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Sample records for anocentor nitens ixodoidea

  1. Potencial acaricida do óleo de andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre fêmeas adultas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 Acaricide potencial of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) oil on engorged adult females of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

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    M.P.O. Farias; D.P. Sousa; A.C. Arruda; A.G. Wanderley; W.C Teixeira; Alves, L. C.; Faustino, M.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se o potencial acaricida in vitro do óleo da semente da andiroba (Carapa guianensis) sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens (n=210) e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140), coletadas manualmente, respectivamente, de equinos e de cães naturalmente infestados. Para o teste de imersão, empregaram-se cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25% e 10%, em água destilada, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante. No teste com A. nitens, foram usadas três repetições para cada di...

  2. Efeito do controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae sobre a população de Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 (acari: ixodidae em eqüinos Effect of the strategic control of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae on the population of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 (acari: ixodidae in equines

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    Arildo P. Da Cunha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense sobre a população de Anocentor nitens em eqüinos. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos, o primeiro com início em abril de 2004 (oito tratamentos e o segundo com início em julho do mesmo ano (cinco tratamentos, utilizando-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina na concentração de 0,015%. Avaliou-se mensalmente a carga parasitária de A. nitens no pavilhão auricular e divertículo nasal dos eqüinos antes (outubro de 2003 a março de 2004 e depois (outubro de 2004 a março de 2005 do controle estratégico com banhos carrapaticidas. Utilizaram-se escores de 0 a 3 para classificar os níveis de infestação. Entretanto, não houve redução significativa da carga parasitária de A. nitens no pavilhão auricular e no divertículo nasal dos eqüinos, possivelmente, devido a não aplicação sistemática de carrapaticida no divertículo nasal, pois, esta estrutura anatômica é um importante sítio de infestação por A. nitens em eqüinos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Amblyomma cajennense strategic control program on the Anocentor nitens population. The acaricide treatments were carried out every seven days and divided in two series, the first one beginning in April 2004 (eight treatments and the second beginning in July of the same year (five treatments, using pyrethroid chemical base - cypermethrin in the concentration of 0,015%. Monthly it was evaluated the infestation of A. nitens in the ear and nasal diverticulum of the equines before (October 2003 to March 2004 and after (October of 2004 to March of 2005 the strategic program of acaricide treatments. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify the infestation levels. It did not have any significant reduction of the parasitic load of A. nitens in the ear and nasal diverticulum of the equines. Possibly, due

  3. Potencial acaricida do óleo de andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre fêmeas adultas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 Acaricide potencial of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. oil on engorged adult females of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

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    M.P.O. Farias

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial acaricida in vitro do óleo da semente da andiroba (Carapa guianensis sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens (n=210 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140, coletadas manualmente, respectivamente, de equinos e de cães naturalmente infestados. Para o teste de imersão, empregaram-se cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25% e 10%, em água destilada, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante. No teste com A. nitens, foram usadas três repetições para cada diluição, utilizando-se 10 fêmeas ingurgitadas para cada tratamento. No teste com R. sanguineus, usaram-se duas repetições, e formaram-se, ainda, dois grupos-controle para cada espécie de ixodídeo, um com água destilada e outro com tween 80 mais água destilada. Após os testes, as fêmeas foram mantidas em laboratório sob temperatura ambiente. Observou-se mortalidade das fêmeas ingurgitadas e redução de postura, neste caso, com ovos inférteis, demonstrando eficácia de 100% nas duas espécies em todas as diluições testadas. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram a potencialidade do uso do extrato de andiroba contra A. nitens e R. sanguineus.In vitro acaricide potential of the oil from andiroba seed (Carapa guianensis was evaluated on engorged females of Anocentor nitens (n=210 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140 manually collected, from horses and dogs naturally infested, respectively. Five dilutions, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25%, and 10% of andiroba seed oil in deionized water, using tween 80 as dispersant, were employed for the engorged females immersion test. For A. nitens test, three repetitions were made with each dilution, using 10 engorged females for each treatment, and two repetitions for R. sanguineus test. Two control groups were used for each tick species, one with deionized water and another one with tween 80 and deionized water. After the tests, the females were kept in the laboratory under room temperature. Engorged female mortality and

  4. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. PMID:20640444

  5. Influência do hospedeiro no ciclo e comprovação do ciclo heteroxeno de Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Host influency on life cycle and comprovation of the heteroxenous cycle of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897

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    N. M. Serra Freire

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Steers and rabbits were used as experimental hosts for Anocenter nitens during scheduled infections, when ticks were recovered from naturally infected horses. Thus, the influence of the host species on the parasite was evaluated mainly considering parameters related to the engorgement period and pre molting of evolutive stages. It was also observed that almost 5% if the metanymphae and a few more than 1% of metalarvae fall off from the host to molt in the evironment, characterizing cycles in one or more hosts. The heteroxenous cycle is reported for the first time occuring in A. nitens.

  6. Avaliação do comportamento anômalo de Anocentor nitens (Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae, durante a fase não parasitária Avaliation of the anomalous behavior of Anocentor nitens (Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae, during the non parasitic phase

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    Nicolau Maués da Serra-Freire

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique was develop to study the anomalous behavior of non parasitic phase of Anocentor nitens on horse host. From the total teleogines was still alive during all experimental period, 89.1% laided eggs on ear host. The eclosion index was 77.05% with 80.0% of eclodibility.The preoviposition period and oviposition period was 3 to 17 days (4.92±0.73 days and 16 to 41 days (24.38±1.05 days, respectively. The incubation period was 26 to 48 days (34.94±2.92 days. It was confirmed that A. nilens teleogine could laid on ear of horse, when it was dettachment and a factor impossibilited it down on ground.

  7. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

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    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  8. Floral induction in Eucalyptus nitens.

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    Moncur, M W; Hasan, O

    1994-11-01

    Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden takes at least five years to initiate flower buds from seed and is an infrequent and light flowerer. Because this behavior constitutes a major impediment to breeding programs, we examined the mechanisms controlling floral induction in E. nitens, with the long-term aim of reducing generation time and increasing seed yield. Application of paclobutrazol reduced the concentration of endogenous gibberellic acid (GA) in apical tissue and enhanced the reproductive activity of grafted trees maintained outside over winter in Canberra, Australia. Grafts maintained in a warm greenhouse over winter did not produce flower buds, despite the paclobutrazol-induced reduction in GA concentration of the apical tissue. Exposing untreated grafts, which had been maintained over winter in a warm greenhouse, to low temperature the following spring reduced growth but did not induce flower bud production. Addition of GA(3) to paclobutrazol-treated grafts reduced the effect of paclobutrazol on reproductive activity. PMID:14967619

  9. Chemical constituents of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae); Constituintes quimicos das flores Pterogyne nitens (caesalpinioideae)

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    Regasini, Luis Octavio; Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Furlan, Maysa; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Barreiro, Eliezer Jesus [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine Monteiro; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Brandao [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Tecnologia

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Pterogyne nitens (Caesalpinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of nine phenolic derivatives, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, taxifolin, astilbin, ourateacatechin, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, chlorogenic and gallic acid, besides two guanidine alkaloids, pterogynine, pterogynidine. This is the first time these compounds have been reported in P. nitens flowers. As this is a monospecific genus, these secondary metabolites may have taxonomical significance. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. (author)

  10. Micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis and nitens using tissue culture techniques

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    Furze, M.J.; Creswell, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with nodal explants of E. grandis and E. nitens seedlings and E. grandis coppice shoots showed that a large number of plants can be produced from a single explant using micropropagation. The percentage of micropropagated shoots that formed roots was about 90% for E. grandis and 80% for E. nitens. For both species, about 90% of the rooted shoots survived after hardening off. 9 references.

  11. Acoustic Wave Velocity as a Selection Trait in Eucalyptus nitens

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    David Blackburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in Eucalyptus nitens have revealed favourable genetic correlations exist between acoustic wave velocity (AWV in standing trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE, which can determine the suitability of trees for structural timber and/or engineered wood products. This study investigates the strength and stability of genetic variation in standing tree AWV across a range of environments in Tasmania, where there are a number of large plantation estates and breeding trials. Trees under study were from open-pollinated progeny trials established in 1993. Across sites, for standing tree AWV the ranking of E. nitens races did not change and within-race additive genetic correlations were strong (0.61 to 0.99. Heritabilities (0.16 to 0.74 and coefficients of additive genetic variation (2.6 to 4.8 were moderate for this trait. Correlations between standing tree AWV and both basic density and diameter at breast height (DBH were favourable. Results indicate that there is potential to improve MOE in E. nitens through the exploitation of genetic variation in AWV among and within races, the expression of genetic variation in AWV is relatively stable across different growing environments, and past selection for basic density and growth in pulpwood breeding programs is unlikely to have adversely affected MOE.

  12. Efecto de poda y raleo en el área foliar de Eucalyptus nitens

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    Muñoz, Fernando; Espinosa, Miguel; Cancino, Jorge; Rubilar, Rafael; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is an important commercial fast growing species planted mainly in Chile and Australia (Tasmania). In Chile there are not previously published studies quantifying leaf area in adult forest plantations of E. nitens. This study presents the effect of pruning and thinning intensities, applied at age 6 in a E. nitens stand, and on the amount of leaf area sustained at 15 years old. A factorial experiment considering pruning (0 m, 3.5 m and 7 m height) and stocking (1,100,...

  13. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

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    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae. The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN of the National University of Salta (Argentina. The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P

  14. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

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    Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  15. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

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    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  16. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

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    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  17. Myeloperoxidase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of flavones from Pterogyne nitens.

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    Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan Silva; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira

    2008-05-01

    Two new flavone glucosides, nitensosides A and B (1, 2), together with four known compounds, sorbifolin (3), sorbifolin 6-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), pedalitin (5), and pedalitin 6-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from Pterogyne nitens. Their structures were elucidated from 1D and 2D NMR analysis, as well as by high resolution mass spectrometry. All the isolated flavones were evaluated for their myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitory activity. The most active compound, pedalitin, exhibited IC50 value of 3.75 nM on MPO. Additionally, the radical-scavenging capacity of flavones 1-6 was evaluated towards ABTS and DPPH radicals and compared to standard compounds quercetin and Trolox. PMID:18451567

  18. Vier Seltenheiten in der Osnabrücker Stadtflora: Atriplex nitens, Salsola ruthenica, Parietaria officinalis, Eragrostis tef

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    Hard, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    Es werden vier Neufunde und andere interessante Vorkommen von Ruderalpflanzen im Stadtgebiet von Osnabrück beschrieben: Atriplex nitens in Chenopodietalia- und Sisymbrion-Gesellschaften einer Inertstoffdeponie; Salsola ruthenica in herbizidbeeinflußten Sisymbrion-, Convolvulo-Agropyrion- und Polygono-Poetalia-Gesellschaften auf Grus bzw. Kies und Sand im Bundesbahngelände; Parietaria officinalis im Aegopodion eines zeitweise verwilderten Gartens der gründerzeitlichen Weststadt; Eragrostis tef...

  19. Nutritional, carbon and energy evaluation of Eucalyptus nitens short rotation bioenergy plantations in northwestern Spain

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    González-García M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides essential information related to the nutrient and carbon levels and the energy potential of Eucalytpus nitens (Deane & Maiden Maiden bionenergy plantations located in northwestern Spain. Nutritional analysis showed that leaves and bark had the highest concentrations of N, P, K and Mg. Carbon concentration was constant for all above-ground tree components. Nutrients and carbon were analyzed at stand level according to plantation productivity. Stemwood, the main tree component at the end of the rotation, had the highest nutrient content, except for N and Ca, which were highest in leaves and bark respectively. Based on this study, the nutrient content per ha of above-ground biomass was 243-706 kg N, 44-122 kg P, 131-375 kg K, 121-329 kg Ca and 25-67 kg Mg at the end of the bioenergy rotation (6-12 years, depending on site quality and 19-56 Mg C ha-1. Energy analysis showed a fairly constant Net Calorific Value for wood, 18.32 ± 0.19 MJ kg-1. The results obtained are valuable for selecting the most appropriate forest management system in these bioenergy plantations, and thereby promote the sustainable use of woody crops.

  20. RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens

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    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and allele...

  1. MODELOS DE EVOLUÇÃO DAS POPULAÇÕES DE Gonipterus scutellatus E Anaphes nitens.

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    Martins, A.; J. Dias; Alpizar-Jara, R.; Valente, C

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo a compilação e revisão dos resultados até agora obtidos relativos ao desenvolvimento de modelos matemáticos que permitam descrever a interacção entre a espécie Gonipterus scutellatus e o seu parasitóide Anaphes nitens. Estes modelos, para além de permitirem compreender melhor os mecanismos que regulam a dinâmica populacional de ambos os insectos, poderão ainda ser utilizados na previsão da gravidade dos ataques, possibilitando decidir atempadamente so...

  2. Transmission of Babesia caballi by Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) Is Restricted to One Generation in the Absense of Alimentary Reinfection on a Susceptible Equine Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is the natural vector of Babesia caballi in the Americas; the distribution of this tick in the United States is limited to the southernmost parts of Florida and Texas. Babesia caballi, one of the etiologic agents of equine babesiosis, occurs widely throug...

  3. Efectos de dos insecticidas de síntesis y de dos bio-insecticidas sobre el defoliador del eucalipto "Gonipterus scutellatus" Gyllenhal y su agente de control biológico "Anaphes nitens" Girault.

    OpenAIRE

    Santolamazza Carbone, Serena; Fernández de Ana Magán, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    [EN] We have combined the results of experiments done in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate the toxicity of four insecticides: flufenoxuron, ethofenprox, azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki on the eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus and its natural enemy Anaphes nitens. Adults and larvae of G. scutellatus and adults of A. nitens were exposed to treated leaves of Eucalyptus globulus in the laboratory. The weevil egg-capsules were treated topically applyi...

  4. EFECTO DE UN ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO MEDIANTE RAYOS UV EN LA PROPAGACIÓN SUPERFICIAL DE GRIETAS DE DEBOBINADO EN TABLEROS CONTRACHAPADOS DE Eucalyptus nitens ULTRAVIOLET RAY AGING EFFECT ON LATHE CHECK SURFACE PROPAGATION IN Eucalyptus nitens Plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un envejecimiento acelerado mediante rayos ultravioleta y condiciones ambientales controladas sobre la propagación de grietas de debobinado y agrietamiento superficial, al simular las condiciones de servicio en exterior de tableros contrachapados fabricados con chapas provenientes de tres alturas de trozas de familias segregadas de Eucalyptus nitens y bajo condiciones de debobinado controladas. Para realizar el ensayo se uso una cámara de envejecimiento acelerado UV (rayos ultravioleta capaz de reproducir el espectro de radiación emitido por el sol bajo condiciones climáticas controladas de humedad relativa, condensación y temperatura, de acuerdo a la norma ASTM G154-06. Mediante análisis de imágenes se evaluó el nivel de agrietamiento superficial porcentual en el área envejecida de las probetas, además del ancho de grietas en la superficie de los tableros. El análisis de imágenes del área envejecida de las probetas mostró que el ancho de grietas y área de agrietamiento disminuye con respecto a la altura de la troza, existiendo diferencias significativas en agrietamiento, entre familias segregadas de Eucalyptus nitens. Además las grietas de debobinado en las chapas se propagan hacia la superficie, siendo éstas responsables del agrietamiento en las caras de tableros contrachapados. Basado en los resultados del estudio, el envejecimiento acelerado mediante UV es un buen indicador para evaluar la propagación de grietas de debobinado y el agrietamiento superficial en muestras de tableros contrachapados expuestos al exterior.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of accelerated aging with UV rays and controlled environmental conditions in lathe check propagation and surface cracking, simulating the conditions of outside service of plywood made with veneers from three heights of logs families segregated of Eucalyptus nitens and under conditions of controlled peeling

  5. EFEITOS DO CONDICIONAMENTO SEGUIDO OU NÃO DE SECAGEM EM SEMENTES DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. SOB ESTRESSE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela Peres Biruel; Aluísio Brígido Borba Filho; Eugênio Celso Emérito de Araújo; Fernando O. Fraccaro; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieiri de Andrade Perez

    2007-01-01

    Pterogyne nitens Tul. é conhecida popularmente como amendoim do campo, é uma espécie arbórea, heliófita, secundária inicial que se regenera intensamente em áreas abertas e pastagens. Pode ser empregada como espécie ornamental e na reposição de mata ciliar, em locais sujeitos a inundações periódicas, em sítios arenosos e degradados. O condicionamento é uma técnica pós-colheita usada com o objetivo de aumentar a velocidade de germinação, emergência, bem como ampliar a tolerância a vários tipos ...

  6. Dual RNA-sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi challenge reveals pathogen and host factors influencing compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febe Elizabeth Meyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction.

  7. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Febé E; Shuey, Louise S; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  8. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae), the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    OpenAIRE

    Suparman Suparman; Yulia Pujiastuti; Hisanori Bando; Shin-ichiro Asano

    2013-01-01

    Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely ...

  9. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae, the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely low. A conventional way of controlling S. nitens using crude sap of infected larvae has been applied in several oil palm plantations in Sumatra Island, but various improvements are required to make the method more effective, efficient, widely acceptable and scientifically justified. A research on the potential use of entomopathogenic virus native to Sumatra Island as biological control agent of slug caterpillar was conducted to comprehend the pathogenicity and virulence of the entomopathogenic virus and to reveal the morphological identify of its particle. The results showed that the use of virus infecting caterpillars to control the insect was quite successful in term of increasing the number of infected caterpillars and reducing the rate of population development in the field. The use of homogenized infected caterpillars to orally infect healty S. nitens caterpillars resulted in the symptoms characteristics to viral infections appeared in all treated caterpillars with various extent of symptom developments. Some caterpillars could spine cocons but failed to release adult moth. Purification of the virus particles from infected caterpillars resulted in the apperarance of white band in the sucrose gradient indicated the presence of viral RNA. Electron microscopic observation showed that the white band in the sucrose gradient contained sphericle shape of virus particles justifying that the agent infecting S. nitens caterpillars is a virus which still need

  10. Etude des contraintes de croissance. Troisième partie : Eucalyptus delegatensis et Eucalyptus nitens : Influence de la sylviculture et de la station

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrand, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Environ 550 mesures de contraintes de croissance ont été réalisées sur Eucalyptus delegatensis et Eucalyptus nitens dans des essais d’espacements à la plantation et d’éclaircie situés à proximité de Melbourne (Victoria, Australie). Il en ressort que, au même âge, plus l’espacement entre arbres est grand, plus les contraintes sont faibles. La sylviculture est donc un moyen très efficace pour diminuer les contraintes de croissance. Elles sont aussi plus faibles là où la hauteur dominante e...

  11. Efeitos de altas temperaturas na germinação de sementes de capim-dourado (Syngonanthus nitens (Bong. Ruhland, Eriocaulaceae: implicações para o manejo Effects of high temperatures on the germination of Syngonanthus nitens seeds: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia Fichino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar potenciais efeitos do fogo na germinação de sementes de capim-dourado (Syngonanthus nitens (Bong. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae. Sementes coletadas na região do Jalapão, Tocantins, foram submetidas a choques de temperaturas de 60º, 100 ºC, 150 ºC e 200 ºC durante 1, 3 e 5 minutos. Foram feitas 5 réplicas, com 20 sementes para cada tratamento, e controle. As sementes foram dispostas em placas de Petri e em câmaras de germinação a 28 ºC, fotoperíodo 12h/12h, por 40 dias. As taxas de germinação das sementes foram analisadas por meio de ANOVA com teste de aleatorização. A maioria dos tratamentos resultou em altas taxas de germinação (>85%, exceto 200ºC/3' (50% e 200ºC/5', que apresentou uma queda significativa (4,5%, PThis study aimed to assess the effects of fire on germination of golden-grass (Syngonanthus nitens (Bong. Ruhland, Eriocaulaceae seeds. Seeds collected in Jalapão (Tocantins, Brazil were exposed to heat shock treatments at 60 ºC, 100 ºC, 150 ºC and 200 ºC, for 1', 3', and 5'. For each treatment and control five replications were used (20 seeds each. Seeds were put on Petri dishes and placed inside germination chambers set at 28 ºC, 12h/12h, for 40 days. Germination rates were analyzed by two-factorial ANOVA, using randomization tests. Most treatments showed high germination rates (>85%, except for 200ºC/3' (50%, and 200ºC/5, which showed germination rates that were significantly lower (4.5%, P<0.05. The results indicated that S. nitens seeds were not stimulated or killed by high temperatures, except when an extreme temperature and time of exposure were combined (200ºC/5'. When wet grasslands burn, where S. nitens grows, the fire passes very quickly over the area and the temperature during the fire may not exceed 150ºC. Under these conditions, our results suggest that S. nitens seeds can potentially survive most fires. These findings are essential for making management

  12. EFEITOS DO CONDICIONAMENTO SEGUIDO OU NÃO DE SECAGEM EM SEMENTES DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. SOB ESTRESSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Peres Biruel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterogyne nitens Tul. é conhecida popularmente como amendoim do campo, é uma espécie arbórea, heliófita, secundária inicial que se regenera intensamente em áreas abertas e pastagens. Pode ser empregada como espécie ornamental e na reposição de mata ciliar, em locais sujeitos a inundações periódicas, em sítios arenosos e degradados. O condicionamento é uma técnica pós-colheita usada com o objetivo de aumentar a velocidade de germinação, emergência, bem como ampliar a tolerância a vários tipos de estresse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do condicionamento com ou sem secagem posterior em aumentar a resistência a diferentes tipos de estresse. As sementes selecionadas foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico durante 15 min. e depois condicionadas em água destilada e soluções de manitol -0,5 e -1,0 MPa durante 24h a 10oC. Para cada solução de condicionamento, o lote de sementes foi dividido em dois grupos, um dos quais foi seco até atingir o teor de umidade apresentado antes do condicionamento, e o segundo foi imediatamente usado nos testes. Os diferentes grupos de sementes foram expostos ao envelhecimento acelerado (100% U.R. sob 35 e 40oC, ao estresse térmico (24h a 60 e 70oC e o teste de exaustão (24h submersos a 10 e 27oC. Para todos os testes foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 unidades e os dados de porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Com o aumento da intensidade do estresse houve diminuição na germinação e no vigor das sementes, que as diferentes formas de condicionamento não reverteram. Em geral, o condicionamento com o uso manitol a -1,0 MPa diminuiu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes e, soluções a -0,5 MPa ou água destilada aumentaram a porcentagem e/ou velocidade de germinação de sementes submetidas aos diferentes tipos de estresse.

  13. Efeitos do condicionamento seguido ou não de secagem em sementes de Pterogyne nitens Tul. sob estresse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Peres Biruel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pterogyne nitens Tul. é conhecida popularmente como amendoim do campo, é uma espécie arbórea, heliófita, secundária inicial que se regenera intensamente em áreas abertas e pastagens. Pode ser empregada como espécie ornamental e na reposição de mata ciliar, em locais sujeitos a inundações periódicas, em sítios arenosos e degradados. O condicionamento é uma técnica pós-colheita usada com o objetivo de aumentar a velocidade de germinação, emergência, bem como ampliar a tolerância a vários tipos de estresse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do condicionamento com ou sem secagem posterior em aumentar a resistência a diferentes tipos de estresse. As sementes selecionadas foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico durante 15 min. e depois condicionadas em água destilada e soluções de manitol -0,5 e -1,0 MPa durante 24h a 10oC. Para cada solução de condicionamento, o lote de sementes foi dividido em dois grupos, um dos quais foi seco até atingir o teor de umidade apresentado antes do condicionamento, e o segundo foi imediatamente usado nos testes. Os diferentes grupos de sementes foram expostos ao envelhecimento acelerado (100% U.R. sob 35 e 40oC, ao estresse térmico (24h a 60 e 70oC e o teste de exaustão (24h submersos a 10 e 27oC. Para todos os testes foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 unidades e os dados de porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Com o aumento da intensidade do estresse houve diminuição na germinação e no vigor das sementes, que as diferentes formas de condicionamento não reverteram. Em geral, o condicionamento com o uso manitol a -1,0 MPa diminuiu a qualidade fisiológica das sementes e, soluções a -0,5 MPa ou água destilada aumentaram a porcentagem e/ou velocidade de germinação de sementes submetidas aos diferentes tipos de estresse.

  14. Efeitos do condicionamento seguido ou não de secagem em sementes de Pterogyne nitens Tul. sob estresse.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela Peres Biruel; Aluísio Brígido Borba Filho; Eugênio Celso Emérito de Araújo; Fernando O. Fraccaro; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieiri de Andrade Perez

    2010-01-01

    Pterogyne nitens Tul. é conhecida popularmente como amendoim do campo, é uma espécie arbórea, heliófita, secundária inicial que se regenera intensamente em áreas abertas e pastagens. Pode ser empregada como espécie ornamental e na reposição de mata ciliar, em locais sujeitos a inundações periódicas, em sítios arenosos e degradados. O condicionamento é uma técnica pós-colheita usada com o objetivo de aumentar a velocidade de germinação, emergência, bem como ampliar a tolerância a vários tipos ...

  15. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong. Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos Ramos MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Giovana Calixto,2 Luciani Gaspar de Toledo,3 Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Lourdes Campaner dos Santos,4 Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida,3 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab1 1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, 4Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong. Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE] and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w, polyoxypropylene (5 polyoxyethylene (20 cetyl alcohol (40% w/w as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol® 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258 and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3, were used to

  16. Modelización de la producción de biomasa de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden en corta rotación para cultivo energético

    OpenAIRE

    González-García, M

    2016-01-01

    La biomasa forestal es una fuente de energía renovable cuyo uso genera beneficios de tipo ambiental, económico y social. En los últimos años el cultivo de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden para producción de biomasa se han extendido por el Noroeste de España. Los objetivos de esta Tesis Doctoral se centran en la modelización forestal de plantaciones energéticas de esta especie con el fin de estimar su productividad y proporcionar las herramientas para optimizar la producc...

  17. 基于线粒体D-loop区比较分析野生与养殖斜带髭鲷种群的遗传多样性%GENETIC DIVERSITY EVALUATION BY THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON MITOCHONDRIAL D-LOOP AREA BETWEEN WILD AND CULTURED POPULATIONS OF HAPALOGENYS NITENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈竹; 钟山; 罗大极; 杨国华; 梁日深; 邹记兴

    2011-01-01

    采集广东省深圳市南澳区野生斜带髭鲷Hapalogenys nitens (Richardson)和养殖斜带髭鲷各25个样本.通过设计特异性引物,采用PCR技术对该50个个体的mtDNA D-loop区全序列进行扩增,测序得到的序列进行比对,发现该50个序列长度变异较小,均在788-790 bp之间,野生型和养殖型区别不大.采用MEGA(version 4.0)和DnaSP(version 4.0)软件对序列进行分析,结果显示:50条序列中T、C、A和G碱基平均含量分别为29.9%、21.5%、35.2%和13.5%,其中A+T的含量(65.1%)显著高于G+C含量(34.9%),表现了明显的碱基偏倚.50个个体表现为26种单倍型,包括91个多态位点,单倍型间平均遗传距离为0.024,单倍型多态性(h)为0.958,核苷酸多态性(π)值为0.02277.研究表明,mtDNA D-loop区可以作为检测野生与养殖斜带髭鲷群体遗传多样性的有效分子标记,而广东省深圳市南澳区野生斜带髭鲷种群遗传多样性已经下降至中等水平.研究提示野生斜带髭鲷种群遗传多样性不容乐观,资源调查、种质维护与遗传评价有待深入.%Hapalogenys nitens is a kind of delicious marine fish, mainly distributes in China, Japan and Korea, which has become an important culture fish in China. In recent years, as economic activity is becoming more frequent, fewer and fewer natural nitens could be captured in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and other provinces along the coast. It is important to analyze the population genetic structure of Hapalogenys nitens. For evaluating the genetic diversity of Hapalogenys nitens, 50 individuals of Hapalogenys nitens were collected from Guangdong province. All of the 50 individuals were come from two groups which were wild and cultured groups. Half of them was the wild population, and the other half was the cultured population. Study on genetic diversity evaluation of fish is mainly concentrated on gene mutation in nucleus. But in recent years, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in

  18. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Badra Soraya Jabur; Pereira Luiz Eloy; Szabó Matias Pablo Juan

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivir...

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  20. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  1. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

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    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  2. Estudo comparativo do aspecto da hemolinfa de algumas espécies de carrapatos (Acari, Ixodidae: descrição da variação hemocitária de adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch Comparative study of the hemolymph aspect from a few ticks species (Acari, Ixodidae: description of the hemocyte variation of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch

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    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte composition of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 Koch, 1844 adults consisted of three basic cellular types: prahemocyte I (PR I, plasmatocyte (PL and spherulocyte (ES II. Among the ixodids observed (A. cajennense; A. dissimile Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806; Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937; Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 and Haemaphysalis sp. only A. cajennense was different in the adult hemolymph colour. It changed from amber to deep blue as the ixodid age advanced. This fact could be associated with the presence of hemocyanin in the hemolymph and points out the need to develop further investigations about the Ixodidae hemolymph pratein composition as well as the function of all the types found in it. This information could aid the studies on ticks control.

  3. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  4. Progress in the eradication of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius, 1794 (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) from the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblyomma variegatum, commonly known as the tropical Bont tick, was introduced from West Africa to the islands of Guadeloupe and Antigua in the 19th century. The tick spread only to two other islands in the French West Indies during the following 70 to 80 years. Since the mid-1970s, however, it became widely distributed in the eastern Caribbean islands. There is now increasing evidence that migratory birds, especially the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus (Ciconiformes: Ardeie) disseminated larvae and nymphs, as the egret itself has been spreading to new islands over the last 20 years (Corn et al. 1993, Barre et al. 1995). Subsequently, the tropical Bont tick, through its association with the bacterial skin disease known as dermatophilosis, caused the loss of large numbers of animals. On Nevis, for example, cattle numbers were decimated from 5,000 to 500 in less than 10 years. Elimination of this tick and its associated diseases could help to alleviate the deficit in animal protein in the region which imports about US$100 million worth of livestock products per annum. Risk analysis, feasibility and cost-benefit studies were carried out to assess the importance of these problems (Alderink and McCauley 1988, Gersabeck 1994). The US Department of Agriculture estimated potential losses of US$762 million annually if the tick and its associated diseases became established in mainland countries. These studies led to the formulation of the Caribbean Amblyomma Programme in the late 1980s (Barre and Garris 1989, CARICOM/FAO/IICA 1995, Wilson 1996). During the early 1990s, potential donors were concerned about the proposed tick control strategy whereby government veterinary teams would be responsible for treatment of all livestock. Based on practical experience in the region, it was considered particularly unrealistic for teams to treat 600 - 1,000 animals per day under the current livestock management practices. An alternative, or complementary, method proposed the use of mobile crush-pens which would also be difficult to implement. Who would erect them and where? Once erected, who would bring the animals to them? Most livestock in the region are owned by part-time farmers who tend their livestock early in the morning or late in the evening or on weekends. Consequently, they are rarely available to assist veterinary personnel in handling their livestock during normal working hours. This unique system of animal ownership and husbandry practices in the Caribbean would, therefore, due to very high operational costs, almost prohibit conventional delivery of tick control by veterinary services personnel

  5. Ultrastructural study of muscles fibers in tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughdadi, Faisal A

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, ticks were obtained from a colony maintained at 28 degrees C and 75% relative humidity in at the Department of Biology, University College Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia and the Transmission Electron Microscope technique (TEM) was used to describes the ultrastructure and description of muscle of the of ixodid tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum. The results showed that muscles of the unfed ticks Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum in longitudinal sections are spindle-shaped to cylindrical muscle fibers. In the unfed nymph Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum skeletal and visceral muscles are distinguished according to structure, function and position. These muscles include the capitulum, dorsoventral and leg oblique muscles. All muscle fibers are ensheathed (covered by sheath) in a sarcolemma. Their muscle fibers have striated pattern of successive sarcomeres whose thick myosin filaments are surrounded by orbitals of up to 12 thin actin filaments. The cytoplasm of the epidermal cell appears largely devoted with complicated microtubules present in parallel with long axis of adjacent muscle fibers. The cell membrane invaginates into tubular system extending deeply into the sarcoplasm and closely associated to cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum. The tubular system and sarcoplasmic reticulum forming two-membered (dyads) are considered to be the main route of calcium ions whose movement are synchronized with the motor impulse to control muscles contraction. In the sarcoplasm two types of muscle fibers are recognized according to thickness and density and mitochondrial size, distribution and population. Both skeletal and visceral muscles are invaginated by tracheoles and innervated by nerve axons containing synaptic vesicles. The actin and myosin filaments are slightly interrupted and the tubular system sarcoplasmic reticulum is well demonstrated. PMID:21313907

  6. Biological effects of ivermectin on the fowl tick Argas (Persicargas persicus (Oken (Ixodoidea: Argasidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouk, A.S.*; Swelim, H.H.*; Montasser, A.A.*and Gadallah, A.I.**

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is carried out to assess the effect induced by different single subcutaneous injections of ivermectin (IVM (100, 200, 400, 800 or 1600 g/kg pigeon weight injected 2 or 7 days before tick feeding on some biological parameters such as mobility and viability, sexual activity, ingested blood, amount of coxal fluid, blood digestion and fertility in the tick Argas (P. persicus to define the effective dose. This effective dose was used in similar assessment conducted 2 or 3 weeks post injection in order to confirm the degradation of ivermectin concentration in the host blood and to determine the number of required doses for complete control . From this study we conclude: 1 IVM induces complete immobilization of both males and females when they are fed on hosts injected by doses over 100 g/kg. 2 The use of two doses of 400 g/kg with a week interval completely controls the tick population. 3 Sexual response was completely negative at doses over 200 g/kg. 4 The amount of coxal fluid emitted by both sexes decreased markedly when fed after host injection with all doses, whereas the amount of ingested blood remained generally not highly affected. 5 The number of ovipositing females, number of eggs deposited and their hatching percent decreased markedly with the increase of dose used. Blood digestion was not noticed in males at doses >200 ug/kg and in females at doses >100ug/kg .

  7. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  8. Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae: first description of the male, immature stages and re-description of the female.

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    Abdalla A Latif

    Full Text Available Nuttalliella namaqua is the only species of the enigmatic third tick family. Females possess features of hard and soft ticks and have been designated as the "missing link" between the main tick families. Its position at the base of the tick tree suggests that some of the features unique to hard and soft ticks were present in the ancestral tick lineage. Larvae, nymphae and males have not been described to date and questions regarding their biological affinities to the main tick families remain unclear. The current study addressed these questions via the description of larvae, nymphae and males and resolved issues pertaining to female morphology. Field collected as well as laboratory-engorged females laid eggs and viable larvae subsequently hatched. The larvae possess morphological structures not present in subsequent stages: namely, a sclerotized scutum, pores on the dorsal surface of legs and a dentate anal plate. The last two characters are not present in ixodids and argasids. N. namaqua larvae and nymphae show a similar morphology to females: a unique hypostomal structure i.e., bluntly rounded apically in nymphae and females and ball-like in the larvae. A re-description of some structures in female N. namaqua has resolved differences in the original descriptions, namely that N. namaqua have 4 palpal segments as found in ixodids and argasids and posthypostomal setae. The male was discovered for the first time and described. Characteristic male features include: a pseudoscutum over most of the dorsum, an outgrowth on the chelicerae forming a unique rod-like structure similar to a spematodactyl in mites and medial extension of palpal segment 2 forming a large ventral crib for segment 4. All life stages possess some features found in hard and soft ticks and its status as the "missing link" between the tick families remains.

  9. Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae): first description of the male, immature stages and re-description of the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Abdalla A; Putterill, John F; de Klerk, Daniel G; Pienaar, Ronel; Mans, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Nuttalliella namaqua is the only species of the enigmatic third tick family. Females possess features of hard and soft ticks and have been designated as the "missing link" between the main tick families. Its position at the base of the tick tree suggests that some of the features unique to hard and soft ticks were present in the ancestral tick lineage. Larvae, nymphae and males have not been described to date and questions regarding their biological affinities to the main tick families remain unclear. The current study addressed these questions via the description of larvae, nymphae and males and resolved issues pertaining to female morphology. Field collected as well as laboratory-engorged females laid eggs and viable larvae subsequently hatched. The larvae possess morphological structures not present in subsequent stages: namely, a sclerotized scutum, pores on the dorsal surface of legs and a dentate anal plate. The last two characters are not present in ixodids and argasids. N. namaqua larvae and nymphae show a similar morphology to females: a unique hypostomal structure i.e., bluntly rounded apically in nymphae and females and ball-like in the larvae. A re-description of some structures in female N. namaqua has resolved differences in the original descriptions, namely that N. namaqua have 4 palpal segments as found in ixodids and argasids and posthypostomal setae. The male was discovered for the first time and described. Characteristic male features include: a pseudoscutum over most of the dorsum, an outgrowth on the chelicerae forming a unique rod-like structure similar to a spematodactyl in mites and medial extension of palpal segment 2 forming a large ventral crib for segment 4. All life stages possess some features found in hard and soft ticks and its status as the "missing link" between the tick families remains. PMID:22844508

  10. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Febé E.; Louise S Shuey; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus n...

  11. The fowl tick, Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae): description of the egg and redescription of the larva by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Ashraf A

    2010-12-01

    This scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the egg of Argas persicus was covered with chorion which appeared as a wrinkled layer containing regions of three textures. The first had elevated parts of slightly rough surface. The second had irregular smooth elevations; each carried numerous parallel horizontal foldings with vertical ridges. The last region had rough surface with irregularly shaped projections. Following the removal of the chorion, shell was observed to have one polar micropyle and numerous slit like openings. Length (L), width (W) and L/W ratio of the egg were measured. Investigation of larvae revealed extensively folded integument of idiosoma and spherical or elongated tubercles on dorsal plate. Mouth enclosed between ventral hypostome and two dorsal chelicerae. Hypostome carried four longitudinal rows of conical denticles. Each chelicera was made up of two segments; the basal one appeared as a pocket for the distal one. Haller's organ consisted of an anterior pit containing seven sensilla and a posterior capsule with four apertures. Distribution of chemo- and mechano-sensilla on the body was examined. Measurements of whole body, idiosoma, dorsal plate, capitulum, hypostome, palp and different types of sensilla both on the body and Haller's organ are also presented. PMID:20607364

  12. The Camel Tick, Hyalomma (Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae: Description of the Egg and Redescription of the Larva by Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    Ashraf Ahmed Montasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the egg of Hyalomma (H. dromedarii for the first time and adds more features to the larva using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in order to extend our knowledge on these acarine stages to be useful for further taxonomical or control studies. With the purpose of presenting exact description of acarine eggs, it is preferable to examine them both with and without SEM processing. SEM processing caused partial removal of the chorion which makes the egg shell clear and easily observed. The study revealed rough surface of egg shell which was surrounded by the chorion. The egg shell was perforated particularly at poles. The chorion appeared as a finely perforated cloth. Different forms of bumps were noticed between egg shell and chorion. Length, width, l/w ratio and pore diameter of the egg were measured. SEM investigation of the larva revealed smooth scutum with slight irregular ornamentation and horizontally folded extensible cuticle with vertical ridges. At least 2 types of cuticular openings were noticed on the extensible cuticle of the idiosoma. The first type was represented by 1 pair on dorsal side and 2 pairs on ventral one. It was surrounded with thick integumental ring and guarded with 2 internal lips. The second type was numerous, slit-like and without rings or lips. Dorsolateral plate of the hypostome carried numerous oval, tile-like and elevated denticles while ventral one carried 4 rows of posteriorly directed retrograde conical denticles. Mouth enclosed 2 cheliceral digits, each terminated with 3 lobes. Each lobe is supported with 2 or 3 conical denticles which were externally directed to the posterior. Haller`s organ on the tarsus of the first pair of legs consisted of anterior pit and posterior capsule. The pit contained 6 conical sensillae while the capsule opening had extensively branched margin. Measurements of the whole body, idiosoma, scutum, eye, capitulum, hypostome, palp, cuticular pores, legs and Haller`s organ sensillae of the larva are also presented.

  13. Names for Ixodidae (Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names--with notes on confusions and misidentifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    A major, but not exhaustive, literature revision has been made to compile the names of Ixodidae from Linnaeus to present. Names are classified as valid, synonyms, lapsus, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, incorrect and suppressed. Notes are included for confusions and misidentifications among different tick species. The lists included in this study are neither aimed to be consensual nor focusing to stabilize nomenclature, but rather part of a discussion on the species forming Ixodidae and a potential aid for research on tick taxonomy and phylogeny. PMID:24871038

  14. Caracterização dos tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae em diferentes estados nutricionais Characterization of the celular types present in the Haemolymph of larvae and nimphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae in different nutritional stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterize morphologically the hemocytes of larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus on different nutritional phases, it was obtained samples of haemolymph were obtained by sectioning the forelegs and collecting the drop there formed. After dried, the samples were fixed by methanol and stained by Giemsa. Microscopical observation resulted in the characterization of five basic cellular types: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. Moreover, undefined cell types, whose morphological patterns didn't have correlation with the characteristics cited for hemocytes, were found in low frequency. The change in the relative composition of the haemolimph was characterized by decrease of the number of granulocytes and greater variabilily of the cell types present in the hemolymph as the tick evolved. This fact may be linked to the alterations that these cells suffer along the development of the tick.

  15. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Ramos MA; Calixto G; de Toledo LG; Bonifácio BV; dos Santos LC; de Almeida MT; Chorilli M; Bauab TM

    2015-01-01

    Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Giovana Calixto,2 Luciani Gaspar de Toledo,3 Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Lourdes Campaner dos Santos,4 Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida,3 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab1 1Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine of São José d...

  16. Factors associated to Theileria equi in equids of two microregions from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Fatores associados à Theileria equi em equídeos de duas microrregiões do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Tiago Marques dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 714 equids of Itaguaí and Serrana microregions, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody test (titer 1:80 for Theileria equi. The prevalence in the microregions and factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated and the prevalence ratio (PR calculated. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection was 81.09% (n = 579, with higher prevalence (p Amostras de soro de 714 equídeos das microrregiões de Itaguaí e Serrana, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foram submetidas ao teste de imunofluorescência indireta (título 1:80 para Theileria equi. A prevalência entre as microrregiões e os fatores associados à soropositividade foram avaliados e a razão de prevalência (RP calculada. A prevalência geral para T. equi foi de 81,09% (n = 579, com maior prevalência (p < 0,05 para microrregião de Itaguaí (85,43%, quando comparado a Serrana (76,92%. A região, altitude, nível da propriedade e origem dos equídeos foram associados (p < 0,05 com a soropositividade para T. equi. Equídeos criados na microrregião de Itaguaí (RP = 1,11; p = 0,003 e em altitudes abaixo de 500 m (RP = 1.10; p = 0,014 apresentaram maior chance de se tornarem soropositivos para T. equi. Além disso, quando são criados em propriedades de nível ruim (RP = 1,13; p = 0,018 e nascidos na propriedade (RP = 1,10; p = 0,008 apresentaram mais chance de terem contato com T. equi. As principais espécies de carrapatos encontradas parasitando os equídeos foram Amblyomma cajennense e Dermacentor (Anocentor nitens. As microrregiões estudadas são endêmicas para theileriose equina e de estabilidade enzoótica para T. equi. Apenas os fatores relacionados à área de coleta das amostras de soro influenciaram a soropositividade dos equídeos para T. equi naquela região.

  17. Tick fauna from two locations in the Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2007-01-01

    The Cerrado is Brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the Amazon rainforest. The Cerrado Biome of tropical South America covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The Cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. Information about ticks from the Cerrado biome is scarce. In this report tick species free-living, on domestic animals and on a few wild animals in two farms in the Cerrado biome (Nova Crixás and Araguapaz municipalities, Goiás State, Brazil) are described. Amblyomma cajennense was the first and Amblyomma parvum the second host-seeking tick species found. Only two other tick species were found free-living: one Amblyomma nodosum and three Amblyomma naponense nymphs. Cattle were infested with Boophilus microplus and A. cajennense. Buffalos were infested with B. microplus and A. parvum. Dogs were infested with A. cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, A. parvum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Anocentor nitens, B. microplus, A. cajennense, and A. parvum were found on horses. Amblyomma auricularium were found attached to nine-banded armadillos and Amblyomma rotundatum to red-footed tortoise, cururu toads and a rattlesnake. The latter was also infested with an adult A. cajennense. No tick was found on a goat, a tropical rat snake and a yellow armadillo. Among the observations the infestation of several domestic animals with A. parvum seems be the main feature. It suggests that this species might become a pest. However, the life cycle of A. parvum in nature, as well as its disease vectoring capacity, are largely unknown. It would be important to determine if it is a species expanding its geographic range by adaptation to new hosts or if it has been maintained in high numbers at definite locations by

  18. Co-infection of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis: a case in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Farah Juan; De la Vega-del Risco Fernando; Bello-Espinosa Ariel; Fortich-Salvador Adriana Sofía

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: there are multiple entities that are transmitted by ticks; one of them isthe babesiosis, an entity that is produced by species of hemoparasites that produce,in the human host, hemolysis due to the parasitic invasion. Other of the entities is taquicártheehrlichiosis, which is characterized by the infection of intracellular microorganismswhose symptoms are part of the spectrum of a fever pattern.Clinical case: patient from rural area, with history of exposure to ixodoidea (ticks)i...

  19. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Kibara (Monimiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine species are recognized of which twenty-four are described as new ( K. bullata, K. carrii, K. chimbuensis, K. ferox, K. flagelliformis, K. fragrans, K. fugax, K. hartleyi, K. karengana, K. katikii, K. kostermansii, K. latifolia, K. leachii, K. macrantha, K. nitens, K. novobritanica, K. ob

  20. Congrid eels of the Eastern Pacific and key to their leptocephali

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Solomon N.

    1985-01-01

    This study indicates that 13 species of congrid larvae belonging to 8 genera occur in the eastern Pacific. The species are: Ariosoma gilberti; Paraconger californiensis; Paraconger sp.; P. dentatus; Chiloconger labiatus; Taenioconger digueti; T. canabus; Gorgasia punctata; G. obtusa; Gnathophis catalinensis; Hildebrandia nitens; Bathycongrus macrurus; and B. varidens. The morphological and anatomical changes undergone during metamorphosis are useful in the identification of the larva...

  1. First total synthesis of a guanidine alkaloid Nitensidine D using immobilized ionic liquid, microwaves and formamidinesulfinic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallu; M L Sharma; Jasvinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    An efficient first total synthesis of a naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid, Nitensidine D isolated from ethanol extract of Pterogyne nitens has been described. Geraniol has been used as the starting material. N-alkylation of phthalimide has been achieved using immobilized ionic liquid and formamidinesulfinic acid acts as the guanylating reagent.

  2. Taxonomic revision of the species group rubripes of Corinna Koch, 1842 (Araneae; Corinnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno V B; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2014-01-01

    The species of the group rubripes, which harbors the type species of the genus Corinna C. L. Koch, 1842, are revised, including 20 Neotropical species. Three previously known species are re-diagnosed: Corinna rubripes C. L. Koch, 1842, Corinna nitens (Keyserling, 1891) and Corinna mourai Bonaldo, 2000. New records of Corinna nitens are provided, including the first ones from Peru and Bolivia. Seventeen new species, all from Brazil, were described: C. aechmea n. sp., C. balacobaco n. sp., C. caatinga n. sp., C. demersa n. sp., C. escalvada n. sp., C. hyalina n. sp., C. jecatatu n. sp., C. kuryi n. sp., C. loiolai n. sp., C. maracas n. sp., C. regii n. sp., C. telecoteco n. sp., C. tranquilla n. sp., C. vesperata n. sp., C. vilanovae n. sp., C. zecarioca n. sp. and C. ziriguidum n. sp. A key for all twenty species of the group is presented. PMID:24943629

  3. Phainopepla nestlings adjust begging behaviors to different male and female parental provisioning rules

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Jeanne Marie

    2000-01-01

    We studied the nestling begging behaviors and parental provisioning responses of the phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens), a sexually dichromatic silky flycatcher native to Mexico and the southwestern United States deserts. Because of its small clutch size (usually two eggs) and synchronous hatching strategy, we predicted that size- based nestling competitive interactions and brood reduction strategies would be absent, so that parental food allocation would accurately reflect nestling need. At ei...

  4. A synopsis of the Malesian species of Kibara (Monimiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Philipson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine species are recognized of which twenty-four are described as new ( K. bullata, K. carrii, K. chimbuensis, K. ferox, K. flagelliformis, K. fragrans, K. fugax, K. hartleyi, K. karengana, K. katikii, K. kostermansii, K. latifolia, K. leachii, K. macrantha, K. nitens, K. novobritanica, K. oblongata, K. rosselensis, K. royenii, K. shungolensis, K. sleumeri, K. streimannii, K. sudestensis, and K. versteeghii) ). One new combination is made: K. oligocarpella (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Philipson, ...

  5. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Viséan; Gourara, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Bockwinkel, J.; Korn, D; V. Ebbighausen

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven ammonoid species are described from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria). The following taxa are newly described: Rhnetites n. gen., Rhnetites rhnetensis n. sp., Rhnetites ouladallalensis n. sp., Parahammatocyclus mutaris n. sp., Bollandoceras nitens n. sp., Bollandoceras subangulare n. sp., Bollandoceras politum n. sp., Bollandoceras aridum n. sp., Bollandoceras zuhara n. sp., Bollandoceras mirrih n. sp., Benimehlalites n. gen., Benimehlalites benimehlalensis n...

  6. Notes on marine Dolichopodid flies from Thailand (Insecta: Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, P.; Meuffels, H.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary report is given on the marine Dolichopodidae from the Thai coasts of the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Siam. Fifteen species in 7 genera are identified. Keys to the genera and the species are provided together with short diagnoses to the species. Seven species are described as new: Cymatopus thaicus, new species, Thinolestris thaica, new species, Thinophilus nitens, new species, Th. parmatus, new species, Thinophilus setiventris, new species, Nanothinophilus hoplites, new species ...

  7. Energy potential of waste from 10 forest species in the North of Spain (Cantabria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Renedo, C J; Ortiz, A; Mañana, M

    2008-09-01

    In this work, the waste from 10 forest species of Cantabria have been characterized from the point of view of energy. The studied species were the waste of: Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus nitens, the hybrid E. globulusxE. nitens, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus smithii, Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus gunni, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Pinus radiata. The leaves were the tree part with the greatest NCV (net calorific value) in all the species. The best results were obtained for the leaves of E. smithii (24.5 MJ/kg), F. sylvatica (22.8 MJ/kg) and E. nitens (22.5 MJ/kg), at minimum moisture. Values around 65,000 MJ per hectare and year were obtained for the Eucalyptus spp., and 47,000 MJ per hectare and year for the P. radiata. The economic-environmental analysis revealed that the use of the forest waste for energy production would mean an approximate annual income of 8 Meuro and would fix the annual CO(2) emitted by the Cantabrian industries at 78%. PMID:18215515

  8. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  9. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  10. Co-infection of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis: a case in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes-Farah Juan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: there are multiple entities that are transmitted by ticks; one of them isthe babesiosis, an entity that is produced by species of hemoparasites that produce,in the human host, hemolysis due to the parasitic invasion. Other of the entities is taquicártheehrlichiosis, which is characterized by the infection of intracellular microorganismswhose symptoms are part of the spectrum of a fever pattern.Clinical case: patient from rural area, with history of exposure to ixodoidea (ticksin a permanent way. Who is admitted with signs of systemic inflammatory response,constitutional symptoms and fever of evening predominance. Hepatomegaly andadenomegalies in supraclavicular area were found. With clinical impression of prolongedfever pattern and hemolytic anemia; it was asked for spread of peripheral blood forhemoparasites. Positive report for two species: Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp whichwere visualized by Wright-Giemsa stain. It is carried out treatment with doxycycline,clindamycin and quinine, with good clinical aspects. Without any complications.Conclusions: this is the first case of co-infection that is known in the ColombianCaribbean region, the diagnosis was suspected due to the importance that was givento the epidemiological antecedents, to the history of exposure to ixodoidea and to theclinical symptoms of persistent fever syndrome. It was done under microscopy techniqueby Wright-Giemsa stain and the result after the conjugated antibiotic treatment wassuccessful. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;3(2:339-345.RESUMEN:Introducción: múltiples son las entidades transmitidas por garrapatas, una de ellases la babesiosis, entidad producida por especies de hemoparásitos que producen en elhuésped humano hemolisis secundaria a la invasión parasitaria. Otra de las entidadeses la ehrlichiosis, caracterizada por la infección de microorganismos intracelulares cuyossíntomas hacen parte del espectro de un cuadro febril.Caso clínico: paciente

  11. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência da Piroplasmose equina e sua associação com infestação por carrapatos no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Kerber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for B. caballi or T. equi as a function of the independent variables (presence or abundance of each one of the tick species found on the farms. A higher overall prevalence of B. caballi (54.1% than of T. equi (21.6% was found by the two tests. The ticks Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 were present on horses on 38 (95%, 20 (50%, and 4 (10% farms, respectively. Infestations by D. nitens were statistically associated with B. caballi-positive horses on the farms by either the CFT or cELISA. Infestations by A. cajennense were statistically associated with T. equi-positive horses on the farms by either CFT or cELISA.Amostras de soro sanguineo foram coletadas de 582 equinos de 40 haras no estado de São Paulo, onde as infestações por carrapatos foram avaliadas nos animais. Os soros foram testados por reação de fixação do complemento (RFC e ELISA competitivo por inibição (cELISA com antígenos de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para construir modelos multivariados que pudessem explicar as variáveis dependentes (equinos positivos para B. caballi ou T. equi em função de variáveis independentes (presença e abundância de cada uma das espécies de carrapatos encontradas nos equinos dos haras. Em geral, os dois testes sorológicos indicaram uma prevalência maior para B. caballi (54,1% do que para T. equi (21,6%. Os carrapatos Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897

  12. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Rahe Pereira; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Andréa Lúcia Teixeira de Souza

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha), com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, su...

  13. Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae em mamíferos silvestres do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra e arredores, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata ixodídeos em mamíferos silvestres no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra e arredores, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. De julho de 2005 a junho de 2014, foram coletadas 58 larvas, 133 ninfas e 43 carrapatos adultos em 40 eventos de captura de mamíferos de vida livre do Parque e arredores. Nos hospedeiros da ordem Carnivora, foram identificados Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888, Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844, Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888. Em hospedeiros da ordem Xenarthra, foram identificados espécimes de Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 e A. sculptum. Este estudo relata os primeiros registros dos ixodídeos D. nitens e R. microplus parasitando Lycalopex vetulus, e A. ovale em Leopardus tigrinus no país. Os achados do presente estudo indicam a proximidade entre os animais domésticos e silvestres causada pela expansão agropecuária no território brasileiro

  14. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. PMID:27337437

  15. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis in trees of a tropical seasonally flooded forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ana; Tezara, Wilmer; Marín, Oranys; Rengifo, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    Trees in the flooded forest of the Mapire River in Venezuela suffer a decrease in photosynthetic rate (A) when flood begins, which is reverted at maximum flood. Changes in A are accompanied by similar changes in stomatal conductance (g(s)), and the possibility of changes in photosynthetic capacity is not ruled out. In order to understand how relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis are affected by flooding, we studied the seasonal changes in A and its response to intercellular CO(2) concentration in trees of Campsiandra laurifolia, Symmeria paniculata, Acosmium nitens and Eschweilera tenuifolia. Flooding caused in trees of C. laurifolia and S. paniculata a reduction in A, g(s), carboxylation efficiency and total soluble protein (TSP), whereas gas exchange in A. nitens and E. tenuifolia was more sensitive to drought. Under flooding, relative stomatal limitation (L(s)) was on average half the highest, and relative non-stomatal limitation (L(ns)) increased from the dry season to flooding. Under full flood, A, g(s) and TSP regained high values. A was positively correlated to light-saturated electron transport rate, suggesting that part of the decrease in A under flooding was due to impairment of photosynthetic capacity. Under flooding, not only stomatal closure but also increased L(ns) causes a reduction in photosynthesis of all four species, and a process of acclimation as flooding progresses allows gas exchange and related variables to regain high values. PMID:18444960

  16. Detección de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi e identificación de garrapatas ixodidas en Piura Y Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Glenny A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Detectar anticuerpos IgG/IgM contra Borrelia burgdorferi en población general, procedentes de los departamentos de Piura y Amazonas e identificar especies de garrapatas probablemente incriminadas en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Lyme. Material y Métodos: Entre agosto del año 2001 y junio de 2002, se colectaron muestras de sangre de 232 pobladores procedentes de ocho localidades del Departamento de Piura y 12 del Departamento de Amazonas, para evaluar mediante ELISA Captia™ Lyme IgG/IgM (Trinity biotech la presencia de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi. Además, se colectaron garrapatas en animales domésticos por búsqueda directa. Resultados: Se detectó seropositividad en 9,9 % de los sueros evaluados. Asimismo, de 433 garrapatas colectadas se identificaron los géneros: Ixodes (5,5%, Amblyomma (18,0%, Rhipicephalus (23,5%, Anocentor (31,1% y Boophilus (21,7%. Conclusiones: Existen personas seropositivas por Borrelia en Piura y Amazonas, coincidiendo con los hallazgos realizados en Sapillica en el año 1992, además se detectó la presencia de garrapatas del género Ixodes en Piura.

  17. Comparative SNP diversity among four Eucalyptus species for genes from secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley William J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about the DNA sequence variation within and between closely related plant species. The combination of re-sequencing technologies, large-scale DNA pools and availability of reference gene sequences allowed the extensive characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes of four biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of ecologically relevant secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus. With this approach the occurrence and patterns of SNP variation for a set of genes can be compared across different species from the same genus. Results In a single GS-FLX run, we sequenced over 103 Mbp and assembled them to approximately 50 kbp of reference sequences. An average sequencing depth of 315 reads per nucleotide site was achieved for all four eucalypt species, Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens, E. camaldulensis and E. loxophleba. We sequenced 23 genes from 1,764 individuals and discovered 8,631 SNPs across the species, with about 1.5 times as many SNPs per kbp in the introns compared to exons. The exons of the two closely related species (E. globulus and E. nitens had similar numbers of SNPs at synonymous and non-synonymous sites. These species also had similar levels of SNP diversity, whereas E. camaldulensis and E. loxophleba had much higher SNP diversity. Neither the pathway nor the position in the pathway influenced gene diversity. The four species share between 20 and 43% of the SNPs in these genes. Conclusion By using conservative statistical detection methods, we were confident about the validity of each SNP. With numerous individuals sampled over the geographical range of each species, we discovered one SNP in every 33 bp for E. nitens and one in every 31 bp in E. globulus. In contrast, the more distantly related species contained more SNPs: one in every 16 bp for E. camaldulensis and one in 17 bp for E. loxophleba, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest frequency of SNPs

  18. Changes in soil algal communities in spruce phytocenoses under the influence of aerotechnogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaya, I. V.; Patova, E. N.

    2007-05-01

    The regularities of the development of algal communities in podzolic soils under coniferous forests were studied in areas differing in their technogenic pollution intensity. In the unpolluted soils under spruce forests, 80 alga species of 6 divisions were found; in the soils under the coniferous forests located in the zone exposed to the technogenic pollution, 59 alga species of 5 divisions were found. The algal groups in the soils of the spruce forests included 14 48 taxa. Chlamydomonas gloeogama, C. reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, Klebsormidium nitens, and Stichococcus bacillaris were resistant to different anthropogenic impacts. The results obtained may be used for monitoring of the state of the soil biota in the soils under the boreal forests of protected areas and also in spruce forests exposed to intense aerial technogenic pollution.

  19. Rapid determination of vitellogenin in fish plasma by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography using postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuiqin; Yuan, Dongxing; Liu, Baomin

    2006-12-01

    An analytical method involving anion exchange high performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fish plasma after postcolumn fluorescence derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) was developed. The retention time of Vtg was about 11 min. The reagent variables for derivatization were optimized. The fluorophore was excited at 335 nm and detected at 435 nm. A calibration curve was established ranging from 0.13 to 11.28 microg. The determination limit of Vtg was found to be as low as 0.13 microg. The spiked recovery was 93.6% and interassay variability was less than 4%. The method developed was used to determine Vtg in fish plasma obtained from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus) and skew band grunt (Hapalogenys nitens), without complicated sample pretreatment. The results confirmed that the method showed advantages of being simple, rapid, reproducible and sensitive. PMID:17159322

  20. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  1. Súhrn výsledkov malakologických výskumov v NPR Šúr (1918–2005

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    Tomáš Čejka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes all data on molluscan fauna from the Šúr National Nature Reserve between 1918–2005. It represents the largest Central-European remaining area of the autochthonous virgin alder swamp wood lying in a low basin (Carici elongatae-Alnetum Swickerath, 1933. Adjacent protected biotopes (flooded meadows, thermophilous Pannonian oak woods, forest-steppe-like shrub formations, drainage ditch and fishpond were also surveyed. Altogether, 82 species in the target area were found during 1918–2005. In total we found 38 mollusc species (13 freshwater in six biotopes in 2005; 24 species (7 freshwater in alder wood; woodland and hygrophilous species were the most numerous. Presence of Viviparus acerosus, Anisus leucostoma, Pseudanodonta complanata, and Pisidium amnicum is dubious. Seven species new for the reserve were found (Carychium tridentatum, Arion lusitanicus, Deroceras rodnae, Cochlicopa nitens, Vertigo antivertigo, Cochlicopa lubricella, and Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

  2. Revision of the South American freshwater fish genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872 (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Anostomidae

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    Kelly Cristina Mautari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The anostomid genus Laemolyta Cope, 1872, is redefined.Various morphological, especially osteological characters in addition to the commonly utilized features of dentition proved useful for its characterization. A taxonomic revision of all species was made using meristics, morphometrics and color pattern. Five species are recognized: Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950, from the río Orinoco (Venezuela and the sub-basins Tocantins/Araguaia and Xingu, L. orinocensis (Steindachner, 1879, restricted to the río Orinoco, L. garmani (Borodin, 1931 and L. proxima (Garman, 1890, from the Amazon basin with the latter also occurring in the Essequibo River (Guiana, and L. taeniata (Kner, 1859, from the Amazon and Orinoco basins. Laemolyta garmani macra is considered a synonym of L. garmani, L. petiti a synonym of L. fernandezi, and L. nitens and L. varia synonyms of L. proxima. Lectotypes are designated herein for L. orinocencis and L. taeniata.O gênero Laemolyta Cope, 1872 da família Anostomidae é redefinido e além das características da dentição usualmente utilizadas, outros caracteres morfológicos, principalmente osteológicos, também se revelaram úteis para sua conceituação. Foi feita a revisão taxonômica de todas as espécies utilizando-se dados morfométricos, merísticos e padrão de colorido. Cinco espécies são reconhecidas: Laemolyta fernandezi Myers, 1950 do rio Orinoco (Venezuela e rios Tocantins/Araguaia e Xingu, Laemolyta orinocensis (Steindachner, 1879 restrita ao rio Orenoco, L. garmani (Borodin, 1931 e Laemolyta proxima (Garman, 1890 da bacia Amazônica, esta última ocorrendo também no rio Essequibo (Guianas e Laemolyta taeniata (Kner, 1859 da bacia Amazônica e rio Orenoco. Laemolyta garmani macra é considerada sinônimo de L. garmani, L. petiti sinônimo de L. fernandezi e L. nitens e L. varia sinônimos de L. proxima. São designados lectótipos de L. orinocencis e L. taeniata.

  3. Efecto del comportamiento termo-higromecánico a macroescala de madera bajo compresión perpendicular a la fibra en las propiedades nanomecánicas de su estructura celular Effect of thermo-hygromechanical behaviour at macroscale of wood under compression perpendicular to the grain in nanomechanical properties of cellular structure

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    Daniela Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar y correlacionar el efecto termo-higromecánico a macroescala de las especies de Pinus radiata D. Don y de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden con las propiedades nanomecánicas evaluadas en la estructura celular, con el fin de visualizar el comportamiento mecánico de la capa S2 de la pared celular y de la lamela media de probetas bajo compresión perpendicular a la fibra y bajo condiciones ambientales cíclicas, considerando como caso, los puentes de tableros tensados. A macroescala, se estudiaron 4 probetas sin tratamiento preservante para ambas especies y 4 probetas de Pinus radiata tratadas con creosota. Las propiedades nanomecánicas de la estructura celular de la madera fueron determinadas por medio de nanoindentaciones. Los resultados mostraron que el módulo de elasticidad y la dureza de la estructura celular de las maderas sometidas a variaciones termo-higromecánicasen el tiempo y a condiciones de tensado, aumentaron significativamente en el verano del segundo ciclo que con respecto al invierno del primer ciclo. Por otro lado, se evidenció que el tensado de las probetas originó una reducción del módulo de elasticidad y de la dureza así como también un incremento del factor de relajación de la estructura celular de la madera con respecto la madera sin tensado, expuestas a deformación libre.The objective of this study was to evaluate and correlate at macroscale the thermo-hygromechanical effect of on the nanomechanical properties of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus nitens(Deane & Maidenevaluated in the S2 layer of the cell wall and in the middle lamella of specimens under compression perpendicular to grain and under cyclic environmental conditions. At macroscale, 4 stress-laminated deck specimens without preservative treatment were studied for both species and 4 deck specimens of radiata pine treated with creosote. The nanomechanical properties of the cellular structure were determined

  4. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  5. El género Drouetius Méquignon, 1942 stat. prom., de las islas Azores (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae

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    Machado, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Drouetius Méquignon, 1942, was originally established as a monotypical subgenus of Laparocerus Schönherr, 1834, and is here upgraded to genus (stat. prom. based on morphological and molecular data. The genus and D. azoricus are redescribed, and D. azoricus nitens n. ssp., D. azoricus paralellirostris n. ssp. D. azoricus separandus n. ssp., D oceanicus n. sp., D. oceanicus tristis n. ssp., D. borgesi n. sp., D. borgesi sanctimichaelis n. ssp., and D. borgesi centralis n. ssp. are described. The different form of the transfer apparatus of the aedeagus has been used as criterion for aggregating the island populations into a single species. A tentative phylogenetic test based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene 16SrRNA from representative species of several tribes of Entiminae, points to a closer relationship between Drouetius and Peritelus, than with Brachyderes or other genera. Finally, a key for the identification of the species and subspecies is provided, as well as comments on their ecology and distribution in the Azores archipelago, where Drouetius is endemic.Drouetius Méquignon, 1942, establecido originalmente como subgénero monotípico de Laparocerus Schönherr, 1834, se eleva aquí a la categoría de género (stat. prom. en base a datos morfológicos y moleculares. Se aporta una redescripción del género y de D. azoricus, y se describen D. azoricus nitens n. ssp., D. azoricus parallelirostris n. ssp., D. azoricus separandus n. ssp., D. oceanicus n. sp., D. oceanicus tristis n. ssp., D. borgesi n. sp., D. borgesi sanctimichaelis n. ssp. y D. borgesi centralis n. ssp. La configuración del transponedor del saco interno del edeago se ha empleado como criterio para agrupar las poblaciones insulares en una misma especie. Un test filogenético orientativo basado en secuencias parciales del gen mitocondrial 16SrRNA de especies representativas de varias de las tribus de Entiminae, apunta hacia una relación más estrecha entre

  6. STUDIES IN SOUTH AMERICAN AMARANTHACEAE V Estudios en Sudamérica Amaranthaceae V

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    Troels Myndel Pedersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The nomenclature, taxonomy, and synonymy of various South American Amaranthaceae are discussed. Two new genera are described, Hebanthodes Pedersen with only one new species
    from Peru, H. peruviana Pedersen, and Lecosia Pedersen with two new species from NE Brazil, L. formicarum Pedersen and L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Seven new species, Alternanthera
    piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen and Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, one new subspecies, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen, and three varieties, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, Alternanthera hirtula varo nitens Pedersen and Pfaffia fruticulosa varo diffusa Pedersen are described. Three new combinations, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir. Pedersen, Iresine diffusa forma Herbstii (Hook. Pedersen, and Pedersenia Hassleriana (Chodat Pedersen, are proposed. A key to the species of Guilleminea discussed in this paper and a key synthesizing the characters separating Hebanthodes from its immediate allies are provided.
    Se discute la nomenclatura, taxonomía y sinonimia de Amarantáceas Sudamericanas. Se describen dos nuevos géneros, Hebanthodes Pedersen, con una sola especie de Perú, H. peruviana Pedersen y Lecosia Pedersen, con dos especies del NE de Brasil, L. formicarum Pedersen y L. oppositifolia Pedersen. Además se describen siete especies nuevas, Alternanthera piptantha Pedersen, Gomphrena Hatschbachiana Pedersen, G. riparia Pedersen, Guilleminea chacoensis Pedersen, G. fragilis Pedersen, G. hirsuta Pedersen y Pfaffia argyrea Pedersen, una nueva subespecie, Alternanthera Kurtzii subsp. sclerosperma Pedersen y tres variedades, Alternanthera hirtula var. hirsuta Pedersen, A. hirtula var. nitens Pedersen y Pfaffia fruticulosa
    var. diffusa Pedersen. Se establecen tres nuevas combinaciones, Hebanthe eriantha (Poir

  7. A review of metal (Pb and Zn) sensitive and pH tolerant bioassay organisms for risk screening of metal-contaminated acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve risk estimates at the screening stage of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA), short duration bioassays tailored to undisturbed soil cores from the contaminated site could be useful. However, existing standardized bioassays use disturbed soil samples and often pH sensitive organisms. This is a problem as naturally acidic soils are widespread. Changing soil properties to suit the test organism may change metal bioavailability, leading to erroneous risk estimates. For bioassays in undisturbed soil cores to be effective, species able to withstand natural soil properties must be identified. This review presents a critical examination of bioassay species' tolerance of acidic soils and sensitivity to metal contaminants such as Pb and Zn. Promising organisms include; Dendrobaena octaedra, Folsomia candida, Caenorhabditis elegans, Oppia nitens, Brassica rapa, Trifolium pratense, Allium cepa, Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum. The MetSTICK test and the Bait lamina test were also identified as suitable microorganism tests. -- Highlights: •Risk screening of metal contaminated soils should consider metal bioavailability. •Metal bioavailability is dependent on soil properties such as pH. •Many standardized bioassay organisms are sensitive to acidic soils. •This review identifies acid tolerant and metal sensitive bioassays and species. •The identified tests can improve risk screening of acidic metal contaminated soil. -- This review identifies bioassay species able to withstand naturally acidic soils while being sensitive to metal contaminants

  8. ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION AND BREEDING OF MARINE FISH IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪万树; 张其永

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1990s, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in China have developed by way of increasing species and fry numbers, with special stress laid on valuable species. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture for most species. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in actual production. Fish fry production has entered a period of sustainable development. So far, at least 44 species (21 families) of marine fish have been successfully bred in China. The artificial fry number of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) exceeded 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry numbers have each surpassed 10 million annually are red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), cuneate drum (Nibea miichthioides), spring spawning red seabream (Pagrosomus major) and threebanded sweetlip (Plectorhynchus cinctus). Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black porgy (Sparus macrocephalus), Russell's snapper (Lutjanus russelli), javelin grunt (Pomadasys hasta), miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) and skewband grunt (Hapalogenys nitens). The fish in the family Sciaenidae are the main species in artificial propagation and breeding. Some problems and prospects on marine fish culture and stock enhancement are also discussed and some proposals for sustainable development are put forward in this article.

  9. Species composition and diversity of epiphytes of several ecotones in Ailao Mountain National Nature Reserve, Yunnan

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    Yuanlin Yao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic bryophytes are sensitive to environmental factors and are important components of montane moist subtropical forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the biodiversity and distribution of bole epiphytic bryophytes in the ecotones among old growth forest (OGF and three other forest types (i.e., old growth dwarf mossy forest (ODMF, 50-yr-secondary Lithocarpus forest (SLF, and secondary Populus bonatii forest (SPF in the Xujiaba region of Ailao Mountains, Yunnan. We evaluated species composition, biodiversity, and life forms of epiphytic bryophytes on host trunks above the ground in these ecotones and adjacent communities. Species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were lower in the ecotone between OGF and ODMF (EOO than the adjacent forest communities (i.e., OGF and ODMF, whereas these indices were higher in ecotones between OGF and SLF (EOSl and between OGF and SPF (EOSp than the adjacent secondary forests. The distribution of some species was restricted to specific ecotones. Porella nitens and Wijkia surcularis only appeared in EOSp, and Gammiella tonkinensis was restricted to EOO. Ecotones in montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests in Ailao Mountains exhibit an important influence on the patterns of epiphyte species composition and diversity.

  10. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

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    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  11. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %). PMID:27392740

  12. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Viséan; Gourara, Algeria

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    J. Bockwinkel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven ammonoid species are described from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria. The following taxa are newly described: Rhnetites n. gen., Rhnetites rhnetensis n. sp., Rhnetites ouladallalensis n. sp., Parahammatocyclus mutaris n. sp., Bollandoceras nitens n. sp., Bollandoceras subangulare n. sp., Bollandoceras politum n. sp., Bollandoceras aridum n. sp., Bollandoceras zuhara n. sp., Bollandoceras mirrih n. sp., Benimehlalites n. gen., Benimehlalites benimehlalensis n. sp., Benimehlalites belkassemensis n. sp., Benimehlalites brinkmanni n. sp., Pachybollandoceras n. gen., Pachybollandoceras intraevolutum n. sp., Pachybollandoceras repens n. sp., Bollanditinae n. subfam., Gourarites n. gen., Gourarites hagaraswad n. sp., Gourarites hagarkarim n. sp., Gourarites mustari n. sp., Gourarites zuhal n. sp., Semibollandites n. gen., Semibollandites kamil n. sp., Semibollandites pauculus n. sp., Semibollandites qawiy n. sp., Timimounia n. gen., Timimounia timimounensis n. sp., Timimounia lunula n. sp., Daaitidae n. fam., Daaites n. gen., Daaites daaensis n. sp., Dimorphoceras lanceolobatum n. sp., Nomismoceras salim n. sp., and Nomismoceras waltoni n. sp. The species occur in three successive horizons and can be attributed to the Bollandites-Bollandoceras Genus Zone (Early and Middle Viséan. They represent the most diverse ammonoid fauna known from this time interval. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900013

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN ANALYTICAL PYROLYSIS AND NITROBENZENE OXIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF SYRINGYL/GUAIACYL RATIO IN Eucalyptus spp. LIGNIN

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    Cláudio F. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied to measure the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio in E. dunni, E. grandis, E. nitens, E. urograndis, and E. urophylla woods. A total of 41 compounds were identified, of which 11 were derived from carbo-hydrates and 30 from lignins. The S/G ratio was calculated on the basis of the areas of peaks recorded in the pyrograms and compared with the results obtained by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. The values of S/G found by pyrolysis were similar for all the species using the compounds guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, 4-ethylsyringol, 4-vinylsyringol, homosyringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and syringylacetone, as lignin markers. The selected markers were efficient for the deter-mination of S/G ratio in eucalyptus wood by Py-GC-MS. The Py-GC-MS technique produced results that are comparable to the nitrobenzene oxidation method, with the advantage of requiring small wood samples and a short analysis time.

  14. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of trees in the flooded forest of the Mapire River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M. D.; Pieters, A.; Donoso, C.; Herrera, C.; Tezara, W.; Rengifo, E.; Herrera, A.

    1999-02-01

    We studied the flood tolerance of five tree species growing in the flooded forest adjacent to the Mapire river, in SW Venezuela. Mean photosynthetic rate and leaf conductance were 11 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1) and 700 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Xylem water potential ranged from -0.08 to -1.15 MPa. Based on leaf gas exchange as a criterion of tolerance to flooding, two response patterns were identified: (1) decreasing photosynthetic rate with increasing flooding and leaf conductance (Psidium ovatifolium Berg. ex Desc., Campsiandra laurifolia Benth., Symmeria paniculata Benth. and Acosmium nitens (Vog.) Benth); and (2) independence of photosynthesis and leaf conductance from flooding (Eschweilera tenuifolia (Berg.) Miers.). In the first response pattern, declining photosynthetic rate with flooding may be interpreted as a sign of reduced flood tolerance, whereas the second response pattern may indicate increased flood tolerance. An increase in xylem water potential with depth of water column was found for all species (with the possible exception of P. ovatifolium), indicating that flooding does not cause water stress in these trees. Submerged leaves that had been under water for between four days and four months generally had photosynthetic rates and leaf conductances similar to those of aerial leaves, indicating maintenance of photosynthetic capacity under water. Daily positive oscillations in glucan content in submerged leaves of P. ovatifolium and C. laurifolia suggest that submerged leaves do not represent a sink for photosynthates produced by aerial leaves. PMID:12651586

  15. Malakofauna pohoria Bachureň (východné Slovensko Malacofauna of the Bachureň Mts. (Eastern Slovakia

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    Jozef Šteffek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bachureň Mts. are the least known orographic unit of Slovakia from the malacological point of view, therefore it was important to fill this gap in the faunistic research of malacofauna in Slovakia. In order to achieve the maximum mollusc diversity of the Bachureň Mts., various habitat types were the subject of interest. Field work was conducted in the years 2009–2011 at 78 sites. Altogether 108 mollusc species were recorded. In total, nearly 20 000 specimens were collected and identified. Half of all recorded species were representatives of woodland species s. l. From zoogeographical point of view, species with cosmopolitan, Euro-Siberian and Central European distribution made up the highest proportion. Carpathian species were numerous as well. Across the whole mountain, West Carpathian species (Petasina unidentata, Plicuteria lubomirskii and Trochulus villosulus encountered the species with centre in eastern part of the Carpathians (Perforatella dibothrion, Pseudalinda stabilis, Oxychilus orientalis and Vestia gulo. On the basis of spatial distribution of sensitive species indicating undisturbance of habitats, the most valuable biotopes showed to be springs, wetlands and riparian vegetation along the upper parts of the streams with Acicula parcelineata, Bulgarica cana, Macrogastra latestriata, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, V. substriata, and Cochlicopa nitens. Valuable biotopes were dolomite rocks with the occurrence of relict steppe with Pupilla triplicata and well-preserved scree woodlands with V. substriata and B. cana as well.

  16. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

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    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  17. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  18. Lista sistemática de la ictiofauna en la Reserva de la Biosfera La Encrucijada, Chiapas, México A checklist of the ichthyofauna from La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, México

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    Adán E. Gómez-González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se documentó una lista sistemática de los peces en la Reserva de la Biosfera La Encrucijada (REBIEN, durante un periodo comprendido de 2004 a 2009. El elenco sistemático consta de 153 especies, que se incluyen en 2 clases, 20 órdenes, 52 familias y 107 géneros. Se registran por primera vez 9 especies para los ambientes continentales del estado de Chiapas, 4 en hábitat estuarino-lagunar en México: Cathorops cf. fuerthii, Trichiurus nitens, Guavina micropus y Gobionellusliolepis, las 2 últimas con distribución ahora extendida para el Pacífico mexicano. Destaca la presencia del cíclido exótico Oreochromis niloticus. Las familias más representativas fueron Carangidae (14 especies, Sciaenidae (11, Gobiidae (10 y Ariidae (9. Por su origen ecogeográfico, 4 especies (2.6% son dulceacuícolas primarias, 13 (8.5% dulceacuícolas secundarias y 134 (88.9% periféricas; del conjunto periférico,3 especies (2% son catádromas, 11 (7.2% residentes estuarinas, 56 (36.6% marinas eurihalinas y 66 (43.1% marinas estenohalinas. Desde el punto de vista biogeográfico, 91.2% de las especies se distribuyen en el Pacífico oriental, de las cuales el 47.7% se encuentran en la Provincia Californiana, 65.4% en la Provincia de Cortés, 80.4% en la Provincia Panámica y 41.2% en la Provincia Peruviana. La REBIEN contiene una riqueza íctica comparativamente mayor a la registrada en ambientes estuarino-lagunares de otras regiones costeras del Pacífico mexicano.We provided a systematic checklist of fishes recorded on La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve (REBIEN, during the period from 2004 to 2009. The systematic list is composed by 153 species that are included in 2 classes, 20 orders, 52 families and 107 genera. Nine species are added to the known continental environments of the state of Chiapas, 4 of them are registered by first time in estuarine-lagoon biotopes of México: Cathorops cf. fuerthii, Trichiurus nitens, Guavina micropus and Gobionellus liolepis, the

  19. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

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    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  20. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

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    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae. PMID:25643912

  1. Revision of Poliaspis (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae), with descriptions of 8 new species from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nate; Henderson, Rosa C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Eight new Australian species of Poliaspis are described and illustrated: Poliaspis alluvia sp. n., Poliaspis araucariae sp. n., Poliaspis ceraflora sp. n., Poliaspis naamba sp. n., Poliaspis nalbo sp. n., Poliaspis narungga sp. n., Poliaspis ozothamnae sp. n., and Poliaspis waibenensis sp. n. Two described species are transferred into Poliaspis and are redescribed and illustrated: Lineaspis callitris (Laing) originally described by Laing as a species of Poliaspis, is transferred back into Poliaspis as Poliaspis callitris Laing, comb. rev., and Leonardaspis wilga (Leonardi) is transferred to Poliaspis as Poliaspis wilga (Leonardi), comb. n. Descriptions and illustrations are also provided for six of the fourteen previously-named Poliaspis species, including five from Australia: Poliaspis attenuata Brimblecombe, Poliaspis elongata Brimblecombe, Poliaspis exocarpi Maskell, Poliaspis nitens Fuller, and Poliaspis syringae Laing. Both Poliaspis cycadis Comstock and Poliaspis gaultheriae Green become junior synonyms of Poliaspis media Maskell. The species not treated here are Poliaspis intermedia Fuller (the location of the types is unknown and Fuller’s description is inadequate), Poliaspis casuarinicola Lindinger (missing types), Poliaspis incisa Takagi and de Faveri (recently, and well described in Takagi and de Faveri 2011), and the six New Zealand species recently revised by Henderson (2011). In addition, Laingaspis lanigera (Laing), the adult female of which has 8 clusters of perivulvar pores – as in Poliaspis species – is redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Laingaspis lanigera, Poliaspis callitris, Poliaspis exocarpi, Poliaspis media, and Poliaspis wilga. A key is provided to the species of Poliaspis, excluding Poliaspis casuarinicola and Poliaspis intermedia butincluding Poliaspis incisa and the New Zealand species: Poliaspis chathamica Henderson, Poliaspis floccosa Henderson, Poliaspis lactea (Maskell), Poliaspis media Maskell

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E USO DE MADEIRAS DE GALHOS DE ÁRVORES PROVENIENTES DA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE BRASÍLIA, DF

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    Alexandre Nascimento Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou a caracterização da madeira de galhos provenientes de poda de árvores da arborização de Brasília e constou da investigação da possibilidade de seu uso como lenha e carvão vegetal. Foram estudadas 12 espécies de maior presença na arborização de Brasília. As espécies Persea americana, Spathodea campanulata, Ficus sp, Chorisia speciosa e Ochroma pyramidale foram caracterizadas como madeiras moles, com massa específica abaixo de 0,44 g/cm3. Caesalpinea leiostachya, com 0,73 g/cm3 caracterizou-se como madeira dura e Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium, Mangifera indica, Syzygium jambolana, Ligustrum lucidum e Paquira aquática, com valores entre 0,5 e 0,7 g/cm3 estão no grupo das madeiras moderadamente duras. As espécies: Caesalpinea leiostachya, Syzygium jambolana, Ligustrum lucidum e Peltophorum dubium apresentaram os maiores valores para contração volumétrica, entre 13 e 15,5%, enquanto os menores valores foram encontrados para Ficus sp. e M. indica com, respectivamente, 6,70 e 7,41%. Uma característica favorável para o uso da madeira para produção energética é a maior quantidade de massa por unidade de volume, dessa forma, as espécies de maiores massas específicas seriam as mais indicadas. As demais espécies poderiam ser transformadas em briquetes, aumentando assim a quantidade de calor por unidade volumétrica. Outros usos seriam como: composto orgânico (compostagem e para a confecção de pequenos objetos (cinzeiros, cabos de ferramentas, enfeites, porta-jóias.

  3. PHYTOSSOCIOLOGY AND DIAMETRIC ESTRUCTURE IN THE GALLERY FOREST OF PITOCO, IN THE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE OF IBGE, DF

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    Manoel Cláudio da Silva Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The gallery forest, in the cerrado region, has a very important function on the environmental and social equilibrium.Despite been protected by law, gallery forests have been systematically replaced by agriculture and other regional uses. One thousandtrees (DAP 5cm were sampled using point centered-quarter (PCQ method. Sampling lines were established, from the head to themouth of the stream and from the stream margins to the forest-cerrado border, of the Pitoco gallery forest, in the IBGE EcologicalReserve, in Federal District, Brazil. Results showed 99 species of 46 families in the area. The most important families were:Leguminosae, Vochysiaceae, Rubiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, Annonaceae eSymplocaceae, while the most important species were: Callisthene major, Tapirira guianensis, Protium almecega, Copaifera langsdorffii,Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum, Pseudolmedia guaranítica, Faramea cyanea, Emmotum nitens, Lamanonia ternata,Maprounea guianensis, excluding the group of dead trees which was ranked in the 5th position. Density and basal area were estimatedas 1971 trees.ha-1 and 38,8 m².ha-1 ,respectively. Diameter distribution showed a tendency to an inverted J curve revealing low levelsof disturbance in this gallery forest. A floristic comparison carried out with 21 gallery forests in the Federal District indicated Pitocogallery forest as a rich site including 99 (26,2% of the total of 378 species recorded, a Shannon & Weaver diversity index estimatedas 3,86 nats.ind-1 and Sørensen similarities ranging from 0,29 to 0,80 with DF gallery forests.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of the Anolis onca series: a case history in retrograde evolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kirsten E; Mijares-Urrutia, Abraham; Larson, Allan

    2006-09-15

    Anoles of the Anolis onca series represent a dramatic case of retrograde evolution, exhibiting great reduction (A. annectens) and loss (A. onca) of the subdigital pads considered a key innovation for the evolutionary radiation of anoles in arboreal environments. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of these anoles and their closest known relatives (A. auratus, A. lineatus, A. meridionalis, and A. nitens) using new mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the ND2 gene, five tRNA genes (tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr)), the origin of light-strand replication, and a portion of the CO1 gene (1,446 aligned base positions, 612 parsimony informative). Our results confirm monophyly of the A. onca series and suggest an evolutionary separation of approximately 10 million years between A. annectens and A. onca. Evolution of subdigital structure in this series illustrates ectopic expression of developmental programs that replace flexible subdigital lamellae of the toepad with rigid, keeled scales resembling dorsal digital scales. Our phylogenetic results indicate that narrowing of the toepad in A. auratus evolved separately from toepad reduction in the A. onca series. Expansion of the subdigital lamellae along the phalanges in A. auratus appears to compensate constriction of lamellae by digital narrowing, maintaining greater climbing capability in this species. Toepad evolution in the lineage ancestral to A. auratus features changes of the same developmental modules as the A. onca series but in the opposite direction. Large molecular distances between geographic populations of A. auratus indicate that its derived toepad structure is at least 9 million years old. PMID:16506231

  5. Efecto de plantaciones dendroenergéticas en el carbono a nivel de suelo, en dos suelos contrastantes de la región de Biobío, Chile

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    Edwin Esquivel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La biomasa forestal como fuente de energía proveniente de plantaciones dendroenergéticas, al compararla con combustibles fósiles, presenta la ventaja de producir energía carbono-neutral, dado el secuestro de carbono (C fijado en la biomasa producida y los aportes al suelo. Plantaciones forestales de corta rotación, altas densidades, y localizadas en terrenos marginales pueden representar una excelente oportunidad de producción de biomasa para la producción de energía o combustibles. Sin embargo, los beneficios en el corto plazo del aumento del C a nivel de suelo en sitios marginales han sido cuestionados. Se establecieron plantaciones dendroenergéticas con las especies Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. nitens, E. globulus, y Acacia melanoxylon a densidades de 5.000, 7.500 y 10.000 plantas por hectárea, en dos sitios de producción forestal marginal con suelos contrastantes (arenales y granítico localizados en la Región del Biobío de Chile. Evaluaciones periódicas durante 4 años a 0-20 y 20-40 cm de profundidad, del nivel de C en cada uno de los suelos evaluados, sugiere efectos de la edad (tiempo desde el establecimiento de la plantación (P < 0,001. A pesar de los cambios observados en el tiempo, la escasa diferencia en los niveles observados de C en el suelo mineral para los 48 meses de estudio comparados a los primeros 2 meses post-plantación, sugiere una rápida capacidad de recuperación de los niveles de C del suelo en un corto periodo.

  6. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  7. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  8. Detección de Rickettsia spp. en Suero y Garrapatas de Mamíferos Silvestres en Cautiverio en Montería, Córdoba -resumen-

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    Dave Wehdeking-Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las rickettsiosis transmitidas por garrapatas son causadas por bacterias intracelulares pertenecientes al grupo de las fiebres manchadas del género Rickettsia. Estas zoonosis son algunas de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de más antiguo conocimiento‚ e incluyen dentro de su ciclo de transmisión diversas especies de mamíferos. No obstante‚ en Colombia existen pocos trabajos enfocados a conocer la dinámica de las rickettsiosis en animales silvestres. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar‚ por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real‚ la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ en muestras de suero y garrapatas colectadas en mamíferos mantenidos en cautiverio en el Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre de la Corporación autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS‚ entre los años 2009 y 2014. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 14 felinos‚ de las especies Leopardus pardalis (10‚ Puma concolor (3 y Panthera onca (1; de 58 primates‚ correspondientes a las especies Ateles geofroyii (17‚ Alouatta seniculus (14‚ Cebus capucinus (14‚ Saguinus oedipus (6‚ Cebus albifrons (4 Aotus sp. (2 y Ateles belzebuth (1; y de otros mamíferos: Tayassu pecari (1‚ Procyon cancrivorous (1 y Cerdocyon thous (1. En cuanto a las garrapatas‚ se colectaron e identificaron individuos del género Haemaphysalis sp. en un ejemplar de Sylvilagus sp.‚ y de las especies Amblyomma ovale‚ Riphicephalus microplus y Dermacentor nitens en P. concolor. Posteriormente fueron organizadas en pool. No se encontraron muestras de suero positivas a Rickettsia spp. (0/72. Se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie A. ovale positivo a este microorganismo. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp. Se requiere continuar con los muestreos de ectoparásitos para determinar si este microorganismo se encuentra circulante entre mamíferos silvestres en el país.

  9. Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil Preferência de alimentação e oviposição de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae por Eucalyptus spp. e outras Myrtaceae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2010-03-01

    trunciflora and Psydium sp.. As maiores populações de C. spatulata ocorreram em E. robusta e E. pellita. No entanto, foram as espécies E. grandis e E. resinifera que apresentaram o maior número de plantas com sintomas de danos. As espécies E. cinerea, E. cloeziana, E. dunnii, E. benthamii, E. nitens, E. viminalis, E. pilularis e E. camaldulensis não apresentaram infestação por C. spatulata. Nas espécies de Corymbia foi observado um número muito reduzido de ovos de C. spatulata em C. citriodora e C. torelliana. Em nenhuma das espécies de Myrtaceae nativas foram observados ovos ou ninfas de C. spatulata. O número de ovos na planta foi altamente correlacionado com o número de ninfas, sugerindo que a contagem de ovos possa ser usada como uma ferramenta viável no monitoramento desta praga.

  10. Plantation Forestry and Peak Flow Responses in Experimental Catchments and Large River Basins in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroume, A.; Huber, A.

    2007-05-01

    replaced by an Eucalyptus nitens plantation) show that in average peak flows increased by 32% after forest removal. Analyzing pre and post-harvesting peak flows from different sizes of rainfall events (rainfall "small" events from 5 to 10 mm, "medium" events from 10 to 50 mm, and "large" events greater than 50 mm), the median of the peak flows increased by 67% for the small events and 32% for the large events. Besides, comparing the pre-harvesting condition with each of the years of the post-harvesting period (years 2000 to 2005), the analysis showed that in all cases post-harvesting peak flows were still significantly higher than before forest clearing. Decreases in annual runoff were noticed in the large river basins where forested area almost doubled between the beginnings of the 1970 up to present. These decreases in annual runoff are well explained by the increases in evapotranspiration capacity of the new planted forests, calculated using the Zhang model and through direct measurements done in experimental plots by the authors. However, the increases in planted area within these large river basins seem not to affect peak flows, as peak flows from the "pre plantation development period" were not statistically different from those of the "post plantation development" one. This research is allowing the generation of evidence based management proposals to support forest certification processes of Chilean companies.

  11. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    . O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. nigricans (C. L. Koch, C. plumatus (L. Koch, C. praeceps (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. silvaticus (Chickering, C. uncatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Erendira luteomaculatta (Petrunkevitch, E. pallidoguttata (Simon, E. subsignata (Simon, Falconina albomaculosa (Schmidt, F. crassipalpis (Chickering, F. gracilis (Keyserling, Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch, Paradiestus egregius (Simon, P. giganteus (Karsch, P. penicillatus (Mello-Leitão, P. vitiosus (Keyserling, Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, S. paradoxa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, S. retusa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Simonestus pseudobulbolus (Caporiacco, S. robustus (Chickering, S. semiluna (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, Stethorrhagus maculatus (L. Koch and Xeropigo smedigari (Caporiacco; from Diestus, Corinna alticeps (Keyserling, C. kochi (Simon, Simonestus occidentalis (Schenkel, S. separatus (Schmidt and S. validus (Simon; from Lausus, Corinna grandis (Simon and Abapeba sicarioides (Mello-Leitão; from Medmassa, Corinna andina (Simon and C. venezuelica (Caporiacco; from Megalostrata, Erendira atrox (Caporiacco and Erendira pictitorax (Caporiacco; from Parachemmis, Tupirinna trilineata (Chickering. Five combinations are restaured: Corinna aenea Simon, Creugas cinnamius Simon, Creugas gulosus Thorell, Falconina melloi (Schenkel, Paradiestus aurantiacus Mello-Leitão. Twenty five new synonymies are proposed: Diestus altifrons Mello-Leitão with Corinna nitens (Keyserling; Corinna tomentosa Simon, C. tridentina Mello-Leitão, Hypsinotus flavipes Keyserling, H. humilis Keyserling and Xeropigo scutulatus Simon with Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard-Cambridge; Corinna cribosa Mello-Leitão and C. stigmatica Simon with Falconina gracilis (Keyserling; Corinna casueta Chickering with SIMONestus separatus (Schmidt; Corinna abnormis Petrunkevitch, C. antillana BRYANT, C. consobrina Simon, C. inornata Kraus, C. nervosa F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. wolleboeki Banks, Creugas cetratus Simon, C. senegalensis Simon