layer with thickness, structure, color, and electrical properties that vary with process parameters imposed, among which cell voltage has a key effect. Although oxidation kinetics have been investigated in several research works, a broader vision of oxide properties–including thickness and structure–still has to be achieved, especially in the case of very thin oxide films, few tens of nanometers thick. This is vital for engineered applications of nanostructured TiO 2 films, as in the field of memristive devices, where a precise control of oxide thickness, composition and structure is required to tune its electrical response. In this work, oxide films were produced on titanium with thickness ranging from few nanometers to 200 nm. Oxide thickness was estimated by coulometry and spectrophotometry. These techniques were then combined with C-AFM, which provided a deeper understanding of oxide thickness and uniformity of the metal surface and probed the presence of crystalline nano-domains within the amorphous oxide phase affecting the overall film electrical and optical properties

  14. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  15. Properties of Sn-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated by anodization of co-sputtered Ti–Sn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyeremateng, Nana Amponsah; Hornebecq, Virginie; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized Sn-doped TiO 2 nanotubes (nts) were fabricated for the first time, by anodization of co-sputtered Ti and Sn thin films. This nanostructured material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Due to their remarkable properties, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts can find potential applications in Li-ion microbatteries, photovoltaics, and catalysis. Particularly, the electrochemical performance as an anode material for Li-ion microbatteries was evaluated in Li test cells. With current density of 70 μA cm −2 (1 C) and cut-off potential of 1 V, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts showed improved performance compared to simple TiO 2 nts, and differential capacity plots revealed that the material undergoes full electrochemical reaction as a Rutile-type TiO 2 .

  16. Study on the fabrication of back surface reflectors in nano-crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by using random texturing aluminum anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang Sik; Jang, Eunseok; Cho, Jun-Sik; Yoo, Jinsu; Park, Joo Hyung; Byungsung, O.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, researchers have improved the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells in many ways. One of the easiest and most practical methods to improve solar-cell efficiency is adopting a back surface reflector (BSR) as the bottom layer or as the substrate. The BSR reflects the incident light back to the absorber layer in a solar cell, thus elongating the light path and causing the so-called "light trapping effect". The elongation of the light path in certain wavelength ranges can be enhanced with the proper scale of BSR surface structure or morphology. An aluminum substrate with a surface modified by aluminum anodizing is used to improve the optical properties for applications in amorphous silicon solar cells as a BSR in this research due to the high reflectivity and the low material cost. The solar cells with a BSR were formed and analyzed by using the following procedures: First, the surface of the aluminum substrate was degreased by using acetone, ethanol and distilled water, and it was chemically polished in a dilute alkali solution. After the cleaning process, the aluminum surface's morphology was modified by using a controlled anodization in a dilute acid solution to form oxide on the surface. The oxidized film was etched off by using an alkali solution to leave an aluminum surface with randomly-ordered dimple-patterns of approximately one micrometer in size. The anodizing conditions and the anodized aluminum surfaces after the oxide layer had been removed were systematically investigated according to the applied voltage. Finally, amorphous silicon solar cells were deposited on a modified aluminum plate by using dc magnetron sputtering. The surfaces of the anodized aluminum were observed by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The total and the diffuse reflectances of the surface-modified aluminum sheets were measured by using UV spectroscopy. We observed that the diffuse reflectances increased with increasing anodizing voltage. The

  17. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Chih-Hao; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chou, Cheng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO 2 nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 μm has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (R k ) value 9.276 Ω of recombined electron and conduction resistance (R w ) value 3.25 Ω of electrons in TiO 2 .

  18. In-situ deposition of sodium titanate thin film as anode for sodium-ion micro-batteries developed by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, A; Senthilkumar, B; Sada, K; Krupanidhi, S B; Barpanda, P

    2018-03-15

    Sodium-ion thin-film micro-batteries form a niche sector of energy storage devices. Sodium titanate, Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 (NTO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using solid-state synthesized polycrystalline Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 compound. The phase-purity and crystallinity of NTO in bulk and thin-film forms were confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of uniform ∼100 nm thin film with roughness of ∼4 nm consisting of homogeneous nanoscale grains. These PLD-deposited NTO thin-films, when tested in Na-half cell architecture, delivered a near theoretical reversible capacity close to 42 mA h g -1 involving Ti 4+ /Ti 3+ redox activity along with good cycling stability and rate kinetics. Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 can work as an efficient and safe anode in designing sodium-ion thin-film micro-batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of experiment evaluation of sputtered thin film platinum surface metallization on alumina substrate for implantable conductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiele, P; Cvancara, P; Mueller, M; Stieglitz, T

    2017-07-01

    Reliability and reproducibility of implants and their fabrication are highly depending on the assembly and packaging procedures. Individual fabrication skills like soldering introduce inaccuracies and should be avoided as much as possible. Screen printing is often utilized for the metallization of ceramics. Using platinum/gold (Pt/Au) paste liquidus diffusion leads to a low adhesion strength of the Pt/Au pads after soldering. As an alternative, sputtering of thin film surface metallization was investigated. However, this alternative comes with a huge amount of different layer and parameter setups. In order to keep the amount of experiments and data acquisition in a reasonable magnitude, the Design of Experiment (DoE) evaluation displays a powerful tool. We found an optimal layer setup that maximizes the adhesion strength of the layer, while simultaneously minimizing the sheet resistance and removing the dependency of soldering time.

  20. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, R.; Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L.; Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D.; Baker, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO 2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al 2 O 3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  1. Synthesis by anodic-spark deposition of Ca- and P-containing films on pure titanium and their biological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banakh, Oksana; Journot, Tony; Gay, Pierre-Antoine; Matthey, Joël; Csefalvay, Catherine; Kalinichenko, Oleg; Sereda, Olha; Moussa, Mira; Durual, Stéphane; Snizhko, Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ​CP-4 Ti was treated by anodic spark oxidation in the electrolyte containing Ca and P ions by varying process time and electrolyte concentration. • Ca/P ratio in layers is 0.23–0.47, much lower than in hydroxyapatites (1.67). It means coatings should be resorbable in a biological medium • After immersion in SBF, Ca and P content in layers decrease. Ca and P loss occurs faster in thin layers than in thicker coatings. • The biological response of the samples suggests their excellent biocompatibility and even stimulating effects on osteoblasts proliferation. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to characterize the anodized layers formed on titanium by anodic-spark deposition in an electrolyte containing Ca and P ions, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , studied for the first time. The oxidation experiments were performed at different periods of time and using different concentrations of electrolyte. The influence of the process parameters (time of electrolysis and electrolyte concentration) on the surface morphology and chemical composition of the anodized layers was studied. It has been found that it is possible to incorporate Ca and P into the growing layer. A response of the anodized layers in a biological medium was evaluated by their immersion in a simulated body fluid. An enrichment of titanium and a simultaneous loss of calcium and phosphorus in the layer after immersion tests indicate that these coatings should be bioresorbable in a biological medium. Preliminary biological assays were performed on some anodized layers in order to assess their biocompatibility with osteoblast cells. The cell proliferation on one selected anodized sample was assessed up to 21 days after seeding. The preliminary results suggest excellent biocompatibility properties of anodized coatings.

  2. Pulsed laser deposited Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on graphene as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: skhamlich@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Bello, A.; Fabiane, M.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Manyala, N. [Department of Physics, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: A different approach for the fabrication of an anode material system that comprises pulsed laser-deposited (PLD) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on few layer graphene (FLG) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used. The electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film was improved by FLG, which make it a promising candidate for future lithium-ion batteries application. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on few-layer graphene (FLG). • FLG improved the electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film. • Good stable cycle of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni electrode make it one of the promise anode materials for future lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on a chemical vapor deposited few-layer graphene (FLG) on nickel (Ni) substrate for application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The experimental results show that graphene can effectively enhance the electrochemical property of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film deposited on Ni (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni), a discharge capacity of 747.8 mA h g{sup −1} can be delivered during the first lithiation process. After growing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on FLG/Ni, the initial discharge capacity of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni was improved to 1234.5 mA h g{sup −1}. The reversible lithium storage capacity of the as-grown material is 692.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni (111.3 mA h g{sup −1}). This study reveals the differences between the two material systems and emphasizes the role of the graphene layers in improving the electrochemical stability of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film.

  3. Improving the direct electron transfer in monolithic bioelectrodes prepared by immobilization of FDH enzyme on carbon-coated anodic aluminum oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eCastro-Muñiz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the preparation of binderless carbon-coated porous films and the study of their performance as monolithic bioanodes. The films were prepared by coating anodic aluminum oxide (AAO films with a thin layer of nitrogen-doped carbon by chemical vapor deposition. The films have cylindrical straight pores with controllable diameter and length. These monolithic films were used directly as bioelectrodes by loading the films with D-fructose dehydrogenase (FDH, an oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose. The immobilization of the enzymes was carried out by physical adsorption in liquid phase and with an electrostatic attraction method. The latter method takes advantage of the fact that FDH is negatively charged during the catalytic oxidation of fructose. Thus the immobilization was performed under the application of a positive voltage to the CAAO film in a FDH-fructose solution in McIlvaine buffer (pH 5 at 25 ºC. As a result, the FDH modified electrodes with the latter method show much better electrochemical response than that with the conventional physical adsorption method. Due to the singular porous structure of the monolithic films, which consists of an array of straight and parallel nanochannels, it is possible to rule out the effect of the diffusion of the D-fructose into the pores. Thus the improvement in the performance upon using the electrostatic attraction method can be ascribed not only to a higher uptake, but also to a more appropriate molecule orientation of the enzyme units on the surface of the electrodes.

  4. The effect of passivation film in preparation 3D structural carbon paper/tin oxide@carbon as freestanding anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chenfang; Liu, Yang; Lu, Zhongpei; Ma, Chao; Ge, Tao; Li, Weili; Yang, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Tin-based compounds are potential anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Due to the low melting point of metallic Sn, it is hard to maintain the crystal morphology of Sn during the as-follow process of carbon coating for high performance anode. In this work, the core@shell composite of SnOx@carbon (SnOx@C) is successfully fabricated on the substrate of carbon paper (CP) through electrodeposition and carbonization based on the precursor of Sn nanoparticles. A passivation shell is essentially grown onto Sn particles to obtain a stable structure of SnOx@C, otherwise the Sn particles will be pulverized and fell off the substrate of CP during the subsequent process of carbonization. The as-produced CP/SnOx@C film has excellent flexibility and mechanical stability to be directly served as electrode for LIBs. Carbon shell prevents the detachment and agglomeration of the active particles during lithiation/delithiation processes and maintains the stability of the conductive network. After 100th cycles, CP/SnOx@C electrode delivers 0.8 mAh cm-2, much higher than the capacity 0.37 mAh cm-2 of CP/Sn electrode operated at the current density of 0.1 mA cm-2. These features enable the flexible film of CP/SnOx@C to be attractive applications in energy storage devices.

  5. Honeycomb-inspired design of ultrafine SnO2@C nanospheres embedded in carbon film as anode materials for high performance lithium- and sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xiang; Jiang, Jianjun; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jianwu; Wang, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) has been considered as one of the most promising anodes for advanced rechargeable batteries due to its advantages such as high energy density, earth abundance and environmental friendly. However, its large volume change during the Li-Sn/Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying processes will result in a fast capacity degradation over a long term cycling. To solve this issue, in this work we design and synthesize a novel honeycomb-like composite composing of carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanospheres embedded in carbon film by using dual templates of SiO2 and NaCl. Using these composites as anodes both in lithium ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries, no discernable capacity degradation is observed over hundreds of long term cycles at both low current density (100 mA g-1) and high current density (500 mA g-1). Such a good cyclic stability and high delivered capacity have been attributed to the high conductivity of the supported carbon film and hollow encapsulated carbon shells, which not only provide enough space to accommodate the volume expansion but also prevent further aggregation of SnO2 nanoparticles upon cycling. By engineering electrodes of accommodating high volume expansion, we demonstrate a prototype to achieve high performance batteries, especially high-power batteries.

  6. Effect of hydrothermal process for inorganic alumina sol on crystal structure of alumina gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamamura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of a hydrothermal process for alumina sol on the crystal structure of alumina gel derived from hydrothermally treated alumina sol to help push forward the development of low temperature synthesis of α-Al2O3. White precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was prepared with a homogeneous precipitation method using aluminum nitrate and urea in aqueous solution. The obtained aluminum hydroxide precipitate was peptized by using acetic acid at room temperature, which resulted in the production of a transparent alumina sol. The alumina sol was treated with a hydrothermal process and transformed into an alumina gel film by drying at room temperature. Crystallization of the alumina gel to α-Al2O3 with 900 °C annealing was dominant for a hydrothermal temperature of 100 °C and a hydrothermal time of 60 min, as production of diaspore-like species was promoted with the hydrothermal temperature and time. Excess treatments with hydrothermal processes at higher hydrothermal temperature for longer hydrothermal time prevented the alumina gel from being crystallized to α-Al2O3 because the excess hydrothermal treatments promoted production of boehmite.

  7. Enhanced Absorption in Organic Thin-Films from Imprinted Concave Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jarosław GOSZCZAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid, replicable method for imprinting concave nanostructures to be used as functional light-trapping nanostructures in organic thin-films is presented. Porous anodic alumina templates were fabricated both by anodization of thick Al foils and by anodization of submicrometer thin Al films evaporated via e-beam evaporation on Si substrates. The template formation leads to natural patterning of the underlying Al layers that are used as rigid masters for stamp fabrication, after selective etching of the porous anodic alumina. PDMS stamps were made after replicating the Al concave patterns and used for imprinting of spin coated photoresist on glass substrates. We have investigated semi-periodic and aperiodic imprinted large concave patterns fabricated from rigid masters after anodization of Al in H3PO4. We show that metal covered imprinted concaves show enhancement in absorption that is attributed to field enhancement and diffuse scattering, leading to efficient light trapping for a selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14188

  8. Characterization and corrosion resistance of anodic electrodeposited titanium oxide/phosphate films on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta bioalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, Monica; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu I.; Osiceanu, Petre; Anastasescu, Mihai; Calderon-Moreno, Jose M., E-mail: josecalderonmoreno@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    In this work, the anodic galvanostatic electrodeposition of an oxidation film containing phosphates on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy from orthophosphoric acid solution is presented. Its composition was determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy, and its topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The corrosion resistance of the coated alloy in simulated human fluid (by linear polarization method and monitoring of open circuit potentials, corresponding open circuit potential gradients) as well as the characterization of the coating (by Raman spectroscopy and depth profile X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) deposited in a period of 300 h soaking in simulated human body fluid were studied. The electrodeposited film was composed of amorphous titanium dioxide and contained phosphate groups. The corrosion resistance of the coated Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy in neutral and alkaline Ringer's solutions was higher than that of the bare alloy due to the protective properties of the electrodeposited film. The corrosion parameters improved over time as result of the thickening of the surface film by the deposition from the physiological solution. The deposited coating presented a variable composition in depth: at the deeper layer nucleated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and at the outer layer amorphous calcium phosphate. (author)

  9. Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous ZnO films: The role of oxygen vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous ZnO films were deposited on porous anodic alumina substrates. • Significant ferromagnetism (FM) has been observed in porous ZnO films (110 emu/cm{sup 3}). • The strong magnetic anisotropy was observed in the porous ZnO films. • The origin of FM is attributed to the oxygen vacancy with a local magnetic moment. - Abstract: Pure porous ZnO films were prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on porous anodic alumina substrates. Remarkably large room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films. The highest saturation moment along the out-of-plane direction was about 110 emu/cm{sup 3}. Experimental and theoretical results suggested that the oxygen vacancies and the unique porous structure of the films are responsible for the large ferromagnetism. There are two modes of coupling between oxygen vacancies in the porous ZnO films: (i) exchange interactions directly between the oxygen vacancies and (ii) with the mediation of conduction electrons. In addition, it was found that the magnetic moment of ZnO films can be changed by tuning the concentration of oxygen vacancies. These observations may be useful in the development of ZnO-based spintronics devices.

  10. Thermal stability of alumina thin films containing γ-Al.sub.2./sub.O.sub.3./sub. phase prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Jindřich; Blažek, J.; Zeman, P.; Prokšová, Š.; Šašek, M.; Čerstvý, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 3 (2010), s. 1058-1062 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Al 2 O 3 (alumina) * annealing * thermal stability * nanocrystalline material * sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010

  11. Anodic self-organized transparent nanotubular/porous hematite films from Fe thin-films sputtered on FTO and photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, L.; Lee, C.-Y.; Kirchgeorg, R.; Liu, N.; Lee, K.; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Krýsa, J.; Olejníček, J.; Čada, M.; Zbořil, R.; Schmuki, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9333-9341 ISSN 0922-6168. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Třešť, 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hematite * nanotubular * anodization * magnetron * sputtering * water splitting Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  12. Investigation of in-pile formed corrosion films on zircaloy fuel-rod claddings by impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, O.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-cell investigations have been executed to study the corrosion behaviour of irradiated Zircaloy fuel-rod claddings by impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic anodization. The thickness of the compact oxide at the metal/oxide interface and the thickness of the minimum barrier oxide have been determined at different positions along the claddings. As shown by analysis, both quantities first increase and then decrease with increasing thickness of the total oxide. (author) 6 figs., 33 refs

  13. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  14. Nanostructured ZnO-TiO2thin film oxide as anode material in electrooxidation of organic pollutants. Application to the removal of dye Amido black 10B from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kacemi, Sana; Zazou, Hicham; Oturan, Nihal; Dietze, Matthias; Hamdani, Mohamed; Es-Souni, Mohammed; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidative degradation of diazo dye Amido black 10B (AB10B) as model pollutant in water has been studied using nanostructured ZnO-TiO 2 thin films deposited on graphite felt (GrF) substrate as anode. The influence of various operating parameters, namely the current intensity, the nature and concentration of catalyst, the nature of electrode materials (anode/cathode), and the adsorption of dye and ambient light were investigated. It was found that the oxidative degradation of AB10B followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The optimal operating conditions for the degradation of 0.12 mM (74 mg L -1 ) dye concentration and mineralization of its aqueous solution were determined as GrF-ZnO-TiO 2 thin film anode, 100 mA current intensity, and 0.1 mM Fe 2+ (catalyst) concentration. Under these operating conditions, discoloration of AB10B solution was reached at 60 min while 6 h treatment needed for a mineralization degree of 91 %. Therefore, this study confirmed that the electrochemical process is effective for the degradation of AB10B in water using nanostructured ZnO-TiO 2 thin film anodes.

  15. Tribological and stability investigations of alkylphosphonic acids on alumina surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichomski, M.; Kośla, K.; Grobelny, J.; Kozłowski, W.; Szmaja, W.

    2013-01-01

    Alumina substrates are commonly used for various micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). For efficient and lifetime longevity of these devices, lubricant films of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with nanometer thickness are increasingly being employed. In the present paper, we report preparation, tribological and stability investigations of alkylphosphonic acids on the alumina surface. The alkylphosphonic acids were prepared on the alumina surface using the liquid phase deposition method. The effectiveness of modification of the alumina surface by alkylphosphonic acids was investigated using water contact angle measurements, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy. Frictional behavior in milinewton load range was studied by microtribometry. It is shown that surface modification of the alumina surface by alkylphosphonic acids reduces the coefficient of friction values compared to the unmodified alumina. In comparison to the non-modified alumina surface, all tested alkylphosphonic acids cause a decrease in the friction coefficients in friction tests for counterparts made from different materials, such as steel, zirconia and silicon nitride. It is also found that the alumina surface modified by alkylphosphonic acids with longer chain has a higher degree of hydrophobicity and lower coefficient of friction. The best frictional properties are obtained for the system consisting of the alumina surface modified by n-octadecylphosphonic acid and silicon nitride counterpart. Stability tests in different environmental conditions: laboratory, acidic and alkaline solutions were also monitored.

  16. Unexpected large room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Porous Cu{sub 2}O films have been fabricated on porous anodic alumina substrates using DC-reactive magnetron sputtering with pure Cu targets, and unexpectedly large room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the films. The maximum saturation magnetic moment along the out-of-plane direction was as high as 94 emu/cm{sup 3}. Photoluminescence spectra show that the ferromagnetism originates with oxygen vacancies. The ferromagnetism could be adjusted by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies through annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. These observations suggest that the origin of the ferromagnetism is due to coupling between oxygen vacancies with local magnetic moments in the porous Cu{sub 2}O films, which can occur either directly through exchange interactions between oxygen vacancies, or through the mediation of conduction electrons. Such a ferromagnet without the presence of any ferromagnetic dopant may find applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Porous Cu{sub 2}O films were deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates. • Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in porous Cu{sub 2}O films. • Ferromagnetism of Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited different magnetic signals with the field. • The saturation magnetization is 94 emu/cm{sup 3} with an out-of-plane.

  17. Low Temperature MOCVD-Processed Alumina Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Gleizes, Alain; Sovar, Maria-Magdalena; Samélor, Diane; Vahlas, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    We first present a Review about the preparation of alumina as thin films by the technique of MOCVD at low temperature (550°C and below). Then we present our results about thin films prepared by the low pressure MOCVD technique, using aluminium tri-isopropoxide as a source, and characterized by elemental analysis (EMPA, EDS, ERDA, RBS), FTIR, XRD and TGA. The films were grown in a horizontal, hot-wall reactor, with N2 as a carrier gas either pure or added with water vapour. The deposition t...

  18. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  19. Comparison of analytical possibilities of inversion voltammetry of tellurium with cathodic and anodic potential scanning taking layer-by-layer analysis of GaAs-Te films as example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplin, A.A.; Portnyagina, Eh.O.; Gridaev, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    Possibility of application in analytical purposes of the process of tellurium precipitation electrosolution from the surfaces of graphite and mercury-graphite electrodes at the cathode scanning of the potential is shown. As a result of comparison of direct and inversion scanning with cathodic and anodic scanning of the potential, variants of voltammetric method of tellurium determination in artificial solutions and, taking the developed method of layer-by-layer analysis of the GaAsTe films as an example, advantage of mercury-graphite electrode with cathodic scanning as compared to graphite electrode with cathode scanning of the potential is shown. Reproducibility of the GaAs film analysis results according to anodic and cathodic tellurium peaks is satisfactory. Maximum deviation from the results of analysis of oxidation peaks and tellurium peduction does not exceed 15 rel. %. Thus, for tellurium concentrations, exceeding 5x10 -6 g-ion/l, both anodic and cathodic scanning of the potential can be used, though error in tellurium determination according to cathodic peaks is 1.5-2.0 times higher. At tellurium amounts lower 5x10 -6 g-ion/l the determination should be carried out according to the peaks of tellurium anodic oxidation from the surface of graphite electrode or according to the peaks of tellurium cathodic reduction from the surface of mercury-graphite electrode

  20. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  1. Nanotube Film Electrode and an Electroactive Device Fabricated with the Nanotube Film Electrode and Methods for Making Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrode (FE), all-organic electroactive device systems fabricated with the SWNT-FE, and methods for making same. The SWCNT can be replaced by other types of nanotubes. The SWCNT film can be obtained by filtering SWCNT solution onto the surface of an anodized alumina membrane. A freestanding flexible SWCNT film can be collected by breaking up this brittle membrane. The conductivity of this SWCNT film can advantageously be higher than 280 S/cm. An electroactive polymer (EAP) actuator layered with the SWNT-FE shows a higher electric field-induced strain than an EAP layered with metal electrodes because the flexible SWNT-FE relieves the restraint of the displacement of the polymeric active layer as compared to the metal electrode. In addition, if thin enough, the SWNT-FE is transparent in the visible light range, thus making it suitable for use in actuators used in optical devices.

  2. Plasmon TiO2 nanotube arrays doped with silver nanoparticles act as photo-anode film in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Deng, Minghan; Bimenyimana, Theogene; Hu, Zhe; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-03-01

    A simple strategy to improve the performance of a TiO2 nanotube film by use of metal nanoparticles is presented in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Metal nanoparticles modified TiO2 nanotubes through a simple soaking method. An excellent enhancement in the optical property has been observed from the TiO2 nanotube film modified with Ag nanoparticles, which is owing to the surface plasmon resonance. The plasmon effects of Ag, together with the straight pathway and porous structure of TiO2 nanotubes have been used to significantly enhance the photo-electric performance of DSSCs. The efficiency of the DSSCs increased significantly from 3.89 to 5.18%, together with corresponding enhancements in current density from 12.30 to 12.55 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage from 0.66 to 0.71 V, respectively.

  3. YSZ thin films deposited on NiO-CSZ anodes by pulsed injection MOCVD for intermediate temperature-SOFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.; Pardo, J.A.; Santiso, J. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, ICMAB/CSIC, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Merino, R.I.; Orera, V.M.; Larrea, A.; Pena, J.I.; Laguna-Bercero, M.A. [ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, c/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Figueras, A. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, ICMAB/CSIC, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Campus UNAM Juriquilla, CP 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2004-10-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films are prepared on NiO-CaSZ by PIMOCVD (pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition). High quality, 5 to 10 {mu}m thick, totally dense YSZ layers are prepared by controlling the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition. YSZ solid electrolyte deposition onto Ni-YSZ eutectic substrate is found to be a promising combination with regard to intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cell applications. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, S.A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Bayati, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Petrochenko, P.E. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Division of Biology, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Stafslien, S.; Daniels, J.; Cilz, N. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Comstock, D.J.; Elam, J.W. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Narayan, R.J., E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.com [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic layer deposition was used to deposit ZnO on nanoporous alumina membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scanning electron microscopy showed continuous coatings of zinc oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis was shown. - Abstract: Nanoporous alumina membranes, also known as anodized aluminum oxide membranes, are being investigated for use in treatment of burn injuries and other skin wounds. In this study, atomic layer deposition was used for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes with zinc oxide. Agar diffusion assays were used to show activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes against several bacteria found on the skin surface, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the other hand, zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not show activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. These results suggest that zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes have activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that are associated with skin colonization and skin infection.

  5. Alumina Concentration Detection Based on the Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Tao; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-09-01

    The concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is of great significance during the production of aluminum. The amount of the alumina concentration may lead to unbalanced material distribution and low production efficiency and affect the stability of the aluminum reduction cell and current efficiency. The existing methods cannot meet the needs for online measurement because industrial aluminum electrolysis has the characteristics of high temperature, strong magnetic field, coupled parameters, and high nonlinearity. Currently, there are no sensors or equipment that can detect the alumina concentration on line. Most companies acquire the alumina concentration from the electrolyte samples which are analyzed through an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. To solve the problem, the paper proposes a soft sensing model based on a kernel extreme learning machine algorithm that takes the kernel function into the extreme learning machine. K-fold cross validation is used to estimate the generalization error. The proposed soft sensing algorithm can detect alumina concentration by the electrical signals such as voltages and currents of the anode rods. The predicted results show that the proposed approach can give more accurate estimations of alumina concentration with faster learning speed compared with the other methods such as the basic ELM, BP, and SVM.

  6. Improving Visible Light-Absorptivity and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of a TiO2 Nanotube Anode Film by Sensitization with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglei Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel visible light-active TiO2 nanotube anode film by sensitization with Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The uniform incorporation of Bi2O3 contributes to largely enhancing the solar light absorption and photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2 nanotubes. Due to the energy level difference between Bi2O3 and TiO2, the built-in electric field is suggested to be formed in the Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 hybrid, which effectively separates the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and hence improves the photocatalytic activity. It is also found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of Bi2O3 sensitized TiO2 nanotubes is not in direct proportion with the content of the sensitizer, Bi2O3, which should be carefully controlled to realize excellent photoelectrical properties. With a narrower energy band gap relative to TiO2, the sensitizer Bi2O3 can efficiently harvest the solar energy to generate electrons and holes, while TiO2 collects and transports the charge carriers. The new-type visible light-sensitive photocatalyst presented in this paper will shed light on sensitizing many other wide-band-gap semiconductors for improving solar photocatalysis, and on understanding the visible light-driven photocatalysis through narrow-band-gap semiconductor coupling.

  7. Solar Thermo-coupled Electrochemical Oxidation of Aniline in Wastewater for the Complete Mineralization Beyond an Anodic Passivation Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dandan; Tian, Lei; Li, Zhida; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chao; Dong, Jing; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Baohui

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we report the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP) aniline oxidation in wastewater for totally solving the two key obstacles of the huge energy consumption and passivation film in the electrochemical treatment. The process, fully driven by solar energy without input of any other energies, sustainably serves as an efficient thermoelectrochemical oxidation of aniline by the control of the thermochemical and electrochemical coordination. The thermocoupled electrochemical oxidation of aniline achieved a fast rate and high efficiency for the full minimization of aniline to CO 2 with the stability of the electrode and without formation of polyaniline (PAN) passivation film. A clear mechanism of aniline oxidation indicated a switching of the reactive pathway by the STEP process. Due to the coupling of solar thermochemistry and electrochemistry, the electrochemical current remained stable, significantly improving the oxidation efficiency and mineralization rate by apparently decreasing the electrolytic potential when applied with high temperature. The oxidation rate of aniline and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate could be lifted up to 2.03 and 2.47 times magnification compared to conventional electrolysis, respectively. We demonstrate that solar-driven STEP processes are capable of completely mineralizing aniline with high utilization of solar energy. STEP aniline oxidation can be utilized as a green, sustainable water treatment.

  8. Superhydrophobic alumina surface based on stearic acid modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Libang, E-mail: lepond@hotmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhang Hongxia; Mao Pengzhi; Wang Yanping; Ge Yang [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A novel superhydrophobic alumina surface is fabricated by grafting stearic acid layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film. The chemical and phase structure, morphology, and the chemical state of the atoms at the superhydrophobic surface were investigated by techniques as FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, and XPS, respectively. Results show that a super water-repellent surface with a contact angle of 154.2{sup o} is generated. The superhydrophobic alumina surface takes on an uneven flowerlike structure with many nanometer-scale hollows distribute in the nipple-shaped protrusions, and which is composed of boehmite crystal and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Furthermore, the roughened and porous alumina surface is coated with a layer of hydrophobic alkyl chains which come from stearic acid molecules. Therefore, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic layer endue the alumina surface with the superhydrophobic behavior.

  9. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible porous substrates: ZnO on anodic aluminum oxide films and Al2O3 on Li ion battery electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kashish; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Varaksa, Natalia; George, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (S-ALD) was examined on flexible porous substrates utilizing a rotating cylinder reactor to perform the S-ALD. S-ALD was first explored on flexible polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrates to obtain S-ALD growth rates on flat surfaces. ZnO ALD with diethylzinc and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C was the model S-ALD system. ZnO S-ALD was then performed on nanoporous flexible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. ZnO S-ALD in porous substrates depends on the pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and reactant exposure time that define the gas transport. To evaluate these parameters, the Zn coverage profiles in the pores of the AAO films were measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS measurements were conducted for different reaction conditions and AAO pore geometries. Substrate speeds and reactant pulse durations were defined by rotating cylinder rates of 10, 100, and 200 revolutions per minute (RPM). AAO pore diameters of 10, 25, 50, and 100 nm were utilized with a pore length of 25 μm. Uniform Zn coverage profiles were obtained at 10 RPM and pore diameters of 100 nm. The Zn coverage was less uniform at higher RPM values and smaller pore diameters. These results indicate that S-ALD into porous substrates is feasible under certain reaction conditions. S-ALD was then performed on porous Li ion battery electrodes to test S-ALD on a technologically important porous substrate. Li 0.20 Mn 0.54 Ni 0.13 Co 0.13 O 2 electrodes on flexible metal foil were coated with Al 2 O 3 using 2–5 Al 2 O 3 ALD cycles. The Al 2 O 3 ALD was performed in the S-ALD reactor at a rotating cylinder rate of 10 RPM using trimethylaluminum and ozone as the reactants at 50 °C. The capacity of the electrodes was then tested versus number of charge–discharge cycles. These measurements revealed that the Al 2 O 3 S-ALD coating on the electrodes enhanced the capacity stability. This S-ALD process could be extended to roll-to-roll operation for

  10. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1983-01-04

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  11. Coating for lithium anode, thionyl chloride active cathode electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, V.O.

    1981-10-20

    Electrochemical power cells having a cathode current collector, a combination liquid active cathode depolarizer electrolyte solvent and an anode that forms surface compounds when in intimate contact with the liquid cathode are enhanced by the addition of a passivation limiting film contiguous to said anode. The passivating film is a member of the cyanoacrilate family of organic compounds.

  12. Anodic oxide growth on Zr in neutral aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Anodization and subsequent cathodic reactions on a thin-film sample of Zr were studied with in-situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and electrochemical impedance spec- troscopy (EIS). The NR results during anodization showed the originally 485 Å thick Zr film generally behaved similar to a bulk electrode in neutral ...

  13. Alumina Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-02-01

    The Alumina Technology Roadmap outlines a comprehensive long-term research and development plan that defines the industry's collective future and establishes a clear pathway forward. It emphasizes twelve high-priority R&D areas deemed most significant in addressing the strategic goals.

  14. Bauxite and alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of bauxite and alumina in 2009 and presents an outlook for their 2010 performance. There were only several U.S. states that could produce bauxite and bauxitic clays including Georgia, Arkansas, and Alabama. The prices for imported refractory-grade calcined bauxite ranged between 426 U.S. dollars and 554 dollars per ton.

  15. alumina solid electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -β/β -alumina; solid electrolyte; calcium impurity; specific resistance. 1. Introduction. Since its development in the 1980s, the Na/S battery has been one of the most promising candidates for energy storage applications. The Na/S battery functions based on the elec- trochemical reaction between sodium and sulphur to form.

  16. Use of aluminum oxide as a permeation barrier for producing thin films on aluminum substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provo, James L., E-mail: jlprovo@verizon.net [Consultant, J. L. Provo Consulting, Trinity, Florida 34655-7179 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Aluminum has desirable characteristics of good thermal properties, good electrical characteristics, good optical properties, and the characteristic of being nonmagnetic and having a low atomic weight (26.98 g atoms), but because of its low melting point (660 °C) and ability as a reactive metal to alloy with most common metals in use, it has been ignored as a substrate material for use in processing thin films. The author developed a simple solution to this problem, by putting a permeation barrier of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) onto the surface of pure Al substrates by using a standard chemical oxidation process of the surface (i.e., anodization), before additional film deposition of reactive metals at temperatures up to 500 °C for 1-h, without the formation of alloys or intermetallic compounds to affect the good properties of Al substrates. The chromic acid anodization process used (MIL-A-8625) produced a film barrier of ∼(500–1000) nm of alumina. The fact that refractory Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can inhibit the reaction of metals with Al at temperatures below 500 °C suggests that Al is a satisfactory substrate if properly oxidized prior to film deposition. To prove this concept, thin film samples of Cr, Mo, Er, Sc, Ti, and Zr were prepared on anodized Al substrates and studied by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford ion back scattering, and Auger/argon sputter surface profile analysis to determine any film substrate interactions. In addition, a major purpose of our study was to determine if ErD{sub 2} thin films could be produced on Al substrates with fully hydrided Er films. Thus, a thin film of ErD{sub 2} on an anodized Al substrate was prepared and studied, with and without the alumina permeation barrier. Films for study were prepared on 1.27 cm diameter Al substrates with ∼500 nm of the metals studied after anodization. Substrates were weighed, cleaned, and vacuum fired at 500 °C prior to use. The Al substrates were deposited using standard electron

  17. Photoluminescence and charge-transport characteristics of nano-columnar titanium dioxide films prepared by rf-sputtering on alumina templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, E.; Hosseini, T.; Yavarishad, N.; King, S.; Kouklin, N.

    2018-02-01

    The current study presents the synthesis and characterization of poly-crystalline TiO2 thin-film prepared by rf-sputtering on top of a highly regimented nanoporous Au-coated Al2O3 substrate. The film’s physical and electronic properties were characterized via SEM, EDS, x-ray diffraction and RAMAN spectroscopy as well as temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) and I-V measurements. The films feature a 1D, columnar-like structure and exhibit a medium strength, spectrally-broad light emission in the UV-visible range. PL emission shows a weak T-dependence and is attributed to interband electronic transitions and defect-assisted radiative recombinations. The charge transport is confirmed to be polaronic in nature with both thermally-assisted hopping and quantum mechanical tunneling regulating a charge flow within the columns in the intermediate temperature regime of ˜200-320 K. These results open a door to utilizing nano-textured substrates/scaffolds to produce electronic-grade anatase TiO2 by sputtering for advanced opto-electronic device applications.

  18. Anodic oxidation of Ta/Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, S.; Alcala, G.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Habazaki, H.; Quance, T.; Graham, M.J.; Masheder, D.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of iron during anodizing of sputter-deposited Ta/Fe alloys in ammonium pentaborate electrolyte has been examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anodic films on Ta/1.5 at.% Fe, Ta/3 at.% Fe and Ta/7 at.% Fe alloys are amorphous and featureless and develop at high current efficiency with respective formation ratios of 1.67, 1.60 and 1.55 nm V -1 . Anodic oxidation of the alloys proceeds without significant enrichment of iron in the alloy in the vicinity of the alloy/film interface and without oxygen generation during film growth, unlike the behaviour of Al/Fe alloys containing similar concentrations of iron. The higher migration rate of iron species relative to that of tantalum ions leads to the formation of an outer iron-rich layer at the film surface

  19. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. In-situ electrochemical doping of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with indigo carmine organic dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Budner, Bogusław; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Bombalska, Aneta; Kaliszewski, Miron; Mostek, Anna; Thorat, Sanjay; Salerno, Marco; Giersig, Michael; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide was formed in sulfuric acid with addition of indigo carmine. During anodizing, the organic dye was incorporated into the porous oxide walls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of nitrogen and sulfur in the anodic aluminum oxide. Two types of incorporated sulfur were found: belonging to the sulfate anions SO 4 2− of the electrolyte and belonging to the C-SO 3 − side groups of the indigo carmine. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation and showed that the inorganic–organic hybrid material inherited optical properties from the indigo carmine. Typical modes from pyrrolidone rings, unique for indigo carmine in the investigated system (650 and 1585 cm −1 ), were found to be the strongest for the greatest anodizing voltages used. Despite the indigo carmine incorporation, the morphology of the oxide is still nanoporous and its geometry is still tuned by the voltage applied during aluminum anodization. This work presents an inexpensive and facile approach to doping an inorganic oxide material with organic compounds. - Highlights: • Nanoporous anodic alumina was formed in electrolyte with indigo carmine. • XPS confirmed the presence of N and S in anodic alumina. • Raman spectroscopy revealed indigo carmine bands in anodic alumina. • The higher the voltage, the more indigo carmine was incorporated.

  1. In-situ electrochemical doping of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with indigo carmine organic dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J., E-mail: wojciech.stepniowski@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Norek, Małgorzata [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Budner, Bogusław [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Michalska-Domańska, Marta [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Bombalska, Aneta; Kaliszewski, Miron [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Mostek, Anna [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Thorat, Sanjay; Salerno, Marco [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, Genova I-16163 (Italy); Giersig, Michael [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide was formed in sulfuric acid with addition of indigo carmine. During anodizing, the organic dye was incorporated into the porous oxide walls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of nitrogen and sulfur in the anodic aluminum oxide. Two types of incorporated sulfur were found: belonging to the sulfate anions SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} of the electrolyte and belonging to the C-SO{sub 3}{sup −} side groups of the indigo carmine. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation and showed that the inorganic–organic hybrid material inherited optical properties from the indigo carmine. Typical modes from pyrrolidone rings, unique for indigo carmine in the investigated system (650 and 1585 cm{sup −1}), were found to be the strongest for the greatest anodizing voltages used. Despite the indigo carmine incorporation, the morphology of the oxide is still nanoporous and its geometry is still tuned by the voltage applied during aluminum anodization. This work presents an inexpensive and facile approach to doping an inorganic oxide material with organic compounds. - Highlights: • Nanoporous anodic alumina was formed in electrolyte with indigo carmine. • XPS confirmed the presence of N and S in anodic alumina. • Raman spectroscopy revealed indigo carmine bands in anodic alumina. • The higher the voltage, the more indigo carmine was incorporated.

  2. Uranyl sorption onto alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism for the adsorption of uranyl onto alumina from aqueous solution was studied experimentally and the data were modeled using a triple layer surface complexation model. The experiments were carried out at low uranium concentrations (9 x 10 -11 --5 x 10 -8 M) in a CO 2 free environment at varying electrolyte concentrations (0.01--1 M) and pH (4.5--12). The first and second acid dissociation constants, pK a1 and pK a2 , of the alumina surface were determined from potentiometric titrations to be 7.2 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.4, respectively. The adsorption of uranium was found to be independent of the electrolyte concentration. The authors therefore conclude that the uranium binds as an inner sphere complex. The results were modeled using the code FITEQL. Two reactions of uranium with the surface were needed to fit the data, one forming a uranyl complex with a single surface hydroxyl and the other forming a bridged or bidentate complex reacting with two surface hydroxyls of the alumina. There was no evidence from these experiments of site heterogeneity. The constants used for the reactions were based in part on predictions made utilizing the Hard Soft Acid Base, HSAB, theory, relating the surface complexation constants to the hydrolysis of the sorbing metal ion and the acid dissociation constants of the mineral oxide surface

  3. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529 ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  4. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  5. Growth of anatase titanium dioxide nanotubes via anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Adrian Dilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, titanium dioxide nanotubes were grown via anodization of sputtered titanium thin films using different anodization parameters in order to formulate a method of producing long anatase titanium dioxide nanotubes intended for solar cell applications. The morphological features of the nanotubes grown via anodization were explored using a Philips XL30 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Furthermore, the grown nanotubes were also subjected to X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in order to investigate the effect of the predominant crystal orientation of the parent titanium thin film on the crystal phase of the nanotubes. After optimizing the anodization parameters, nanotubes with anatase TiO2 crystal phase and tube length more than 2 microns was produced from parent titanium thin films with predominant Ti(010 crystal orientation and using ammonium fluoride in ethylene glycol as an electrolyte with a working voltage equal to 60V during 1-hour anodization runs.

  6. Studying alumina boundary migration using combined microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesterer, J L; Farrer, J K; Munoz, N E; Gilliss, S R; Ravishankar, N; Carter, C B

    2006-01-01

    Thermal grooving and migration of grain boundaries in alumina have been investigated using a variety of microscopy techniques. Using two different methods, polycrystalline alumina was used to investigate wet (implying the presence of a glassy phase), and dry grain boundaries. In the first, single-crystal Al 2 O 3 was hot-pressed via liquid phase sintering (LPS) to polycrystalline alumina with an anorthite glass film at the interface. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit approximately 100-nm thick glass films. Specimens were annealed in air at 1650 deg. C for 20 h to induce boundary migration. Boundary characterization was carried out using visible light (VLM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Effects on migration due to surface orientation of grains were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The second method dealt with heat treating dry boundaries in polycrystalline alumina to monitor boundary migration behavior via remnant thermal grooves. Heat treatments were conducted at 1650 deg. C for 30 min. The same region of the sample was mapped using VLM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and followed over a series of 30 min heat treatments. Boundary migration through a pore trapped inside the grain matrix was of particular interest

  7. Studying alumina boundary migration using combined microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesterer, J L [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 421 Washington Ave, SE., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Farrer, J K [Now at Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Munoz, N E [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 421 Washington Ave, SE., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gilliss, S R [Now at Robins, Kaplan, Miller and Ciresi, L.L.P., Minneapolis, MN 55402 (United States); Ravishankar, N [Now at Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012 (India); Carter, C B [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 421 Washington Ave, SE., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-02-22

    Thermal grooving and migration of grain boundaries in alumina have been investigated using a variety of microscopy techniques. Using two different methods, polycrystalline alumina was used to investigate wet (implying the presence of a glassy phase), and dry grain boundaries. In the first, single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was hot-pressed via liquid phase sintering (LPS) to polycrystalline alumina with an anorthite glass film at the interface. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit approximately 100-nm thick glass films. Specimens were annealed in air at 1650 deg. C for 20 h to induce boundary migration. Boundary characterization was carried out using visible light (VLM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Effects on migration due to surface orientation of grains were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The second method dealt with heat treating dry boundaries in polycrystalline alumina to monitor boundary migration behavior via remnant thermal grooves. Heat treatments were conducted at 1650 deg. C for 30 min. The same region of the sample was mapped using VLM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and followed over a series of 30 min heat treatments. Boundary migration through a pore trapped inside the grain matrix was of particular interest.

  8. Improving electrochemical performance of tin-based anodes formed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and the electrical properties of the nanostructured Sn thin film electrode. The high cycleability and capacity retention were achieved when the nanostructured Cu–Sn–C thin film was used as an anode material since C increased the mechanical tolerance of the thin film to the volume expansion due to its grain refiner effect.

  9. Optical, morphological properties and surface energy of the transparent Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thin film as anode material for secondary type batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2016-03-01

    LTO thin film was deposited for the first time on a glass microscope slide (MS) by RF magnetron sputtering technology. This method has been suitable for preparation of high-quality thin films. The surface properties of the produced film were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface of the produced film appeared smooth and homogeneous. LTO coated on MS had compact structure and low roughness. A UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to determine intensity of light passing through the samples. Thus, according to the results obtained the produced film was highly transparent. The refractive index of the LTO thin film was presented in a low MSE value by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and it was about 1.5. The optical band gap (E g) was determined by the Tauc method. The produced LTO thin film exhibited a wide band gap semiconductor property with a band gap energy of about 2.95 eV. Finally, the surface free energy of the LTO thin film was calculated from the contact angle measurements using the Lewis acid-base, OWRK/Fowkes, Wu and Zisman methods.

  10. Salicylic acid electrooxidation. A surface film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturova, M.D.; Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M.M. [N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Univ. of Hannover, Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management Hannover (Germany); Skundin, A. [A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    A possibility to use electrochemical treatment for salicylic acid (SA) removal from waste water was studied. It was found that SA can be oxidized at platinum anode with formation of harmless products. Features of anodic process, in particular, formation of solid film on anode surface as well as properties of the film were investigated. (orig.)

  11. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  12. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  13. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  14. A Study on the Anodic Dissolution of Aluminum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C. W.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases oxide films formed on metals in atmosphere or aqueous solution are chemically inactive, especially it is the case with aluminum. In this study, anodic dissolution of aluminum was done using various electrolyte and cathode, mechanism of which was examined. As a consequence, oxide film on aluminum surface was dissolved together with the dissolution reaction of metal by the anodic current. It was shown that the dissolution reaction due to the contact between electrolyte and metal happened in the same time

  15. Anodic stripping voltammetric detection of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) of coal gangue at bismuth film glassy carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Teng; Zhang, Yajing; Li, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ling; Lin, Ling; Chen, Qian; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    For coal gangue it is very important to detect the heavy metals of the products in view of environment risk control, because the heavy metals in coal gangue can cause multiple significant toxic effects. Most of the techniques now available are more suitable for laboratory conditions only and usually cost much testing time. In this work, we develop a new rapid detecting method of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in coal gangue based on anodic stripping voltammetry. Through a large number of experiments, operational parameters have been optimized. This work provides a quick and convenient detection method for heavy metals in coal gangue.

  16. Effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on fatigue life of TA15 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chunjuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is always used as an effective surface modification method to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of titanium alloy. The sodium tartrate anodizing is a new kind of environmental anodizing method. In this work, the effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on mechanical property were studied. The oxide film was performed on the TA15 titanium alloy using sodium tartrate as the film former. The effects of this anodizing and the traditional acid anodizing on the fatigue life of TA15 alloy were compared. The results show that the sodium tartrate anodizing just caused a slight increase of hydrogen content in the alloy, and had a slight effect on the fatigue life. While, the traditional acid anodizing caused a significant increase of hydrogen content in the substrate and reduced the fatigue life of the alloy significantly.

  17. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene as a novel microwave susceptor: the ultrafast microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon-coated silicon-graphene film as a lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Ko, Dongjin; Oh, Jiseop; Lee, Jeongyeon; Hwang, Taejin; Jeon, Youngmoo; Hooch Antink, Wytse; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2017-10-19

    Graphene nanocomposites have attracted much attention in many applications due to their superior properties. However, preparing graphene nanocomposites requires a time-consuming thermal treatment to reduce the graphene or synthesize nanomaterials, in most cases. We present an ultrafast synthesis of a carbon-coated silicon-graphene nanocomposite using a commercial microwave system. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene is used as a novel microwave susceptor to deliver efficient microwave energy conversion. Unlike graphene oxide, it does not require a time-consuming pre-thermal reduction or toxic chemical reduction to absorb microwave radiation efficiently. A carbon-coated silicon nanoparticle-electrochemically exfoliated graphene nanocomposite film was prepared by a few seconds' microwave irradiation. The sp 2 domains of graphene absorb microwave radiation and generate heat to simultaneously reduce the graphene and carbonize the polydopamine carbon precursor. The as-prepared N-doped carbon-coated silicon-graphene film was used as a lithium-ion battery anode. The N-doped carbon coating decreases the contact resistance between silicon nanoparticles and graphene provides a wide range conductive network. Consequently, it exhibited a reversible capacity of 1744 mA h g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and 662 mA h g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 after 200 cycles. This method can potentially be a general approach to prepare various graphene nanocomposites in an extremely short time.

  18. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  19. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-01-01

    aluminum/ alumina (Al/Al2O3) templates as a novel and versatile nanofabrication procedure, and we demonstrate explicitly how to exploit the technique for developing large-area hexagonally close-packed hemispherical shell nanostructures by stripping noble metal layers from embossed templates fabricated from...... anodized Al. Utilizing for this process the linear relationship between anodization voltage and the resulting interpore distance in the formed oxide, it is possible to tune the radius of curvature of the resulting hemispherical shells continuously, which in turn results in tunable optical properties...

  20. Crystallography of Alumina-YAG-Eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Dickerson, Robert M.; Matson, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple descriptions of the alumina-YAG eutectic crystallography appear in the ceramic literature. The orientation between two phases in a eutectic system has direct impact on residual stress, morphology, microstructural stability, and high temperature mechanical properties. A study to demonstrate that the different crystallographic relationships can be correlated with different growth constraints was undertaken. Fibers produced by Laser-Heated Float Zone (LHFZ) and Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) were examined. A map of the orientation relationship between Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 and their relationship to the fiber growth axis as a function of pull rate are presented. Regions in which a single orientation predominates are identified.

  1. Superior thermal conductivity of transparent polymer nanocomposites with a crystallized alumina membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Poostforush

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of novel thermoconductive and optically transparent nanocomposites have been reported. The composites were prepared by the impregnation of thermoset resin into crystallized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO. Crystallized AAO synthesized by annealing amorphous AAO membrane at 1200°C. Although through-plane thermal conductivity of nanocomposites improved up to 1.13 W•m–1•K–1 (39 vol% alumina but their transparency was preserved (Tλ550 nm ~ 72%. Integrated annealed alumina phase, low refractive index mismatch between resin and alumina and formation of nano-optical fibers through the membrane resulted in such marvel combination. This report shows a great potential of these types of nanocomposites in ‘heat management’ of lightening devices.

  2. Fundamental Investigation of Si Anode in Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is approximately 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of Si anode during the first cycle, the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes.

  3. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  4. Mirror-backed Dark Alumina: A Nearly Perfect Absorber for Thermoelectronics and Thermophotovotaics

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-01-28

    We present here a broadband, wide-angle, and polarization-independent nearly perfect absorber consisting of mirror-backed nanoporous alumina. By electrochemically anodizing the disordered multicomponent aluminum and properly tailoring the thickness and air-filling fraction of nanoporous alumina, according to the Maxwell-Garnet mixture theory, a large-area dark alumina can be made with excellent photothermal properties and absorption larger than 93% over a wide wavelength range spanning from near-infrared to ultraviolet light, i.e. 250 nm–2500 nm. The measured absorption is orders of magnitude greater than other reported anodized porous alumina, typically semi-transparent at similar wavelengths. This simple yet effective approach, however, does not require any lithography, nano-mixture deposition, pre- and post-treatment. Here, we also envisage and theoretically investigate the practical use of proposed absorbers and/or photothermal converters in integrated thermoelectronic and/or thermophotovoltaic energy conversion devices, which make efficient use of the entire spectrum of ambient visible to near-infrared radiation.

  5. Effective coating of titania nanoparticles with alumina via atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizpour, H.; Talebi, M.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R.; Guo, J.; van Ommen, J. R.; Mostoufi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Alumina films were deposited on titania nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a fluidized bed reactor at 180 °C and 1 bar. Online mass spectrometry was used for real time monitoring of effluent gases from the reactor during each reaction cycle in order to determine the optimal dosing time of precursors. Different oxygen sources were used to see which oxygen source, in combination with trimethyl aluminium (TMA), provides the highest alumina growth per cycle (GPC). Experiments were carried out in 4, 7 and 10 cycles using the optimal dosing time of precursors. Several characterization methods, such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were conducted on the products. Formation of the alumina film was confirmed by EDX mapping and EDX line profiling, FTIR and TEM. When using either water or deuterium oxide as the oxygen source, the thickness of the alumina film was greater than that of ozone. The average GPC measured by TEM for the ALD of TMA with water, deuterium oxide and ozone was about 0.16 nm, 0.15 nm and 0.11 nm, respectively. The average GPC calculated using the mass fraction of aluminum from INAA was close to those measured from TEM images. Excess amounts of precursors lead to a higher average growth of alumina film per cycle due to insufficient purging time. XRD analysis demonstrated that amorphous alumina was coated on titania nanoparticles. This amorphous layer was easily distinguished from the crystalline core in the TEM images. Decrease in the photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles after alumina coating was confirmed by measuring degradation of Rhodamine B by ultraviolet irradiation.

  6. A flexible mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-rGO nanocomposite film as free-standing anode for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kunxu; Gao, Hanyang; Hu, Guoxin

    2018-01-01

    Advanced flexible electrode is crucial in the development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging wearable and portable electronics. Herein, a free-standing flexible mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-rGO (LTO-rGO) nanocomposite film is rationally designed and fabricated for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). This efficient synthesis involves the growth of lithium titanate hydrate (LTH) precursors on the graphene oxide (GO) by a hydrothermal reaction, assembly into LTH-GO film by vacuum filtration with some extra GO added, and subsequent conversion into LTO-rGO nanocomposite film through calcination. When rGO content in the LTO-rGO film is set, the addition sequence of GO is found to affect its textural and mechanical properties. The resultant free-standing LTO-rGO electrode, taking advantages of high Li4Ti5O12 loading of 73.9%, mesoporous layer-stacked channels with good electron/ion conductivity, good mechanical strength, and enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area, delivers excellent electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacity of 135.4 mAh g-1 at 40 C) over the electrode of conventional configuration. Moreover, no organic but all inorganic reagents are used in the synthesis, offering an eco-friendly, cost-efficient, and easily scalable way to fabricate binder-free flexible electrode for LIBs.

  7. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  8. Atomic-scale non-contact AFM studies of alumina supported nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Meinander, Kristoffer; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    in the society today, both as the means for environmental protection and as the backbone technology for most of the chemical industries. Among important processes based on heterogeneous catalysis are biomass conversion, steam reforming of methane and the synthesis of synthetic fuel from hydrocarbons, coal...... conducting or non-conducting [2]. We use nc-AFM to study the growth, shape and size of nanoparticles on spinel and alumina surfaces. In addition to this, we have grown a transition alumina thin film on a spinel surface in order to characterize such a film as well as studying the catalytic properties...

  9. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  10. Sintering behaviour of spinel–alumina composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    % alumina dissolves in spinel (MgAl2O4) at 1600°C. Solid solubility of alumina in spinel decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which causes exsolution of alumina from spinel phase. Previous work of one of the authors revealed that ...

  11. Sintering behaviour of spinel–alumina composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Study of alumina–magnesia binary phase diagram reveals that around 40–50 wt% alumina dis- solves in spinel (MgAl2O4) at 1600°C. Solid solubility of alumina in spinel decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which causes exsolution of alumina from spinel phase. Previous work of one of the authors.

  12. Dynamic tensile response of alumina-Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atisivan, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    Plate impact experiments were carried out to examine the high strain-rate tensile response of alumina-aluminum (Al) composites with tailored microstructures. A novel processing technique was used to fabricate interpenetrating phase alumina-aluminum composites with controlled microstructures. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), a commercially available rapid prototyping technique, was used to produce the controlled porosity mullite ceramic preforms. Alumina-Al composites were then processed via reactive metal infiltration of porous mullite ceramics. With this approach, both the micro as well as the macro structures can be designed via computer aided design (CAD) to tailor the properties of the composites. Two sets of dynamic tensile experiments were performed. In the first, the metal content was varied between 23 and 39 wt. percent. In the second, the microstructure was varied while holding the metal content nearly constant. Samples with higher metal content, as expected, displayed better spall resistance. For a given metal content, samples with finer metal diameter showed better spall resistance. Relationship of the microstructural parameters on the dynamic tensile response of the structured composites is discussed here

  13. Investigation of vapor explosions with alumina droplets in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    1991-02-01

    Within the analysis of severe hypothetical fast breeder accidents the consequence of a fuel-coolant interaction has to be considered i.e. the thermal interaction between hot molten fuel and sodium. Experiments have been performed to study the thermal fragmentation of a molten alumina droplet in sodium. Alumina temperatures up to 3100 K and sodium temperatures up to 1143 K were used. For the first time film boiling of alumina drops in sodium was achieved. With some droplets undergoing film boiling, the fragmentation was triggered by an externally applied pressure wave. The trigger was followed promptly by a strong reaction pressure wave if and only if a contact temperature threshold of T I =2060±160 K was exceeded. In agreement with similar experiments in which other materials were studied this threshold corresponds to an interfacial temperature close to the homogeneous nucleation temperature of the vaporising liquid. Based on the present and previous experimental results a model concept of thermal fragmentation is developed. (orig.) [de

  14. Transport properties of alumina nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Kau-Fui Vincent; Kurma, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have showed that nanofluids have significantly greater thermal conductivity compared to their base fluids. Large surface area to volume ratio and certain effects of Brownian motion of nanoparticles are believed to be the main factors for the significant increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In this paper all three transport properties, namely thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and viscosity, were studied for alumina nanofluid (aluminum oxide nanoparticles in water). Experiments were performed both as a function of volumetric concentration (3-8%) and temperature (2-50 deg. C). Alumina nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 36 nm were dispersed in water. The effect of particle size was not studied. The transient hot wire method as described by Nagaska and Nagashima for electrically conducting fluids was used to test the thermal conductivity. In this work, an insulated platinum wire of 0.003 inch diameter was used. Initial calibration was performed using de-ionized water and the resulting data was within 2.5% of standard thermal conductivity values for water. The thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid increased with both increase in temperature and concentration. A maximum thermal conductivity of 0.7351 W m -1 K -1 was recorded for an 8.47% volume concentration of alumina nanoparticles at 46.6 deg. C. The effective thermal conductivity at this concentration and temperature was observed to be 1.1501, which translates to an increase in thermal conductivity by 22% when compared to water at room temperature. Alumina being a good conductor of electricity, alumina nanofluid displays an increasing trend in electrical conductivity as volumetric concentration increases. A microprocessor-based conductivity/TDS meter was used to perform the electrical conductivity experiments. After carefully calibrating the conductivity meter's glass probe with platinum tip, using a standard potassium chloride solution, readings were taken at various

  15. Transport properties of alumina nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kau-Fui Vincent; Kurma, Tarun

    2008-08-27

    Recent studies have showed that nanofluids have significantly greater thermal conductivity compared to their base fluids. Large surface area to volume ratio and certain effects of Brownian motion of nanoparticles are believed to be the main factors for the significant increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In this paper all three transport properties, namely thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and viscosity, were studied for alumina nanofluid (aluminum oxide nanoparticles in water). Experiments were performed both as a function of volumetric concentration (3-8%) and temperature (2-50 °C). Alumina nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 36 nm were dispersed in water. The effect of particle size was not studied. The transient hot wire method as described by Nagaska and Nagashima for electrically conducting fluids was used to test the thermal conductivity. In this work, an insulated platinum wire of 0.003 inch diameter was used. Initial calibration was performed using de-ionized water and the resulting data was within 2.5% of standard thermal conductivity values for water. The thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid increased with both increase in temperature and concentration. A maximum thermal conductivity of 0.7351 W m(-1) K(-1) was recorded for an 8.47% volume concentration of alumina nanoparticles at 46.6 °C. The effective thermal conductivity at this concentration and temperature was observed to be 1.1501, which translates to an increase in thermal conductivity by 22% when compared to water at room temperature. Alumina being a good conductor of electricity, alumina nanofluid displays an increasing trend in electrical conductivity as volumetric concentration increases. A microprocessor-based conductivity/TDS meter was used to perform the electrical conductivity experiments. After carefully calibrating the conductivity meter's glass probe with platinum tip, using a standard potassium chloride solution, readings were taken at

  16. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  17. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: hdxiao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  18. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    This book looks at the movie industry and at the labour intensive but fascinating process of making a feature film. It examines each stage in the production of a film, from initial idea through to the final cut and screening, and highlights the main activities that take place along the way. The book not only looks at the work of prominent people in the film world, such as directors and actors, but also describes the equally important but less high profile contributions of the gaffer, best boy...

  19. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  20. Vanadium Oxide Thin Film Formation on Graphene Oxide by Microexplosive Decomposition of Ammonium Peroxovanadate and Its Application as a Sodium Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Medvedev, Alexander G; Grishanov, Dmitry A; Sladkevich, Sergey; Gun, Jenny; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Xu, Zhichuan J; Nagasubramanian, Arun; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Lev, Ovadia

    2018-02-27

    Formation of vanadium oxide nanofilm-coated graphene oxide (GO) is achieved by thermally induced explosive disintegration of a microcrystalline ammonium peroxovanadate-GO composite. GO sheets isolate the microcrystalline grains and capture and contain the microexplosion products, resulting in the deposition of the nanoscale products on the GO. Thermal treatment of the supported nanofilm yields a sequence of nanocrystalline phases of vanadium oxide (V 3 O 7 , VO 2 ) as a function of temperature. This is the first demonstration of microexplosive disintegration of a crystalline peroxo compound to yield a nanocoating. The large number of recently reported peroxide-rich crystalline materials suggests that the process can be a useful general route for nanofilm formation. The V 3 O 7 @GO composite product was tested as a sodium ion battery anode and showed high charge capacity at high rate charge-discharge cycling (150 mAh g -1 at 3000 mA g -1 vs 300 mAh g -1 at 100 mA g -1 ) due to the nanomorphology of the vanadium oxide.

  1. Gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes on columns packed with alumina, modified alumina and sol-gel alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Y P; Gupta, N K; Pillai, K T; Rao, G A Rama; Venugopal, V

    2012-01-06

    The stationary phase of alumina adsorbents, prepared by different chemical processes, was used to study the separation behaviour of hydrogen isotopes. Three types of alumina, obtained by conventional hydroxide route alumina coated with silicon oxide and alumina prepared by internal gelation process (IGP), were used as packing material to study the separation of HT and T(2) in a mixture at various temperatures. The conventional alumina and silicon oxide coated alumina resolved HT and T(2) at 77K temperature with different retention times. The retention times on SiO(2) coated columns were found to be higher than those of other adsorbents. However, the column filled with IGP alumina was found to be ideal for the separation of HT and T(2) at 240 K. The peaks were well resolved in less than 5 min on this column. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and structural evaluation of freeze-cast porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Douglas F., E-mail: souzadf@outlook.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Nunes, Eduardo H.M., E-mail: eduardohmn@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Pimenta, Daiana S.; Vasconcelos, Daniela C.L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Nascimento, Jailton F.; Grava, Wilson [Petrobras/CENPES, Avenida Horácio Macedo 950, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP:21941-915 (Brazil); Houmard, Manuel [Department of Materials Engineering and Civil Construction, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 1, sala 3304 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wander L., E-mail: wlv@demet.ufmg.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    In this work we fabricated alumina samples by the freeze-casting technique using tert-butanol as the solvent. The prepared materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography. Next, they were coated with sol–gel silica films by dip-coating. Permeability tests were carried out in order to assess the permeation behavior of the materials processed in this study. We observed that the sintering time and alumina loading showed a remarkable effect on both the structural properties and flexural strength of the freeze-cast samples. Nitrogen adsorption tests revealed that the silica prepared in this study exhibited a microporous structure. It was observed that the presence of silica coatings on the alumina surface decreased the CO{sub 2} permeance by about one order of magnitude. Because of the similar kinetic diameters of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} system showed a separation efficiency that was lower than that observed for the He/CO{sub 2} and He/N{sub 2} systems. We noticed that increasing the feed pressure improved the separation capacity of the obtained materials. - Highlights: • Porous alumina samples obtained by the freeze-casting technique • Microporous silica coating prepared by a simple sol–gel dip-coating methodology • Samples examined by SEM, μ-CT, and nitrogen sorption tests • Mechanical tests were carried out in the freeze-cast samples. • The presence of silica coatings on the alumina surface decreased the CO{sub 2} permeance.

  3. Anodic oxide growth on Zr in neutral aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anodization and cathodic reactions on metal surfaces. Our sample, specially pre- pared for neutron reflectometry, was a sputter-deposited film on a polished Si(1 1 1) substrate, sufficiently thick to imitate a bulk metal. Upon removal from the sput- tering chamber and exposure to air, a passive oxide layer grew on the film. An.

  4. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Bould, M.

    2014-01-01

    A critical overview of critical-theoretical understandings of sf film, especially those promulgated by critics devoted to sf as a prose fiction form. It also considers adaptation, spectacle and special effects.

  5. Alumina column Rb-82 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.; Roth, E.P.

    1977-10-01

    The use of an alumina column for the adsorption of radioactive Sr for the generator production of 75-sec 82 Rb was evaluated in both batches and column experiments using 85 Sr and cyclotron-produced 82 Sr. Comparisons of alumina, Bio-Rex 70 and Chelex 100 ion exchangers were made to determine Sr adsorption, 82 Rb elution yield and Sr breakthrough. The adsorption of Sr is similar for alumina and Chelex 100 but different for Bio-Rex 70. Alumina and Chelex 100 exhibit a small fraction of poorly bound Sr which appears as higher breakthrough in the early elution volumes. The remaining Sr activity is strongly bound to these ion exchangers and the breakthrough remains stable at a lower breakthrough value through a large number of elutions. Bio-Rex 70 on the other hand does not exhibit the poorly bound Sr fraction and the breakthrough of Sr remains the lowest of the three ion exchangers through a moderate number of elutions and then the Sr breakthrough gradually increases with each additional elution

  6. Anodized dental implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  7. Effect of flattened surface morphology of anodized aluminum oxide templates on the magnetic properties of nanoporous Co/Pt and Co/Pd thin multilayered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. N. Anh; Fedotova, J.; Kasiuk, J.; Bayev, V.; Kupreeva, O.; Lazarouk, S.; Manh, D. H.; Vu, D. L.; Chung, S.; Åkerman, J.; Altynov, V.; Maximenko, A.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, nanoporous Al2O3 templates with smoothed surface relief characterized by flattened interpore areas were used in the fabrication of Co/Pd and Co/Pt multilayers (MLs) with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM) revealed perfectly conserved PMA in the Co/Pd and Co/Pt porous MLs (antidot arrays) with a ratio of remanent magnetization (Mr) to saturation magnetization (MS) of about 0.99, anisotropy fields (Ha) of up to 2.6 kOe, and a small deviation angle of 8° between the easy magnetization axis and the normal to the film surface. The sufficient magnetic hardening of the porous MLs with enhanced coercive field HC of up to ∼1.9 kOe for Co/Pd and ∼1.5 kOe for Co/Pt MLs, as compared to the continuous reference samples (∼1.5-2 times), is associated with the pinning of the magnetic moments on the nanopore edges. Application of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for fitting the experimental M/MS(H) curves yielded clear evidence of the predominantly coherent rotation mechanism of magnetization reversal in the porous films.

  8. Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joohyun; Choi, Hong Kyw; Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-01-01

    As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m 2 . This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

  9. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  10. The determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium and thallium in six NIMROC reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A previously reported procedure has been extended to include the determination of thallium. In samples where thallium occurred in the presence of relatively high concentrations of cadmium, the stripping peak for cadmium was first suppressed with non-ionic surface-active agent, Triton X-100. Cadmium and thallium were determined directly in six NIMROC reference materials without interference from iron(III), in a reducing electrolyte, which is also a complexing agent, consisting of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. Interelement interferences were eliminated by the use of a mercury-film electrode of adequate thickness. The limits of detection for cadmium were 10ng/g and those for thallium 20ng/g

  11. Evaluation of di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite as a film-forming additive on the MCMB anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangzhen; Wang, Wenguo; Huang, Tao; Fang, Guihuang; Pan, Ying; Wu, Maoxiang

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates a sulfur-based compound, di(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) sulfite (DTFES), as a new solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) forming additive on mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). When placed in the electrolyte, it can dramatically enhance the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The capacity loss was significantly decreased from 17.4% to 6.3% after 100 charge-discharge cycles due to the addition of DTFES. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) versus voltage (V) analysis showed that DTFES was decomposed in advance versus to electrolyte solvents. The effects of DTFES were characterized by charge-discharge testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that the SEI film formed on MCMB by DTFES plays an important role in LIBs performance. Their subsequent reaction pathways are proposed in the paper.

  12. The business of fast ALD equipment for depositing alumina passivation layers on crystalline silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.J.P.M.; Gortzen, R.M.W.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a gas phase deposition technique for depositing very high quality thin films with an unsurpassed conformality. The main drawback of ALD however is the very low deposition rate (∼ 1 nm/min). Recently, record deposition rates for alumina of up to 1 nm/s were reached

  13. High throughput, low cost deposition of alumina passivation layers by spatial atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.W.G.; Gortzen, R.M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a gas phase deposition technique for depositing very high quality thin films with an unsurpassed conformality. The main drawback of ALD however is the very low deposition rate (~ 1 nm/min). Recently, record deposition rates for alumina of up to I nm/s were reached

  14. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  15. Production of pure sintered alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Huebner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the sintering parameters, the strength of a large number of alumina samples was determined which were produced under widely varying sintering conditions and with different amounts of MgO content. The strength as a function of sintering time or temperature was found to go through a maximum. With increasing time, this maximum is shifted to lower temperatures, and with decreasing temperature to longer times. Data pairs of sintering times and temperatures which yeld the strength maximum were determined. The value of the strength at the maximum remains unchanged. The strength is high (= 400 MN/m 2 , at a grain size of 3 um and a porosity of 2 per cent) and comparable to foreign aluminas produced for commercial purposes, or even higher. The increase in the sintering time from 1 h to 16 h permits a reduction of the sintering temperature from 1600 to 1450 0 C without losing strength. The practical importance of this fact for a production of sintered alumina on a large scale is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  16. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  17. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  18. Anode Support Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Initial reduction temperature of an SOC is kept higher than the highest intended operation temperature of the SOC to keep the electrolyte under compression by the Anode Support at all temperatures equal to and below the maximum intended operation temperature.......Initial reduction temperature of an SOC is kept higher than the highest intended operation temperature of the SOC to keep the electrolyte under compression by the Anode Support at all temperatures equal to and below the maximum intended operation temperature....

  19. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    collector 18 can be made from nickel; however, other high conductivity metals and alloys can be used for this such as gold, silver , platinum, alloys of...The conductive particles can be carbon such as carbon black or graphite. These particles can also be metals such as copper, nickel, silver , gold...anode cycling characteristics, higher battery capacity, and longer cycle life. [0005] Rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes have been

  20. Field-assisted diffusion of silver in SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Moalaghi, Maryam; Dehghani, Niloofar; Ansari, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Tin oxide films are known for their wide spread applications in the field of optoelectronics as transparent conductors and as atmosphere sensitive ceramic pellets for chemical sensor fabrication. Forming durable ohmic contacts to these films is vitally necessary for the effective performance and long life of almost all such devices. Silver electrodes are commonly considered as low resistance ohmic contacts to many metal-oxide semiconductors. Particularly in devices operating at elevated temperatures, silver migration can considerably decrease useful device lifetime. Here, we study the performance of silver electrodes paste printed on SnO2 thin films and show that the I-V characteristics of the silver/SnO2 contact changes with operating time at elevated temperatures. SnO2 films are grown on alumina substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. A pair of Ag electrodes are paste-printed on the surface of the grown films followed by a heat-treatment step to stabilize the deposits. The as-fabricated Ag/SnO2 contacts present ohmic characteristics. Continuous application of DC voltages to the samples operating at 350 °C results in a significant drop in the devices’ resistance. The results originate from field-assisted migration of silver ions from the anode to the cathode electrode and formation of Ag micro-filaments in the polycrystalline SnO2 layer.

  1. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β″-Al 2O 3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 °C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  2. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β''-Al 2 O 3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (author)

  3. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Ruth; Dolgopolov, Greg

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of the twentieth century, Sydney defined cosmopolitanism and modernity in the national imagination, and central to this image was the cinema: its technology, its architecture, its stars, its marketing and the stories it circulated to its audiences about Australia and the world. Though it is difficult to define a genre of Sydney film, Sydney provided the backdrop for a host of ideas about the city, and later suburbia. Sydney came to be seen as a ‘tinsel town’ of cultural ban...

  4. Functional nanostructured titanium nitride films obtained by sputtering magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, O.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Navas, D.; Auger, M.A.; Baldonedo, J.L.; Sanz, R.; Pirota, K.R.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Development of new methods in the formation of hollow structures, in particular, nanotubes and nanocages are currently generating a great interest as a consequence of the growing relevance of these nanostructures on many technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics to biotechnology. In this work, we report the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) nanotubes and nanohills via reactive sputtering magnetron processes. Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) were used as template substrates to grow the TiN nanostructures. The AAM were obtained through electrochemical anodization processes by using oxalic acid solutions as electrolytes. The nanotubes were produced at temperatures below 100 deg. C, and using a pure titanium (99.995%) sputtering target and nitrogen as reactive gas. The obtained TiN thin films showed surface morphologies adjusted to pore diameter and interpore distance of the substrates, as well as ordered arrays of nanotubes or nanohills depending on the sputtering and template conditions. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) was used to elucidate both the surface order and morphology of the different grown nanostructures. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns and their qualitative chemical composition by using X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) in a scanning electron microscopy

  5. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.

    2009-01-01

    focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...... length of about 15 μm. At these energies, the ions have been efficiently guided by the capillaries up to few degrees tilt angle. In this work, we compare the results obtained by the energy dispersive spectrometer to those studied by the MCP array....

  6. Preparation of alumina-β'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarini, J.R.; Souza, D.P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Alumina - (β + β') in powder, with composition of 8.85% Na 2 0 + 0.75% Li 2 0 + 90.40% Al 2 O 3 is obtained using the zeta process. The phase transformation β→β' can be seen with powder X-ray diffraction. It was observed that the efficiency of the transformation is related to the processing and purity of the raw material. Impurities as Ca and Si difficult the phase transformation β→β'. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Synthesis of embossing Si nanomesh and its application as an anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sanghyun; Jang, Ho Young; Jung, Insub; Liu, Lichun; Park, Sungho

    2017-09-01

    Voids in nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes are believed to effectively mitigate the gradual performance degradation during repeated charge/discharge in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, we first demonstrate an embossing Si nanomesh structure bearing substantial voids in three dimensions for LIB applications. A solid alumina framework and a sacrificial layer of Ag serve as a template for embossing Si nanomesh structures. After complete dissolution of the alumina framework and the Ag layer, an embossing Si nanomesh exhibits highly ordered and high density nanoholes in an interconnected framework. The model Si nanomesh fabricated by our method has holes ∼70 nm in diameter, has ∼96 holes/μm2, and is ∼40 nm in thickness. We use this void-rich embossing Si nanomesh as a LIB anode, achieving significant enhancement in battery performance in terms of discharge capacity, cycling stability, and structural maintenance compared to a counterpart Si nanofilm without voids.

  8. Ordering of Octahedral Vacancies in Transition Aluminas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuan Go; Bronsveld, Paul M.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Djuričić, Boro; McGarry, David; Pickering, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure of transition aluminas obtained via the dehydration of boehmite has been characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of γ-, δ-, and θ-aluminas was identified by using selected-area electron diffraction. Modifications that resulted from the

  9. alumina phase transformation from thermal decomposition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Alumina is one of the major components used as catalyst support, which is especially important with regard to ... alumina, has been a major catalytic support in automotive and petroleum industries, as well as in adsorption ..... Catalyst in Steam Reforming of Dimethyl ether: Cu/γ-Al2O3/Al Catalyst Degradation Behaviors and.

  10. Formation of self-organized nanoporous anodic oxide from metallic gallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bipin; Thapa, Prem S; Higgins, Daniel A; Ito, Takashi

    2012-09-25

    This paper reports the formation of self-organized nanoporous gallium oxide by anodization of solid gallium metal. Because of its low melting point (ca. 30 °C), metallic gallium can be shaped into flexible structures, permitting the fabrication of nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths within confined spaces like the inside of a microchannel. Here, solid gallium films prepared on planar substrates were employed to investigate the effects of anodization voltage (1, 5, 10, 15 V) and H(2)SO(4) concentration (1, 2, 4, 6 M) on anodic oxide morphology. Self-organized nanopores aligned perpendicular to the film surface were obtained upon anodization of gallium films in ice-cooled 4 and 6 M aqueous H(2)SO(4) at 10 and 15 V. Nanopore formation could be recognized by an increase in anodic current after a current decrease reflecting barrier oxide formation. The average pore diameter was in the range of 18-40 nm with a narrow diameter distribution (relative standard deviation ca. 10-20%), and was larger at lower H(2)SO(4) concentration and higher applied voltage. The maximum thickness of nanoporous anodic oxide was ca. 2 μm. In addition, anodic formation of self-organized nanopores was demonstrated for a solid gallium monolith incorporated at the end of a glass capillary. Nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths formed from a fusible metal will lead to future development of unique devices for chemical sensing and catalysis.

  11. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  12. A hybrid approach to the surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, Miguel Manso; Ruiz, Josefa Predestinacion Garcia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Bioingenieria Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Gonzalez, Ruy Sanz [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Manuel Hernandez [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The application of nanostructured porous alumina templates as a solid support in biomedical assays requires a surface biofunctionalization process that has been addressed in this work by an hybrid aminopropyl-triethoxysilane/tetraisopropyl-orthotitanate (APTS/ TIPT) self assembled film. The nanostructured porous alumina templates are activated in a peroxide solution before immersion in the biofunctionalizing APTS/TIPT solution. The biofunctionalization process was followed up by UV-vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the modification of the dielectric structure of the alumina surface. The influence of the biofunctionalization step in an immunological assay was carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Results confirm the gain in activity after the immobilization of an FITC labelled mouse Igg. Specific biological recognition in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-antiBSA assay is proved afterwards by shifts observed in the reflectance interferograms thus providing a fast biosensing transducer platform. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC composite coating were investigated and compared with the anodic TiO2 mono-film and DLC mono-film. Results show that the DLC deposition significantly decreased the surface roughness and porosity of spark-anodized titanium. The fabricated TiO2/DLC composite coating exhibited a more stable and much lower friction coefficient than anodic TiO2 mono-film. Although the friction coefficient of the composite coating and the DLC mono-film was similar under both light load and heavy load conditions, the wear life of the composite coating was about 43% longer than that of DLC mono-film under heavy load condition. The wear rate of titanium with protective composite coating was much lower than that of titanium with DLC mono-film. The superior low friction coefficient and wear rate of the TiO2/DLC composite coating make it a good candidate as protective coating on titanium alloys.

  14. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  15. Three-dimensional metal scaffold supported bicontinuous silicon battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Braun, Paul V

    2012-06-13

    Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant attention because of silicon's exceptionally high lithium capacity. However, silicon's large volume change during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix in nanoparticulate form. Because pulverization results in a loss of electric connectivity, the reversible capacity of most silicon anodes dramatically decays within a few cycles. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous silicon anode formed by depositing a layer of silicon on the surface of a colloidal crystal templated porous nickel metal scaffold, which maintains electrical connectivity during cycling due to the scaffold. The porous metal framework serves to both impart electrical conductivity to the anode and accommodate the large volume change of silicon upon lithiation and delithiation. The initial capacity of the bicontinuous silicon anode is 3568 (silicon basis) and 1450 mAh g(-1) (including the metal framework) at 0.05C. After 100 cycles at 0.3C, 85% of the capacity remains. Compared to a foil-supported silicon film, the 3D bicontinuous silicon anode exhibits significantly improved mechanical stability and cycleability.

  16. Study of LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films used as anodes in lithium micro-batteries; Etude de couches minces de type LiNiVO{sub 4} utilisables en tant qu'electrode negative dans des microbatteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.

    2003-03-01

    Since fifteen years, considerable effort has been invested in developing thin film solid state micro-batteries as possible integrated components in microelectronics. The recent technological improvement concerning miniaturized systems opens a large field of applications for the future use of micro-batteries. LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films are promising materials as anodes for lithium micro-batteries. All the thin films have been prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using a LiNiVO{sub 4} target. The discharge gas was either pure argon or a mixture of argon and oxygen. We have studied the influence of some experimental parameters such as the oxygen partial pressure, the sputtering power, the target-substrate distance, the total pressure and the substrate temperature on the composition, the microstructure and the electrochemical properties. The chemical composition of the thin films has been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with nuclear reaction analysis. Among all experimental parameters investigated, only the partial pressure of oxygen has a considerable influence on the thin film composition. Auger spectroscopy has revealed a good homogeneity of the thin films. X-ray diffraction shows that the as-deposited thin films are amorphous. The near-stoichiometric composition Li{sub 1.12}NiV{sub 1.02}O{sub 4}.11 has highlighted good electrochemical properties in the potential range [3 V - 0.02 V]. This particular composition displays a high capacity of 1000 mAh/g which is enhanced when the film is annealed at 300 degrees C. (author)

  17. A Macroporous TiO2 Oxygen Sensor Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminium Oxide as an Etching Mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative fabrication method to produce a macroporous Si surface by employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO nanopore array layer as an etching template is presented. Combining AAO with a reactive ion etching (RIE processes, a homogeneous and macroporous silicon surface can be effectively configured by modulating AAO process parameters and alumina film thickness, thus hopefully replacing conventional photolithography and electrochemical etch methods. The hybrid process integration is considered fully CMOS compatible thanks to the low-temperature AAO and CMOS processes. The gas-sensing characteristics of 50 nm TiO2 nanofilms deposited on the macroporous surface are compared with those of conventional plain (or non-porous nanofilms to verify reduced response noise and improved sensitivity as a result of their macroporosity. Our experimental results reveal that macroporous geometry of the TiO2 chemoresistive gas sensor demonstrates 2-fold higher (~33% improved sensitivity than a non-porous sensor at different levels of oxygen exposure. In addition, the macroporous device exhibits excellent discrimination capability and significantly lessened response noise at 500 °C. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid process of such miniature and macroporous devices are compatible as well as applicable to integrated next generation bio-chemical sensors.

  18. Electrochemical characteristics of bundle-type silicon nanorods as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Si Hieu; Lim, Jong Choo; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A metal-assisted chemical etching technique was performed on Si thin films. ► The etching process resulted in the formation of bundle-type Si nanorods. ► The morphology of Si electrodes closely relate to electrochemical characteristics. - Abstract: In order to prepare bundle-type silicon nanorods, a silver-assisted chemical etching technique was used to modify a 1.6 μm silicon thin film, which was deposited on Cu foil by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The bundle-type silicon nanorods on Cu foil were employed as anodes for a lithium secondary battery, without further treatment. The electrochemical characteristics of the pristine silicon thin film anodes and the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes are different from one another. The electrochemical performance of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes exceeded that of the pristine Si thin film anodes. The specific capacity of the bundle-type silicon nanorod anodes is much higher than 3000 mAh g −1 at the first charge (Li insertion) cycle. The coulombic efficiency of bundle-type silicon anodes was stable at more than 97%, and the charge capacity remained at 1420 mAh g −1 , even after 100 cycles of charging and discharging. The results from the differential voltage analysis showed a side reaction at around 0.44–0.5 V, and the specific potential of this side reaction decreased after each cycle. The apparent diffusion coefficients of the two anode types were in the range of 10 −13 –10 −16 cm 2 s −1 in the first cycle. In subsequent charge cycles, these values for the silicon thin film anodes and the silicon nanorod bundle anode were approximately 10 −12 –10 −14 and 10 −13 –10 −15 cm 2 s −1 , respectively.

  19. Effect of temperature on the anodizing process of aluminum alloy AA 5052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theohari, S.; Kontogeorgou, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of temperature (10-40 °C) during the anodizing process of AA 5052 for 40 min in 175 g/L sulfuric acid solution at constant voltage (15 V) was studied in comparison with pure aluminum. The incorporated magnesium species in the barrier layer result in the further increase of the minimum current density passed during anodizing, as the temperature increases, by about 42% up to 30 °C and then by 12% up to 40 °C. Then during the anodizing process for 40 min a blocking effect on oxide film growth was gradually observed as the temperature increased until 30 °C. The results of EDAX analysis on thick films reveal that the mean amount of the magnesium species inside the film is about 50-70% less than that in the bulk alloy, while it is higher at certain locations adjacent to the film surface at 30 °C. The increase of anodizing temperature does not influence the porosity of thin films (formed for short times) on pure aluminum, while it reduces it on the alloy. At 40 °C the above mentioned blocking effects disappear. It means that the presence of magnesium species causes an impediment to the effect of temperature on iss, on the film thickness and on the porosity of thin films, only under conditions where film growth takes place without significant loss of the anodizing charge to side reactions.

  20. Inert Anode Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  1. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  2. Crack growth resistance of alumina, zirconia and zirconia toughened alumina ceramics for joint prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aza, A H; Chevalier, J; Fantozzi, G; Schehl, M; Torrecillas, R

    2002-02-01

    Mono-phase bio-ceramics (alumina and zirconia) are widely used as femoral heads in total hip replacements (THR) as an alternative to metal devices. Unfortunately, the orthopaedic community reports significant in-vivo failures. Material scientists are already familiar with composites like alumina zirconia. Since both are biocompatible, this could prove to be a new approach to implants. This paper deals with a new generation of alumina-zirconia nano-composites having a high resistance to crack propagation, and as a consequence may offer the option to improve lifetime and reliability of ceramic joint prostheses. The reliability of the above mentioned three bio-ceramics (alumina, zirconia and zirconia toughened alumina) for THR components is analysed based on the study of their slow crack-growth behaviour. The influence of the processing conditions on the microstructure development, of the zirconia toughened alumina composites and the effect of these microstructures, on its mechanical properties, are discussed.

  3. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  4. Dissolution Kinetics of Alumina Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina type non-radioactive calcine was investigated as part of ongoing research that addresses permanent disposal of Idaho High Level Waste (HLW). Calcine waste was produced from the processing of nuclear fuel at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Acidic radioactive raffinates were solidified at ~500°C in a fluidized bed reactor to form the dry granular calcine material. Several Waste Management alternatives for the calcine are presented in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The Separations Alternative addresses the processing of the calcine so that the HLW is ready for removal to a national geological repository by the year 2035. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the separations alternative.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of anode passivation mechanisms in copper electrorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Michael Scott

    Anode passivation can decrease productivity and quality while increasing costs in modern copper electrorefineries. This investigation utilized electrochemical techniques to characterize the passivation behavior of anode samples from ten different operating companies. It is believed that this collection of anodes is the most diverse set ever to be assembled to study the effect of anode composition on passivation. Chronopotentiometry was the main electrochemical technique, employing a current density of 3820 A m-2. From statistical analysis of the passivation characteristics, increasing selenium, tellurium, silver, lead and nickel were shown to accelerate passivation. Arsenic was the only anode impurity that inhibited passivation. Oxygen was shown to accelerate passivation when increased from 500 to 1500 ppm, but further increases did not adversely affect passivation. Nine electrolyte variables were also examined. Increasing the copper, sulfuric acid or sulfate concentration of the electrolyte accelerated passivation. Arsenic in the electrolyte had no effect on passivation. Chloride and optimal concentrations of thiourea and glue delayed passivation. Linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy provided complementary information. Analysis of the electrochemical results led to the development of a unified passivation mechanism. Anode passivation results from the formation of inhibiting films. Careful examination of the potential details, especially those found in the oscillations just prior to passivation, demonstrated the importance of slimes, copper sulfate and copper oxide. Slimes confine dissolution to their pores and inhibit diffusion. This can lead to copper sulfate precipitation, which blocks more of the surface area. Copper oxide forms because of the resulting increase in potential at the interface between the copper sulfate and anode. Ultimate passivation occurs when the anode potential is high enough to stabilize the oxide film in

  6. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  7. Fabrication and assembly of BOLVAPS (boil-off lithium vapor source) ceramic-option half anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.H.; Appel, D.B.; Cap, J.S.; Spiak, S.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Cason, B.P.J. (General Electric Co., Largo, FL (USA). Materials and Processes Unit)

    1990-06-01

    In order to generate a lithium vapor on the anode surface within PBFA II, an electrically insulating, lithium-coated substrate is required. One approach for providing this lithium source is the ceramic-option anode. This anode consists of two halves, equatorially split, each containing an insulating ceramic insert onto which a lithium-bearing film is sputtered. A lithium vapor is generated by ohmically pulse heating this film to 1500 K. The half-anode structure required to produce this vapor consists of a ceramic insulator, steel housing, and disk conductors. This report describes the design and fabrication of these separate components and the procedures required to join them to form the half-anode assembly. In addition, appendices are included which contain detailed drawings and specifications for these operations. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Control of porosity in alumina for catalytic purposes - a review; Controle de porosidade em aluminas para fins cataliticos - uma revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Gustavo Torres [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Setor de Tecnologia de Hidrorrefino, Lubrificantes e Parafinas; Morgado Junior, Edisson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Setor de Tecnologia de Craqueamento Catalitico; Figueiredo, Cecilia Maria C.

    1999-12-01

    In recent years, the Alumina Group, of the Catalysts Division of CENPES, has dedicated research to develop and characterize alumina for the catalytic processes of interest to PETROBRAS. Control of the texture of the alumina and, consequently, the alumina based catalysts, is crucially important to their adequacy and performance. Knowledge of the porosity formation mechanisms in alumina was fundamental for the development of catalysts to satisfy the demand from PETROBRAS. This comprises the scope of this review. (author)

  9. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Stevens, Brian

    2015-11-16

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed on the surface of Al/Au/ZnO anode in various electrolyte environments were examined by electrochemical methods. The presence of phosphate buffer and physiological saline (NaCl) buffer allows for the formation of aluminum hyrdroxide and zinc phosphite composite films on the surface of the Al/Au/ZnO anode that prevent further corrosion of the anode. The highly protective films formed on the Al/Au/ZnO anode during energy harvesting in a physiological saline environment resulted in 98.5% corrosion protective efficiency, thereby demonstrating that the formation of aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films are effective in the prevention of anode corrosion during energy harvesting. A cell assembly consisting of the Al/Au/ZnO anode and platinum cathode resulted in an open circuit voltage of 1.03 V. A maximum power density of 955.3 mW/ cm² in physiological saline buffer at a cell voltage and current density of 345 mV and 2.89 mA/ cm², respectively.

  10. Processing of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2003-01-01

    Dense and crack-free 10-mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites, containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina, have been fabricated by hot pressing. Release of pressure before onset of cooling was crucial in obtaining crack-free material. Hot pressing at 1600 C resulted in the formation of ZrC by reaction of zirconia with grafoil. However, no such reaction was observed at 1500 C. Cubic zirconia and -alumina were the only phases detected from x-ray diffraction indicating no chemical reaction between the composite constituents during hot pressing. Microstructure of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Density and elastic modulus of the composites followed the rule-of-mixtures. Addition of alumina to 10YSZ resulted in lighter, stronger, and stiffer composites by decreasing density and increasing strength and elastic modulus.

  11. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...... and thin-film glasses were used in the bonding experiments. Bond quality was evaluated using a tensile test on structured dies. The effect of oxygen-based pre-treatments of the nitride surface on the bond quality has been evaluated. Bond strengths up to 35 Nrmm2 and yields up to 100% were obtained....

  12. Engineering durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous alumina ceramics using in-situ formed inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Junwei; Li, Yanan; Xu, Xin; Chen, Chusheng; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are required for a variety of applications owing to their water repellent and self-cleaning properties. In this work, we present a novel approach to prepare durable hydrophobic surfaces on porous ceramics. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film was applied to a porous alumina wafer,

  13. The effects of microstructure on the corrosion of glycine/nitrate processed cermet inert anodes: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Chick, L A; Maupin, G D; Stice, N D

    1991-07-01

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under the study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The anode mechanism studies were focused in four areas in FY 1990 and FY 1991: (a) the determination of whether a film formed on cermet inert anodes and (if it existed) the characterization of this film, (b) the determination of the sources of the anode impedance, (c) the evaluation of the effects of silica and a precorroded state on anode corrosion, and (d) a preliminary study on the effect of microstructure on the corrosion properties of the anodes. This report discusses the results of the microstructure studies. 6 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Joining of alumina via copper/niobium/copper interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Robert A.; Chapman, Daniel R.; Danielson, David T.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2000-03-15

    Alumina has been joined at 1150 degrees C and 1400 degrees C using multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayers. Four-point bend strengths are sensitive to processing temperature, bonding pressure, and furnace environment (ambient oxygen partial pressure). Under optimum conditions, joints with reproducibly high room temperature strengths (approximately equal 240 plus/minus 20 MPa) can be produced; most failures occur within the ceramic. Joints made with sapphire show that during bonding an initially continuous copper film undergoes a morphological instability, resulting in the formation of isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. For optimized alumina bonds, bend tests at 800 degrees C-1100 degrees C indicate significant strength is retained; even at the highest test temperature, ceramic failure is observed. Post-bonding anneals at 1000 degrees C in vacuum or in gettered argon were used to assess joint stability and to probe the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on joint characteristics. Annealing in vacuum for up to 200 h causes no significant decrease in room temperature bend strength or change in fracture path. With increasing anneal time in a lower oxygen partial pressure environment, the fracture strength decreases only slightly, but the fracture path shifts from the ceramic to the interface.

  15. Electrochemical coating of dental implants with anodic porous titania for enhanced osteointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Shayganpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical long-term osteointegration of titanium-based biomedical devices is the main goal for both dental and orthopedical implants. Both the surface morphology and the possible functionalization of the implant surface are important points. In the last decade, following the success of nanostructured anodic porous alumina, anodic porous titania has also attracted the interest of academic researchers. This material, investigated mainly for its photocatalytic properties and for applications in solar cells, is usually obtained from the anodization of ultrapure titanium. We anodized dental implants made of commercial grade titanium under different experimental conditions and characterized the resulting surface morphology with scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The appearance of nanopores on these implants confirm that anodic porous titania can be obtained not only on ultrapure and flat titanium but also as a conformal coating on curved surfaces of real objects made of industrial titanium alloys. Raman spectroscopy showed that the titania phase obtained is anatase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that by carrying out the anodization in the presence of electrolyte additives such as magnesium, these can be incorporated into the porous coating. The proposed method for the surface nanostructuring of biomedical implants should allow for integration of conventional microscale treatments such as sandblasting with additive nanoscale patterning. Additional advantages are provided by this material when considering the possible loading of bioactive drugs in the porous cavities.

  16. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice using anodized aluminum oxide nanotemplates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, X.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Michotte, S.

    2009-01-01

    The bottom barrier layer of well-ordered nanoporous alumina membranes reveals a previously unexploited nanostructured template surface consisting of a triangular lattice of hemispherical nanoscale bumps. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice arrays are created in superconducting Nb films deposit...

  17. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  18. The fabrication of high sensitivity gold nanorod H2S gas sensors utilizing the highly uniform anodic aluminum oxide template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorod were fabricated using anodic alumina oxide template for H2S gas detection. The nanorod gas sensor exhibits high surface density and contact area, which can increase detection sensitivity. The anodic alumina oxide template contains an array of pores, with a width of 70 nm and a length of 27μm. Au nanorod were obtained through electro-deposition under a pulse bias of −1 V. The resistance of the Au nanorod was recorded upon exposure to various concentrations of H2S. The resistance could be attributed to the high electron affinity between sulfide and Au nanorod. Au–sulfide bonds provide strong bonding, which could alter the conductivity of the sensor. The gas sensor exhibits high sensitivity and short response time for H2S detection at room temperature.

  19. Effect of the anodization variables in the corrosion resistence of the zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    The anodization effect in the oxidation of the zircaloy-4 in steam atmosphere at 10,06MPa was investigated. It was also studied how the voltage and the types of electrolytes at several values of pH affect the growing of the anodic oxide film and the performance of the zircaloy-4 in relation to corrosion. Anodizations of zircaloy-4 tubes have been made with voltages ranging from zero to 280V and using electrolytic solutions of Na 2 B 4 O 7 , CH 3 COOH and NaOH in the concentrations of 1,0N, 0,1N and 0,01N. After anodization, the tubes were oxidized in autoclave under steam at 400 0 C and 10,06 MPa during 3 and 14 days. The results show that the anodization inhibit the oxidation process of zircaloy-4, and that this protection increases with the voltage applied for film formation. The relationship between the weight gain after oxidation in autoclave and the anodization voltage is of the exponential type: (σM/A) sub(AC) = Ce sup(-DV). The observed relationship between the applied voltage and the weight gain due to anodization is of the linear type: (σM/A) sub(AN) = aV. Concerning the influence of different electrolytes, it was observed a similar behaviour between them with respect to the thickness of the anodic oxide and the weight gain of zircaloy-4 after the autoclave test. (Author) [pt

  20. Electro-oxidation of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on an alumina nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode

    OpenAIRE

    TABESHNIA, Mahla; HELI, Hossein; JABBARI, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of mefenamic acid, diclofenac, and indomethacin on glassy carbon and alumina nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes in a phosphate buffer solution at physiological pH was studied. The techniques of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, impedance spectroscopy, and steady state polarization measurements were applied. The drugs were irreversibly oxidized on bath electrodes via an anodic peak and the process was controlled by diffusion in the bulk of soluti...

  1. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-12-09

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m -1 ·K -1 , which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties.

  2. Tailoring thermal conductivity via three-dimensional porous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Begoña; Maiz, Jon; Ruiz-Clavijo, Alejandra; Caballero-Calero, Olga; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) are an astonishing framework with open highly ordered three-dimensional skeleton structures. Since these templates are architecturally different from conventional solids or porous templates, they teem with opportunities for engineering thermal properties. By establishing the mechanisms of heat transfer in these frameworks, we aim to create materials with tailored thermal properties. The effective thermal conductivity of an empty 3D-AAO membrane was measured. As the effective medium theory was not valid to extract the skeletal thermal conductivity of 3D-AAO, a simple 3D thermal conduction model was developed, based on a mixed series and parallel thermal resistor circuit, giving a skeletal thermal conductivity value of approximately 1.25 W·m−1·K−1, which matches the value of the ordinary AAO membranes prepared from the same acid solution. The effect of different filler materials as well as the variation of the number of transversal nanochannels and the length of the 3D-AAO membrane in the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was studied. Finally, the thermal conductivity of two 3D-AAO membranes filled with cobalt and bismuth telluride was also measured, which was in good agreement with the thermal model predictions. Therefore, this work proved this structure as a powerful approach to tailor thermal properties. PMID:27934930

  3. The local strength of individual alumina particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchal, Václav; Fornabaio, Marta; Žagar, Goran; Mortensen, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    We implement the C-shaped sample test method and micro-cantilever beam testing to measure the local strength of microscopic, low-aspect-ratio ceramic particles, namely high-purity vapor grown α-alumina Sumicorundum® particles 15-30 μm in diameter, known to be attractive reinforcing particles for aluminum. Individual particles are shaped by focused ion beam micromachining so as to probe in tension a portion of the particle surface that is left unaffected by ion-milling. Mechanical testing of C-shaped specimens is done ex-situ using a nanoindentation apparatus, and in the SEM using an in-situ nanomechanical testing system for micro-cantilever beams. The strength is evaluated for each individual specimen using bespoke finite element simulation. Results show that, provided the particle surface is free of readily observable defects such as pores, twins or grain boundaries and their associated grooves, the particles can achieve local strength values that approach those of high-perfection single-crystal alumina whiskers, on the order of 10 GPa, outperforming high-strength nanocrystalline alumina fibers and nano-thick alumina platelets used in bio-inspired composites. It is also shown that by far the most harmful defects are grain boundaries, leading to the general conclusion that alumina particles must be single-crystalline or alternatively nanocrystalline to fully develop their potential as a strong reinforcing phase in composite materials.

  4. Optical appearance of AC anodized Al/TiO2 composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    amplitudes. The microstructure and composition of the obtained anodic films were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical appearance of the films was characterized by optical reflectance spectroscopy...

  5. Alumina-base plasma-sprayed materials part I: Phase stability of alumina and alumina-chromia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chráska, P.; Dubsky, J.; Neufuss, K.; Písacka, J.

    1997-09-01

    Aluminum oxide is a relatively cheap, abundant material that is widely used for plasma- spray applications. This material, however, exists in many crystallographic modifications with different properties. In addition, most of these modifications are metastable and cannot be used in applications employed at elevated temperatures. Usually γ, δ, or other phases form after spraying, while α phase (corundum) is often the most desirable phase due to high corrosion resistance and hardness. This paper first reviews the method of α stabilization in the as- sprayed materials offered in literature. Then, as an example, it summarizes the results of an extensive study of chromia additions to alumina. Chromia was chosen because of its complete solid solubility in alumina and its crystal lattice type, which is similar to that of alumina. It was demonstrated that the addition of approximately 20 wt% chromia results in the formation of one solid solution of (Al- Cr)2O3 in the α- modification. Finally, this paper discusses the thermal stability of various alumina phases. Phase change routes of heating for different starting alumina modifications are discussed, and a case study of alumina- chromia is presented. Both types of as-sprayed structures, a mixture of α, δ, and γ phases, and 100% (Al- Cr)2O3 were annealed up to 1300 °C and the phase composition checked. At lower temperatures and shorter holding times, the amount of α phase decreases while another metastable θ phase appears, and the fraction of γ + δ, if present, increases. At temperature above 1100 °C, the amount of α phase increases again.

  6. Dielectric Performance of a High Purity HTCC Alumina at High Temperatures - a Comparison Study with Other Polycrystalline Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu

    2014-01-01

    A very high purity (99.99+%) high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina has recently become commercially available. The raw material of this HTCC alumina is very different from conventional HTCC alumina, and more importantly there is no glass additive in this alumina material for co-firing processing. Previously, selected HTCC and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) alumina materials were evaluated at high temperatures as dielectric and compared to a regularly sintered 96% polycrystalline alumina (96% Al2O3), where 96% alumina was used as the benchmark. A prototype packaging system based on regular 96% alumina with Au thickfilm metallization successfully facilitated long term testing of high temperature silicon carbide (SiC) electronic devices for over 10,000 hours at 500 C. In order to evaluate this new high purity HTCC alumina for possible high temperature packaging applications, the dielectric properties of this HTCC alumina substrate were measured and compared with those of 96% alumina and a previously tested LTCC alumina from room temperature to 550 C at frequencies of 120 Hz, 1 KHz, 10 KHz, 100 KHz, and 1 MHz. A parallel-plate capacitive device with dielectric of the HTCC alumina and precious metal electrodes were used for measurements of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the co-fired alumina material in the temperature and frequency ranges. The capacitance and AC parallel conductance of the capacitive device were directly measured by an AC impedance meter, and the dielectric constant and parallel AC conductivity of the dielectric were calculated from the capacitance and conductance measurement results. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor of the HTCC alumina substrate are presented and compared to those of 96% alumina and a selected LTCC alumina. Other technical advantages of this new co-fired material for possible high packaging applications are also discussed.

  7. Anodic oxidation of InP in pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robach, Y.; Joseph, J.; Bergignat, E.; Hollinger, G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that thin InP native oxide films can be grown by anodization of InP in pure water. An interfacial phosphorus-rich In(PO 3 ) 3 -like condensed phosphate is obtained this way. This condensed phosphate has good passivating properties and can be used in electronic device technology. The chemical composition of these native oxides was found similar to that of an anodic oxide grown in an anodization in glycol and water (AGW) electrolyte. From the similarity between the two depth profiles observed in pure water and AGW electrolyte, they can conclude that dissolution phenomena do not seem to play a major role. The oxide growth seems to be controlled by the drift of ionic species under the electric field

  8. Challenges and Strategies in the Synthesis of Mesoporous Alumina Powders and Hierarchical Alumina Monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Galarneau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new rapid, very simple and one-step sol-gel strategy for the large-scale preparation of highly porous γ-Al2O3 is presented. The resulting mesoporous alumina materials feature high surface areas (400 m2 g−1, large pore volumes (0.8 mL g−1 and the ��-Al2O3 phase is obtained at low temperature (500 °C. The main advantages and drawbacks of different preparations of mesoporous alumina materials exhibiting high specific surface areas and large pore volumes such as surfactant-nanostructured alumina, sol-gel methods and hierarchically macro-/mesoporous alumina monoliths have been analyzed and compared. The most reproducible synthesis of mesoporous alumina are given. Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA is the sole method to lead to nanostructured mesoporous alumina by direct templating, but it is a difficult method to scale-up. Alumina featuring macro- and mesoporosity in monolithic shape is a very promising material for in flow applications; an optimized synthesis is described.

  9. Pt/Au nanoalloy supported on alumina and chlorided alumina: DFT and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, N.; Falamaki, C.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.

    2018-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore the adsorption of Pt/Au nanoalloy onto a pure and chlorided γ-Al2O3(110) surface, which has been applied in numerous catalytic reactions. First, we considered the adsorption properties of Pt clusters (n ≤ 5) onto the Al2O3(110) surface to determine the most stable Pt cluster on alumina surface in reforming processes. After full structural relaxations of Pt clusters at various configurations on alumina, our computed results expressed that the minimum binding energy (‑5.67 eV) is accrued for Pt4 cluster and the distance between the nearest Pt atom in the cluster to the alumina surface is equal to 1.13 Å. Then, we investigated the binding energies, geometries, and electronic properties of adsorbed Aun clusters (n ≤ 6) on the γ-Al2O3(110) surface. Our studied showed that Au5 was the most thermodynamically stable structure on γ-Al2O3. Finally, we inspected these properties for adsorbed Au clusters onto the Pt4-decorated alumina (Aun/Pt4-alumina) system. The binding energy of the Au4/Pt4-alumina system was ‑5.01 eV, and the distance between Au4 cluster and Pt4-alumina was 1.33 Å. The Au4/Pt4alumina system was found to be the most stable nanometer-sized catalyst design. At last, our first-principles calculations predicted that the best position of embedment Cl on the Au4/Pt4-alumina.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of alumina precursor and alumina to be used as nano composite; Sintese e caracterizacao de precursores de alumina e alumina para uso em nanocompositos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, M.L.P., E-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, H. Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Santos, P. Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2009-07-01

    With the evolution of nanomaterials technology, mainly in the 90s, it was possible to observe produced composites with alumina matrix and nanomaterial as reinforcing materials. It results in a significant improvement of mechanical proprieties of these composites. Thenceforth the study of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials has attracted great scientific interest. In this perspective, the aim of this work is to present an experimental procedure to obtain nordstrandite (aluminum hydroxide) with nanometric dimensions. Nordstrandite synthesis, obtained by the reaction of slightly amalgamated aluminum foil with aqueous ethylene glycol, which allows the control of the size of crystal produced. This control could be confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy. Thermal transformation study is also presented. This study allowed the identification of transition aluminas that have potential to produce nanometric aluminas. (author)

  11. Electrochemically produced alumina as TL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvay, M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work was to compare the TL properties of various electrochemically produced alumina layers (E-AIO) in order to investigate the effect of the electrolyte and the Mg content on the alloys. It has been found that the TL sensitivity of oxidised layers is more influenced by the type of electrolyte, than by the composition of alloy. Hard oxide layer evolved in reduction electrolyte has rather different character compared to other alumina production investigated. The effect of reducing media seems to be very important during preparation of alumina layer. One of the advantages properties of E-AIO is, that it serve a promising method to increase the measuring range of TL method above 10 kGy as well. (author)

  12. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.H.; Stead, R.J.

    1989-06-14

    A method of making a composite beta-alumina artifact such as a separator tube for an electrochemical cell, comprising two beta-alumina portions which are sealed together in a sealing zone, namely an inner portion and an outer portion which extends peripherally around the inner portion and embraces it in the sealing zone, comprises pressing the inner and outer portions from powders which, when finally sintered, shrink and form integral beta-alumina artifacts. The portions are made so that the outer portion undergoes a greater degree of shrinkage during sintering than the inner portion and the portions are pressed so that the spacing between the portions where the outer portion extends around and embraces the inner portion is such that, upon sintering, the outer portion shrinks on to the inner portion to provide a hermetic peripheral seal between the portions. (author).

  13. Hydrogen diffusion in Pb β''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Wang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile Na + ions in Na β''-alumina can be completely exchanged with Pb 2+ ions by treatment in molten PbCl 2 . When this exchange was carried out in the presence of air, protons in the form of OH - were introduced into the conduction layers along with lead ions. Although the concentration of OH - was low, on the order of 5 x 10 -3 per formula unit of Pb/sub 0.84/Mg/sub 0.67/Al/sub 10.33/O_1_7, the distribution of OH - after ion exchange indicated that the proton mobility in Pb β''-alumina is high. The potential use of Pb β''-alumina as a fast proton conductor that is stable at 400 0 C motivated further studies of hydrogen diffusion. In this report, the results of tracer diffusion measurements by isotope exchange will be presented

  14. Blocking of grain reorientation in self-doped alumina materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Ramirez-Rico, J.; Torrecillas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Alumina nanoparticles 10-20 nm in diameter were nucleated on alumina particles, 150 nm average diameter, by a colloidal route followed by calcination. It is shown that after sintering, the final grain size is up to 20% smaller due to the addition of the alumina nanoparticles. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis shows that whereas a correlation in the relative crystalline orientations between neighbouring grains exists in the pure materials, the addition of alumina nanoparticles results in a random crystalline orientation.

  15. Barrier and porous anodic oxides on InSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleiman, A.; Hashimoto, T. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Echeverria, F. [Dpto de Ing. Metalurgica y de Materiales, Universidad de Antioquia, Oficina 18-240, Calle 67 No. 53-108, A.A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Graham, M.J.; Sproule, G.I.; Moisa, S. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Habazaki, H. [Graduate Engineering School, Hokkaido University, N13 W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Bailey, P.; Noakes, T.C.Q. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Anodizing of InSb at 5 mA cm{sup -2} in sodium tungstate electrolyte is shown to produce barrier-type amorphous oxide at relatively low voltages, to about 40 V, and porous-type amorphous oxide at increased voltages. The barrier-type amorphous oxide, consisting of units of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, distributed relatively uniformly throughout the film, develops at a formation ratio of 2.2 {+-} 0.2 nm V{sup -1}. The outer 15-20% of the film also contains tungsten species. The relatively high efficiency of barrier film growth reduces significantly with transition to porous oxide, which is associated additionally with generation of oxygen at the film surface. The final oxide, at 65 V, comprises pores, of typical diameter 80 nm, orientated approximately normal to the substrate and extending from a barrier region to the film surface.

  16. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2015-01-01

    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  17. Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite Tubes Using a Porous Mullite/Alumina Matrix and Alumina/Mullite Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radsick, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    ... or from inadequate oxide-based ones. A porous mullite/alumina matrix combined with alumina/mullite fiber reinforcement eliminates the need for an interface coating while producing a strong, tough and oxidation resistant composite...

  18. Synthesis of Gamma-Alumina from Kankara Kaolin as Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr Solomn Gajere

    Gamma-alumina was produced at 850°C with 3 h soaking time, having specific surface area of 166 m2/g. The weight percent of Al2O3 ... conversion and gasoline octane number. (Scherzer, 1993). Among the different alumina ... common method of producing alumina is by the hydrothermal technique and the reaction takes.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless...

  20. Characterization of alumina using small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megat Harun Al Rashidn Megat Ahmad; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Azmi Ibrahim; Che Seman Mahmood; Edy Giri Rachman Putra; Muhammad Rawi Muhammad Zin; Razali Kassim; Rafhayudi Jamro

    2007-01-01

    Alumina powder was synthesized from an aluminium precursor and studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique and complemented with transmission electron microscope (TEM). XRD measurement confirmed that the alumina produced was high purity and highly crystalline αphase. SANS examination indicates the formation of mass fractals microstructures with fractal dimension of about 2.8 on the alumina powder. (Author)

  1. Ionic and molecular transport in beta- and beta''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.B.

    1984-03-01

    Investigations of rapid transport of cations and water molecules in the β- and β''-alumina family of superionic conductors are reviewed. Particular topics that are discussed include the Haven ratio and mixed-ion effects in β-alumina, and the influence of superlattice ordering on ionic transport in β''-alumina

  2. Tritium compatibility of alumina and Fosterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1979-09-01

    Many pressure measurements are required to control processing of the fuel gases associated with fusion power reactors. Since most pressure transducers respond to changes in pressure sensitive electrical parameters, insulators will be required to withstand chronic exposures to concentrated tritium. For this investigation samples of alumina and Fosterite were exposed to concentrated tritium gas for 11 weeks. Gas phase impurities were then analyzed for clues that would indicate decomposition of the exposed materials. The only gaseous impurity resulting from these tritium exposures was tritio-methane, which is always produced when tritium is stored in stainless steel containers. There was no evidence that either alumina or Fosterite decomposed in the presence of tritium.

  3. Studies of alumina additions in zirconia - magnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ionic conductivity measurements have been carried out in the 500 0 C - 1000 0 C temperature range in Mg - PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia) with 0.5 to 10 mol % alumina additions. All specimens were prepared by pressing followed by pre - and sintering at 1000 0 C/2h and1450 0 C/4h, respectively. Thermal histerysis of the ionic conductivity have been detected, probably due to phase changes in the Mg-PSZ samples. The results show that alumina additions up to 2.1% enhances densification with no major variations in electrical resistivity values. (Author) [pt

  4. Anodic Concentration Polarization in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, Rick E.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Maupin, Gary D.; Simner, Steve P.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Wachsman, ED, et al

    2003-08-01

    Concentration polarization is important because it determines the maximum power output of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at high fuel utilization. Anodic concentration polarization occurs when the demand for reactants exceeds the capacity of the porous ceramic anode to supply them by gas diffusion mechanisms. High tortuosities (bulk diffusion resistances) are often assumed to explain this behavior. However, recent experiments show that anodic concentration polarization originates in the immediate vicinity of the reactive triple phase boundary (TPB) sites near the anode/electrolyte interface. A model is proposed to describe how concentration polarization is controlled by two localized phenomena: competitive adsorption of reactants in areas adjacent to the reactive TPB sites, followed by relatively slow surface diffusion to the reactive sites. Results suggest that future SOFC design improvements should focus on optimization of the reactive area, adsorption, and surface diffusion at the anode/electrolyte interface.

  5. Application of silicon zig-zag wall arrays for anodes of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Levitskii, V. S.; Beregulin, E. V.; Zhdanov, V. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Astrova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic tests of anodes based on zigzag wall arrays fabricated by the electrochemical etching and post-anodization treatment of silicon have been performed. Compared with anodes based on nanowires and planar thin films, these structures have several advantages. An ex situ analysis of the morphology and structural transformations in a material subjected to cyclic lithiation was conducted by electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of geometrical parameters and a cycling mode on the degradation rate was studied. It is shown that a significant rise in the cycle life of the anode can be obtained by the restriction of the inserted amount of lithium. The anode, subjected to galvanostatic cycling at a rate C/2.8 at a limited charge capacity of 1000 mA · h g-1, demonstrates no degradation after 1200 cycles.

  6. Study on alumina-alumina brazing for application in vacuum chambers of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Kaul, R.; Ganesh, P.; Shiroman, Ram; Tiwari, Pragya; Sridhar, R.; Kukreja, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental study to standardize vacuum brazing process to obtain satisfactory high purity alumina brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. Two different brazing routes, adopted for making alumina-alumina brazed joints, included (i) multi-step Mo-Mn metallization and brazing with BVAg-8 alloy and (ii) advanced single-step active brazing with CuSil-ABA alloy. Brazed alumina specimens, prepared by both the routes, yielded ultra high vacuum compatible, helium leak tight and bakeable joints. Active-brazed specimens exhibited satisfactory strength values in tensile and four-point bend tests. Metallized-brazed specimens, although exhibited relatively lower tensile strength than the targeted value, displayed satisfactory flexural strength in four-point bend test. The results of the study demonstrated that active brazing is the simple and cost effective alternative to conventional metallization route for producing satisfactory brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. (author)

  7. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2003-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of the composites, determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique, increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from simple rule of mixtures.

  8. Stabilization of Self-Assembled Alumina Mesophases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Perdriau, Sebastien; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An efficient route to stabilize alumina mesophases derived from evaporation-induced self-assembly is reported after investigating various aspects in-depth: influence of the solvent (EtOH, s-BuOH, and t-BuOH) on the textural and structural properties of the mesophases based on aluminum

  9. SANS investigation of nanoporous alumina membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Šaroun, Jan; Turkevych, I.

    -, č. 6 (2007), s. 35-36 ISSN 0344-9629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/06/P198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nanopor * alumina membrane * netron scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Ultra-thin alumina and silicon nitride MEMS fabricated membranes for the electron multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, V.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. V. D.; Sarro, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of large arrays of ultrathin freestanding membranes (tynodes) for application in a timed photon counter (TiPC), a novel photomultiplier for single electron detection. Low pressure chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (Si x N y ) and atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) with thicknesses down to only 5 nm are employed for the membrane fabrication. Detailed characterization of structural, mechanical and chemical properties of the utilized films is carried out for different process conditions and thicknesses. Furthermore, the performance of the tynodes is investigated in terms of secondary electron emission, a fundamental attribute that determines their applicability in TiPC. Studied features and presented fabrication methods may be of interest for other MEMS application of alumina and silicon nitride as well, in particular where strong ultra-thin membranes are required.

  11. Role of Alumina Basicity in CO2Uptake in 3-Aminopropylsilyl-Grafted Alumina Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Matthew E; Cho, Kyeong Min; Lee, Jason J; Jones, Christopher W

    2017-05-22

    Oxide-supported amine materials are widely known to be effective CO 2 sorbents under simulated flue-gas and direct-air-capture conditions. Most work has focused on amine species loaded onto porous silica supports, though potential stability advantages may be offered through the use of porous alumina supports. Unlike silica materials, which are comparably inert, porous alumina materials can be tuned to have substantial acidity and/or basicity. Owing to their amphoteric nature, alumina supports play a more active role in CO 2 sorption than silica supports, potentially directly participating in the adsorption process. In this work, primary amines associated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane are grafted onto two different mesoporous alumina materials having different levels of basicity. Adsorbent materials with different amine loadings are prepared, and the CO 2 -adsorption behavior of similar amines on the two alumina supports is demonstrated to be different. At low amine loadings, the inherent properties of the support surface play a significant role, whereas at high amine loadings, when the alumina surface is effectively blocked, the sorbents prepared on the two supports behave similarly. At high amine loadings, amine-CO 2 -amine interactions are shown to dominate, leading to adsorbed species that appear similar to the species formed over silica-supported amine materials. The sorbent properties are comprehensively characterized using N 2 physisorption analysis, in situ FTIR spectroscopy, and adsorption microcalorimetry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Radhakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

  13. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxiang Chen; Xipeng Ren; Limei Ren; Tengchao Wang; Xiaowen Qi; Yulin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC ...

  14. Self-sealing anodization approach to enhance micro-Vickers hardness and corrosion protection of a die cast Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulho; Oh, Kiseok; Lee, Dongeun; Kim, Yelim; Yoon, Hyungsop; Park, Dong-Wha; Gab Kim, Moon; Lee, Kiyoung; Choi, Jinsub

    2017-04-01

    Die cast, high-Si content ADC12 Al alloy samples were successfully anodized without surface cracks. This was accomplished with a 0.3 M sulfuric acid electrolyte with a high concentration of sodium aluminate. During anodization, the AlO2- anions were attracted to the positively-charged Al substrate and deposited in the cracks formed by un-oxidized Si islands within the ADC12. Anodic films prepared in electrolytes with a high concentration of AlO2- drastically enhanced surface morphology, thickness uniformity, Vickers hardness, and corrosion behavior in comparison with anodic film prepared without AlO2- concentration. The simultaneous sealing mechanism by AlO2- anions during anodization is reported in detail.

  15. Synthesis of alumina-α using aluminium acetate; Sintese de alumina-α utilizando acetato de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, J.M.; Galdino, M.N.; Neves, G.A., E-mail: lulianamelo25@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Menezes, R.R.; Ferreira, H.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    In the face of great technological importance of alumina, this paper aims to synthesize the α-alumina using chemical activation from aluminum acetate. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results obtained proved the thermal decomposition of the precursor, as well as possible metastable phases of alumina before the phase transformation in α. There was also difficult to obtain α-alumina from aluminum acetate, on the other hand there was, comparatively, that the chemical activation accelerated the synthesis of α-alumina. (author)

  16. Design, synthesis, thin film deposition and characterization of new indium tin oxide anode functionalization/hole transport organic materials and their application to high performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to understand the physical and chemical aspects of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fundamentals, develop new materials as well as device structures, and enhance OLED electroluminescent (EL) response. Accordingly, this dissertation analyzes the relative effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transporting layer (HTL) contact vs. the intrinsic HTL material properties on OLED EL response. Two siloxane-based HTL materials, 4,4'-bis[(4″ -trichlorosilylpropyl-1″-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB-Si2) and 4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPD-Si2) have thereby been designed, synthesized and covalently bound to ITO surface. They afford a 250% increase in luminance and ˜50% reduction in turn-on voltage vs. comparable 4,4'-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) HTL-based devices. These results suggest new strategies for developing OLED HTL structures, with focus on the anode-HTL contact. Furthermore, archetypical OLED device structures have been refined by simultaneously incorporating the TPD-Si2 layer and a hole- and exciton-blocking/electron transport layer (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III) and tetrakis(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)borate-based OLEDs. The refined device structures lead to high performance OLEDs such as green-emitting OLEDs with maximum luminance (Lmax) ˜ 85,000 cd/m2, power and forward external quantum efficiencies (eta p and etaext) as high as 15.2 lm/W and 4.4 +/- 0.5%, respectively, and blue-emitting OLEDs with Lmax 30,000 cd/m 2, and ˜5.0 lm/W and 1.6 +/- 0.2% etap and eta ext, respectively. The high performance is attributed to synergistically enhanced hole/electron injection and recombination efficiency. In addition, molecule-scale structure effects at ITO anode-HTL interfaces have been systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and

  17. Graphene coated with alumina and its utilization as a thermal conductivity enhancer for alumina sphere/thermoplastic polyurethane composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Dao, Trung Dung; Jeong, Han Mo; Anjanapura, Raghu V.; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene was oxidized with H 2 O 2 to introduce additional anchoring sites for effective alumina coating on graphene by the sol–gel method. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that the oxygen-containing groups such as hydroxyl group useful for coating were introduced by the oxidation. The transmission electron microscopy images and thermogravimetric analysis data demonstrated that the additional anchoring sites enhanced the efficiency of the alumina coating. A small amount of alumina-coated graphene synergistically improved the thermal conductivity of the alumina sphere/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite without any increase in the electrical conductivity, because the electrical conductivity of graphene effectively decreased by the alumina coating. Moreover, the synergistic effect of a small amount of graphene was enhanced by the alumina coating, and the stiffening of the alumina sphere/TPU composite due to the added graphene was alleviated by the alumina coating. - Highlights: • Oxidation of graphene with H 2 O 2 introduced anchoring sites for alumina coating. • The anchoring sites improved the efficiency of alumina coating on graphene. • The alumina-coated graphene synergistically enhanced the thermal conductivity

  18. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  19. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  20. The effect of an atomically deposited layer of alumina on NiO in P-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, Gayatri; Huang, Zhongjie; Ji, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiying

    2012-01-10

    We present a systematic investigation of the fundamental effects of an atomically deposited alumina (AlO(x)H(y)) onto the NiO films in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). With P1 as the sensitizing dye and 0.1 M I(2) and 1.0 M LiI in 3-methoxypropionitrile as the electrolyte, one atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle of alumina was used to achieve a 74% increase in the overall conversion efficiency of a NiO-based DSC. The open circuit voltage of the cells increased from 0.11 to 0.15 V, and the short circuit current density increased from 0.83 to 0.95 mA/cm(2). Adsorption isotherm studies were performed to show that the amount of dye adsorbed on the NiO-alumina film is slightly lower than the amount adsorbed on the nontreated NiO film. The increased J(sc) was therefore assigned to the increased efficiency of carrier collection at the semiconductor-FTO interface. Our study of the photocurrent onset potentials of NiO and NiO-alumina films with the chopped light measurement technique showed no definitive difference in the onset potential values. However, the DSCs based on NiO-alumina showed a higher recombination resistance value from the electrochemical impedance studies and a higher diode ideality factor from the V(oc) versus ln(light intensity) plots as compared to the DSCs based on untreated NiO. It has thus been established that the increase in V(oc) upon alumina treatment arises due to a higher resistance for electron-hole recombination across NiO surface locally.

  1. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  2. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-03-24

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  3. Guided transmission of slow Ne ions through the nanochannels of highly ordered anodic alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2006-01-01

    as a suspended membrane of about 15νm thickness on the aluminium frame to which it belongs. The AlO capillaries were bombarded with 3keV Ne ions. The first results unambiguously show the existence of ion guiding observed at 5° and 7.5° tilt angles of the capillaries compared to the beam direction. To the best...

  4. Monitoring of epitaxial graphene anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Mikhail Yu.; Sekretaryova, Alina N.; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Håkansson, Anna; Iakimov, Tihomir; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositsa; Lundström, Ingemar; Eriksson, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Anodization of a graphene monolayer on silicon carbide was monitored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Structural and functional changes of the material were observed by Raman spectroscopy and voltammetry. A 21 fold increase of the specific capacitance of graphene was observed during the anodization. An electrochemical kinetic study of the Fe(CN) 6 3−/4− redox couple showed a slow irreversible redox process at the pristine graphene, but after anodization the reaction rate increased by several orders of magnitude. On the other hand, the Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+/2+ redox couple proved to be insensitive to the activation process. The results of the electron transfer kinetics correlate well with capacitance measurements. The Raman mapping results suggest that the increased specific capacitance of the anodized sample is likely due to a substantial increase of electron doping, induced by defect formation, in the monolayer upon anodization. The doping concentration increased from less than 1 × 10 13 of the pristine graphene to 4–8 × 10 13 of the anodized graphene.

  5. Transient-Liquid-Phase and Liquid-Film-Assisted Joining ofCeramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugar, Joshua D.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Akashi, Takaya; Hong, SungM.; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-02-09

    Two joining methods, transient-liquid-phase (TLP) joining and liquid-film-assisted joining (LFAJ), have been used to bond alumina ceramics. Both methods rely on multilayer metallic interlayers designed to form thin liquid films at reduced temperatures. The liquid films either disappear by interdiffusion (TLP) or promote ceramic/metal interface formation and concurrent dewetting of the liquid film (LFAJ). Progress on extending the TLP method to lower temperatures by combining low-melting-point (<450 C) liquids and commercial reactive-metal brazes is described. Recent LFAJ work on joining alumina to niobium using copper films is presented.

  6. Control of the γ-alumina to α-alumina phase transformation for an optimized alumina densification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamouri, S.; Hamidouche, M.; Bouaouadja, N.; Belhouchet, H.; Garnier, V.; Fantozzi, G.; Trelkat, J.F.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we studied the aptitude to sintering green bodies using γ-Al2O3 transition alumina as raw powder. We focused on the influence of the heating rate on densification and microstructural evolution. Phase transformations from transition alumina γ→δ→θ→α-Al2O3 were studied by in situ X-rays diffraction from the ambient to 1200°C. XRD patterns revealed coexistence of various phase transformations during the heating cycle. DTA and dilatometry results showed that low heating rate leads to a significant reduction of the temperature of the α-Al2O3 alumina formation. Around 1190, 1217 and 1240°C were found when using 5, 10 and 20°C/min of heating rate, respectively. The activation energy for θ-Al2O3→α-Al2O3 transformation calculated by Kissinger and JMA equations using dilatometry method were 464.29 and 488.79kJ/mol, respectively and by DTA method were 450.72 and 475.49kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, the sintering of the green bodies with low heating rate promotes the rearrangement of the grains during θ-Al2O3→α-Al2O3 transformation, enhancing the relative density to 95% and preventing the development of a vermicular structure. (Author)

  7. The trade-off between tuning ratio and quality factor of BaxSr1-xTiO3 MIM capacitors on alumina substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Liu, J.; Klee, M.; Mauczok, R.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2008-01-01

    Barium strontium titanate with different compositions is deposited using wet-chemical processing on a glass planarization layer, on top of alumina substrates. Three samples were fabricated with BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) with the barium content x varying between 0.8 and 1. The poly-crystalline films are 530

  8. BaxSr1-xTi1.02O3 metal-insulator-metal capacitors on planarized alumina substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Mauczok, R.; Keur, W.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1−xTi1.02O3) thin films with a barium content of x=0.8, 0.9 and 1 have been fabricated in a metal–insulator–metal configuration on glass-planarized alumina substrates. Cost-effective processing measures have been utilized by using poly-crystalline

  9. Development of 3d micro-nano hybrid patterns using anodized aluminum and micro-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Gue; Kwon, Jong Tae; Seo, Young Ho; Kim, Byeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and cost-effective method of fabricating 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns in which micro-indentation is applied on the anodized aluminum substrate. Nano-patterns were formed first on the aluminum substrate, and then micro-patterns were fabricated by deforming the nano-patterned aluminum substrate. Hemispherical nano-patterns with a 150 nm-diameter on an aluminum substrate were fabricated by anodizing and alumina removing process. Then, micro-pyramid patterns with a side-length of 50 μm were formed on the nano-patterns using micro-indentation. To verify 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns, we replicated 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns by a hot-embossing process. 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns may be used in nano-photonic devices and nano-biochips applications

  10. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  11. Influence of alumina characteristics on glaze properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrufat, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium oxide is a synthetic raw material manufactured from bauxite by the Bayer process, whose Al2O3 content typically exceeds 99%. Four main types of alumina can be defined, depending on the processing used: hydrargillite Al(OH3, boehmite AlOOH, transition aluminas (calcined at low temperatures, 1000 °C, with an intermediary crystallographic structure between hydrates and alpha alumina, and α-Al2O3 (calcined at high temperatures, >1100 °C. In glaze manufacturing, α-Al2O3 is the main type of alumina used. This raw material acts as a matting agent: the matt effect depends on alumina particle size and content in the glaze. This study examines the effect of the degree of alumina calcination on glaze technical and aesthetic properties. For this purpose, aluminas with different degrees of calcination were added to a glaze formulated with a transparent frit and kaolin, in order to simplify the system to be studied. The results show that, depending on the degree of calcination, alumina particles can react with the glaze components (SiO2, CaO, and ZnO to form new crystalline phases (anorthite and gahnite. Both crystallisations extract CaO and ZnO from the glassy phase, increasing glassy phase viscosity. The variation in crystalline phases and glassy phase viscosity yields glazes with different technical and aesthetic properties.

    El óxido de aluminio es una materia prima sintética fabricada a partir de la bauxita por medio del proceso Bayer, cuyo contenido de Al2O3 supera, por regla general, el 99%. Se pueden definir cuatro tipos de alúmina, en función del tipo de proceso usado: hidrargilita Al(OH3, boehmita AlOOH, alúminas de transición (calcinadas a bajas temperaturas, 1000 °C, con una estructura cristalográfica intermedia entre los hidratos y la alfa alúmina, y la α-Al2O3 (calcinada a

  12. Microstructural evolution of alumina-zirconia nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojaimi, C.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Pallone, E.M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic materials have limited use due to their brittleness. The inclusion of nanosized particles in a ceramic matrix, which are called nanocomposites, and ceramic processing control by controlling the grain size and densification can aid in obtaining ceramic products of greater strength and toughness. Studies showed that the zirconia nano inclusions in the matrix of alumina favors an increase in mechanical properties by inhibiting the grain growth of the matrix and not by the mechanism of the transformation toughening phase of zirconia. In this work, the microstructural evolution of alumina nanocomposites containing 15% by volume of nanometric zirconia was studied. From the results it was possible to understand the sintering process of these nanocomposites. (author)

  13. Silica containing highly porous alumina ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinka, R.; Svinka, V.; Zake, I.

    2011-04-01

    Porous alumina ceramic were produced by slip casting of aqueous alumina slurry with added small amount of metallic aluminium powder. Pores form in result of chemical reaction of aluminum with water by hydrogen gas evolution reaction and solidification of suspension. Porosity of such materials sintered at a temperature of 1600 - 1750°C varies from 60 to 90%. Pore size distribution and mechanical strength of these materials depend largely on the grain size of used raw materials. The major part of pores in the materials produced without additive of silica are larger than 10 ±m, but with 5 - 10 wt.% additive of silica in the raw mix pore size decreases considerably. The sintering shrinkage decreases to 2.5%. Coefficient of thermal expansion equally decreases from 8.9-10-6 K-1 to 7.1 10-6 K-1 and classification temperature increases to 1600°C, while deformation at high temperature decreases considerably.

  14. Determination of sulfuric acid concentration for anti-cavitation characteristics of Al alloy by two step anodizing process to forming nano porous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kweon; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Al alloy is a highly active metal but forms a protective oxide film having high corrosion resistance in atmosphere environment. However, the oxide film is not suitable for practical use, since the thickness of the film is not uniform and it is severly altered with formation conditions. This study focused on developing an aluminum anodizing layer having hardness, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance equivalent to a commercial grade protective layer. Aluminum anodizing layer was produced by two-step aluminum anodizing oxide (AAO) process with different sulfuric acid concentrations, and the cavitation characteristics of the anodized coating layer was investigated. In hardness measurement, the anodized coating layer produced with 15 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition had the highest value of hardness but exhibited poor cavitation resistance due to being more brittle than those with other conditions. The 10 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition was thus considered to be the optimum condition as it had the lowest weight loss and damage depth.

  15. Kaolin as a Source of Silica and Alumina For Synthesis of Zeolite Y and Amorphous Silica Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin is the clay mineral which containing silica (SiO2 and alumina (Al2O3 in a high percentage, that can be used as a nutrient in the synthesis of zeolites and amorphous silica alumina (ASA. The objective of this research is to convert the Belitung kaolin into silica and alumina as nutrients for the synthesis of zeolites and amorphous silica alumina, which are required in the preparation of the catalysts. Silica and alumina contained in the kaolin were separated by leaching the active kaolin called as metakaolin, using HCL solution, giving a solid phase rich silica and a liquid phase rich alumina. The solid phase rich silica was synthesized to zeolite Y by adding seed of the Y Lynde type, through the hydrothermal process with an alkaline condition. While, the liquid phase rich alumina was converted into an amorphous silica alumina through a co precipitation method. Characterization of zeolite and ASA were done using XRD, surface area and pore analyzer and SEM. The higher of alumina in liquid phase as a result of the rising molar of HCL in the leaching process was observed, but it didn’t work for its rising time. Products of ASA and zeolite Y were obtained by using liquid phase rich alumina and solid phase rich silica, respectively, which resulted through leaching metakaolin in 2.5 M HCl at temperature of 100° C for 2 hours.

  16. In-beam dielectric properties of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Hodgson, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    The dielectric properties (permittivity and loss tangent) of a 99.7% purity alumina grade have been measured over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 GHz) before and after 2 MeV electron irradiation at different temperatures. The dielectric properties at 15 GHz were measured during irradiation. Both prompt and fluence effects are observed together with permanent changes which continue to evolve following irradiation. The behaviour is complex, consistent with both radiation induced electronic effects and aggregation processes. ((orig.))

  17. Performance characteristics of porous alumina ceramic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latella, B.A.; Liu, T.

    2000-01-01

    Porous ceramics have found a wide range of applications as filters for liquids and gases. The suitability of materials for use in these types of applications depends on the microstructure (grain size, pore size and pore volume fraction) and hence the mechanical and thermal properties. In this study alumina ceramics with different levels of porosity and controlled pore sizes were fabricated and the surface damage and fracture properties were examined. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  18. Nitrogen Adsorption Study of Organised Mesoporous Alumina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Žilková, Naděžda; Rathouský, Jiří; Zukal, Arnošt

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 22 (2001), s. 5076-5081 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040001; GA MŠk ME 404 Grant - others:NATO(XE) SfP 974217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : nitrogen adsorption study * organised mesoporous alumina * reference nonporous solid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2001

  19. Fabrication of TiO2 Nanotanks Embedded in a Nanoporous Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Massard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of surface nanopatterning with TiO2 nanotanks embedded in a nanoporous alumina template was investigated. Self-assembled anodized aluminium oxide (AAO template, in conjunction with sol gel process, was used to fabricate this nanocomposite object. Through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium alkoxide, an inorganic TiO2 gel was moulded within the nanopore cavities of the alumina template. The nanocomposite object underwent two thermal treatments to stabilize and crystallize the TiO2. The morphology of the nanocomposite object was characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM. The TiO2 nanotanks obtained have cylindrical shapes and are approximately 69 nm in diameter with a tank-to-tank distance of 26 nm. X-ray diffraction analyses performed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM with selected area electron diffraction (SAED were used to investigate the TiO2 structure. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Activated alumina is a high surface area and highly porous form of aluminum oxide that can be employed for contaminant species adsorb from ether gases or liquids without changing its form. The research in getting this material has generated huge interested. Thus, this paper presented preparation of activated alumina from chemical process. Pure aluminum (99.9% pure) reacted at room temperature with an aqueous NaOH in a reactor to produce a solution of sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). This solution was passed through filter paper and the clear filtrate was neutralized with H2SO4, to pH 6, 7 or 8, resulting in the precipitation of a white gel, Al(OH)3·XH2O. The washed gel for sulfate ions were dried at 80 °C for 6 h, a 60 mesh sieve was to separate and sort them into different sizes. The samples were then calcined (burn) for 3h in a muffle furnace, in air, at a heating rate of 2 °C min-1. The prepared activated alumina was further characterized for better understanding of its physical properties in order to predict its chemical mechanism.

  1. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  2. Size dependent phase and morphological transformation of alumina nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisa, D. B.; Dash, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    The size effect of the alumina nanoparticles on the phase and morphological transition by thermal treatment at various temperatures is investigated by choosing two different sizes alumina nanoparticles. Our experimental results revealed that phase and morphological transformation behavior is significantly different for smaller size alumina nanoparticles than that of larger size. The more stable alpha phase transformation occurs at a higher temperature for smaller size alumina nanoparticles in comparison to that of the larger size alumina nanoparticles. Moreover, the experimental facts also elucidated that the nucleation and growth process at the nanoscale for the phase transition is also size dependent. Our experimental result from the FESEM and TEM analysis also revealed that there is a direct correlation between phase and morphological transition of alumina nanoparticles size which is consistent with the XRD results. Therefore, we believe that our experimental findings can be extended to other complex nanomaterials for understanding the size-dependent phase and morphological transformation at the nanoscale.

  3. [Corrosion resistant properties of different anodized microtopographies on titanium surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangjun, Huo; Li, Xie; Xingye, Tong; Yueting, Wang; Weihua, Guo; Weidong, Tian

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the corrosion resistant properties of titanium samples prepared by anodic oxidation with different surface morphologies. Pure titanium substrates were treated by anodic oxidation to obtain porous titanium films in micron, submicron, and micron-submicron scales. The surface morphologies, coating cross-sectional morphologies, crystalline structures, and surface roughness of these samples were characterized. Electrochemical technique was used to measure the corrosion potential (Ecorr), current density of corrosion (Icorr), and polarization resistance (Rp) of these samples in a simulated body fluid. Pure titanium could be modified to exhibit different surface morphologies by the anodic oxidation technique. The Tafel curve results showed that the technique can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance varied with different surface morphologies. The submicron porous surface sample demonstrated the best corrosion resistance, with maximal Ecorr and Rp and minimal Icorr. Anodic oxidation technology can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium in a simulated body fluid. The submicron porous surface sample exhibited the best corrosion resistance because of its small surface area and thick barrier layer.

  4. Methanol steam reforming promoted by molten salt-modified platinum on alumina catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the "solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer" (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Phase transformation of alumina coating by plasma assisted tempering of aluminized P91 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamnapara, N.I.; Mukherjee, S.; Khanna, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel plasma assisted heat treatment process for aluminized P91 steels is reported. • Plasma plays a vital role in phase transformation of Al 2 O 3 from θ to α phase. • Presence of O ∗ species in plasma facilitates θ to α transformation. - Abstract: α-Al 2 O 3 coating on aluminized surfaces are considered candidate coatings for blanket applications in fusion reactor. In order to generate α-Al 2 O 3 , aluminized P91 steel samples were subjected to normalizing and tempering treatments at 980 °C and 750 °C respectively. Oxygen plasma has been used during tempering treatment of aluminized P91 steel samples at 750 °C for 1 h. The resulting alumina coating on plasma tempered samples were compared with those of thermally tempered samples. The alumina films were characterized using XRD, XPS, and SEM–EDS techniques. Results indicate that the thermally tempered samples had θ-Al 2 O 3 coating while the plasma tempered samples had α-Al 2 O 3 coating after heat treatment. Such transformation of alumina phase was not visible without plasma. A hypothesis of θ to α-Al 2 O 3 transformation in plasma is proposed. This paper emphasizes the role of plasma processing on generation of an improved insulation coating for TBM applications in fusion reactors

  6. Behavior of CuP and OFHC Cu anodes under electrodeposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, G.S.; Schrott, A.G.; Horkans, J.; Andricacos, P.C. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Isaacs, H.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Films formed on CuP (with 0.05 wt % P) and OFHC Cu anodes in electroplating solutions were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, electrochemical methods, and a newly developed gravimetric technique. The black film formed on CuP in Cl-containing solutions was found to resemble a porous sponge composed of CuCl but laden/with concentrated CuSO{sub 4} solution. The difference between the buoyancy-corrected measured mass change and the charge-equivalent mass change was found to have two components: a reversible part that comes and goes as the current is turned on and off, and an irreversible part that remains on the surface and increase in mass with time. The irreversible part results from the anodic film, which increases linearly with charge density but independent of current density. The reversible part of the mass change arises from the weight of the diffusion layer. In contrast to CuP, OFHC Cu releases much more Cu{sup +1} during anodic polarization and forms a poorly-adherent anodic film that is considerably heavier than the black film for a given charge density.

  7. Behavior of CuP and OFHC Cu anodes under electrodeposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, G.S.; Schrott, A.G.; Horkans, J.; Andricacos, P.C. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Films formed on CuP (with 0.05 wt % P) and OFHC Cu anodes in electroplating solutions were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, electrochemical methods, and a newly developed gravimetric technique. The black film formed on CuP in Cl-containing solutions was found to resemble a porous sponge composed of CuCl but laden/with concentrated CuSO{sub 4} solution. The difference between the buoyancy-corrected measured mass change and the charge-equivalent mass change was found to have two components: a reversible part that comes and goes as the current is turned on and off, and an irreversible part that remains on the surface and increase in mass with time. The irreversible part results from the anodic film, which increases linearly with charge density but independent of current density. The reversible part of the mass change arises from the weight of the diffusion layer. In contrast to CuP, OFHC Cu releases much more Cu{sup +1} during anodic polarization and forms a poorly-adherent anodic film that is considerably heavier than the black film for a given charge density.

  8. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  9. Method for preparing Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Eric E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic from Na-.beta."-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  10. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE CORRIENTE SOBRE LA MORFOLOGÍA Y LAS PROPIEDADES ELECTROQUÍMICAS EN PELÍCULAS ANÓDICAS POROSAS, CRECIDAS SOBRE AA 2024-T3 EFEITO DA DENSIDADE DE CORENTE SOBRE A MORFOLOGIA E AS PROPRIEDADES ELECTROQUÍMICAS EM FILMES ANÓDICOS POROSOS, CRESCIDOS SOBRE AA 2024-T3 EFFECT OF CURRENT DENSITY ON MORPHOLOGY AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN POROUS ANODIC FILMS GROWN ON 2024-T3 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Aperador

    2011-06-01

    densidade de corrente forma filmes que incrementam a resistência à corrosâo. Adicionalmente modelou-se o comportamento eletroquímico dos filmes obtidos e fez-se a correlação com as imagens obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM.This paper reports the results of a study about the corrosion electrochemical properties of the porous anodic films grown on aluminium alloys 2024 T3, obtained by DC technique at current densities of 10, 15 and 20 mA/cm² in an aqueous solution of H2SO4. Materials characterization was carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM allowing identify that the increase in the current density produces a greater surface homogeneity and a decrease of average surface roughness. The micro-hardness Vickers measurements determined that the hard anodization layer improves their mechanical resistance related to the substrate. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the anodic films, the EIS technique and Tafel polarization curves were employed. From these techniques it has been determined that the increase in the current density values forms films that increase the corrosion resistance. In addition the electrochemical behavior of the obtained films was modeled and the correlation with the images obtained by scattering electron microscopy (SEM was made.

  11. Superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces fabricated by anodization and surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shih-Fu; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Yen-Chi

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of superhydrophobic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) surfaces using an environmentally friendly method based on an economical anodizing process. Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane was used to reduce the surface energy of the anodized surfaces. The wettability, morphology, composition, and microstructure of the surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the treated NiTi SMA exhibited superhydrophobicity, with a water contact angle of 150.6° and sliding angle of 8°. The anodic film on the NiTi SMA comprised of TiO2 and NiO, as well as traces of TiCl3. In addition, before the NiTi SMA was anodized, it underwent a surface mechanical attrition treatment to grain-refine its surface. This method efficiently enhanced the growth rate of the anodic oxide film, and improved the hydrophobic uniformity of the anodized NiTi-SMA-surface.

  12. Biodegradation and cytotoxic properties of pulse anodized Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyoung; Park, Il Song; Lee, Sook Jeong; Lee, Min Ho

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium has the potential to be used as an implant material owing to its non-toxicity. On the other hand, magnesium alloys corrode rapidly in subcutaneous gas bubbles. Consequently, the approach of using magnesium alloys as a biodegradable biomaterial is not well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide corrosion protection by anodizing to surface for a biodegradable material. Micro-arc oxidation by pulsed DC was applied to AZ91D and AZ31B, and the cell bioactivity was defined. The anodic film was characterized by XRD and SEM. The specific mass loss variation from immersion test and potentiodynamic electrochemical test was performed for the quantification of corrosion resistance. Although the AZ91D had better corrosion resistance properties but the result of the in vitro tests showed low cell viability compared with the AZ31B. The results of the cell staining and agar overlay test revealed the AZ31B group had good biocompatibility and a low corrosion rate. In this study, the surfaces of AZ91D and AZ31B showed the formation of a uniform film by pulse power anodization improving corrosion resistance. Also, the cytotoxicity of the materials was examined by the aluminum content change of compound metal.

  13. The role of surface preparation in corrosion protection of copper with nanometer-thick ALD alumina coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhashemihaghighi, Shadi; Światowska, Jolanta [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Maurice, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.maurice@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Seyeux, Antoine; Klein, Lorena H. [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Salmi, Emma; Ritala, Mikko [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marcus, Philippe [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • 10–50 nm thick alumina coatings were grown on copper by atomic layer deposition. • Surface smoothening by substrate annealing was studied as pre-deposition treatment. • Corrosion protection is promoted by pre-treatment for 10 nm but not for thicker films. • Local adhesion failure is assigned to the stresses accumulated in the thicker films. • Surface smoothening decreases the interfacial strength bearing the film stresses. - Abstract: Surface smoothening by substrate annealing was studied as a pre-treatment for improving the corrosion protection provided to copper by 10, 20 and 50 nm thick alumina coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition. The interplay between substrate surface state and deposited film thickness for controlling the corrosion protection provided by ultrathin barrier films is demonstrated. Pre-annealing at 750 °C heals out the dispersed surface heterogeneities left by electropolishing and reduces the surface roughness to less than 2 nm independently of the deposited film thickness. For 10 nm coatings, substrate surface smoothening promotes the corrosion resistance. However, for 20 and 50 nm coatings, it is detrimental to the corrosion protection due to local detachment of the deposited films. The weaker adherence of the thicker coatings is assigned to the stresses accumulated in the films with increasing deposited thickness. Healing out the local heterogeneities on the substrate surface diminishes the interfacial strength that is bearing the stresses of the deposited films, thereby increasing adhesion failure for the thicker films. Pitting corrosion occurs at the local sites of adhesion failure. Intergranular corrosion occurs at the initially well coated substrate grain boundaries because of the growth of a more defective and permeable coating at grain boundaries.

  14. Direct Quantification of Cd2+in the Presence of Cu2+by a Combination of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Bi-Film-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang

    2017-07-03

    Abstract : In this study, a novel method based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE) for quantitatively and directly detecting Cd 2+ in the presence of Cu 2+ without further electrode modifications by combining square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) and a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) has been proposed. The influence of the Cu 2+ concentration on the stripping response to Cd 2+ was studied. In addition, the effect of the ferrocyanide concentration on the SWASV detection of Cd 2+ in the presence of Cu 2+ was investigated. A BP-ANN with two inputs and one output was used to establish the nonlinear relationship between the concentration of Cd 2+ and the stripping peak currents of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ . The factors affecting the SWASV detection of Cd 2+ and the key parameters of the BP-ANN were optimized. Moreover, the direct calibration model (i.e., adding 0.1 mM ferrocyanide before detection), the BP-ANN model and other prediction models were compared to verify the prediction performance of these models in terms of their mean absolute errors (MAEs), root mean square errors (RMSEs) and correlation coefficients. The BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model and the other prediction models. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect Cd 2+ in soil samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Effect of anodization on the surface characteristics and electrochemical behaviour of zirconium in artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romonti, Daniela E. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of General Chemistry, 1-7 Polizu, district 1, Bucharest Ro-011061 (Romania); Gomez Sanchez, Andrea V. [INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo, 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Milošev, Ingrid [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jamova c. 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Demetrescu, Ioana [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of General Chemistry, 1-7 Polizu, district 1, Bucharest Ro-011061 (Romania); Ceré, Silvia, E-mail: smcere@fi.mdp.edu.ar [INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo, 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    The paper is focused on elaboration of ZrO{sub 2} films on pure zirconium via anodizing in phosphoric acid with and without fluoride at constant potentials of 30 V and 60 V. The structure and composition of the films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The composition of the oxides formed at both potentials can be identified as monoclinic ZrO{sub 2.} In addition to Zr and O, the layers formed in phosphoric acid contain phosphorus originating from the phosphoric acid. When the phosphoric acid solution contains NaF, fluorine is also incorporated into the oxide layer. The oxides formed at a higher voltage have greater roughness than those formed at 30 V. Anodized samples exhibit smaller current densities during anodic polarization compared to the as-received zirconium covered with native oxide. - Highlights: • Anodic oxide layer formed on Zr in phosphoric acid with fluoride is monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. • Fluorine ions from the electrolyte are incorporated in the oxide layer. • Anodic polarization in Afnor solution evidences breakdown of the passive films. • Decrease of breakdown potential may be induced by defects caused by fluorine.

  16. The influence of Ti and Sr alloying elements on electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, M.; Sina, H.; Keyvani, A.; Emamy, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Department, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum sacrificial anodes are widely used in cathodic protection of alloys in seawater. The interesting properties due to low specific weight, low electrode potential and high current capacity are often hindered by the presence of a passive oxide film which causes several difficulties in their practical application. In this investigation, the electrochemical behavior of Al- 5Zn-0.02In sacrificial anode is studied in 3 wt. % sodium chloride solution. The experiments focused on the influence of Ti and Sr as alloying elements on electrochemical behavior of aluminum sacrificial anode. Ti and Sr are used in different concentrations from 0.03 to 0.1 wt.% 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%, respectively. NACE efficiency and polarization tests are used in this case. It is shown that by using 0.03 wt.% Ti and 0.01 wt.% Sr as the alloying elements to investigate the anodic behavior of the anodes, homogeneous microstructures are obtained which results in improvement of electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anode such as current capacity and anode efficiency. (authors)

  17. Influence of silicon species on the electric properties of anodic niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habazaki, H.; Matsuo, T.; Konno, H.; Shimizu, K.; Nagata, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Takayama, K.; Oda, Y.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of incorporation of silicon species on the electric properties of anodic niobia, formed in 0.1 mol dm -3 ammonium pentaborate electrolyte, has been examined using sputter-deposited Nb-Si alloys containing 5 and 17 at.% silicon. The potential dependence of the capacitance of anodic niobia, originating from its n-type semiconducting properties, becomes less significant by incorporation of silicon species. In addition, the leakage current decreases with increasing silicon content in the alloy. The thermal stability of the anodic niobia is also enhanced by silicon species; the capacitance and leakage current, which increase significantly for niobium, are little influenced by annealing up to 523 K. The silicon species are incorporated in the inner 72% of the film thickness, as a consequence of immobility of the species in growing anodic niobia. The immobility of silicon species is associated with a strong Si 4+ -O bond, which may also contribute to the reduction of leakage current

  18. Use of nuclear reactions to trace the source of oxygen in anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.B.; Perkins, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    In cases where the anodization of metals involves the use of chemical solutions, the oxidation mechanism is frequently uncertain. In such cases it is usually possible to make oxygen bearing solutes from oxgen which is enriched in isotope-18. After use in anodization, the oxide films can be analyzed by the method of nuclear microanalysis which separately profiles the 18 O and 16 O. In this way the depth distribution of the 18 O can be compared quantitatively with that of the 16 O arising from all other oxygen bearing chemicals in solution. This method was applied to the case of the anodization of vanadium and zirconium. The results indicate an unconventional anodization mechanism for the vanadium case

  19. Effects of Anodic Buffer Layer in Top-Illuminated Organic Solar Cell with Silver Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Lung Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient ITO-free top-illuminated organic photovoltaic (TOPV based on small molecular planar heterojunction was achieved by spinning a buffer layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, on the Ag-AgOx anode. The PEDOT:PSS thin film separates the active layer far from the Ag anode to prevent metal quenching and redistributes the strong internal optical field toward dissociated interface. The thickness and morphology of this anodic buffer layer are the key factors in determining device performances. The uniform buffer layer contributes a large short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, benefiting the final power conversion efficiency (PCE. The TOPV device with an optimal PEDOT:PSS thickness of about 30 nm on Ag-AgOx anode exhibits the maximum PCE of 1.49%. It appreciates a 1.37-fold enhancement in PCE over that of TOPV device without buffer layer.

  20. Three-dimensional reticular tin-manganese oxide composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.J.; Guo, Z.P.; Zhang, P.; Du, G.D.; Poh, C.K.; Chen, Z.X.; Li, S.; Liu, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-manganese oxide film with three-dimensional (3D) reticular structure has been prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the film is amorphous. X-ray-photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that the 3D grid is composed of tin-manganese oxide. As an anode electrode for the lithium ion battery, the tin-manganese oxide film has 1188.3 mAh g -1 of initial discharge capacity and very good capacity retention of 656.2 mAh g -1 up to the 30th cycle. Such a composite film can be used as an anode for lithium ion batteries with higher energy densities.

  1. Effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel was studied by adding Te to liquid steel before Al deoxidation at 1873 K. After water-quenching, the spatial distribution homogeneity of alumina inclusions in the steel matrix was characterized using the Dirichlet tessellation method. The deterioration of this homogeneity with increasing the addition of Te indicates that Te facilitates pushing of alumina inclusions. This phenomenon was discussed based on the thermodynamics of an asymmetric thin liquid film confined by an advancing solid-liquid interface and a particle. The surface excesses of Te at the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfaces were theoretically demonstrated to decrease when an alumina inclusion moves towards the solid-liquid interface, thereby weakening the effect of Te on the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfacial energies. Based on this, effect of surfactants was incorporated in the models predicting the critical velocity V C .

  2. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  3. Initial stages of AZ91 Mg alloy micro-arc anodizing: Growth mechanisms and effect on the corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rocca, Emmanuel; Martin, Julien; Henrion, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The dielectric breakdown occurs for a specific value of capacitance. • Before breakdown, Si is incorporated to the anodic film under MgSiO 3 form. • After breakdown, Si is incorporated to the anodic film also under Mg 2 SiO 4 form. • The presence of Mg 2 SiO 4 in the anodic film provides good corrosion resistance due to sealing of the porosities. - Abstract: In the framework of the new ecological regulations, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) appears as an alternative to usual processes in the field of corrosion protection of Mg alloys. In this work, the initial stages of anodic layer growth in KOH-based electrolytes are studied up to and beyond the initiation of the micro-arc regime. The properties of the first anodized film preceding the occurrence of the dielectric breakdown (corresponding to the start of the micro-arc regime) are mainly determined by the incorporation of additives (fluorides or silicates) in the film, as shown by in situ electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveal both the change of morphology and chemical state of silicate and fluoride in the anodized layer before and after the micro-arc regime. In terms of electrochemical behaviour, investigated by stationary methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in reference corrosive water, the anodic film grown in the silicate medium provides the best corrosion resistance thanks to a thick layer containing Mg 2 SiO 4 , whose degradation products seal the porosities of the coating

  4. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the

  5. Enhanced light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes using recessed anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.M.; Zeng, Y.X.; Lin, B.T.; Lin, W.M.; Wu, W.T.

    2014-01-01

    Recessed indium tin oxide films were prepared to serve as anodes for enhancing light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The power efficiency of OLEDs with the proposed films was enhanced by up to 28%. This improvement can be attributed to enhanced light extraction due to the wall effect and the bottom scattering effect of the recesses. The power efficiency increased with recess depth but was limited by the accompanying high electrical resistivity and large optical loss.

  6. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Leonid A.; Raitses, Yevgeny F.; Smirnov, Artem N.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2004-01-01

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed

  7. Shockless spalling damage of alumina ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.

    2012-05-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to build multi-layer armour. However reliable test data is needed to identify correctly models and to be able to perform accurate numerical simulation of the dynamic response of armour systems. In this work, isentropic loading waves have been applied to alumina samples to induce spalling damage. The technique employed allows assessing carefully the strain-rate at failure and the dynamic strength. Moreover, specimens have been recovered and analysed using SEM. In a damaged but unbroken specimen, interactions between cracks has been highlighted illustrating the fragmentation process.

  8. Anodic behavior of uranium in AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yidong; Luo, Lizhu; Wang, Shaofei; Bin, Ren; Zhang, Guikai; Wang, Xiaolin

    2018-01-01

    The oxidation state of metals unambiguously affects its anodic behavior in ionic liquid. We systematically investigated the anodic behavior of uranium with different surface oxidation states by electrochemical measurements, spectroscopic methods and surface analysis techniques. In the anodic process, metal uranium can be oxidized to U3+. The corresponding products accumulated on the metal/ILs interface will form a viscous layer. The anodic behavior of uranium is also strongly dependent upon the surface oxide states including thickness and homogeneity of the oxide film. With an increase in the thickness of oxide film, it will be breached at potentials in excess of a critical value. A uniform oxide on uranium surface can be breached evenly, and then the underlying metal starts to dissolve forming a viscous layer which can facilitate uniformly stripping of oxide, thus giving an oxide-free surface. Otherwise, a nonuniform oxide can result in a severe pitted surface with residue oxygen.

  9. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  10. Characterization of silane coated hollow sphere alumina-reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silane coated hollow sphere alumina ceramic particles were moulded with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) to form a series of composites with alumina weight percent in the range from 15 to 50. The composites were prepared in a cylindrical mould using powder-processing technique. The composites ...

  11. Chemical modification/grafting of mesoporous alumina with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro de Melo, A.F.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Sripathi, V.G.P.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A method for polydimethylsiloxane grafting of alumina powders is described which involves chemical modification of the surface of mesoporous (5 nm) γ-alumina flakes with a linker (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane: APTES), either by a solution phase (SPD) or a vapour phase (VPD) reaction, followed by

  12. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alumina balls worn out ( 14.2 × 10 − 1 mm 3 ) very rapidly with zero wear for diamond ceramic coatings. Since the generation of wear particle is the main problem for load-bearing prosthetic joints, it was concluded that the PCD material can potentially replace existing alumina bio-ceramic for their bettertribological properties ...

  13. Micrometer size grains of hot isostatically pressed alumina and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The. Vickers hardness in 5⋅5 μm grain microstructure is around 20 GPa in comparison to about 18 GPa in micro- structure with smaller grains of 2⋅2 μm size. Keywords. Alumina ... the technology of alumina ceramics (Munro 1997; Raha- man et al 2007) by purer ... reported interface-reaction-controlled kinetics of HIPing.

  14. Processing and characterization of alumina/LAS bioceramics for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Alumina allows to recreate the functionality and aesthetics of natural teeth. However, its low frac- ture toughness rises concern regarding use in dental restoration. Structural reliability is addressed here by formulating a material containing alumina and a glass–ceramic from LAS system. The presence of LAS in the.

  15. Processing and characterization of alumina/LAS bioceramics for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alumina allows to recreate the functionality and aesthetics of natural teeth. However, its low fracture toughness rises concern regarding use in dental restoration. Structural reliability is addressed here by formulating a material containing alumina and a glass–ceramic from LAS system. The presence of LAS in the mixtures ...

  16. APPLICATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF ALUMINA AND NANO-γ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    reported for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles, nucleophilic addition of cyanide ion to imines. (Strecker reaction), is of .... Application of various types of alumina and nano-γ-alumina sulfuric acid. Bull. Chem. Soc. ..... After purification by chromatography on silica gel (ethyl acetate/n-hexane 20:80) α-aminonitriles were obtained.

  17. Investigations on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) with doped alumina ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janas, R.; Huebner, K.

    1976-01-01

    Alumina ceramics doped and burned under various conditions have been investigated with regard to their suitability for thermoluminescent dosimetry. The production of ceramics is described. The properties essential for dosimetric purposes, such as glow curve, energy dose characteristics, fading, recoverability, lower detection limit and energy dependence, are indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of alumina ceramics are compared. (author)

  18. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-reinforced Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2005-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10SZ) - alumina composites containing 0-30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity was determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique. Thermal conductivity of the composites increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from the Maxwell-Eucken model where one phase is uniformly dispersed within a second major continuous phase.

  20. Characterization and sintering of niobium-ATR alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuya, N.H.; Iwasaki, H.; Suzuki, C.K.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the niobium aluminothermy a slag is produced, composed mostly of alumina and other compounds such as niobium oxide and silica. The phase composition of this ATR alumina was characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, and afterwards this alumina was subjected to leaching processes. It was noticed that the original content of 70% α-alumina in slag rose to 95% after the calcination. ATR alumina (leached and calcined, and without any treatment) was used to make pressed bodies which were fired in air at 1200 to 1400 0 C for 1 to 10,5 hours; and in vacuum at 1550 to 1800$0C for 2 hours. Characterization was done by density measurements, X-ray diffractometry and ultrasonic analysis. Ultrasonic analysis of some vacuum fired bodies showed londitudinal velocities close to the value found in literature. Correlation of several techniques measurements disclosed the niobium oxide interference in sintering. (Author) [pt

  1. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheb Nouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report temperature-dependent thermal properties of alumina powder and bulk alumina consolidated by spark plasma sintering method. The properties were measured between room temperature and 250ºC using a thermal constants analyzer. Alumina powder had very low thermal properties due to the presence of large pores and absence of bonding between its particles. Fully dense alumina with a relative density of 99.6 % was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1400°C and a holding time of 10 min. Thermal properties were found to mainly dependent on density. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the fully dense alumina were 34.44 W/mK, 7.62 mm2s-1, and 1.22 J/gK, respectively, at room temperature. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decreased while specific heat increased with the increase in temperature from room temperature to 250ºC.

  2. The mineralogy of bauxite for producing smelter-grade alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier-Martin, M.; Forte, G.; Ostap, S.; See, J.

    2001-12-01

    Aluminum-producing companies rely on low-cost, high-purity, smelter-grade alumina (aluminum oxide), and alumina production utilizes the bulk of bauxites mined world-wide. The mineralogy of the bauxites has a significant impact on the operation of the Bayer process for alumina production. Typically, the Bayer process produces smelter-grade alumina of 99.5% Al2O3, starting from bauxite containing 30% to 60% Al2O3. The main objective of the Bayer process is to extract the maximum amount of aluminum from the bauxite at as high an aluminate concentration in solution as possible, while limiting any troublesome side reactions. Only with a better understanding of the chemistry of the mineral species and a strict control of the operating/processing conditions can the Bayer process produce efficiently, a low cost, high-quality alumina with minimum detrimental environmental impact.

  3. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Kwan Wee

    2014-04-11

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  4. Thermally Induced Structural Evolution and Performance of Mesoporous Block Copolymer-Directed Alumina Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI3–xClx) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI3–xClx material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance. PMID:24684494

  5. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, In Joon; Nakano, Hiroaki; Oue, Satoshi; Fukushima, Hisaaki; Horita, Zenji [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeo [Kyushu Sangyo University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl{sub 3} and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m{sup 2} at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.0185 mol/L of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be

  6. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, In Joon; Nakano, Hiroaki; Oue, Satoshi; Fukushima, Hisaaki; Horita, Zenji; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl 3 and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m 2 at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H 2 SO 4 and 0.0185 mol/L of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be attributable to a decrease in

  7. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Huettig, F.R. [Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  8. Magnesium sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohsen Othman

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tasted in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified. This was partly due to low conductivity of this medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in this medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. The weight loss was high for magnesium in sodium chloride environment particularly beyond 60 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the weight loss was negligible for the anode. It also suffered localized shallow pitting corrosion. Magnesium anode cannot be utilized where high temperature is involved particularly in high conductivity mediums. Protection of structures containing high resistivity waters is not feasible using sacrificial anode system. (author)

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates from mixtures of aluminum trichloride, chlorosilane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitodas, Stephanos F.

    The objective of this study is the comprehensive investigation of the kinetics of the codeposition of silica (SiO2), alumina (Al 2O3), mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO 2), and other aluminosilicates from mixtures of chlorosilane (SiCl 4 or MTS), aluminum trichloride, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen in order to prepare coatings for the protection of SiC-based ceramics from oxidation in high-temperature applications. In an attempt to elucidate some aspects of the codeposition process, the deposition of silica and alumina from chlorosilane and aluminum trichloride, respectively, in carbon dioxide and hydrogen is also studied. Experiments are conducted in a tubular, hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor, coupled to an electronic microbalance, using various substrates. The effects of process parameters on deposition rate, film morphology, and film composition are examined over a wide range of experimental conditions. Among the most interesting results of this study is that the presence of AlCl 3 has a catalytic effect on the incorporation of silica in the deposit, leading to codeposition rates that are higher than the deposition rates that are obtained when only one of the two chlorides (chlorosilane or AlCl 3 is present in the feed. The results of the deposition experiments also show that manipulation of the temperature of the reaction and the residence time of the mixture in the reactor offers a way to control the composition of the codeposited films in SiO2 and Al2O3, obtaining deposits with significant alumina and aluminosilicate (e.g., mullite) content. In order to account for the complex chemistry of the formation of the oxide films, detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms are developed for the deposition of silica, the deposition of alumina, and the codeposition process. The kinetic mechanisms encompass several reaction sequences for the generation of deposition precursors and the formation of solid phases, and are incorporated into the reaction and transport

  10. Synthesis of superhydrophobic alumina membrane: Effects of sol-gel coating, steam impingement and water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. A.; Leo, C. P.; Ahmad, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    Ceramic membranes possess natural hydrophilicity thus tending to absorb water droplets. The absorption of water molecules on membrane surface reduces their application in filtration, membrane distillation, osmotic evaporation and membrane gas absorption. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) grafting allows the conversion of hydrophilic ceramic membranes into superhydrophobic thin layer, but it usually introduces a great increment of mass transfer resistance. In this study, superhydrophobic alumina membranes were synthesized by dip coating alumina support into sol-gel and grafted with the fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) named (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetra hydrodecyl) triethoxysilane. Steam impingement and water treatment acted as additional steps to generate surface roughness on sol-gel and most importantly to reduce mass transfer resistance. Superhydrophobic alumina membrane with high water contact angle (158.4°) and low resistance (139.5 ± 24.9 G m-1) was successfully formed when the alumina membrane was dip coated into sol-gel for 7 s, treated with steam impingement for 1 min and immersed in hot water at 100 °C. However, the mass transfer resistance was greatly induced to 535.6 ± 23.5 G m-1 when the dip coating time was increased to 60 s. Long dip coating time contributes more on the blockage of porous structure rather than creates a thin film on the top of membrane surface. Reducing the pore size and porosity significantly due to increase of coating molecules deposited on the membrane. Steam impingement for 1 min promoted the formation of cones and valleys on the sol-gel, but the macro-roughness was destroyed when the steam impingement duration was extended to more than 3 min. The immersions of membranes into hot water at temperatures higher than 60 °C encouraged the formation of boehmite which enhances the formation of additional roughness and enlarges pore size greatly. Thus, this work showed that the formation of superhydrophobic alumina membrane with low resistance is

  11. Paradox phenomena of proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating under dead-end anode mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Shumao; Jiang, Lijun; Varcoe, John R.

    2014-11-01

    By using two spatially separated reference electrodes in a single cell proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the individual potentials of the anode and cathode are recorded under realistic operating conditions. The PEMFC is operated under dead-end anode (DEA) mode, without any humidification, to mitigate water accumulation at the anode. Although N2 crossover from cathode to anode may play an important role in PEMFCs operating under DEA mode, our results unexpectedly show that the over-potentials of both the anode and cathode concomitantly increased or decreased at the same time. The increases of over-potentials correlate to the increase of the high frequency resistance of the cell (Rhf) imply that the water content in the membrane electrode assemblies is critical. However, the subsequent H2 depletion tests suggest that water may accumulate at the interface between the surface of the catalyst and the ultrathin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer film and this contradicts the above (the increase in Rhf implies the drying out of the MEAs). This study highlights the need for further research into understanding the water transport properties of the ultrathin PFSA ionomer film (<60 nm): it is clear that these exhibit completely different properties to that of bulk proton-exchange membranes (PEM).

  12. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  13. Microstructural evaluation of alumina-niobium and alumina- niobium-zircon ceramics for ballistic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Juliana Machado da; Lopes, Cristina Moniz Araujo; Melo, Francisco Lourenco Cristovao de

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the microstructural of Alumina- Niobium and Alumina- Niobium-Zircon ceramics. Samples with 3.5 x 4.5 x 34 mm dimensions were prepared by uniaxial pressure (50 MPa) followed by isostatic pressure (300 MPa). The samples were sintered at 1500 ° C for 1 hour. The ceramics obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction, to evaluate the phases and microstructures. In order to analyze the microstructure, by SEM the samples were prepared using two techniques: heat treatment (1350 ° C for 5 minutes) and thermochemical treatment (500 ° C for 8 minutes in a solution of NaOH and KOH) on polished and fractured surfaces. The results showed that despite differences between the two etchings, both were effective to analyze the microstructure. (author)

  14. Dissolution kinetics for alumina in cryolite melts. Distribution of alumina in the electrolyte of industrial aluminium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobbeltvedt, Ove

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the understanding of which factors determine the rate of dissolution of alumina added to the bath in alumina reduction cells. Knowing this may help reduce the occurrences of operation interruptions and thus make it possible to produce aluminium using less energy. When alumina powder was added to a stirred cryolite melt, the alumina dissolved in two distinct main stages. In the first stage, the dissolution rate was very high, which reflects dissolution of single alumina grains that are being dispersed in the bath upon addition. In the second stage, lumps of alumina infiltrated with bath dissolved at a rate considerably slower than that of the first stage. The formation of these alumina agglomerates is the most important contributor to slow dissolution. The parameters varied in the experiments were convection, batch size, and temperature of the bath and of the added alumina. Increased gas stirring of the bath speeded up dissolution in both stages but the size of the batch was of little significance. Increasing the bath temperature had no effect in the first stage but speeded up dissolution considerably in the second stage. Compared to adding alumina at room temperature, preheating it to a high temperature (600 {sup o}C) increased the dissolution rate in the first stage while preheating to lower temperatures (100-300 {sup o}C) decreased the dissolution rate. In the second stage, preheating slowed the dissolution. The two latter phenomena of reduced dissolution rates are ascribed to the removal of moisture from the alumina upon preheating. The bath flow and the distribution of alumina in the bath were measured in four different types of cells. It was found that if a certain asymmetry of the magnetic field traverse to the cell was present, due to the presence of risers, then loops of high velocity bath flow occurred near the short ends of the cell. Thus, alumina added near the short ends is effectively transferred away from the feeding

  15. Mechanical behavior of alumina and alumina-feldspar based ceramics in an acetic acid (4%) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, Aisha S.G.; Bergmann, Carlos P.; Vicenzi, Juliane; Fetter, Rebecca; Mundstock, Karina S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanical properties of alumina-feldspar based ceramics when exposed to an aggressive environment (acetic acid 4%). Alumina ceramics containing different concentrations of feldspar (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, or 40%) were sintered at either 1300, 1600, or 1700 o C. Flaws (of width 0%, 30%, or 50%) were introduced into the specimens using a saw. Half of these ceramic bodies were exposed to acetic acid. Their flexural strength, K IC , and porosity were measured and the fractured samples were evaluated using scanning electronic- and optical microscopy. It was found that in the ceramic bodies sintered at 1600 o C, feldspar content up to 10% improved flexural strength and K IC, and reduced porosities. Generally, it was found that acetic acid had a weakening effect on the flexural strength of samples sintered at 1700 o C but a beneficial effect on K IC of ceramics sintered at 1600 o C. It was concluded that alumina-based ceramics with feldspar content up to 10% and sintered at higher temperatures would perform better in an aggressive environment similar to oral cavity.

  16. Synthesis, structure, and optical properties of manganese phthalocyanine thin films and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Meng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc nanostructures with different morphologies were prepared on porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO at different substrate temperature (Ts=50 ℃, 80 ℃, 120 ℃, 180 ℃, 240 ℃ in an organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD system. The nanostructures morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the results showed that the nanostructures morphologies could be modulated by the control of Ts, as a result, the continuous film was obtained at 50 ℃, whereas the nanorods (NRs, nanoribbons (NBs, nanowires (NWs, nanosheets (NSs and nanoparticles (NPs were facilely generated as Ts increased. At the same time, the density and the uniformity of the nanostructures decreased. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD indicated that only the β-phase polymorph formed throughout the growth process irrelevant to the Ts. Additionally, the ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis absorption spectra demonstrated that the main absorption bands of MnPc nanostructures showed a remarkable band broadening as the Ts was increased.

  17. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Special requirements for alumina ceramic of ESG electrode bowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-An; Xue, Kai; Zhang, Jia-Tai; Zhang, Qiang

    2004-06-01

    At present ESG (Electrostatic Suspended Gyro) is the most precise inertia element in the world. The electrode bowl, which has direct effect on the precision of ESG, is a key part to ESG. Through the analysis of the function and characteristic of the electrode bowl in hollow rotor ESG and the present situation of new material development in the world, the alumina ceramic is regarded as the best material for the electrode bowl of hollow rotor ESG. By analyzing the present situation of alumina ceramic in the world, main technique requirements have been put forward for the alumina ceramic of ESG electrode bowl which is also fit for solid rotor ESG.

  19. Master sintering curves of two different alumina powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Pouchly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Master Sintering Curve is a strong tool for optimizing sintering schedule. The sintering behaviour can be predicted, and sintering activation energy can be calculated with the help of few dilatometric measurements. In this paper an automatic procedure was used to calculate Master Sintering Curves of two different alumina compacts. The sintering activation energies were determined as 640 kJ/mol for alumina with particle size of 240 nm, respective 770 kJ/mol for alumina with particle size of 110 nm. The possibility to predict sintering behaviour with the help of Master Sintering Curve was verified.

  20. Dynamical stability of the alpha and theta phases of alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodziana, Zbigniew; Parlinski, K.

    2003-01-01

    Using density functional calculations the phonon dispersion relations, phonon density of states, and free energy of theta and alpha phases of alumina are investigated. The temperature dependence of the free energy indicates that entropy contributes to the destabilization of the alpha phase...... cations in alumina, and suggest that some other than entropic mechanism exists, which stabilizes transition aluminas up to 1400 K. The present calculations go beyond the ground state energy calculations [C. Wolverton and K.C. Hass, Phys. Rev. B 63, 24102 (2001)], and give an additional understanding...